The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from radiation-induced lymphomas in C57BL mice. It is leukemogenic, thymotrophic, can be transmitted vertically, and replicates only in vivo.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p688) The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23).
Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A nitroimidazole that sensitizes normally radio-resistant hypoxic cells to radiation. It may also be directly cytotoxic to hypoxic cells and has been proposed as an antineoplastic.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
Coloration of the skin.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.

Radiation target analysis indicates that phenylalanine hydroxylase in rat liver extracts is a functional monomer. (1/181)

The minimal enzymatically functional form of purified rat hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a dimer of identical subunits. Radiation target analysis of PAH revealed that the minimal enzymatically active form in crude extracts corresponds to the monomer. The 'negative regulation' properties of the tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor in both crude and pure samples implicates a large multimeric structure, minimally a tetramer of PAH subunits. Preincubation of the samples with phenylalanine prior to irradiation abolished this inhibition component without affecting the minimal functional unit target sizes of the enzyme in both preparations. The characteristics of rat hepatic PAH determined by studies of the purified enzyme in vitro may not completely represent the properties of PAH in vivo.  (+info)

Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? (2/181)

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

Rejoining of radiation-induced single-strand breaks in deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli: effect of phenethyl alcohol. (3/181)

Single-strand breaks in deoxyribonucleic acid of Escherichia coli B/r cells exposed to 20 krads of gamma radiation could be rejoined by incubation of irradiated cells in growth medium. In the presence of 0.25% phenethyl alcohol, this repair was completely inhibited although deoxyribonucleic acid and protein syntheses were suppressed only partially.  (+info)

Promotion of secondary anti-DNP antibody production in mice by type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SIII) and dinitrophenylated rabbit antibody to SIII. (4/181)

Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SIII) is able markedly to increase the adoptive IgG ANTI-DNP antibody response of B cells primed to DNP-flagellin and stimulated with DNP conjugated to the heterologous carrier, rabbit globulin, provided the latter has anti-SIII activity. The stimulatory effect is apparently accessory cell-dependent as well as being unequivocally T cell-dependent. Although no positive evidence is available, the possibility exists that non-specific T-cell activation is involved in the stimulating effect of anti-SIII plus SIII.  (+info)

Male infertility risk factors in a French military population. (5/181)

We investigated infertility risk factors by conducting a population-based case-control study in the military population of the French town of Brest. Sixty couples who had sought medical advice for infertility of more than 12 months duration (cases) were compared with 165 couples who had had a child (controls). All the men in these couples had been employed by the military. The infertility risk factors studied were male and female medical factors, occupational and environmental exposures. We obtained age-adjusted odds ratios of 7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4--39.5] for testis surgery, and 13.0 for varicocele (95% CI: 1.4--120.3) in men. In logistic regression, the age-adjusted odds ratio for men who had worked in a nuclear submarine was found to be 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0--3.7), and that for heat exposure was 4.5 (95% CI: 1.9--10.6). One limitation of this study is the lack of exposure measurements, especially for potential exposure to nuclear radiation (type of reactor used in nuclear-powered submarines, inability to obtain personal dosimeters worn by military personnel working in nuclear submarines). In conclusion, this study suggests that in this military population, having worked as a submariner in a nuclear-powered submarine, and having worked in very hot conditions, should be considered as risk factors for infertility.  (+info)

Calcium protects differentiating neuroblastoma cells during 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation. (6/181)

Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions.  (+info)


ersonal view:  (+info)

The farnesyl transferase inhibitor RPR-130401 does not alter radiation susceptibility in human tumor cells with a K-Ras mutation in spite of large changes in ploidy and lamin B distribution. (8/181)

BACKGROUND: Growth inhibition by RPR-130401, a non-peptidomimetic farnesyltransferase inhibitor, was investigated without or with combined exposure to ionizing radiation in three human tumor cell lines (HCT-116, MiAPaCa-2 and A-549) bearing a point mutation in the K-Ras gene. RESULTS: RPR-130401 inhibited cell growth with an IC50 of 50 nM (HCT-116), 120 nM (MiAPaCa-2) and 710 nM (A-549), with a poor incidence of apoptosis. The drug brought about G1 and S phase depletion together with arrest of cells in G2 phase and induced a significant accumulation of hyperploid cells showing active S phase DNA synthesis, with HCT-116 and A-549 cells being the most and least responsive, respectively. The drug also produced dramatic changes of the nuclear lamin B pattern, without lamin B cleavage and perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. On the other hand, RPR-130401 elicited strictly additive interaction in combined treatment with ionizing radiation with regard to cell kill, altered cell cycle progression and induced hyperploidy. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that disruption of orderly progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, is a major outcome of drug action and that this effect proceeds from inhibition of lamin B farnesylation. It is anticipated from the strict additivity of RPR-130401 and radiation that neither induced radiation resistance nor acute or late complications of radiotherapy, should occur in combined treatment with RPR-130401.  (+info)

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Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Radioluminescence is used as a low level light source for night illumination of instruments or signage or other applications where light must be produced for long periods without external energy sources. Radioluminescent paint used to be used for clock hands and instrument dials, enabling them to be read in the dark. Radioluminescence is also sometimes seen around high-power radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioisotopes. Radioluminescence occurs when an incoming particle of ionizing radiation collides with an atom or molecule, exciting an orbital electron to a higher energy level. The particle usually comes from the radioactive decay of an atom of a radioisotope, an isotope of an element which is radioactive. The electron then returns to its ground energy level by emitting the extra energy as a photon of light. ...
Press Release issued Nov 1, 2018: U.S. National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) concludes that there is clear evidence that male rats developed cancerous heart tumors from exposure to cell phone radio frequency radiation according to final reports released today. In addition, they conclude the increased tumors in the brain and adrenal gland of exposed male rats were some evidence of cancer from the cell phone radiation exposure. According to NIH, the final reports on rats and mice represent the consensus of NTP and a panel of external scientific experts who reviewed the study data in March and voted to strengthen the conclusion that cell phone radiation caused health effects. Scientists are now calling for federal action - a quantitative risk assessment and protective policies to reduce wireless exposure.
From the FCC website: The FCC ID number is usually shown somewhere on the case of the phone or device. In many cases, you will have to remove the battery pack to find the number. Once you have the number proceed as follows. Go to the following Web address: Once you are there... Enter the FCC ID number (in two parts as indicated: Grantee Code is comprised of the first three characters, the Equipment Product Code is the remainder of the FCC ID). Then click on Start Search. The grant of equipment authorization for this particular ID number should appear. The highest SAR values reported in the equipment certification test data are usually included in the comments section of the grant of equipment certification. ...
Its not easy to reach unanimous agreement on anything to do with cell phone radiation. And when it comes to cell phones and cancer, forget about it. But the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) nearly pulled it off.
New York, NY (PRWEB) April 12, 2014 -- RF Safe Corporation ( announces a new proprietary shielding technology designed to combat the potential
Its been 18 years since the U.S. government assessed the standards for cell phone radiation. That was back in 1996, long before the practice of giving your big kid a cell phone became as common as giving your little kid a bath.
What causes thinning hair? There are many reasons for hair loss and thinning according to posts shared by experts on Hairlossly. Many people are asking does cell phone radiation cause hair loss. To know if your cellphone is harmful for your hair, visit Hairlossly.
The researchers found that as the thousands of rats in the new study were exposed to greater intensities of RF radiation, more of them developed rare forms of brain and heart cancer that could not be easily explained away, exhibiting a direct dose-response relationship. Some of the rats had glioma - a tumor of the glial cells in the brain - or schwannoma of the heart. Furthering concern about the findings: In prior epidemiological studies of humans and cell phone exposure, both types of tumors have also cropped up as associations. In contrast, none of the control rats - those not exposed to the radiation - developed such tumors.. ...
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Exposure to radio-frequency radiation linked to tumor formation in rats By Dina Fine Maron on May 27, 2016 Credit: Photo by Christopher Furlong/Getty ImagesFederal scientists released partial findings Friday from a $25-million animal study that tested the possibility of links between cancer and chronic exposure to the type of radiation emitted from cell…
Check this list to see how much radiation your cellphone emits... Four billion people around the globe own cell phones. As the market for new devices has grown
Discover 14 ways to protect yourself from cell phone radiation--by publisher of Worlds Healthiest News & best-selling author Michelle Schoffro Cook, PhD.
The researchers observed that all the patients developed tumors in areas of their breasts next to where they carried their cell phones, often for up to 10 hours per day, for several years. None of the patients had a family history of breast cancer. They all tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 - breast cancer genes linked to about one-half of breast cancer cases - and they had no other known breast cancer risks ...
Thursday, September 24, 2015 Consumer Reports: Cell Phone Radiation Warnings Sep 24, 2015 Consumer Reports issues cell phone safety recommendations Consumer Reports (CR) published an article today online entitled, Does Cell-Phone Radiation Cause Cancer? CR advises cell phone users take safety precautions, government strengthen cell phone radiation regulations, and manufacturers prominently display steps that cell-phone users…
In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400 °C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400 °C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1 MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400 °C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to ...
Watch Cell Phone Radiation Protector Biomeridian Stress Test video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of Cell, Phone, Radiation, Protector, Biomeridian, Stress, Test are available. Watch and share videos and updates by Davis.
New York, New York (PRWEB) December 09, 2012 -- As cell phone radiation lawsuits continue to move forward in the U.S., the International Commission for
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NOTES. 1. Interview with Dr. Eckel was published by Schwabischen Post 12-07-06. Find this interview at See The Cell Nucleus is Mutating.. 2. Neurological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation, a paper presented by Dr. Lai to the Mobile Phones and Health Symposium, October 25-28, 1998, University of Vienna. Also DNA Damage and Cell Phone Radiation,, 11-02-05.. 3. Cell Phones: Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age, Dr. George Carlo and Martin Schram, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2001, p.151.. 4. Mobile Telecommunications and Health-Summary of the ECOLOG study for T-Mobile, 2000, Find this summary at 5. Cell Phone Radiation Harms DNA, Study Claims, (Reuters) MSNBC, 12-04-04. Also Mobile Phone Radiation Harms DNA, R. Moss, CPR News Bureau, 10-16-06.. 6. RF-Induced DNA Breaks Reported in China, Microwave News, 09-29-05. This report comes from the Zhejiang University School of Medicine.. 7. 2.45 GHz radiofrequency ...
Nov. 19, 2007. Editors Note: I came across the name of Dr. Neil J Cherry of Lincoln University in New Zealand while researching Schumann frequencies and the heightened susceptibility to bodily damage from Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR), especially from microwaves of the cell phone variety. While I found Dr. Cherrys name and a few studies (latest 2002) ascribed to him, I noticed that the links leading to his studies always came up not found or 404. When I did a search on the link url at, it also came up not found.
Dr. Klinghardt is speaking]:. Now Im going to make this link and then we get into the solutions. Now I am going to make the link to the elecromagnetic fields.. An acquainted physician in Switzerland who is a main mold researcher in Europe made a beautiful experiment. He grew mold cultures under a farraday cage. Simply a silver cloth… it looks like a mosquito net made out of silver coated cloth draped over the mold culture.. Then he measured how much mycotoxins how much toxins are these molds producing on a daily basis, very easy to do.. Then he lifted the mosquito net and exposed the mold culture to the ambient electromagnetic radiation in his laboratory that was caused by the lights that were on, the computer in the corner and especially he found out later the ambient cell phone radiation. You know, from the nearby cellphone tower that was broadcasting cell phone radiation.. He found out that the production of biotoxins in this culture went up more than 600 times. Not only that the mold ...
A method of examining a sample, which includes: exposing a reference to a first set of electromagnetic radiation, to form a second set of electromagnetic radiation scattered from the reference; exposing a sample to a third set of electromagnetic radiation to form a fourth set of electromagnetic radiation scattered from the sample; and interfering the second set of electromagnetic radiation and the fourth set of electromagnetic radiation. The first set and the third set of electromagnetic radiation are generated from a source; at least a portion of the second set of electromagnetic radiation is of a frequency different from that of the first set of electromagnetic radiation; and at least a portion of the fourth set of electromagnetic radiation is of a frequency different from that of the third set of electromagnetic radiation.
Mobile phone radiation may damage cells by increasing the forces they exert on each other, scientists have said. The finding could be the key to claims that mobile phones cause cancer and other health problems. Swedish physicists looked at the effect of electromagnetic radiation on red blood cells using a mathematical theory, New Scientist reported. Experts cautioned that the finding was theoretical and said there was no evidence of a danger to health. There have been suggestions that mobile phones can cause brain tumours and Alzheimers disease, but research has been inconclusive. The conventional view has been that radio waves could only damage a cell if they were energetic enough to break chemical bonds or cook tissue. But radiation given off by mobile phone handsets is too weak to do this. Bo Sernelius at Linkoping University, Sweden, looked at another possibility by modelling the properties of red blood cells. Water molecules have poles of ...
Apparatus for electromagnetic radiation of living tissue, such as human tissue, or tissue simulating matter, comprises an electromagnetic radiation source having a dynamic frequency range of at least about 5 to 1, and preferably 10 to 1. Electrically connected to the source by a coaxial cable is a broadband applicator adapted for emitting electromagnetic radiation into tissue and the like. Parallel plate type radiation launching portions of the applicator are configured to have a characteristic impedance, throughout the dynamic frequency range, approximately equal to the impedance of specimens to be irradiated, which for human tissue, between 50 MHz-2000 MHz, is approximately 50 ohms. A transition for interconnecting the coaxial cable to the parallel plate launching portion is configured to provide a relatively gradual coaxial to parallel plate transition at constant characteristic impedance throughout the dynamic frequency range. Both air filled and dielectric filled transitions and air filled, whole
The introduction of cell phones, Wi-Fi, satellite and wireless communications and the microwave oven have had a significant impact on daily life. However, there are growing concerns regarding the potential health risks associated with increased, frequency, modulation frequency and duration of microwave exposure and particularly, the risk of developing Alzheimers disease, an incurable and debilitating disease affecting individuals worldwide being associated with the death of nerve cells in the brain, cerebrovascular impairments and dementia. Of all the different types of things that microwaves are emitted by, the cell phone microwave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system, and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disease, including Alzheimers disease.. In a report posted to the U.S. ...
Lord Ender writes Poor phone reception may soon be a selling point in San Francisco. A city ordinance was just approved which requires those selling phones to indicate the specific absorption rate (SAR) caused by the radio transmitters in the phones. Cell phone industry groups opposed the law. Th...
Lord Ender writes Poor phone reception may soon be a selling point in San Francisco. A city ordinance was just approved which requires those selling phones to indicate the specific absorption rate (SAR) caused by the radio transmitters in the phones. Cell phone industry groups opposed the law. Th...
If you search hard enough, youll be able to locate legitimate scientific studies that indicate there may be a cancer risk from the radio wave radiation thats emitted from your cell phone. On the other hand, youll be able to find just as many studies that prove theres no danger from the levels of radiation coming from your phone. What do you believe? Unfortunately, the current state of cell phone radiation research is similar to the early days of tobacco research. It wasnt until 1999 when the U.S. Department of Justice finally filed a racketeering lawsuit against the major tobacco companies for engaging in a 50 year scheme to counteract any scientific evidence that showed that cigarettes are harmful to a persons health. Is the potential cell phone cancer link the same sort of scenario? Are cell phone companies funding and promoting research that proves no link from cell phone radio radiation in an effort to discredit those studies that are uncovering problems? ...
News blog with the latest news on electromagnetic radiation. Stay up to date with scientists, researches and opinions on wireless radiation and EMF radiation in general.
HSC chimerism has the potential to induce tolerance to organ transplants and restore self-tolerance for treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the widespread application of this promising therapy in the clinic is dependent upon reducing the toxicity associated with conventional BMT. A great deal of attention has been focused on identification of cells with facilitating potential to enhance HSC engraftment and avoid the toxicity of BMT. One such subpopulation is the CD8+/TCR− FCs that enhance engraftment of purified allogeneic HSCs without causing GVHD (8, 10). Until now, the precise characterization of FCs has remained controversial due to the heterogeneity of the CD8+/TCR− population and the infrequency of the various components. In the present studies, we demonstrate that the major component of the FC population resembles p-preDCs, making them likely candidates for the biologic function of facilitation. We show for the first time that p-preDCs significantly facilitate HSC engraftment ...
Melissa N. McCracken, Eric H. Gschweng, Evan Nair-Gill, Jami McLaughlin, Aaron R. Cooper, Mireille Riedinger, Donghui Cheng, Christopher Nosala,Donald B. Kohn, and Owen N. ...
Electromagnetic radiation may have negative health effects only if it is strong enough, as well as in case of long-term exposure. Let us find out whic...
Dr Neil Cherry, internationally recognised expert, gives epidemiological evidence on the dangerous health effects of Electromagnetic Radiation
The present invention relates to a method for recording polarized electromagnetic radiation of an inactivated strain of pathogenic microorganisms onto a crystal, a method and a device for changing the activity of a strain of pathogenic microorganisms, a method for eliminating a strain of pathogenic microorganisms in a human or animal organism. The invention may be used for inactivation and subsequent elimination of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms in a human or animal organism.
The reference materials listed in this section are an excellent source of additional information on the topic of electromagnetic radiation.
through a circuit henry (H) M L2 T−2 I−2 scalar Irradiance E Electromagnetic radiation power per unit surface area W/m2 M T−3 intensive Intensity I ...
Study Flashcards On Electromagnetic Radiation at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Their analysis of 10 such studies showed that exposure to EMR from cell phones lowered sperm motility by 8 percent and sperm viability by 9 percent.2Previous studies have also found that cell phone radiation can affect mens sperm count, and the quality and motility of their sperm. One such study, published in PLOS One found. RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring.. During the 2013 discussion Cell Phones & Wi-Fi - Are Children, Fetuses and Fertility at Risk?, leading experts from top universities further reported, There is a direct relationship between ...
Cell Phones - Sperm Counts - Oligozoospermia to Azoospermia What was your last phone? I am sure you know that research states that cell phone radiation can lead to brain cancer? I am assuming your reply is oh! No problem! I speak for a very short while and my phone is hanging from a case…. ...
Cell Phones - Sperm Counts - Oligozoospermia to Azoospermia What was your last phone? I am sure you know that research states that cell phone radiation can lead to brain cancer? I am assuming your reply is oh! No problem! I speak for a very short while and my phone is hanging from a case…. ...
conductive fabric for making curtain emf radiation protection fabric silver conductive fabric computer radiation protection fabric cell phone radiation protection fabric phone radiation protection fabric antibacterial fabric fabric for radiation protection hat fabric for radiation protection cap silver fiber conductive fabric radiation protection fabric antibacterial silver fabric conductive shielding fabric conductive silver fabric fabric for maternity clothing radiation blocking fabric cell phone radiation blocking fabric electromagnetic radiation blocking fabric Antibacterial Anti-radiation underpants fabric eslatic antibacterial fabric radiation resistant fabric anti radiation fabric conductive emi rfi shielding fabric anti emf fabric emf shielding fabric rfid blocking fabric anti static conductive fabric anti radiation fabric electromagnetic reflective fabric radio frequency shielding fabric anti electromagnet wave emf rfid protect fabric conductive silver fiber fabric
Costa FP, de Oliveira AC, Meirelles R, Machado MC, Zanesco T, Surjan R, Chammas MC, de Souza Rocha M, Morgan D, Cantor A, Zimmerman J, Brezovich I, Kuster N, Barbault A, Pasche B. Treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with very low levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields. Br J Cancer. 2011 Aug 23;105(5):640-8.doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.292 ...
While I have always been extremely health conscious and am presently in excellent health, I did become temporarily out-of-commission (i.e. I was really sick) in 2005 with a number of at the time unexplainable symptoms. I was quite puzzled at the time because I had been eating mainly organically grown food, drinking spring water, doing Yoga every morning, and going to the gym several times a week. In other words, I was doing everything one is supposed to do to stay healthy. I was not supposed to get sick. It took me six months before discovering or even imagining the main source of the problem - which was in fact overexposure to electromagnetic - especially microwave - radiation. I was living within 200 meters of two cell phone towers at the time and within 500 meters of a 3rd one with numerous WiFi signals bleeding into my apartment from adjacent neighbors. I developed a host of symptoms, which are found in what has been misleadingly described as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) -- but much more ...
The effect of the low energy electromagnetic radiation of cell phone and Wi- Fi frequency on the calcium concentration in the exfoliated human buccal epithelium cells, Andrey Mudrak, Nicolay Kolchigin, The influence of electromagnetic radiation with frequ
According to Wave-Particle duality explained by James Clerk Maxwell, a particle consists of wave and particle nature both. For example, we know that light is an electromagnetic wave, which emits wave nature. But it has benn proven by Physicists Max Planck and Albert Einstein that light also has particle nature also by proving photoelectric effect experimentally and/or theoretically, showing that light is made of particles called Photons. Also, we know that electron is a particle and has a nature of particle, obviously. But in the mid 90s Heisenberg proved that while in motion, electrons emit electromagnetic radiation, showing that electron too has wave nature. Every particle emits waves, but it is inversely proportional to the mass of particles. Thus, it can be proved that electromagnetic radiation also can travel as waves.
February 20, 2011. Thirty years ago, James Kinn with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Elliot Postow with Naval Medical R&D Command compiled a list of 3627 publications on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation from 1 to 100 GHz. This 574 page document has been scanned and converted into a searchable pdf document that is available here. The references in this document are listed by title and author.. ABSTRACT. Considerable research effort has been made into the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation over the frequency range of 0-100 GHz. This work intensified since 1966 when occupational exposure guidelines were made by the American Standards Institute - C95.9. During this period and especially in the last several years it has become clear that a cumulative bibliography of peer reviewed publications reporting this research was needed.. This publication lists 3627 articles published in world literature dealing with the biological effects of electromagnetic ...
A pair of states are seeking a Supreme Court review of U.S. EPAs regional haze plan in the first challenge to the controversial visibility improvement program before the nations highest court.
We established that melanin-based nanoshells can be used in the protection of human beings and machinery from electromagnetic radiation, in particular, from ionizing radiation, and in energy conversion such as minimizing the losses during energy transfer.
Scientific and policy developments regarding the health effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure from cell phones, cell towers, Wi-Fi, Smart Meters, and other wireless technology. ...
Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Spectrum Light 1600 s: sunlight considered purest form of light 1665 Isaac Newton passed beam of sunlight through a ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on - id: 735881-ZWE1Y
Apart from brain cancer, three definitive studies showed that exposure of radiation to the skin and brain caused changes in cell structure. Changes were induced in skin cells and metabolism of glucose in the brain was affected. It is also known to cause hearing loss, infertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD) in women.. Research published by Dr. Lennart Hardell indicates that brain tumor risk increases with more years of cell phone use. Proving the effects of cell phone radiation are cumulative with more hours of use, those with the most usage had a 300% increase in having a brain tumor on the same side as a cell phone was most used. The official technical abstract of this study can be found here: According to the Brain Tumor Foundation of Canada, brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death in children under the age of 20, now surpassing acute lymphoblastic leukemia. They are the third leading cause of cancer death in ...
ownership/). This all means we dont have a long list of case-studies to draw information from. What we do know radiation-wise is that while a cell phone is in your pocket in the on position, it will ping nearby towers intermittently to let the network know where it is so that it can receive incoming calls. This will generate tiny amounts of radiation in the radio frequency. Talking on the phone itself generates a greater amount of radio frequency radiation as would happen if you used either a wired or bluetooth headset with the phone in your pocket. What we need to know about for your question is if the cell phones radio frequency could produce damage to nerves that could induce the perception of pain.. Radio frequency radiation might potentially cause damage to nerve cells due to heat, or by the disruptive effects of the radiation itself. Because we typically use cell phones next to the brain, which is a big, sensitive group of neurons, most studies with cell phone radiation focus on that ...
Buy electromagnetic radiation protection to help reduce the negative and serious impact that EMFs have on your body. I show you what else you can do now.
I hate to say I told you so, but, I told you so. Back in 2011, I wrote this article, Cell Phone Radiation: Taboo Topic, Interesting Science, and have since kept my eyes open for proof of what Ive feared for some time now: that our bodies may be adversely affected by the radiation emitted by everything from the myriad electronic devices we carry close to our heads and bodies to WiFi hotspo... » read more ...
Despite these dramatic changes in mobile phone technology and behavior, the FCC has not revisited the standard for cell phone radiation exposure since 1996. The current FCC standard for maximum radiation exposure levels is based on the heat emitted by mobile phones. These guidelines specify exposure limits for hand-held wireless devices in terms of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), which measures the rate the body absorbs radiofrequency (RF). The current allowable SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/kg), as averaged over one gram of tissue. Although wireless devices sold in the United States must ensure that they do not exceed the maximum allowable SAR limit when operating at the devices highest possible power level, concerns have been raised that long-term RF energy exposure at this level affects the brain and other tissues and may be connected to types of brain cancer, including glioma and meningioma. ...
W.E.E.P. News. Wireless Electrical and Electromagnetic Pollution News 26 September 2010. Significantly increased health risk in the vicinity of cell phone base stations. Please distribute and share Dr. Horst Eger and Dr. Manfred Jahns English-language translation of their peer-reviewed study, Spezifische Symptome und Mobilfunkstrahlung in Selbitz (Bayern) - Evidenz für eine Dosiswirkungsbeziehung, originally published in umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft, Feb. 2010: 130-139.. The study shows a significantly increased health risk in the vicinity of cell phone base stations and underscores the inadequacy of the currently accepted exposure limits. Discussion includes references to several past studies since the 1960s that supports their findings.. Specific Health Symptoms and Cell Phone Radiation in Selbitz (Bavaria, Germany)-Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship is now available to download at: ...
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For years parents, teachers, administrators and school boards have fought to keep cellular telephone transmitters away from their schools. Now we are installing them right into the classroom with Wi-Fi base stations. The following article is by Lynn Quiring. He is a Registered Pharmacist, Board Certified Clinical Nutritionist, and holds a degree in naturopathic medicine. He also holds diplomas in homeopathy and hormone regulation therapy. He is an expert in cell phone radiation and EMFs and their health effects on the body. He has practiced in natural medicine for over 10 years. The hot new craze in Internet access is Wi-Fi and its soon-to-be big brother Wi-Max. Wi-Fi is a wireless connection that allows users to access the Internet without the computer being connected to a cable. And yes, its very convenient. Imagine walking from the sofa to the bedroom with your laptop and never loosing your connection. Imagine the freedom and flexibility afforded schools and office workers. No more ugly ...
Male age is accompanied by physiological changes in the testicles, seminal vesicles, prostate and epididymis. These physical factors may contribute towards decreased sperm motility (the sperms ability to move), sperm morphology (the sperms ability to dissolve the outer surface of an egg and fertilize it), sperm count (concentration of sperm per ejaculation) and semen volume.. Increasing age implies more frequent exposure to exogenous damage or disease that may harm male fertility. With age, the continuous exposure to alcohol, smoking, obesity, stress, wireless networks and cell phone radiation, increases. This as well contributes to the decline of a mans sperm quality over time.. Researches show that that men over 35 years old are twice as likely to be infertile as are men under 25 years old. An interesting research was led by Laura Dodge at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School in Boston that investigated the impact of a mans age on a couples chances of having ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of surface plasmon resonance sensing for DNA hybridization using colloidal Au attached probe DNA. AU - Yamaguchi, Akira. AU - Juodkazis, Saulius. AU - Matsuo, Shigeki. AU - Misawa, Hiroaki. PY - 2002/2/5. Y1 - 2002/2/5. N2 - In this study, we demonstrate that the Au particle modified probe DNA monolayer can enhance the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal for measuring hybridization of unlabeled DNA molecules. The Au particles adsorbed on single stranded (ss)- and double stranded (ds)-DNA monolayers have different optical interaction with surface of Au thin film, and this difference induces the enhancement of the SPR signal.. AB - In this study, we demonstrate that the Au particle modified probe DNA monolayer can enhance the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signal for measuring hybridization of unlabeled DNA molecules. The Au particles adsorbed on single stranded (ss)- and double stranded (ds)-DNA monolayers have different optical interaction with surface of Au thin ...
Beam tracking is one of the options to treat tumors that are subject to respiratory motion with scanned ion beams. The presented data demonstrate that beam tracking is a feasible and accurate motion mitigation technique.. Small deviations between data from tracking and stationary reference irradiations most likely result from the experimental setup accuracy and the precision of the detector systems. In case of the cell survival experiments, the latter is dominating due to the complex cell processing procedure, including several cell handling steps, and the inherent biological variability. A large deviation in data points is observed in the survival points at +13.5 mm (Fig. 5), but this could be due to the limited statistical power of these experiments (3 independent experiments only). Concerning modeling of biological effects that have to be considered for heavy ion irradiation such as carbon beams the accuracy of the local-effect model for the primary beam and its fragments in the therapy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-healing capacity of nuclear glass observed by NMR spectroscopy. AU - Charpentier, Thibault. AU - Martel, Laura. AU - Mir, Anamul H.. AU - Somers, Joseph. AU - Jégou, Christophe. AU - Peuget, Sylvain. PY - 2016/5/5. Y1 - 2016/5/5. N2 - Safe management of high level nuclear waste is a worldwide significant issue for which vitrification has been selected by many countries. There exists a crucial need for improving our understanding of the ageing of the glass under irradiation. While external irradiation by ions provides a rapid simulation of damage induced by alpha decays, short lived actinide doping is more representative of the reality. Here, we report radiological NMR experiments to compare the damage in International Simplified Glass (ISG) when irradiated by these two methods. In the 0.1 mole percent 244Cm doped glass, accumulation of high alpha decay only shows small modifications of the local structure, in sharp contrast to heavy ion irradiation. These results reveal the ...
Systems including an implantable receiver-stimulator and an implantable controller-transmitter are used for leadless electrical stimulation of body tissues. Cardiac pacing and arrhythmia control is accomplished with one or more implantable receiver-stimulators and an external or implantable controller-transmitter. Systems are implanted by testing external or implantable devices at different tissue sites, observing physiologic and device responses, and selecting sites with preferred performance for implanting the systems. In these systems, a controller-transmitter is activated at a remote tissue location to transmit/deliver acoustic energy through the body to a receiver-stimulator at a target tissue location. The receiver-stimulator converts the acoustic energy to electrical energy for electrical stimulation of the body tissue. The tissue locations(s) can be optimized by moving either or both of the controller-transmitter and the receiver-stimulator to determine the best patient and device responses.
Cell Phones Fry Memory. Rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for two hours a week for more than a year suffered memory loss. The findings may be related to earlier findings that microwave radiation from cell phones affects the blood-brain barrier.. The team from Lund University in Sweden previously found that albumin, a protein that acts as a transport molecule in the blood, leaks into brain tissue when lab animals are exposed to mobile phone radiation. Now they find damaged nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampus, the memory centers of the brain. Although the albumin leakage occurs directly after radiation, the nerve damage takes four to eight weeks to manifest.. story. ...
Hydrovac excavation is here, and is the evolution in non-destructive digging practices. If you are in need of professional hydrovac service or one of the other services we offer, you can be sure youre in the best hands. Our operations stretch all the way from Perth to Newcastle and beyond, so wherever you are were sure to be able to help.. Solo has a large fleet of vehicles with various capacities that can provide solutions for the following projects:. Hydrovac/Vacuum Excavation. Also known as non-destructive digging and hydro excavation, our range of vehicles, with large and small debris capacity, uses a combination of vacuum and high pressure water to trench and safely excavate around existing services.. Cable Location/Electronic Detection. Our experienced operators use advanced equipment to locate underground services precisely and quickly in a non-destructive way prior to any excavation.. Drain Cleaning. High pressure hydro jetting and vacuum equipment using a range of rotating nozzles and ...
You already have hands-on training and completed hundreds of cremations, so why sit through another basic operator training course? Take you crematory knowledge to the next level with Matthews Advanced Operator Training. The Advanced Operator Training course is tailored to meet the needs of experienced operators who have already mastered the basics and are looking to expand their crematory operation knowledge. Our experiencedd instructors will provide you with industry insights and tips to make your crematory safer, more productive, and fuel efficient ...
Several methodological limitations became evident during the course of this study. It was noted that IVCM imaging of BL can be difficult due to patient and operator-induced motion artifacts, and an experienced operator performing multiple volume scans through BL is necessary to obtain quality image stacks for analysis. Also, as noted earlier, initial use of the section scan method in transplant patients precluded direct comparison of Method 2 thickness values with LM in the same corneas. Another limitation is the axial resolution of laser-scanning IVCM, which, at 4 μm presently, is almost half the thickness of BL in sections. To better locate the borders of BL, a finer axial resolution is required, combined with a finer axial spacing of adjacent confocal images. Also, as observed in LM sections in this study not included in the analysis, BL thickness may not be constant over the entire central cornea, particularly in pathologic cases. The assumption of constant BL thickness in the central ...
PCI of the infarct-related artery is performed by experienced operators, according to standard clinical practice, using standard material such as guide-wires, balloons and stents. Serial electrocardiograms (ECGs) are taken prior to, immediately after, 30 minutes, one hour, three and six hours after the final angiogram during the PCI-procedure. Continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring is started as early as possible and is continued for at least six hours after the procedure. The continuous ECG is recorded on a study device through routinely placed leads. The continuous ECGs are analysed at the eECG core lab at Duke Clinical Research Institute under the supervision of M. Krucoff ...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation has offered the promise to free patients of symptoms of palpitations, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as eliminate the need for use of chronic drug therapy with agents that sometimes have significant risks, cost, and inconvenience for the patient. The belief among many is that elimination of symptomatic AF with ablative procedures will also restore patients to the AF-free natural history curve, with reduction in stroke and mortality long term. These advantages are compelling, and they explain the wide adoption of a procedure that is technically challenging and has results that can be characterized as mediocre at best. Despite the fact that reports have claimed procedural success rates of 76% to 91% (1-4), carefully monitored clinical trials performed by experienced operators have indicated a true success rate in the range of 66% (5). In addition, procedural complication rates that are widely quoted to patients when decisions about risk versus benefit of AF ...
Answer: Nothing, aside from the exaggerated angles.. Lets try estimating the magnitude of the effect for dry air, which seems to be the focus of the question. According to ref 1, a good semi-empirical model for the index of refraction of dry air is $$ n = 1 + 10^{-6}\times\left(776.2+4.36\times 10^{-8} \times \left(\frac{1\mathrm{\ cm}}{\lambda}\right)^2\right) \times \frac{P}{1\mathrm{\ kPa}} \times \frac{1\mathrm{\ K}}{T} \tag{1} $$ where $\lambda$ is wavelength, $P$ is pressure, and $T$ is temperature. The paper says this is a good model for altitudes $, 100$ km and for wavelengths from $0.2$ to $2000$ $\mu$m. This includes the visible spectrum, which is roughly from $0.4$ to $0.7$ $\mu$m. The pressure and temperature of the atmosphere vary, but for the sake of estimation Ill treat the atmosphere as a uniform slab with a pressure of $P=100$ kPa ( and a temperature of $T=250$ K ( Using ...
ARTHUR W. GUY, FELLOW, IEEE == ,br>I. Medical Applications at Sub-Microwave Frequencies == === 19th Century === It is interesting to note that it has only been since 1979 that heating tissue for control of cancer has become widely used in oncology clinics, hospitals, and cancer research centers. Yet, the first use of electric-field heating for control of cancer occurred only four decades after Volta, in 1800, described the electric pile [174]. This application of electric current for destroying cancer through heat was demonstrated by Recamier and Pravaz in the destruction of uterine cancer [107]. In fact, the practice became so widespread in the following few years that Pichard [139], in 1846, called attention to its over use. There was considerable competition in the mid19th century between these early researchers for recognition of being first to apply electricity for heating tissue.,br>Becquerel [14] credited Fabre-Paloprat [44] for first burning tissue with an electrified platinum ...
Thinking molecules?? Terrestrial temperatures have gone up by less than one degree over the last 150 years and CO2 has gone up long term too. But that proves nothing. It is not a proven causal relationship. One of the first things you learn in statistics is that correlation is not causation. And there is none of the smooth relationship that you would expect of a causal relationship. Both temperatures and CO2 went up in fits and starts but they were not the same fits and starts. The precise effects on temperature that CO2 levels are supposed to produce were not produced. CO2 molecules dont have a little brain in them that says I will stop reflecting heat down for a few years and then start up again. Their action (if any) is entirely passive. Theoretically, the effect of added CO2 in the atmosphere should be instant. It allegedly works by bouncing electromagnetic radiation around and electromagnetic radiation moves at the speed of light. But there has been no instant effect. Temperature can ...
Thinking molecules?? Terrestrial temperatures have gone up by less than one degree over the last 150 years and CO2 has gone up long term too. But that proves nothing. It is not a proven causal relationship. One of the first things you learn in statistics is that correlation is not causation. And there is none of the smooth relationship that you would expect of a causal relationship. Both temperatures and CO2 went up in fits and starts but they were not the same fits and starts. The precise effects on temperature that CO2 levels are supposed to produce were not produced. CO2 molecules dont have a little brain in them that says I will stop reflecting heat down for a few years and then start up again. Their action (if any) is entirely passive. Theoretically, the effect of added CO2 in the atmosphere should be instant. It allegedly works by bouncing electromagnetic radiation around and electromagnetic radiation moves at the speed of light. But there has been no instant effect. Temperature can ...

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  • Welcome, these forums are for professional and amateur scientists to discuss matters relating to radiation detection, and to facilitate friendly and honest collaboration. (
  • Sign up and stay up-to-date with the latest news articles and research on earthing & electromagnetic radiation as well as advice for reducing EMF exposure for you and your family! (
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  • Anti-Radiation -- FCC certified lab tested radiation shielding material is integrated into the front flap to deflect and absorb radiation away from your body while still allowing signal to enter and exit the back of the phone. (
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