A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.
A 'Humeral Fracture' is a medical condition defined as a break in any part of the long bone (humerus) connecting the shoulder to the elbow, which may occur due to various reasons such as trauma, fall, or high-impact sports injuries.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Process of preserving a dead body to protect it from decay.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A dead body, usually a human body.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Force exerted when using the index finger and the thumb. It is a test for determining maximum voluntary contraction force.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
A genus of STARFISH in the family Asterinidae. They externally hold developing embryos (EMBRYO, NON-MAMMALIAN) among the spines below the oral surface.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.

Gating of transmission in climbing fibre paths to cerebellar cortical C1 and C3 zones in the rostral paramedian lobule during locomotion in the cat. (1/169)

1. Climbing fibre field potentials evoked by low intensity (non-noxious) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve have been recorded in the rostral paramedian lobule (PML) in awake cats. Chronically implanted microwires were used to monitor the responses at eight different C1 and C3 zone sites during quiet rest and during steady walking on a moving belt. The latency and other characteristics of the responses identified them as mediated mainly via the dorsal funiculus-spino-olivocerebellar path (DF-SOCP). 2. At each site, mean size of response (measured as the area under the field, in mV ms) varied systematically during the step cycle without parallel fluctuations in size of the peripheral nerve volley. Largest responses occurred overwhelmingly during the stance phase of the step cycle in the ipsilateral forelimb while smallest responses occurred most frequently during swing. 3. Simultaneous recording from pairs of C1 zone sites located in the anterior lobe (lobule V) and C1 or C3 zone sites in rostral PML revealed markedly different patterns of step-related modulation. 4. The findings shed light on the extent to which the SOCPs projecting to different parts of a given zone can be regarded as functionally uniform and have implications as to their reliability as channels for conveying peripheral signals to the cerebellum during locomotion.  (+info)

Sonographic detection of radial nerve entrapment within a humerus fracture. (2/169)

Radial neuropathy is frequently associated with fracture of the middle third of the humerus owing to the course of the nerve adjacent to the humeral shaft. The prevalence varies from 2 to 18% of humeral fractures. The therapeutic management is still controversial. Some authors recommend initial surgical exploration, whereas others prefer observation and intervention only if the injured nerve failed to recover after a period of more than 4 months. According to the literature, verification of an entrapped radial nerve in a fracture gap requires surgical exploration, but diagnostic tools to verify the existence of a pathologic condition are limited. We describe the sonographic findings of an entrapped radial nerve and review the literature regarding diagnosis and treatment of entrapped radial nerve in cases of humeral fracture.  (+info)

Safety of the limited open technique of bone-transfixing threaded-pin placement for external fixation of distal radial fractures: a cadaver study. (3/169)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety of threaded-pin placement for fixation of distal radial fractures using a limited open approach. DESIGN: A cadaver study. METHODS: Four-millimetre Schanz threaded pins were inserted into the radius and 3-mm screw pins into the second metacarpal of 20 cadaver arms. Each threaded pin was inserted in the dorsoradial oblique plane through a limited open, 5- to 10-mm longitudinal incision. Open exploration of the threaded-pin sites was then carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury to nerves, muscles and tendons and the proximity of these structures to the threaded pins. RESULTS: There were no injuries to the extensor tendons, superficial radial or lateral antebrachial nerves of the forearm, or to the soft tissues overlying the metacarpal. The lateral antebrachial nerve was the closest nerve to the radial pins and a branch of the superficial radial nerve was closest to the metacarpal pins. The superficial radial nerve was not close to the radial pins. CONCLUSION: Limited open threaded-pin fixation of distal radial fractures in the dorsolateral plane appears to be safe.  (+info)

Secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. Central sensitization to A-fibre nociceptor input. (4/169)

Tissue injury induces enhanced pain sensation to light touch and punctate stimuli in adjacent, uninjured skin (secondary hyperalgesia). Whereas hyperalgesia to light touch (allodynia) is mediated by A-fibre low-threshold mechanoreceptors, hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli may be mediated by A- or C-fibre nociceptors. To disclose the relative contributions of A- and C-fibres to the hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli, the superficial radial nerve was blocked by pressure at the wrist in nine healthy subjects. Secondary hyperalgesia was induced by intradermal injection of 40 microg capsaicin, and pain sensitivity in adjacent skin was tested with 200 micron diameter probes (35-407 mN). The progress of conduction blockade was monitored by touch, cold, warm and first pain detection and by compound sensory nerve action potential. When A-fibre conduction was blocked completely but C-fibre conduction was fully intact, pricking pain to punctate stimuli was reduced by 75%, but burning pain to capsaicin injection remained unchanged. In normal skin without A-fibre blockade, pain ratings to the punctate probes increased significantly by a factor of two after adjacent capsaicin injection. In contrast, pain ratings to the punctate probes were not increased after capsaicin injection when A-fibre conduction was selectively blocked. However, hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli was detectable immediately after block release, when A-fibre conduction returned to normal. In conclusion, the pricking pain to punctate stimuli is predominantly mediated by A-fibre nociceptors. In secondary hyperalgesia, this pathway is heterosynaptically facilitated by conditioning C-fibre input. Thus, secondary hyperalgesia to punctate stimuli is induced by nociceptive C-fibre discharge but mediated by nociceptive A-fibres.  (+info)

Distribution of presynaptic inhibition on type-identified motoneurones in the extensor carpi radialis pool in man. (5/169)

The question was addressed as to whether the magnitude of Ia presynaptic inhibition might depend on the type of motor unit activated during voluntary contraction in the wrist extensor muscles. For this purpose, we investigated the effects of applying electrical stimulation to the median nerve on the responses of 25 identified motor units to radial nerve stimulation delivered 20 ms after a conditioning stimulation. The reflex responses of the motor units yielded peaks in the post-stimulus time histograms with latencies compatible with monosynaptic activation. Although median nerve stimulation did not affect the motoneurone net excitatory drive assessed from the mean duration of the inter-spike interval, it led to a decrease in the contents of the first two 0.25 ms bins of the peak. This decrease may be consistent with the Ia presynaptic inhibition known to occur under these stimulation conditions. In the trials in which the median nerve was being stimulated, the finding that the response probability of the motor units, even in their monosynaptic components, tended to increase as their force threshold and their macro-potential area increased and as their twitch contraction time decreased suggests that the median nerve stimulation may have altered the efficiency with which the Ia inputs recruited the motoneurones in the pool. These effects were consistently observed in seven pairs of motor units each consisting of one slow and one fast contracting motor unit which were simultaneously tested, which suggests that the magnitude of the Ia presynaptic inhibition may depend on the type of motor unit tested rather than on the motoneurone pool excitatory drive. The present data suggest for the first time that in humans, the Ia presynaptic inhibition may show an upward gradient working from fast to slow contracting motor units which is able to compensate for the downward gradient in monosynaptic reflex excitation from 'slow' to 'fast' motor units. From a functional point of view, a weaker Ia presynaptic inhibition acting on the fast contracting motor units may contribute to improving the proprioceptive assistance to the wrist myotatic unit when the contraction force has to be increased.  (+info)

Abnormal reciprocal inhibition between antagonist muscles in Parkinson's disease. (6/169)

Disynaptic Ia reciprocal inhibition acts, at the spinal level, by actively inhibiting antagonist motor neurons and reducing the inhibition of agonist motor neurons. The deactivation of this pathway in Parkinson's disease is still debated. Disynaptic reciprocal inhibition of H reflexes in the forearm flexor muscles was examined in 15 control subjects and 16 treated parkinsonian patients at rest and at the onset of a voluntary wrist flexion. Two patients were reassessed 18 h after withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication. At rest, the level of Ia reciprocal inhibition between the wrist antagonist muscles was not significantly different between patients and controls. In contrast, clear abnormalities of this inhibition were revealed by voluntary movements in the patients. In normal subjects, at the onset of a wrist flexion, Ia reciprocal inhibition showed a large decrease, and we argue that this decrease is supraspinal in origin. On the less affected sides of the patients the descending modulation was still present but lower than in controls; on the more affected sides this modulation had vanished almost completely. These movement-induced abnormalities of disynaptic Ia reciprocal inhibition were closely associated with Parkinson's disease but were probably not dependent on L-dopa. They could play a role in the disturbances of precise voluntary movements observed in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Cryosurgery for chronic injuries of the cutaneous nerve in the upper limb. Analysis of a new open technique. (7/169)

We have treated six patients with chronic pain following nerve injury using a cryosurgical probe. All had a significant return of hand function and improvement of pain during a mean follow-up of 13.5 months. Open visualisation of the injured nervous tissue is essential for patients undergoing this technique. Four patients regained normal sensation in the dermatome of the previously injured nerve.  (+info)

External fixation of open humerus fractures. (8/169)

Fifteen patients with open shaft of humerus fractures were treated with a monolateral external fixator. Nine patients presented with nerve palsies. Two radial nerves were disrupted and required grafting. Of the seven others, six spontaneously recovered and one brachial plexus partially improved. All fractures healed. The average duration of external fixation was 21 weeks. Four patients required additional procedures prior to healing (external fixator reapplication-2, plating and bone grafting-2). Two of these four experienced breakage of 4.5 mm external fixation pins. Eight patients developed pin tract infections, which all resolved with local care and antibiotics. Thirteen patients were contacted at an average of 63 months after injury. Eleven reported they were satisfied with their result, nine had no functional limits, and eight reported no pain.  (+info)

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Radial neuropathy, also known as radial nerve palsy, refers to damage or dysfunction of the radial nerve. The radial nerve provides motor function to the muscles in the back of the arm and sensation to the back of the hand and forearm. Damage to this nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the wrist and finger extensors, causing difficulty with extending the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Additionally, there may be numbness or tingling sensations in the back of the hand and forearm. Radial neuropathy can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, compression, or certain medical conditions like diabetes.

A humeral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the humerus bone, which is the long bone located in the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Humeral fractures can occur anywhere along the length of the bone and can vary in severity, from small hairline cracks to complete breaks that separate the bone into several pieces.

These types of fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, falls, sports injuries, or repetitive stress injuries. Symptoms of a humeral fracture may include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the arm.

Humeral fractures are typically diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for humeral fractures depend on the severity and location of the break, and may include immobilization with a sling or cast, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, or physical therapy to help restore mobility and strength to the arm.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

Embalming is a process used in mortuary science, where the preservation and disinfection of human remains are carried out for the purpose of delaying decomposition and preserving the appearance of the body. This procedure typically involves the removal of bodily fluids and replacement with chemical preservatives, such as formaldehyde, which help to prevent the decay of tissues.

The goal of embalming is to make it possible to view the deceased person during funerals or memorial services, allowing friends and family members an opportunity for closure and remembrance. It also enables the body to be transported over long distances without risking health hazards associated with decomposition.

There are different methods of embalming, but all share the common objective of maintaining the dignity and integrity of the deceased while providing a safe and respectful way to handle and display the body.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Median neuropathy, also known as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, is a common entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist level. The median nerve provides sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also innervates some of the muscles that control movement of the fingers and thumb.

In median neuropathy, the compression of the median nerve can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected hand and fingers. These symptoms may be worse at night or upon waking up in the morning, and can be exacerbated by activities that involve repetitive motion of the wrist, such as typing or using tools. If left untreated, median neuropathy can lead to permanent nerve damage and muscle wasting in the hand.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

"Holothuria" is a genus of marine invertebrate animals, also known as sea cucumbers. They belong to the class Holothuroidea and the phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers are characterized by their elongated, cylindrical body shape and leathery skin. They have a simple, tube-like gut and a set of complex internal organs used for feeding and respiration.

Holothuria species are found in oceans worldwide, inhabiting various depths from shallow waters to the deep sea. They play an important role in marine ecosystems by helping to recycle nutrients and maintain sediment stability. Some Holothuria species have commercial value as food in certain cultures, while others are harvested for their medicinal properties.

A medical definition of the wrist is the complex joint that connects the forearm to the hand, composed of eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. The wrist allows for movement and flexibility in the hand, enabling us to perform various activities such as grasping, writing, and typing. It also provides stability and support for the hand during these movements. Additionally, numerous ligaments, tendons, and nerves pass through or near the wrist, making it susceptible to injuries and conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

Pinch strength is a measure of the force or grip strength that a person can apply using their thumb and one or more fingers to pinch or squeeze an object. It is often used as a clinical assessment tool to evaluate hand function, neuromuscular health, and rehabilitation progress. There are several types of pinch strengths that can be measured, including:

1. Lateral pinch strength: The force applied when the thumb tip and the side of the index finger tip come together (key pinch).
2. Palmar pinch strength: The force applied when the thumb pad and the tips of the index and middle fingers come together (three-jaw chuck pinch).
3. Tip-to-tip pinch strength: The force applied when the pads of the thumb and index finger tips come together (precision pinch).

These measurements help healthcare professionals assess any potential impairments, injuries, or conditions affecting hand function and grip strength, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, nerve damage, or muscular disorders. Regular assessment of pinch strength can also aid in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment interventions and rehabilitation programs.

In medical terms, the thumb is referred to as "pollex" and it's the first digit of the hand, located laterally to the index finger. It's opposable, meaning it can move opposite to the other fingers, allowing for powerful gripping and precise manipulation. The thumb contains two phalanges bones - the distal and proximal - and is connected to the hand by the carpometacarpal joint, which provides a wide range of motion.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Sea Cucumbers" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name given to marine animals belonging to the class Holothuroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. These are sausage-shaped, bottom-dwelling creatures found on the sea floor worldwide. They have a leathery skin and a set of tube feet used for locomotion. While they have some cultural and commercial importance in parts of the world, they do not have direct relevance to medical definitions.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

"Asterina" is a term that refers to a genus of starfish-like echinoderms, specifically belonging to the family Asterinidae. These marine animals are characterized by their small size and pentagonal or radial symmetry. They are typically found in shallow waters of various parts of the world and play an important role in the marine ecosystem as scavengers and predators.

It is worth noting that "Asterina" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific name used in the field of marine biology.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

Electrodiagnosis, also known as electromyography (EMG), is a medical diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health and function of muscles and nerves. It measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles at rest and during contraction, as well as the conduction of electrical signals along nerves.

The test involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record its electrical activity. The physician will ask the patient to contract and relax the muscle while the electrical activity is recorded. The resulting data can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as nerve damage or muscle diseases, by identifying abnormalities in the electrical signals.

Electrodiagnosis can be used to diagnose conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others. It is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular disorders, helping physicians to develop appropriate treatment plans for their patients.

A nerve transfer is a surgical procedure where a functioning nerve is connected to an injured nerve to restore movement, sensation or function. The functioning nerve, called the donor nerve, usually comes from another less critical location in the body and has spare nerve fibers that can be used to reinnervate the injured nerve, called the recipient nerve.

During the procedure, a small section of the donor nerve is carefully dissected and prepared for transfer. The recipient nerve is also prepared by removing any damaged or non-functioning portions. The two ends are then connected using microsurgical techniques under a microscope. Over time, the nerve fibers from the donor nerve grow along the recipient nerve and reinnervate the muscles or sensory structures that were previously innervated by the injured nerve.

Nerve transfers can be used to treat various types of nerve injuries, including brachial plexus injuries, facial nerve palsy, and peripheral nerve injuries. The goal of the procedure is to restore function as quickly and efficiently as possible, allowing for a faster recovery and improved quality of life for the patient.

Invertebrate hormones refer to the chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in invertebrate animals, which include insects, mollusks, worms, and other animals without a backbone. These hormones are produced by specialized endocrine cells or glands and released into the bloodstream to target organs, where they elicit specific responses that help control growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior.

Examples of invertebrate hormones include:

1. Ecdysteroids: These are steroid hormones found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. They regulate molting (ecdysis) and metamorphosis by stimulating the growth and differentiation of new cuticle layers.
2. Juvenile hormone (JH): This is a sesquiterpenoid hormone produced by the corpora allata glands in insects. JH plays a crucial role in maintaining the juvenile stage, regulating reproduction, and controlling diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable conditions).
3. Neuropeptides: These are short chains of amino acids that act as hormones or neurotransmitters in invertebrates. They regulate various functions such as feeding behavior, growth, reproduction, and circadian rhythms. Examples include the neuropeptide F (NPF), which controls food intake and energy balance, and the insulin-like peptides (ILPs) that modulate metabolism and growth.
4. Molluscan cardioactive peptides: These are neuropeptides found in mollusks that regulate heart function by controlling heart rate and contractility. An example is FMRFamide, which has been identified in various mollusk species and influences several physiological processes, including feeding behavior, muscle contraction, and reproduction.
5. Vertebrate-like hormones: Some invertebrates produce hormones that are structurally and functionally similar to those found in vertebrates. For example, some annelids (segmented worms) and cephalopods (squid and octopus) have insulin-like peptides that regulate metabolism and growth, while certain echinoderms (starfish and sea urchins) produce steroid hormones that control reproduction.

In summary, invertebrates utilize various types of hormones to regulate their physiological functions, including neuropeptides, cardioactive peptides, insulin-like peptides, and vertebrate-like hormones. These hormones play crucial roles in controlling growth, development, reproduction, feeding behavior, and other essential processes that maintain homeostasis and ensure survival. Understanding the mechanisms of hormone action in invertebrates can provide valuable insights into the evolution of hormonal systems and their functions across different animal taxa.

A closed fracture, also known as a simple fracture, is a type of bone break where the skin remains intact and there is no open wound. The bone may be broken in such a way that it does not pierce the skin, but still requires medical attention for proper diagnosis, treatment, and healing. Closed fractures can range from hairline cracks to complete breaks and can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. It is important to seek immediate medical care if a closed fracture is suspected, as improper healing can lead to long-term complications such as decreased mobility, chronic pain, or deformity.

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

The H-reflex, or Hoffmann reflex, is a monosynaptic reflex that tests the integrity of the Ia afferent nerve fibers and the corresponding alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. It's often used in clinical and research settings to assess the function of the lower motor neuron and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex.

The H-reflex is elicited by applying an electrical stimulus to a sensory nerve, typically the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa or the median nerve at the wrist. This stimulation activates Ia afferent fibers, which then synapse directly onto alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, causing a muscle contraction in the corresponding agonist muscle (e.g., soleus or flexor carpi radialis). The latency of the H-reflex provides information about the conduction velocity of Ia afferent fibers and the excitability of alpha motor neurons.

It's important to note that the H-reflex is influenced by various factors, such as muscle length, contraction state, and the overall excitability of the nervous system. Therefore, interpreting H-reflex results requires a thorough understanding of these influencing factors and careful consideration of the clinical context.

Radial Keratotomy (RK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision problems such as nearsightedness and astigmatism. The procedure involves making small, precise incisions in the cornea in a radial pattern, like the spokes of a wheel. These incisions cause the cornea to change shape, which can help to improve the way that light is focused onto the retina and reduce the need for corrective lenses.

During the procedure, the surgeon uses a specialized blade or laser to make the incisions in the cornea. The incisions are typically made at the periphery of the cornea, leaving the central portion of the cornea untouched. This helps to preserve the strength and stability of the cornea while still allowing it to change shape enough to improve vision.

Radial keratotomy was first developed in the 1970s and was widely used in the 1980s and 1990s. However, it has largely been replaced by newer procedures such as LASIK and PRK, which are considered to be safer and more effective. RK is still occasionally performed in cases where other procedures are not an option or when a patient prefers this type of surgery.

It's important to note that any surgical procedure carries risks, including infection, scarring, and changes in vision. Patients considering radial keratotomy should discuss the potential benefits and risks with their eye care provider before making a decision.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

The elbow is a joint formed by the articulation between the humerus bone of the upper arm and the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion, extension, and rotation of the forearm. The medical definition of "elbow" refers to this specific anatomical structure and its associated functions in human anatomy.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

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The deep branch of the radial nerve, also known as the posterior interosseous nerve, is a motor nerve. Nurul Huda, Mohd Nor; ... The deep branch of radial nerve and also known as posterior interosseous nerve is the nerve of extensor compartment of the ... so ultimately the radial nerve is formed from the anterior rami of C5 through T1. The radial nerve passes through the axilla, ... The radial nerve arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The posterior cord takes nerves from the upper, lower, ...
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The muscular branches of the radial nerve supply the Triceps brachii, Anconæus, Brachioradialis, and Extensor carpi radialis ... That to the medial head is a long, slender filament, which lies close to the ulnar nerve as far as the lower third of the arm, ... The posterior muscular branch, of large size, arises from the nerve in the groove between the Triceps brachii and the humerus. ... and is therefore frequently spoken of as the ulnar collateral nerve. ...
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"Radial Nerve Entrapment". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID 28613749. Retrieved 4 August 2022. "Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at ... Signs of nerve damage include flattening of the nerve, swelling of the nerve proximal to site of injury, abnormal appearance of ... Compression of the radial nerve causes numbness of the back of the hand and thumb, and is much rarer. A simple way of ... and at these points the nerve is vulnerable to compression or entrapment-a so-called "pinched nerve". The nerve is particularly ...
... other nerves may be affected such as the median nerve and axillary nerves. There are many ways to acquire radial nerve ... Radial neuropathy is a type of mononeuropathy which results from acute trauma to the radial nerve that extends the length of ... "Radial nerve dysfunction: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. NIH. Retrieved 10 September 2016. "Radial ... Radial neuropathy may be diagnosed using MRI, ultrasound, nerve conduction study or electromyography (EMG). The treatment and ...
Beasley, R. W. (November 1970). "Tendon transfers for radial nerve palsy". The Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 1 (2): 439- ... Scuderi, C. (May 1949). "Tendon transplants for irreparable radial nerve paralysis". Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. 88 (5): ... It may also be useful to detect abnormal nerve pattern such as median-to-ulnar nerve anastomosis, which may influence the ... Principles of Transfer and Transfers for Radial Nerve Palsy". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 123 (5): 169e-177e. doi: ...
... through the radial nerve); and the deltoid (through the axillary nerve). The effect is called "Erb's palsy". Typically, an ... At the nerve trunk, branches of suprascapular nerves and the nerve to the subclavius also merge. The merged nerve divides into ... The spinal accessory nerve can often be found 1 cm above Erb's point. Erb's point is formed by the union of the C5 and C6 nerve ... The nerve point of the neck, also known as Erb's point is a site at the upper trunk of the brachial plexus located 2-3 cm above ...
After missing two weeks in May due to radial nerve discomfort in his left forearm, Matz had a career-best 9.07 K/9 by May 23, ... DiComo, Anthony (May 9, 2019). "Matz (radial nerve discomfort) on injured list". Major League Baseball. Archived from the ... Matz again battled injuries in 2017, making just 13 starts in a season that ended with surgery to address ulnar nerve ... In late August, doctors determined Matz had ulnar nerve irritation in his left elbow. He required season-ending surgery to ...
Radial nerve Profunda Brachii The radial nerve is visible through the triangular interval, on its way to the posterior ... Radial nerve palsy in an elite bodybuilder. Br J Sports Med 2003;37:185-186. McClelland D, Paxinos A. The anatomy of the ... The radial nerve is vulnerable as it passes through this space, for all of the reasons mentioned above. Axillary spaces ... The radial nerve and profunda brachii pass through the triangular interval and are hence vulnerable. The triangular interval ...
The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to ... A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury. The ulnar nerve lies at the distal end of the ... below this is the radial sulcus, directed obliquely from behind, forward, and downward, and transmitting the radial nerve and ... The radial nerve runs in the spiral groove. Its lower part forms a prominent, rough margin, a little curved from backward, ...
The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Teres minor muscle Accessory muscles of the scapula This article incorporates ... A pseudoganglion has no nerve cells but nerve fibres are present. Damage to the fibers innervating the teres minor is ... The nerve should be detected adjacent to the vessel. In an elevated arm position the axillary neurovascular bundle can be seen ... Suprascapular and axillary nerves of right side, seen from behind. (Teres minor is visible at center.) Diagram of the human ...
Although it provides protection to the radial nerve, it is often involved in compressions on the nerve (due to external ... radial sulcus, or spiral groove) is a broad but shallow oblique depression for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery. It is ... The suprascapular, axillary, and radial nerves. Sadan AY; Ibrahim TEKDEMIR; Ugur SAYLI; Alaittin ELHAN; K. Mine ERBIL; Ruhgun ... that can cause radial nerve palsy. Intertubercular groove Triceps brachii muscle Cross-section through the middle of upper arm ...
The arm also suffered a severed radial nerve. Wikinews has related news: Young motorcycle racer Peter Lenz dies in race crash ...
Wartenberg's syndrome: Radial nerve entrapment at the forearm. Wartenberg wheel: A medical device for neurological use. ... Ehrlich, Walter; Dellon, A. Lee; Mackinnon, Susan E. (1986). "Cheiralgia paresthetica (entrapment of the radial sensory nerve ... A sensitive neuropathy involving the superficial branch of the radial nerve. Wartenberg's sign: In ulnar paralysis the little ... and The accessory nerve test in which damage to a nerve along the trapezius is revealed by examining whether the patient's ...
It anesthetizes the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. This block is useful because it has less risk than the interscalene ( ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... Nerve block or regional nerve blockade is any deliberate interruption of signals traveling along a nerve, often for the purpose ... The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is supplied by that nerve. The goal of the nerve ...
Radial nerve fiber layer (NFL) without NFL tortuosity. Rare obscuration of a major blood vessel, usually on the upper pole. ... Disruption of the normal radial NFL arrangement with grayish opacity accentuating nerve fiber layer bundles. Normal temporal ... Movaffaghy, A.; Chamot, S.R.; Petrig, B.L.; Riva, C.E. (1998). "Blood Flow in the Human Optic Nerve Head during Isometric ... Stage 4 - Marked optic-disc edema Elevation of the entire nerve head. Obscuration of all borders. Peripapillary halo. Total ...
His research paper on Early exploration of radial nerve with secondary injuries in humeral shaft fractures published in Journal ... Carroll, Robert E.; Michelsen, Christopher (September 1975). "Radial Nerve Injuries in Fracture of the Humeral Shaft". Clinical ...
Abductor pollicis longus lies close to the radial nerve. The posterior interosseous nerve is derived from spinal segments C7 & ... which is a continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve after it passes through the supinator muscle. ... The superficial part is inserted with one or more tendons into the radial side of the base of the first metacarpal bone, and ... By its continued action, it helps to abduct the wrist (radial deviation) and flex the hand. The APL insertion on the trapezium ...
... from where the information travels along the radial nerve, through the C7/C8 nerve root to the spinal cord, and the motor ... It is sensed and transmitted by the radial nerve. The reflex is tested as part of the neurological examination to assess the ... signal for contraction returns through the radial nerve. Absence of a reflex (areflexia): If no reflex is elicited then it is ... sensory nerve disease, neuritis, potential lower motor neuron lesion, or poliomyelitis. Other medical problems that may cause ...
... one can see that postoperative patients generally see an increase in mean radial nerve amplitude, a decrease in mean radial ... If the activity of the nerves at rest is abnormal, this may indicate nerve lesion, radiculopathy, or lower motor nerve ... A study conducted on patients with proximal radial nerve injuries used the procedure to indicate the degree of both pre- and ... The nerve activity is generally recorded using surface electrodes, stimulating the nerve at one site and recording from another ...
Brachialis: Musculocutaneous nerve is motor and radial nerve is proprioceptive. Adductor magnus : Its adductor part by ... Its radial half of is supplied by the median nerve and the ulnar half is supplied by the ulnar nerve. Flexor pollicis brevis: ... Supplied by recurrent branch of the median nerve and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve Iliopsoas:Supplied by spiral nerve and ... Digastric muscle: Its anterior belly is supplied by nerve to mylohyoid (a branch of trigeminal nerve). The posterior belly is ...
Radial nerve entrapment is seen after fracture manipulation when the nerve is unknowingly entrapped between bone and an ... While nerve decompression may be used on any nerve, nerve resection should only be used on purely sensory nerves when the loss ... The superior cluneal nerves, middle cluneal nerves, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve are all ... The term "Saturday night palsy" is used for a radial nerve injury caused by prolonged compression of the nerve at the spiral ...
The most important risk is to the radial sensory nerve. A small incision is made and the dorsal extensor retinaculum is ... Radial abduction of the thumb is painful. On occasion, there is uneven movement or triggering the thumb with radial abduction. ... Symptoms are pain and tenderness at the radial side of the wrist, fullness or thickening over the thumb side of the wrist, ... These two muscles run side by side and function to bring the thumb away from the hand (radial abduction). De Quervain ...
The term "radial tunnel syndrome" is used for compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, a division of the radial nerve, ... a fracture that puts pressure on the radial nerve). The radial nerve provides sensation to the skin of posterior arm, posterior ... Radial tunnel syndrome (RTS) is caused by increased pressure on the radial nerve as it travels from the upper arm (the brachial ... Some scientists believe the radial tunnel extends as far as the distal border of the supinator. The radial nerve is commonly ...
In these cases the radial is the nerve most frequently implicated; the ulnar nerve suffers next in frequency." An uncommon type ... A condition known as crutch paralysis, or crutch palsy can arise from pressure on nerves in the armpit, or axilla. Specifically ...
Syndrome of the Superficial Branch of the Radial Nerve". Tunnel syndromes: peripheral nerve compression syndromes. CRC Press. ... Diagnostically it is often subsumed into compression neuropathy of the radial nerve as a whole (e.g. ICD-9 354.3), but studies ... Dang, Alan C.; Rodner, Craig M. (December 2009). "Unusual Compression Neuropathies of the Forearm, Part I: Radial Nerve" (PDF ... is a neuropathy of the hand generally caused by compression or trauma to the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The area ...
The muscles of the hand are innervated by the radial, median, and ulnar nerves. The radial nerve innervates the finger ... The muscles of the hand are innervated by the radial, median, and ulnar nerves from the brachial plexus. The intrinsic muscle ... The median nerve innervates the flexors of the wrist and digits, the abductors and opponens of the thumb, the first and second ... The ulnar nerve innervates the remaining intrinsic muscles of the hand. All muscles of the hand are innervated by the brachial ...
Radial nerve at newborn Radial nerve Radial nerve Radial nerve Radial nerve Muscles of upper limb.Cross section. Muscular ... nerve Dorsal antibrachial cutaneous nerve Superficial branch of the radial nerve Deep branch of the radial nerve Radial ... including the superficial branch of the radial nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve/posterior interosseous nerve). ... Above the radial sulcus, the radial nerve gives off posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm which supplies the skin at the back of ...
This is the nerve that travels from the armpit down the back of the arm to the hand. It helps you move your arm, wrist, and ... Radial nerve dysfunction is a problem with the radial nerve. ... Radial nerve dysfunction is a problem with the radial nerve. ... Nerve biopsy to examine a piece of nerve tissue (rarely needed). *Nerve conduction tests to check how fast nerve signals travel ... Radial neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls:. *Movement of the ...
Radial nerve compression or injury may occur at any point along the anatomic course of the nerve and may have varied etiologies ... Radial nerve palsy. Radial nerve palsy in the arm most commonly is caused by fracture of the humerus, especially in the middle ... encoded search term (Radial Nerve Entrapment) and Radial Nerve Entrapment What to Read Next on Medscape ... The radial nerve is the largest branch of the brachial plexus and is the continuation of the posterior cord, with nerve fibers ...
Tendon Transfers for Radial Nerve Palsy: Finger Extension Deficit. Tendon Transfers for Radial Nerve Palsy: Finger Extension ... An improved splint for radial (musculospiral) nerve paralysis.. Analysis of Tsuges Procedure for the Treatment of Radial Nerve ... Tendon transfers for radial palsy. JH Boyes. Bull Hosp Joint Dis. 1960;21:97-105.. - Ulnar nerve compression following flexor ... may be used for both low and high radial nerve palsy;. - disadvantages. - FCU muscle fibers are short (3 cm of excursion) which ...
... and palliative measures for acute painful conditions are all indications for radial nerve block. ... Radial nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed at various levels along the course of the radial nerve. Surgical ... Radial tunnel syndrome: [2] This is a painful condition of the radial nerve. To distinguish radial tunnel syndrome from tennis ... Radial nerve anatomy. The radial nerve is 1 of the 4 important branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and has ...
Radial Nerve Above the Elbow (4-5 cm Above). Anatomical Correlation. The solitary radial nerve appears predominantly ... Radial Nerve at the Elbow. Anatomical Correlation. The radial nerve (arrowheads) becomes elliptical and linear as it divides ... Radial Nerve Immediately Below the Elbow The radial nerve (arrowheads) is visualized below the elbow lying immediately next to ... radial nerve. H = humerus Arrow = deep brachial artery and superficial veins of upper limb. Arrowhead = radial nerve B = ...
Sensory reanimation of the hand by transfer of the superficial branch of the radial nerve to the median and ulnar nerve ... Sensory reanimation of the hand by transfer of the superficial branch of the radial nerve to the median and ulnar nerve. Brain ... to the median nerve (MN) and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve (SBUN).. METHODS: The SBRN, MN, and SBUN were identified ... to the median nerve (MN) and the superficial branch of the ulnar nerve (SBUN).. METHODS: The SBRN, MN, and SBUN were identified ...
How To Do a Radial Nerve Block - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... The radial nerve lies along the radial aspect of the wrist, just lateral (radial) to the radial artery at the proximal wrist ... A radial nerve block anesthetizes the dorsum of the thenar half of the hand (from the thumb through the radial half of the ring ... To anesthetize the entire dorsum of the hand, also do median nerve block How To Do a Median Nerve Block A median nerve block, ...
... , Regional Anesthesia of the Radial Nerve, Radial Nerve Block at Wrist. ... Radial Nerve Block, Regional Anesthesia of the Radial Nerve, Radial Nerve Block at Wrist ... Alternative: Radial Nerve Block at Elbow (or mid-Forearm). *Difficult to localize Radial Nerve branches on Wrist Ultrasound ( ... Often difficult to localize Radial Nerve branches at wrist. *Consider superficial Field Block (see above) or Radial Nerve Block ...
In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Radial nerve from the Anatomy section. ... Nerves Tumour Limb Reconstruction Sports We use Mailchimp as our marketing automation platform. By clicking below to submit ...
... compressed nervemedian nervenerve mobilisationnerve mobilizationPinched nerveradial nerveThoracic Outlet SyndromeTOSulnar nerve ... cervical ribcompressed nervecostoclavicular syndromeEdens testmedian nervepectoralis minor syndromePinched nerveradial nerve ... ribcostoclavicular syndromemedian nervepathologic discPectoralis Minorpectoralis minor syndromePinched nerveradial nerve ... anterior headanterior scalene syndromeaxillary arteryaxillary nerveaxillary veinbrachial plexusbranchesBreathingCervicalcords ...
In this episode, we review the topic of Superficial Radial nerve from the Anatomy section. ... Nerves Tumour Limb Reconstruction Sports We use Mailchimp as our marketing automation platform. By clicking below to submit ...
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... and palliative measures for acute painful conditions are all indications for radial nerve block. ... Radial nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed at various levels along the course of the radial nerve. Surgical ... Radial nerve anatomy. The radial nerve is 1 of the 4 important branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and has ... Radial tunnel syndrome: [2] This is a painful condition of the radial nerve. To distinguish radial tunnel syndrome from tennis ...
... and palliative measures for acute painful conditions are all indications for radial nerve block. ... Radial nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed at various levels along the course of the radial nerve. Surgical ... Radial nerve anatomy. The radial nerve is 1 of the 4 important branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and has ... Radial tunnel syndrome: [2] This is a painful condition of the radial nerve. To distinguish radial tunnel syndrome from tennis ...
R, radial nerve; M, median nerve; U, ulnar nerve; *, olecranon process at the elbow. A: left shoulder-level radial, median, and ... Insertion support (subsequently removed) is seen below the median nerve. B: right elbow-level arm nerves, just proximal to the ... Surgical access to all 3 target nerves was achieved through a single surgical site at either the elbow or the shoulder. In both ... High-count microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or ...
There are several causes of a pinched nerve, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Discover other causes, their signs and symptoms, ... Radial tunnel syndrome symptoms. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is a sensory nerve. Its not very deep, so its ... Superficial sensory nerve compression. In the area of your wrist, there is a sensory nerve branch of the radial nerve. Anything ... Radial nerve compression. The radial nerve is located near your elbow and branches into the posterior interosseous and ...
... refers to an injury or compression of the radial nerve. ... Radial Nerve Palsy, commonly known as Saturday Night Palsy, ... Radial Nerve Palsy ( Saturday Night Palsy). Radial Nerve Palsy, commonly known as Saturday Night Palsy, Honeymoon Palsy or ... refers to an injury or compression of the radial nerve at the upper arm. This often happens on Saturday nights when one puts ...
... - ⭐ Top Doctors ⚕️No. 1 Hospital Group in Italy Advanced Equipment ✍ ... The area of the forearm below the short supinator is the place where the radial nerve is most commonly injured and compressed. ... Surgical intervention consists in the examination and decompression of the nerve located under the muscle. The procedure is ... performed with an anesthetic injected near the nerve plexus while the patient is conscious. ...
The muscular branches of the radial nerve supply the Triceps brachii, Anconæus, Brachioradialis, and Extensor carpi radialis ... Similarly, how deep is the radial nerve? The deep branch of the radial nerve winds to the back of the forearm around the ... Herein, what is the course of the radial nerve?To enter the forearm, the radial nerve travels anterior to the lateral ... where is the radial nerve most likely to be damaged? The most common cause of radial nerve damage is a broken humerus, which is ...
The main cause of radial nerve injury is nerve contusion and it has high natural recovery rate without any treatment on nerves ... B) Intraoperative inspection of the radial nerve shows complete transection. (C) Direct repair of radial nerve. (D) ... A 22-year-old male patient with fracture of humeral shaft and radial nerve palsy. (A) Intraoperative inspection of the radial ... C) Shortening of the humerus shaft for approximating injured nerve ends. (D) Direct repair of radial nerve. (E) Immediate ...
Transferring radial nerve triceps fascicles to the axillary nerves. Nerve transfer was first described in 1948 by Alexander ... Transferring radial nerve triceps fascicles to the axillary nerves * Increasing operating room capacity through a dedicated ... One of the most popular methods is the transfer of radial nerve fascicles to the axillary nerve. The most common approach for ... The Anterior Approach for Transfer of Radial Nerve Triceps Fascicles to the Axillary Nerve. The Journal of Hand Surgery. ...
Radial nerve grafting in high energy humeral fractures. Yusuf Gürbüz, Tahir Sadık Sügün, Kemal Özaksar, Murat Kayalar, Tulgar ... Radial nerve grafting in high energy humeral fractures Yusuf Gürbüz, Tahir Sadık Sügün, Kemal Özaksar, Murat Kayalar, Tulgar ... The length of radial nerve gap was 10 cm in six patients, 9 cm in one patients, 8 cm in three patients and 4 cm in one patient ... Radial nerve grafting in high energy humeral fractures. Hand and Microsurgery, 1 (2), 60-64. doi:10.2399/emd.12.58077. Chicago ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
3) The radial topography of PnO2 in EGN differed from the relatively uniform distribution in control nerves. In EGN the ... 3) The radial topography of PnO2 in EGN differed from the relatively uniform distribution in control nerves. In EGN the ... 3) The radial topography of PnO2 in EGN differed from the relatively uniform distribution in control nerves. In EGN the ... 3) The radial topography of PnO2 in EGN differed from the relatively uniform distribution in control nerves. In EGN the ...
MSK Section 20 - Common Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Median, Ulnar & Radial Nerve Injury. This content is for Early Access - 2 ...
Radial Nerve Injuries and Outcomes: Our Experience. Terzis, Julia K.; Konofaos, Petros ... Great Auricular Nerve Injury, the "Subauricular Band" Phenomenon, and the Periauricular Adipose Compartments. Rohrich, Rod J.; ... The Fascial Planes of the Temporal Region Related to the Frontal Branch of the Facial Nerve. Yang, Daping; Yang, Jenny F.; ... Reply: The Fascial Planes of the Temporal Region Related to the Frontal Branch of the Facial Nerve. Trussler, Andrew P. ...
Radial nerve entrapment. Radial nerve compression or injury can occur at any point along the anatomical course of the nerve and ... The following are radial nerve branches (including the superficial branch of the radial nerve and the deep branch of the radial ... Causes of radial nerve entrapment. Radial nerve entrapment is often believed to be the result of overuse but can occur from ... Above the radial groove, the radial nerve exits the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm that supplies the skin on the back of ...
To evaluate the possible radial nerve entrapment of patients with unilateral refractory lateral epicondylitis (LE) by using ... Keywords: Lateral Epicondylitis, Radial Nerve, Ultrasound, Electrodiagnosis, Cross-Sectional Area, Grip Strength, TENNIS ELBOW ... Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Radial Nerves in Patients with Unilateral Refractory Lateral Epicondylitis. ...
  • It gives sensory supply to dorsal aspect of hand, dorsal aspect of thumb, index finger, middle finger and lateral side of ring finger except the nail beds, which are supplied by proper digital branches of median nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • How To Do a Median Nerve Block A median nerve block, done at the wrist, anesthetizes the volar surface of the thenar half of the hand (from the thumb through the radial half of the ring finger) as well as the dorsal surfaces. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Median nerve gets compressed at the wrist in carpal tunnel leading to weakness of the hands. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • We report here a case of epithelioid sarcoma in the forearm of a 33-year-old male presenting with symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome originating from the direct involvement of the median nerve. (hindawi.com)
  • with superficial cutaneous branch of radial nerve transfer to the resected median nerve. (hindawi.com)
  • The function of the affected hand showed excellent with the DASH disability/symptom score of 22.5, and both the grasp power and sensory of the median nerve area has recovered up to 50% of the normal side. (hindawi.com)
  • We report a case of ES in the forearm presenting median nerve palsy as carpal tunnel syndrome clinically, and being treated by initial surgery in a form of radical resection of the bulk of tumor with finger flexors and median nerve as well. (hindawi.com)
  • We describe the results of successful restoration of the finger flexors and median nerve function with multiple tendon transfers and nerve transfer from radial superficial cutaneous nerve branch after the radical resection of the tumor located in the forearm. (hindawi.com)
  • A 33-year-old male presented with complaints of progressive sensory disturbance in median nerve area on his right hand since the Spring of 2005, and consulted a doctor in a district hospital then. (hindawi.com)
  • However, median nerve palsy gradually progressed with weakening of opponens pollicis and abductor pollicis brevis muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • The physical examination revealed an elastic hard tumor palpable in middle portion of his right forearm with remarkable Tinel's sign to the median nerve area. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. Functional Restoration Following Resection of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Median Nerve: A Case Report. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Malignant schwannoma of the median nerve]. (nih.gov)
  • Radial and median nerve conduction velocities in workers exposed to lead, copper, and zinc: A follow-up study for 2 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The relation of the median nerve to the carpal tunnel syndrome, and the ulnar nerve to the cubital tunnel syndrome and Guyon's canal will be studied. (boerhaavenascholing.nl)
  • The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar head. (bartleby.com)
  • The lateral border of the muscle forms the medial boundary of a triangular hollow situated in front of the elbow-joint and containing the brachial artery, median nerve, and tendon of the Biceps brachii. (bartleby.com)
  • This case report describes the course of a 26-year-old male who developed a dense motor palsy of the radial nerve after receiving a seasonal influenza vaccination. (jsoaonline.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy most commonly occurs as Idiopathic which resolves by itself. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Facial nerve palsy because of trauma or tumors can lead to facial asymmetry on smiling, inability to close eyes, constant drooling from mouth. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Low Level Laser Therapy for Radial Nerve Palsy Patients : Our Experience. (nih.gov)
  • It divides into a medial branch and a lateral branch to innervate the radial wrist (with some variable overlap from the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve), dorsal radial hand, and dorsum of the radial three-and-a-half digits (to approximately the middle phalanx level). (medscape.com)
  • In the arm, it runs behind the brachial artery and then enters the lower triangular space to reach the radial sulcus of back of the humerus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, it descends down to cross the lateral epicondyle of the humerus where the nerve terminates by branching itself into superficial and deep branch which continues into cubital fossa and then into the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, problems can occur proximally in relation to fractures of the humerus at the junction of the middle and proximal thirds, as well as distally on the radial aspect of the wrist. (medscape.com)
  • After giving off branches to the long and lateral heads of the triceps brachii , it enters a groove on the humerus, the radial sulcus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Along with the deep brachial artery , the radial nerve winds around in the groove (between the medial and lateral heads of the triceps) towards the forearm, running laterally on the posterior aspect of the humerus. (wikidoc.org)
  • The radial nerve emerges from the groove on the lateral aspect of the humerus. (wikidoc.org)
  • When the radial nerve reaches the distal part of the humerus , it passes in front of the lateral epicondyle and continues in the forearm. (wikidoc.org)
  • Our e-learning platform contains high resolution images and a certified CME of the Schwannoma of the proximal radial nerve: Excision using posterior approach to humerus surgical procedure. (orthoracle.com)
  • The lateral head of the triceps brachii, one of three heads of the muscle, originates from the humerus, superior to the radial groove to insert on the olecranon process. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Proximal portion of posterior humerus, superior to radial groove. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Have a humerus/radial nerve injury as a result of an accidental gunshot injury. (ubpn.org)
  • In the radial sulcus, it gives off lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superficial branch of the radial nerve is widely separated from the radial artery in the upper one third of the forearm, closely related to radial artery in the middle third of the forearm, and in the lower third, it descends in the forearm under the tendon of brachioradialis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deep branch of the radial nerve (also known as posterior interosseous nerve by some authors)) pierces the supinator muscle, winds around the radius under the cover of supinator to reach posterior of forearm where it again pierces supinator and after which it is known as the posterior interosseous nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous innervation by the radial nerve is provided by the following nerve branches: Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm (originates in axilla) Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm (originates in arm) Posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (originates in arm) The superficial branch of the radial nerve provides sensory innervation to much of the back of the hand, including the web of skin between the thumb and index finger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deep branch of the radial nerve, the posterior interosseous nerve, winds to the dorsum of the forearm, around the lateral side of the radius, and through the muscle fibers of the supinator. (medscape.com)
  • The deep branch of the radial nerve winds around the lateral part of the neck of the radius and enters the posterior compartment of the forearm. (medscape.com)
  • The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body that supplies the triceps brachii muscle of the arm, as well as all 12 muscles in the posterior osteofascial compartment of the forearm. (wikidoc.org)
  • The superficial branch of the radial nerve descends in the forearm under the brachioradialis . (wikidoc.org)
  • The radial nerve (and its deep branch) provides motor innervation to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the arm and forearm , which are mostly extensors . (wikidoc.org)
  • Radial nerve forearm sensory conduction was done in 26 normal controls using the orthodromic method. (tjn.org.tr)
  • Radial Tunnel Syndrome is a condition thought to be a compression injury to the radial nerve, which runs by the bones and muscles of the forearm and elbow. (posmc.com)
  • Radial Tunnel Syndrome symptoms include, cutting, piercing, or stabbing pain at the top of the forearm or back of the hand, especially when you try to extend or straighten your wrist and fingers. (posmc.com)
  • The ulnar nerve is one of the terminal branches of the brachial plexus, a network of nerves under the collarbone that transmits sensory and motor information of the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand. (medicinenet.com)
  • The radial nerve travels through the radial tunnel located on the top (dorsum) of the forearm. (txortho.com)
  • The radial nerve can be compressed or irritated in the radial tunnel due to repetitive movements, forceful forearm movements, or injury. (txortho.com)
  • Radial tunnel syndrome causes hand weakness and pain in the forearm near the elbow. (txortho.com)
  • The radial nerve controls movements in the muscles on the back of your arm and forearm, which are mainly extensors. (txortho.com)
  • A direct blow to the forearm or elbow can also injure the radial nerve. (txortho.com)
  • Radial tunnel syndrome causes an aching pain in the forearm. (txortho.com)
  • There is a muscle splitting approach, which limits exposure to the region of the supinator muscle, or an extended approach that addresses all possible sites of radial nerve compression in the forearm. (txortho.com)
  • You may prevent radial tunnel syndrome by avoiding repetitive movements including twisting the forearm, extending the wrist, and gripping. (txortho.com)
  • The radial artery, in the lower part of the forearm, lies between the tendon of this muscle and the Brachioradialis. (bartleby.com)
  • [ 3 ] This syndrome is secondary to compression of the radial nerve distal to the musculospiral grove. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this article is to present a case where a double flexor tendon transfer was used to restore thumb, finger and wrist extension in a patient who sustained a complete radial nerve transection secondary to a distal humeral shaft or Holstein-Lewis Fracture. (okstate.edu)
  • A decreased amplitude in the left distal median motor nerve was also present, which appears consistent with an incidental finding of a left sided Martin-Gruber anastomosis (anomalous innervation). (chiroindex.org)
  • The patient's injury caused abnormal distal sensory latencies and amplitudes of both the right lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves. (chiroindex.org)
  • It originates from the brachial plexus, carrying fibers from the posterior roots of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial nerve originates as a terminal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial nerve originates from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with root values of C5 to C8 and T1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial nerve is the largest branch of the brachial plexus and is the continuation of the posterior cord, with nerve fibers from C6, C7, C8, and occasionally T1. (medscape.com)
  • The radial nerve is 1 of the 4 important branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and has the root values of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. (medscape.com)
  • A brachial plexus schematic, radial nerve sensory distribution, and radial nerve course are shown in the images below. (medscape.com)
  • The brachial plexus nerve roots emerge from the spine in the neck and pass behind the collarbone and down the arm, dividing into multiple branches. (medicinenet.com)
  • Brachial plexus patients are evaluated with MRI and Nerve conduction studies. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Similar compression of Ulnar nerve and brachial plexus may happen at multiple places. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the upper limb position that results in: (1) the greatest tension of the ulnar nerve and (2) the greatest difference in tension between the ulnar nerve and the other 2 major nerves of the upper limb: median and radial. (edu.au)
  • During this two-days hands-on dissection course you will learn how to expose all the major nerves of the upper limb. (boerhaavenascholing.nl)
  • Clavert et al dissected 30 cadaveric upper limbs to define the radial nerve anatomic landmarks and to determine the relationship of the radial nerve main trunk and branches to the peripheral osseous and muscular structures in the anterior aspect of the elbow joint, so as to identify likely causes of compressive neuropathy. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] No radial compressive neuropathy was found at the level of the supinator arch, and no adhesions were identified between the radial nerve and the joint capsule. (medscape.com)
  • 2001 and 31 December 2003 to identify and radial nerves presents as acute periph- potential cases of TIN, using multiple diag- eral neuropathy with flaccid paralysis of nostic terms such as traumatic injection, the injected limb within 24 hours after in- traumatic neuritis, injection injury, etc. (who.int)
  • 9. Radial neuropathy caused by intraneural leiomyoma: A case report. (nih.gov)
  • Ulnar nerve testing was done to rule out generalised peripheral neuropathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Our nervous system is divided into Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and Peripheral nerves. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • These injuries vary from mild traction to total avulsion of spinal nerves. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • And, the later connects all the nerves running from the brain & spinal cord to the rest of the human body. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • 5. Clinical presentation and long-term outcome of primary spinal intradural malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Malignant schwannoma of the sciatic nerve originating in a spinal plexiform neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type 1--case report. (nih.gov)
  • The radial nerve divides into a deep branch, which becomes the posterior interosseous nerve, and a superficial branch, which goes on to innervate the dorsum (back) of the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are branches of the radial nerve (including the superficial branch of the radial nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve/posterior interosseous nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensor carpi radialis brevis may receive its innervation either from the radial nerve proper or from the posterior interosseous nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The deep branch of the radial nerve pierces the supinator muscle, after which it is known as the posterior interosseous nerve . (wikidoc.org)
  • Near the supinator, the radial nerve branches into a sensory nerve and the motor branch called the posterior interosseous nerve. (txortho.com)
  • The posterior interosseous nerve controls extension movements in your wrist, fingers, and thumb. (txortho.com)
  • The sensory nerve conduction study included nerve conduction velocity (m/s), latency (ms), and amplitude (μV). (nih.gov)
  • Your physician may perform an EMG (electromyography), a nerve conduction study or both to properly diagnosis this condition. (posmc.com)
  • Radial nerve compression or injury may occur at any point along the anatomic course of the nerve and may have varied etiologies. (medscape.com)
  • Nerve injury secondary to compression or traction depends on intensity and duration. (medscape.com)
  • These may be tumors related to nerves or injury to nerves (sharp or avulsion injury). (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • There are various surgical options for patients ranging from primary repairs to never grafts or nerve transfers which vary according to the type of injury. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • Depending on the severity of the nerve injury, patients may not feel their symptoms all of the time. (uky.edu)
  • Depending on the nerve injury, the healthcare provider may test the patient's reflexes. (uky.edu)
  • The healthcare provider may recommend further diagnostic testing to understand the nerve injury and to provide patients with the best treatment. (uky.edu)
  • He was hit by a car 4 weeks ago and the only injury he sustained was nerve damage to his right front leg. (tripawds.com)
  • The deltoid area should be used only if well-developed such as in certain adults and older children, and then only with caution to avoid radial nerve injury. (who.int)
  • The radial nerve and its branches supply the dorsal muscles, such as triceps brachii , the extrinsic extensors of the wrist and hands, and the cutaneous nerve supply to most of the back of the hand. (wikidoc.org)
  • An anesthetic solution is injected adjacent to the ulnar nerve in the wrist or the elbow. (medicinenet.com)
  • 1] This TFCC improves wrist functional stability and allows six degrees of freedom at the wrist-flexion, extension, supination, pronation, and radial and ulnar deviation. (medscape.com)
  • The course of the radial nerve carries it across the latissimus dorsi deep to the axillary artery. (medscape.com)
  • Radial nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed at various levels along the course of the radial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Course of the radial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • In some cases surgery may be performed to alleviate the pressure on the radial nerve. (posmc.com)
  • The goal of surgery is to relieve the pressure on the radial nerve to eliminate your symptoms. (txortho.com)
  • We used superficial recording electrodes and determined the normal radial nerve conduction values in order to make this test easier and more applicable. (tjn.org.tr)
  • Electrophysiological evidence was consistent with severe sensory neuropathies of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous and superficial radial nerves on the right. (chiroindex.org)
  • To distinguish radial tunnel syndrome from tennis elbow , palpate the lateral epicondyle. (medscape.com)
  • Pinpointing the location of the pain source is necessary to distinguish radial tunnel syndrome from other conditions, such as tennis elbow. (txortho.com)
  • It is commonly believed that the radial nerve provides motor innervation to the long head of the triceps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound and Electrodiagnosis (EMG) of the Radial Nerve Training Video is designed to review the anatomy, scan techniques, normal nerve ultrasound characteristics, and diagnostic criteria for evaluating peripheral nerve abnormalities. (gcus.com)
  • Physicians, PA's, sonographers and other medical professionals who will be involved with performing and/or interpreting peripheral nerve ultrasound and electrophysiologic examinations. (gcus.com)
  • Ultrasonographic guidance increases the likelihood of successful peripheral nerve blockade and reduces the risk of complications but requires trained personnel. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours. (orthoracle.com)
  • Schwannomas grow slowly and the nerve accommodates the growing tumour, with neurological symptoms developing when compression is critical or the tumour reaches a size that distorts and compresses otherwise normal fascicles within a peripheral nerve. (orthoracle.com)
  • This is a short glimpse of Peripheral nerve treatments offered with us. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • 7. Cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) of the hand: a review of current literature. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Compartmental resection of peripheral nerve tumours with limb preservation in 16 dogs (1995-2011). (nih.gov)
  • 14. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the spine: results of surgical management from a multicenter study. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the parietal scalp. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as an asymptomatic intravenous thrombus extending to the heart: a case report. (nih.gov)
  • 1992. Auditory event-related potential (P300) in relation to peripheral nerve conduction in workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper: Effects of lead on cognitive function and central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • If surgery is necessary, the patient's nerve fibers will grow back together, ideally growing one inch per month. (uky.edu)
  • Assessment of the effects of occupational and environmental factors on all faster and slower large myelinated nerve fibers: A study of the distribution of nerve conduction velocities. (cdc.gov)
  • The superficial branch of the radial nerve descends lateral to the radial artery and passes backward under the tendon of the brachioradialis muscle. (medscape.com)
  • Eight centimeters proximal to the tip of the radial styloid, the nerve pierces the fascia medial to the brachioradialis to lie dorsal to the extensor tendons. (medscape.com)
  • After it emerges out from the radial sulcus, it supplies the brachialis, brachioradialis and extensor carpi radialis longus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognize normal sonographic anatomy of the radial nerve. (gcus.com)
  • In the axilla, the radial nerve descends behind the axillary and brachial arteries, passes between the long and medial heads of the triceps muscle, and enters the posterior compartment of the arm. (medscape.com)
  • The case presented is a large Schwannoma in the radial nerve as it leaves the posterior axilla and extends into the spiral groove. (orthoracle.com)
  • The radial nerve enters the arm behind the axillary artery / brachial artery , and it then travels posteriorly on the medial side of the arm. (wikidoc.org)
  • It arises by two heads, humeral and ulnar, connected by a tendinous arch, beneath which the ulnar nerve and posterior ulnar recurrent artery pass. (bartleby.com)
  • Your radial nerve originates from nerve roots in the neck which then combine about the base of the neck and shoulder, and travels down your arm. (txortho.com)
  • However, a study conducted in 2004 found that axillary nerve innervated the long head of the triceps in twenty cadavers without any supply from the radial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mnemonic STAR (Subscapular, Thoracodorsal, Axillary, Radial) is an easy way to remember the 4 branches. (medscape.com)
  • Suprascapular and axillary nerves of right side, seen from behind. (wikidoc.org)
  • 10. Sciatic nerve resection: is that truly an indication for amputation? (nih.gov)
  • In infants and small children the periphery of the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region should be used only when necessary, in order to minimize the possibility of damage to the sciatic nerve. (who.int)
  • In tennis elbow, this palpation reveals tenderness over the lateral epicondyle that is absent in radial tunnel syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike the cubital tunnel syndrome patients rarely feel numbness or tingling because this particular nerve affects the muscle. (posmc.com)
  • Radial tunnel syndrome occurs when the radial nerve in the arm is compressed. (txortho.com)
  • Your doctor can diagnose radial tunnel syndrome by reviewing your medical history and examining your arm. (txortho.com)
  • Surgery for radial tunnel syndrome is used only when all other treatment options have failed. (txortho.com)
  • Recovery from radial tunnel syndrome is different for everyone. (txortho.com)
  • Radial nerve gives out muscular branches to supply the long head, medial head, and lateral head of triceps brachii muscles before and during its course in the radial sulcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial nerve also gives articular branches to supply the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ulnar nerve and its branches provide sensation and motor function to the side of the hand with the little finger. (medicinenet.com)
  • Surgery to relieve pressure on the nerve may help if the symptoms get worse, or if there is proof that part of the nerve is wasting away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When they occur in deeply located nerves they may present with symptoms associated with nerve compression especially if the tumour is sited at anatomically tight space. (orthoracle.com)
  • The symptoms experienced are dependent on the type of nerve and its anatomical location. (orthoracle.com)
  • Background: The ulnar nerve upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT3) uses upper limb positioning to investigate symptoms arising from the ulnar nerve. (edu.au)
  • Although each institution has carried out independent research, and their case definitions for CTS are not identical, all agreed that the components would include nerve conduction testing and symptoms recorded on hand diagrams, but not physical examination findings. (cdc.gov)
  • Hand diagram analysis differentiated symptoms in the ulnar and radial distributions from the median distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • From the radial tunnel, the radial nerve runs underneath the supinator muscle. (txortho.com)
  • Radial nerve block can be done using anatomic landmarks or ultrasonographic guidance. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Compression or scarring of the radial nerve at different points along its course may cause denervation of extensor or supinator muscles and numbness or paresthesias in the distribution of the radial sensory nerve (RSN). (medscape.com)
  • Nerve compression can lead to paralysis of various muscles supplied by the nerve. (drdeepakrathore.com)
  • The radial tunnel is made of muscles and bones. (txortho.com)
  • Peripheral nerves are affected as well, with ensuing weakness and anesthesia. (cdc.gov)
  • Surgical anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and palliative measures for acute painful conditions are all indications for radial nerve block. (medscape.com)
  • Above the radial sulcus, the radial nerve gives off posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm which supplies the skin at the back of the arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • it also provides cutaneous sensory innervation to most of the back of the hand, except for the back of the little finger and adjacent half of the ring finger (which are innervated by the ulnar nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • The superficial branch of the radial nerve provides sensory innervation to much of the back of the hand, including the web of skin between the thumb and index finger. (wikidoc.org)
  • How To Do an Ulnar Nerve Block An ulnar nerve block anesthetizes both the volar and dorsal surfaces of the hypothenar half of the hand (from the little finger through the ulnar half of the ring finger). (msdmanuals.com)
  • How Long Does Ulnar Nerve Block Last? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is an ulnar nerve block? (medicinenet.com)
  • An ulnar nerve block is an injection of anesthesia to numb parts of the hand for surgery. (medicinenet.com)
  • An ulnar nerve block is a procedure to numb the side of the hand with the little finger. (medicinenet.com)
  • An ulnar nerve block may be performed as a single procedure or in combination with a radial and/or median block, as needed. (medicinenet.com)
  • An ulnar nerve block is most often performed by a hand surgeon as an outpatient procedure in the emergency room. (medicinenet.com)
  • The patient may experience tingling, discomfort or pain as the ulnar nerve block wears off. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the risks and complications of an ulnar nerve block? (medicinenet.com)
  • A nerve block has advantages over local anesthetic infiltration because it can cause less pain (eg, in palmar skin repair) and does not distort tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Superficial palmar nerves. (wikidoc.org)
  • Deep palmar nerves. (wikidoc.org)
  • The pain is centered a few inches below your elbow joint where the radial nerve travels beneath the supinator. (txortho.com)
  • [ 11 ] Neither fibrous structures nor adhesions of the deep branch of the radial nerve were observed along its course through the supinator. (medscape.com)
  • When damage destroys the nerve covering ( myelin sheath ) or part of the nerve itself, nerve signaling is slowed or prevented. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Malignant nerve sheath tumours are extremely rare but require specialist management for excision and reconstruction where indicated. (orthoracle.com)
  • Intervention and Outcome: A comprehensive electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, including nerve conduction studies of sensory and motor nerves, F-Wave studies, and both surface and Needle EMG examinations. (chiroindex.org)
  • Mild nerve injuries can often repair on their own. (uky.edu)
  • After following this course you are able to carry out operations to the arm where the treatment of nerve pathology is central or where iatrogenic nerve injuries must be avoided, with confidence. (boerhaavenascholing.nl)
  • This nerve was historically referred to as the musculospiral nerve. (wikipedia.org)