The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Disease involving the RADIAL NERVE. Clinical features include weakness of elbow extension, elbow flexion, supination of the forearm, wrist and finger extension, and thumb abduction. Sensation may be impaired over regions of the dorsal forearm. Common sites of compression or traumatic injury include the AXILLA and radial groove of the HUMERUS.
Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb-side of the forearm, which can occur at various sites such as near the wrist, middle of the bone or closer to the elbow.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Abdominal artery that follows the curvature of the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery is frequently used in CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING; MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION, and other vascular reconstruction.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-60 kHz, to cut through or remove tissue. The tissue fragmentation by ultrasonic surgical instruments is caused by mechanical effects not heat as with HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION.

Sites of stenosis in AV fistulae for haemodialysis access. (1/728)

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of late failures of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae are related to the progression of intimal hyperplasia. The aetiology of this process is still unknown but the fistula configuration and resultant haemodynamics have been implicated. This clinical study was devised to identify sites of stenosis in patients with fistulae and relate the findings to various clinical and geometrical parameters. METHOD: Measurement of anastomotic length and angle was made intraoperatively in 25 consecutive fistulae. Post-operative assessment was carried out at regular intervals using duplex and colour-flow ultrasonography. RESULTS: Stenoses were present in all 25 of the fistulae studied at 3 months. The stenoses could be classified to three specific sites: at the anastomosis (Type 1), on the inner wall of the curved region of the cephalic vein (Type 2) and just proximal to this curved segment where the vein straightens out (Type 3). Most of Type 1 and Type 2 stenoses were not progressive while Type 3 stenoses were generally progressive. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the need for an effective surveillance programme of AV fistulae.  (+info)

Endothelial cell dysfunction and arterial wall hypertrophy are associated with disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. (2/728)

To investigate the effects of fasting and postprandial glucose on endothelial cell function and intima-media thickness, we studied 60 men with cardiovascular risk factors. Postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was measured after 3 minutes of ischemia at the radial artery with high-resolution echo tracking. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Glucose tolerance was determined by a 75-g oral glucose load. Fasting glucose levels were inversely correlated with postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (r=-0.24, P<0.05) and directly correlated with intima-media thickness (r=0.26, P<0.05). However, postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and intima-media thickness were not correlated. All subjects with normal postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation also had a normal intima-media thickness, whereas some subjects with impaired postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation also had a normal intima-media thickness. Multiple regression analysis revealed a profound influence of age on intima-media thickness to the exclusion of all other variables. The same age-adjusted analysis for postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation accepted fasting glucose, followed by 2-hour postprandial glucose, as variables, but no others. Subjects with fasting glucose values >100 mg/dL showed reduced postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (59 versus 120 microm, P<0.05) and a higher intima-media thickness (right: 0.76 versus 0.62 mm, P<0.05; left: 0.78 versus 0.63 mm, P<0. 05) compared with those with fasting glucose values <100 mg/dL. Subjects with 2-hour postprandial glucose values >125 mg/dL had no reduced postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation compared with subjects with a 2-hour postprandial glucose <125 mg/dL; however, their intima-media thickness (right: 0.66 versus 0.62 mm; left: 0. 68 versus 0.62 mm; P<0.05 for both) was greater. Thus, high fasting rather than postprandial glucose values are associated with both postischemic, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and increased intima-media thickness. Postischemic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may precede increased intima-media thickness.  (+info)

Diminished wave reflection in the aorta. A novel physiological action of insulin on large blood vessels. (3/728)

Epidemiological data suggest that insulin may have direct effects on large-vessel function, but thus far insulin has only been shown, after prolonged infusions, to slowly decrease peripheral vascular resistance by increasing muscle blood flow. We determined whether physiological doses of insulin affect function of large arteries, before any changes in peripheral blood flow, in vivo using pulse wave analysis. Nine normal men were studied on 2 occasions: once during a 6-hour infusion of saline and once under normoglycemic hyperinsulinemic conditions (sequential 2-hour insulin infusions of 1, 2, and 5 mU/kg. min). Central aortic pressure waves were synthesized from those recorded in the periphery with the use of applanation tonometry and a validated reverse transfer function every 30 minutes. This allowed determination of central aortic augmentation (the pressure difference between early and late systolic pressure peaks) and augmentation index (augmentation expressed as a percentage of pulse pressure). Both augmentation and augmentation index decreased significantly within 1 hour after administration of insulin (P<0.001) but not saline. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged for the first 2 hours. A significant increase in peripheral (forearm) blood flow was not observed until 2.5 hours after start of the insulin infusion. These data demonstrate that insulin, in normal subjects, rapidly decreases wave reflection in the aorta. This beneficial effect is consistent with increased distensibility or vasodilatation of large arteries. In contrast to the effect of insulin on peripheral blood flow, this action of insulin is observed under conditions in which both the insulin dose and duration of insulin exposure are physiological. Resistance to this action of insulin could provide a mechanism linking insulin resistance and conditions such as hypertension at the level of large arteries.  (+info)

Determinants of the response of human blood vessels to nitric oxide donors in vivo. (4/728)

The potency of the nitric oxide (NO) donors glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine was compared in human dorsal hand veins, the radial artery, and the forearm resistance vessels. NO donors were more potent in veins and the radial artery (vessels with minimal basal NO-mediated dilatation) than in the resistance vascular bed (where basal NO is a major determinant of vascular tone). In contrast, 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (a cGMP mimetic) was approximately equipotent in resistance arteries and veins and was less potent in the radial artery. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase V with dipyridamole did not alter the arteriovenous profile of GTN. Increasing the local concentration of NO in veins (by infusing sodium nitroprusside) reduced their sensitivity to GTN but not to 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Conversely, reducing endogenous NO production in the resistance vasculature led to time-dependent increases in the response to GTN. These data suggest that soluble guanylate cyclase rather than cGMP-dependent protein kinase or phosphodiesterase V is the site in the second messenger pathway that determines the arteriovenous profile of NO donors. Moreover, the sensitivity of soluble guanylate cyclase to NO donors might be regulated by the ambient concentration of NO, with increased local NO down-regulating the dilator response to NO donors.  (+info)

Central pulse pressure is a major determinant of ascending aorta dilation in Marfan syndrome. (5/728)

BACKGROUND: In patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), brachial pulse pressure (PP) has been recognized as a risk factor for aortic dilatation, leading to aortic dissection, the main cause of premature death. However, the relationships between aortic PP, aortic stiffness, and aortic root dilation have not been investigated. Our main objective was to determine whether central PP, which takes into account wave reflections and aortic stiffness, is a better determinant of ascending aorta diameter than brachial PP in MFS patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty patients with confirmed MFS and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in this cross-sectional, noninvasive study. Elastic properties of the abdominal aorta and common carotid, common femoral, and radial arteries were calculated from the pulsatile changes in arterial diameter and pressure. The ascending aorta diameter, measured with conventional echocardiography, was 37% larger in MFS than in control subjects (P<0.001). Arterial distensibility was 38% lower in MFS than in control subjects at the site of the abdominal aorta (P<0.01) but not at other sites (common carotid, common femoral, and radial arteries). Independently of age and body surface area, ascending aorta diameter was positively correlated with carotid PP in MFS (P<0. 01) and negatively in control subjects (P<0.01) but was not correlated with brachial PP and mean blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with MFS, local PP, estimated from carotid PP, was a major determinant of ascending aorta diameter, whereas brachial PP was not. Increased arterial stiffness was confined to the aorta.  (+info)

Age-related abnormalities in arterial compliance identified by pressure pulse contour analysis: aging and arterial compliance. (6/728)

The objective of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in pulsatile arterial function. Aging alters arterial pulsatile function and produces consistent changes in the pressure pulse contour. A reduced systemic arterial compliance that can be derived from analysis of the pulse contour is regarded as the best clinical index of impaired pulsatile arterial function and may mark the presence of early vascular damage. We analyzed intra-arterial brachial artery waveforms in 115 healthy normotensive volunteers (83 men, 32 women) and radial artery waveforms obtained with the use of a calibrated tonometer device in 212 healthy volunteers (147 women, 65 men). A computer-based assessment of the diastolic pressure decay and a modified Windkessel model of the circulation were used to quantify changes in arterial waveform morphology in terms of large artery or capacitive compliance, oscillatory or reflective compliance in the small arteries, inertance, and systemic vascular resistance. Large artery compliance and oscillatory compliance correlated negatively with age for both invasive and noninvasive groups (r=-0.50 and r=-0.55; r=-0.37 and r=-0.66; P<0.001 for all). The slopes of the regression lines for the decline in oscillatory compliance with age were significantly steeper than those recorded for large artery compliance estimates. The change in blood pressure with age independently contributed to the decrease in large artery compliance but not oscillatory compliance in both groups. Consistent age-related changes were found in the pressure pulse contour by analysis of waveforms obtained invasively or noninvasively from the upper limb. The change in the oscillatory or reflective compliance estimate was independent of blood pressure change and may represent a better marker than large artery or capacitive compliance of the degenerative aging process in altering pulsatile arterial function.  (+info)

Menorrhagia and uterine artery blood flow. (7/728)

Menorrhagia is a significant problem in women of reproductive age. In half of the cases no specific aetiology is known. Vascular factors play a role but remain poorly understood. We chose to study whether any association exists between the flow impedance of uterine arteries and the amount of menstrual blood loss. The study population consisted of 60 spontaneously menstruating 35- to 49-year-old women without endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, or submucous fibroids. The pulsatility index (PI) from uterine arteries, arcuate arteries, and radial arteries was measured by transvaginal colour Doppler. Menstrual blood loss was measured by the alkaline haematin method. A significant inverse correlation was found between uterine artery PI and the amount of menstrual blood loss, suggesting that women with lower uterine flow impedance bleed more. A regression model confirmed that this association was specific and not explained by uterine size, fibroids or any other of the 11 potential confounders included in the model. The correlation between uterine artery PI and amount of menstrual blood loss suggests that vascular factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of menorrhagia.  (+info)

Comparison of the vasorelaxant effect of nitroprusside and nitroglycerin in the human radial artery in vitro. (8/728)

AIMS: In recent years the radial artery (RA) has been re-introduced for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the potential for vasospasm remains a clinical problem when this vessel is employed and effective vasodilator agents are required to combat vasospastic events. This in vitro study was designed to compare the vasodilator effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitroglycerin (NTG) in the human RA. METHODS: Human RA segments (n=70) were taken from vessels employed for grafting in patients undergoing CABG. Concentration-relaxation curves for SNP and NTG were established in RA which had been precontracted with various vasoconstrictors (potassium chloride [K+], the thromboxane A2 mimetic agent U46619 or endothelin-1 [ET-1]). RESULTS: Both SNP and NTG caused complete relaxation and EC50s were similar except that NTG was 6.2-fold more potent than SNP in U46619-induced contraction (-7.50+/-0.16 vs -6. 71+/-0.38 log m, P=0.04). After treatment with verapamil and NTG solution during harvesting, the RA segments responded with reduced maximal relaxation to NTG (84.9+/-3.9%, compared with 98.8+/-0.8% in the control, P=0.004). The vessel became less sensitive to NTG (EC50: -6.29+/-0.4 vs -7.50+/-0.16 log m, P=0.01). In investigations carried out with SNP, tolerance was only seen in the magnitude of the relaxation (87.4+/-4.7% vs 99.2+/-0.6% in the control, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Both NTG and SNP are potent vasodilators in the RA. NTG may have more potent effects in certain situations (constriction related to thromboxane A2). However, tolerance to NTG may develop. A cross tolerance to SNP may exist but the effect is weak so that SNP may be preferable to NTG as a vasodilator in the RA postoperatively. Other vasodilators may be the drugs of choice under such circumstances.  (+info)

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

The Ulnar Artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the forearm, hand, and fingers with oxygenated blood. It originates from the brachial artery in the upper arm and travels down the medial (towards the body's midline) side of the forearm, passing through the Guyon's canal at the wrist before branching out to supply the hand and fingers.

The ulnar artery provides blood to the palmar aspect of the hand and the ulnar side of the little finger and half of the ring finger. It also contributes to the formation of the deep palmar arch, which supplies blood to the deep structures of the hand. The ulnar artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, providing critical blood flow to the upper limb.

The mammary arteries are a set of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the mammary glands, which are the structures in female breasts responsible for milk production during lactation. The largest mammary artery, also known as the internal thoracic or internal mammary artery, originates from the subclavian artery and descends along the inner side of the chest wall. It then branches into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the breast tissue. These include the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries, lateral thoracic artery, and pectoral branches. The mammary arteries are crucial in maintaining the health and function of the breast tissue, and any damage or blockage to these vessels can lead to various breast-related conditions or diseases.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

The Thoracic Arteries are branches of the aorta that supply oxygenated blood to the thoracic region of the body. The pair of arteries originate from the descending aorta and divide into several smaller branches, including intercostal arteries that supply blood to the muscles between the ribs, and posterior intercostal arteries that supply blood to the back and chest wall. Other branches of the thoracic arteries include the superior phrenic arteries, which supply blood to the diaphragm, and the bronchial arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the chest and respiratory system.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

The brachial artery is a major blood vessel in the upper arm. It supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm, forearm, and hand. The brachial artery originates from the axillary artery at the level of the shoulder joint and runs down the medial (inner) aspect of the arm, passing through the cubital fossa (the depression on the anterior side of the elbow) where it can be palpated during a routine blood pressure measurement. At the lower end of the forearm, the brachial artery bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply the hand and fingers.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

The mesenteric arteries are the arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the intestines. There are three main mesenteric arteries: the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small intestine (duodenum to two-thirds of the transverse colon) and large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, and the first part of the transverse colon); the inferior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the transverse colon. These arteries are important in maintaining adequate blood flow to the intestines to support digestion and absorption of nutrients.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

The adventitia is the outermost layer of a blood vessel or other organs, consisting of connective tissue. It provides support and protection to the underlying structures. In blood vessels, the adventitia helps to regulate their diameter and maintain structural integrity. It also contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels that supply the vessel wall with nutrients and remove waste products. The adventitia is continuous with the surrounding tissue and helps to anchor the vessel or organ in place.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

A pulse is a medical term that refers to the tactile sensation of the heartbeat that can be felt in various parts of the body, most commonly at the wrist, neck, or groin. It is caused by the surge of blood through an artery as the heart pushes blood out into the body during systole (contraction). The pulse can provide important information about a person's heart rate, rhythm, and strength, which are all crucial vital signs that help healthcare professionals assess a patient's overall health and identify any potential medical issues.

In summary, a pulse is a palpable manifestation of the heartbeat felt in an artery due to the ejection of blood by the heart during systole.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

Radial neuropathy, also known as radial nerve palsy, refers to damage or dysfunction of the radial nerve. The radial nerve provides motor function to the muscles in the back of the arm and sensation to the back of the hand and forearm. Damage to this nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the wrist and finger extensors, causing difficulty with extending the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Additionally, there may be numbness or tingling sensations in the back of the hand and forearm. Radial neuropathy can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, compression, or certain medical conditions like diabetes.

Internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis is a surgical procedure in which the internal mammary artery (IMA) is connected to the coronary artery of the heart. This type of surgery, also known as internal thoracic artery-coronary artery bypass grafting (ITA CABG), is performed to improve blood flow to the heart muscle and reduce symptoms of coronary artery disease such as angina and shortness of breath.

The IMA is a small artery that branches off the subclavian artery and runs along the inside of the chest wall. It has several advantages over other conduits used for bypass grafting, including its size, length, and excellent long-term patency rates. The procedure involves harvesting the IMA through a small incision in the chest wall and then sewing it to the coronary artery using fine sutures.

The internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis can be performed as a single bypass graft or in combination with other conduits such as the saphenous vein. The choice of conduit and number of grafts depends on various factors, including the location and severity of coronary artery disease, patient's age and overall health status.

Overall, internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis is a safe and effective surgical procedure that has been shown to improve symptoms, quality of life, and survival in patients with coronary artery disease.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

In medical terms, compliance refers to the degree to which a patient follows the recommendations or instructions of their healthcare provider. This may include taking prescribed medications as directed, following a treatment plan, making lifestyle changes, or attending follow-up appointments. Good compliance is essential for achieving the best possible health outcomes and can help prevent complications or worsening of medical conditions. Factors that can affect patient compliance include forgetfulness, lack of understanding of the instructions, cost of medications or treatments, and side effects of medications. Healthcare providers can take steps to improve patient compliance by providing clear and concise instructions, discussing potential barriers to compliance, and involving patients in their care plan.

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate, is a medication used primarily for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain due to coronary artery disease) and hypertensive emergencies (severe high blood pressure). It belongs to a class of drugs called nitrates or organic nitrites.

Nitroglycerin works by relaxing and dilating the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which leads to decreased workload on the heart and increased oxygen delivery to the myocardium (heart muscle). This results in reduced symptoms of angina and improved cardiac function during hypertensive emergencies.

The drug is available in various forms, including sublingual tablets, sprays, transdermal patches, ointments, and intravenous solutions. The choice of formulation depends on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Common side effects of nitroglycerin include headache, dizziness, and hypotension (low blood pressure).

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive method used to measure changes in blood volume in the microvascular bed of tissue, typically the skin. It is based on the principle that light absorption and reflection by the skin change as the amount of blood in the capillaries changes due to the cardiac cycle.

A PPG sensor consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) that emits light at a specific wavelength, typically red or infrared, and a photodiode detector that measures the intensity of the transmitted or reflected light. The LED is placed in contact with the skin, and as the blood volume in the capillaries changes during the cardiac cycle, the amount of light absorbed or reflected by the skin also changes.

The PPG signal provides information about the cardiovascular system, including heart rate, blood pressure, and peripheral vascular tone. It is widely used in medical devices such as pulse oximeters, which measure oxygen saturation in the blood, and wearable devices for monitoring vital signs.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Radial Keratotomy (RK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision problems such as nearsightedness and astigmatism. The procedure involves making small, precise incisions in the cornea in a radial pattern, like the spokes of a wheel. These incisions cause the cornea to change shape, which can help to improve the way that light is focused onto the retina and reduce the need for corrective lenses.

During the procedure, the surgeon uses a specialized blade or laser to make the incisions in the cornea. The incisions are typically made at the periphery of the cornea, leaving the central portion of the cornea untouched. This helps to preserve the strength and stability of the cornea while still allowing it to change shape enough to improve vision.

Radial keratotomy was first developed in the 1970s and was widely used in the 1980s and 1990s. However, it has largely been replaced by newer procedures such as LASIK and PRK, which are considered to be safer and more effective. RK is still occasionally performed in cases where other procedures are not an option or when a patient prefers this type of surgery.

It's important to note that any surgical procedure carries risks, including infection, scarring, and changes in vision. Patients considering radial keratotomy should discuss the potential benefits and risks with their eye care provider before making a decision.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Pulsatile flow is a type of fluid flow that occurs in a rhythmic, wave-like pattern, typically seen in the cardiovascular system. It refers to the periodic variation in the volume or velocity of a fluid (such as blood) that is caused by the regular beating of the heart. In pulsatile flow, there are periods of high flow followed by periods of low or no flow, which creates a distinct pattern on a graph or tracing. This type of flow is important for maintaining proper function and health in organs and tissues throughout the body.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Blood pressure determination is the medical procedure to measure and assess the force or pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries during a heartbeat cycle. It is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the higher number, representing the pressure when the heart beats and pushes blood out into the arteries) and diastolic pressure (the lower number, representing the pressure when the heart rests between beats). A normal blood pressure reading is typically around 120/80 mmHg. High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a consistently elevated blood pressure of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is defined as a consistently low blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. Blood pressure determination is an important vital sign and helps to evaluate overall cardiovascular health and identify potential health risks.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the eye and its adnexa. It divides into several branches that provide oxygenated blood to various structures within the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, choroid, iris, ciliary body, and cornea. Any blockage or damage to the ophthalmic artery can lead to serious vision problems or even blindness.

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a major artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the intestines, specifically the lower part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and the first and second parts of the transverse colon. It originates from the abdominal aorta, located just inferior to the pancreas, and passes behind the neck of the pancreas before dividing into several branches to supply the intestines. The SMA is an essential vessel in the digestive system, providing blood flow for nutrient absorption and overall gut function.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The bronchial arteries are a pair of arteries that originate from the descending thoracic aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the bronchi, bronchioles, and connected tissues within the lungs. They play a crucial role in providing nutrients and maintaining the health of the airways in the respiratory system. The bronchial arteries also help in the defense mechanism of the lungs by delivering immune cells and participating in the process of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) during lung injury or repair.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Hyperemia is a medical term that refers to an increased flow or accumulation of blood in certain capillaries or vessels within an organ or tissue, resulting in its redness and warmth. This can occur due to various reasons such as physical exertion, emotional excitement, local injury, or specific medical conditions.

There are two types of hyperemia: active and passive. Active hyperemia is a physiological response where the blood flow increases as a result of the metabolic demands of the organ or tissue. For example, during exercise, muscles require more oxygen and nutrients, leading to an increase in blood flow. Passive hyperemia, on the other hand, occurs when there is a blockage in the venous outflow, causing the blood to accumulate in the affected area. This can result from conditions like thrombosis or vasoconstriction.

It's important to note that while hyperemia itself is not a disease, it can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it persists or is accompanied by other symptoms.

Vasoconstrictor agents are substances that cause the narrowing of blood vessels by constricting the smooth muscle in their walls. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in blood flow. They work by activating the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel walls, causing them to contract.

Vasoconstrictor agents are used medically for a variety of purposes, including:

* Treating hypotension (low blood pressure)
* Controlling bleeding during surgery or childbirth
* Relieving symptoms of nasal congestion in conditions such as the common cold or allergies

Examples of vasoconstrictor agents include phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, and epinephrine. It's important to note that prolonged use or excessive doses of vasoconstrictor agents can lead to rebound congestion and other adverse effects, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

A blood pressure monitor is a device used to measure and record blood pressure levels. It typically consists of an inflatable cuff that wraps around the arm or wrist, a gauge that displays the pressure readings, and a pump that inflates and deflates the cuff.

There are two main types of blood pressure monitors: manual and digital. Manual monitors require the user to listen for specific sounds in the artery using a stethoscope while manually inflating and deflating the cuff. Digital monitors, on the other hand, automatically inflate and deflate the cuff and provide a digital readout of the blood pressure levels.

Blood pressure monitors are important tools for monitoring overall cardiovascular health and identifying potential hypertension or hypotension issues. Regular monitoring can help individuals manage their blood pressure levels and reduce the risk of complications such as stroke, heart disease, and kidney damage.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Coronary balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) and improve blood flow to the heart. This procedure is typically performed in conjunction with the insertion of a stent, a small mesh tube that helps keep the artery open.

During coronary balloon angioplasty, a thin, flexible catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or obstructed section of the coronary artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall and widen the lumen (the inner space) of the artery. This helps restore blood flow to the heart muscle.

The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation to minimize discomfort. Coronary balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for many people with coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery (restenosis) can occur in some cases.

Papaverine is defined as a smooth muscle relaxant and a non-narcotic alkaloid derived from the opium poppy. It works by blocking the phosphodiesterase enzyme, leading to an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels within the cells, which in turn results in muscle relaxation.

It is used medically for its vasodilatory effects to treat conditions such as cerebral or peripheral vascular spasms and occlusive diseases, Raynaud's phenomenon, and priapism. Papaverine can also be used as an anti-arrhythmic agent in the management of certain types of cardiac arrhythmias.

It is important to note that papaverine has a narrow therapeutic index, and its use should be closely monitored due to the potential for adverse effects such as hypotension, reflex tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances.

A catheter is a flexible tube that can be inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or to perform certain medical procedures. Catheters are used to drain fluids, deliver medications, or provide access to different parts of the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. They come in various sizes and materials, depending on their intended use.

In a general sense, catheters can be classified into two main categories:

1. **External catheters:** These are applied to the outside of the body and are commonly used for urinary drainage. For example, a condom catheter is an external collection device that fits over the penis to drain urine into a bag. Similarly, a Texas or Foley catheter can be used in females, where a small tube is inserted into the urethra and inflated with a balloon to keep it in place.
2. **Internal catheters:** These are inserted into the body through various openings or surgical incisions. They have different applications based on their placement:
* **Urinary catheters:** Used for bladder drainage, similar to external catheters but inserted through the urethra.
* **Vascular catheters:** Inserted into veins or arteries to administer medication, fluids, or to perform diagnostic tests like angiography.
* **Cardiovascular catheters:** Used in procedures such as cardiac catheterization to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
* **Neurological catheters:** Placed in the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the brain or spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, like draining excess fluid or delivering medication.
* **Gastrointestinal catheters:** Used to provide enteral nutrition, drain fluids, or perform procedures within the gastrointestinal tract.

Proper care and maintenance of catheters are crucial to prevent infection and other complications. Patients with indwelling catheters should follow their healthcare provider's instructions for cleaning, handling, and monitoring the catheter site.

The uterine artery is a paired branch of the internal iliac (hip) artery that supplies blood to the uterus and vagina. It anastomoses (joins) with the ovarian artery to form a rich vascular network that nourishes the female reproductive organs. The right and left uterine arteries run along the sides of the uterus, where they divide into several branches to supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the myometrium (uterine muscle), endometrium (lining), and cervix. These arteries undergo significant changes in size and structure during pregnancy to accommodate the growing fetus and placenta, making them crucial for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Coronary vasospasm refers to a sudden constriction (narrowing) of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. This constriction can reduce or block blood flow, leading to symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or, in severe cases, a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Coronary vasospasm can occur spontaneously or be triggered by various factors, including stress, smoking, and certain medications. It is also associated with conditions such as coronary artery disease and variant angina. Prolonged or recurrent vasospasms can cause damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Coronary stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This narrowing is typically caused by the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances, on the inner walls of the arteries. Over time, as the plaque hardens and calcifies, it can cause the artery to become narrowed or blocked, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

Coronary stenosis can lead to various symptoms and complications, including chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), and heart attacks. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include lifestyle changes, medications, medical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery, or a combination of these approaches. Regular check-ups and diagnostic tests, such as stress testing or coronary angiography, can help detect and monitor coronary stenosis over time.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Intra-arterial injection is a type of medical procedure where a medication or contrast agent is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

For instance, intra-arterial chemotherapy may be used to deliver cancer drugs directly to the site of a tumor, while intra-arterial thrombolysis involves the administration of clot-busting medications to treat arterial blockages caused by blood clots. Intra-arterial injections are also used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as angiography, where a contrast agent is injected into an artery to visualize the blood vessels and identify any abnormalities.

It's important to note that intra-arterial injections require precise placement of the needle or catheter into the artery, and are typically performed by trained medical professionals using specialized equipment.

A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb side of the forearm. Radius fractures can occur as a result of a fall, direct blow to the forearm, or a high-energy collision such as a car accident. There are various types of radius fractures, including:

1. Distal radius fracture: A break at the end of the radius bone, near the wrist joint, which is the most common type of radius fracture.
2. Radial shaft fracture: A break in the middle portion of the radius bone.
3. Radial head and neck fractures: Breaks in the upper part of the radius bone, near the elbow joint.
4. Comminuted fracture: A complex radius fracture where the bone is broken into multiple pieces.
5. Open (compound) fracture: A radius fracture with a wound or laceration in the skin, allowing for communication between the outside environment and the fractured bone.
6. Intra-articular fracture: A radius fracture that extends into the wrist joint or elbow joint.
7. Torus (buckle) fracture: A stable fracture where one side of the bone is compressed, causing it to buckle or bend, but not break completely through.

Symptoms of a radius fracture may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and in some cases, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the fracture but can range from casting to surgical intervention with implant fixation.

Omega-N-Methylarginine (also known as NG, NG-dimethyl-L-arginine) is not a commonly used medical term and it's not a well-known compound in medicine. However, it is a form of methylated arginine that can be found in the body.

Methylated arginines are a group of compounds that are generated through the post-translational modification of proteins by enzymes called protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). These modifications play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression and signal transduction.

Omega-N-Methylarginine is a specific type of methylated arginine that has two methyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom at the end of the side chain (omega position) of the amino acid arginine. It can be formed by the action of PRMTs on proteins, and it may have various biological functions in the body. However, its specific medical significance is not well-established, and more research is needed to fully understand its role in health and disease.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

The gastroepiploic artery is a branch of the gastric artery that supplies blood to the greater curvature of the stomach and the adjacent portion of the omentum (a fatty membrane that hangs down from the stomach). There are two gastroepiploic arteries - right and left. The right gastroepiploic artery is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery, while the left gastroepiploic artery arises directly from the splenic artery. These arteries play an essential role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the stomach and surrounding tissues, contributing to their overall health and function.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

Wrist injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the structures of the wrist, including bones, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related impacts, or repetitive stress. Common types of wrist injuries include fractures (such as scaphoid fracture), sprains (like ligament tears), strains (involving muscles or tendons), dislocations, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, limited mobility, and in severe cases, deformity or numbness. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Carotid artery injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the carotid arteries, which are a pair of major blood vessels located in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic causes (during medical procedures), or degenerative diseases.

Carotid artery injuries can be categorized into three types:

1. Blunt carotid injury (BCI): This type of injury is caused by a sudden and severe impact to the neck, which can result in intimal tears, dissection, or thrombosis of the carotid artery. BCIs are commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and assaults.
2. Penetrating carotid injury: This type of injury is caused by a foreign object that penetrates the neck and damages the carotid artery. Examples include gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or other sharp objects that pierce the skin and enter the neck.
3. Iatrogenic carotid injury: This type of injury occurs during medical procedures such as endovascular interventions, surgical procedures, or the placement of central lines.

Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include:

* Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
* Neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, aphasia, or visual disturbances
* Bleeding from the neck or mouth
* Pulsatile mass in the neck
* Hypotension or shock
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries may involve imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or conventional angiography. Treatment options include endovascular repair, surgical repair, or anticoagulation therapy, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD) refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These diseases are characterized by a narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, particularly the legs.

The primary cause of PVD is atherosclerosis, a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, forming plaques that restrict blood flow. Other risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of vascular disease.

Symptoms of PVD can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include leg pain or cramping during exercise (claudication), numbness or tingling in the legs, coldness or discoloration of the feet, sores or wounds that heal slowly or not at all, and in severe cases, gangrene.

PVD can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, so it is essential to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, medications to control symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Ultrasonic surgical procedures, also known as ultrasonic surgery or ultrasonically activated device (USD) surgery, refer to the use of high-frequency sound waves in surgical applications. These procedures typically involve the use of specialized tools called ultrasonic dissectors or harmonic scalpels that cut and coagulate tissue using ultrasonic vibrations.

The ultrasonic dissector consists of a handpiece with a thin, vibrating blade that moves at a frequency of approximately 55,000 Hz. This rapid motion generates friction and heat, which allows the blade to cut through tissue while simultaneously sealing blood vessels up to 3-4 mm in diameter. The harmonic scalpel works on a similar principle but uses a different mechanism for coagulation. It produces a high-frequency vibration that causes the tissue to vibrate, leading to cavitation and the generation of heat. This heat is responsible for sealing blood vessels and cutting through tissues.

Ultrasonic surgical procedures offer several advantages over traditional surgical methods, including reduced blood loss, less thermal damage to surrounding tissues, and potentially shorter recovery times. They are commonly used in various surgical fields, such as general surgery, gynecology, urology, and orthopedics.

The radial artery can be less easily felt as it crosses the anatomical snuff box. The radial artery is used for coronary artery ... In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the ... Radial recurrent artery - arises just after the radial artery comes off the brachial artery. It travels superiorly to ... Front of right upper extremity, showing surface markings for bones, arteries, and nerves. Radial artery and vein Radial artery ...
... This article incorporates text in the public domain ... The radial recurrent artery arises from the radial artery immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... radial nerve, lying on the supinator muscle and then between the brachioradialis muscle and the brachialis muscle, supplying ...
... is a medical procedure performed to obtain a sample of arterial blood for gas analysis. A needle is ... Wade, Ryckie G.; Crawfurd, Jim; Wade, Donna; Holland, Richard (November 2015). "Radial artery blood gas sampling: a randomized ... inserted into the radial artery and spontaneously fills with blood. The syringe is either prepacked with a small amount of ... Collins, Kevin P.; Russian, Christopher J.; Gonzales, Joshua F. (2016). "Teaching Health Care Students the Radial Arterial ...
The radial collateral artery (another term for the anterior descending branch of the profunda brachii artery) is a branch of ... Radial collateral artery v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular ... It arises in the arm proper and anastomoses with the radial recurrent artery near the elbow. superior ulnar collateral artery ... inferior ulnar collateral artery medial collateral artery Cross-section through the middle of upper arm. ...
The radialis indicis artery (radial artery of index finger) is a branch of the radial artery that provides blood to the index ... It arises close to the princeps pollicis artery, and descends between the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the transverse ... The princeps pollicis and radialis indicis may arise from a common trunk termed the first palmar metacarpal artery. This ... "Anterior view of the arteries of the left hand." Atlas image: hand_blood2 at the University of Michigan Health System ("Palm of ...
... may refer to: Dorsal carpal branch of the radial artery Palmar carpal branch of radial ... artery This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Carpal branch of the radial artery. If an internal ...
The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery arises from the radial artery, just where this vessel is about to wind ... sometimes it is as large as the continuation of the radial artery itself. This article incorporates text in the public domain ... and sometimes anastomoses with the terminal portion of the ulnar artery, completing the superficial palmar arch. This vessel ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
The palmar carpal branch of the radial artery is a small branch of the radial artery which arises near the lower border of the ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... pronator quadratus, and, running across the front of the carpus, anastomoses with the palmar carpal branch of the ulnar artery ...
The dorsal carpal branch of the radial artery (posterior radial carpal artery) is a small vessel which arises beneath the ... The dorsal branch of the radial artery also branches into the dorsalis pollicis artery; more distally it branches into the ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... it anastomoses with the dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar artery. ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. anterior and posterior interosseous artery anterior interosseous artery and nerve This ... The common interosseous artery, about 1 cm. in length, arises immediately below the tuberosity of the radius from the ulnar ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... artery. Passing backward to the upper border of the interosseous membrane, it divides into two branches, the anterior ...
The princeps pollicis artery, or principal artery of the thumb, arises from the radial artery just as it turns medially towards ... The radial and ulnar arteries. (Arteria princeps pollicis visible at lower left.) Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. This ... Arteries of the upper limb, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ...
Arteries of the right forearm - anterior view. Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. This article incorporates text in the ... with the deep palmar arch which is formed predominantly by the radial artery and the terminal branch of the ulnar artery is ... On its medial side is the pisiform bone, and, somewhat behind the artery, the ulnar nerve. The ulnar artery varies in its ... Forearm: Anterior ulnar recurrent artery, Posterior ulnar recurrent artery, Common interosseous is very short, around 1 cm, and ...
The radial artery. The radial and ulnar arteries. Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Nerves of the left upper extremity. ... All other posterior compartment muscles that receive radial innervation are supplied by the deep branch of the radial nerve.)[ ... Of the muscles that receive innervation from the radial nerve, it is one of only four that receive input directly from the ... the brachioradialis is a posterior compartment muscle and consequently is innervated by the radial nerve. ...
Radial access technique for angiography can be traced back to 1989, when Lucien Campeau first cannulated the radial artery to ... Campeau, L (1989). "Percutaneous radial artery approach for coronary angiography". Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis ... Depending on the type of angiogram, access to the blood vessels is gained most commonly through the femoral artery, to look at ... The catheter is threaded into an artery in the forearm, and the tip is advanced through the arterial system into the major ...
Slogoff and colleagues reviewed 1,782 radial artery cannulations and found that 25% of them resulted in complete radial artery ... The arteries join in the hand. Thus, if the blood supply from one of the arteries is cut off, the other artery can supply ... The radial artery is occasionally used as a conduit for bypass surgery, and its patency lasts longer in comparison to the ... This indicates that it may not be safe to cannulate or needle the radial artery. There is still some confusion as to whether a ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Superficial palmar nerves. Deep palmar nerves. Front of right upper extremity, showing ... It lies at first slightly lateral to the radial artery, concealed beneath the Brachioradialis. In the middle third of the ... The superficial branch of the radial nerve passes along the front of the radial side of the forearm to the commencement of its ... The lateral branch, the smaller, supplies the radial side of the thumb (by a digital nerve), the skin of the radial side and ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. The right brachial plexus (infraclavicular portion) in the axillary fossa; viewed from ... Deep branch of ulnar nerve - It accompanies the deep branch of the ulnar artery. It passes backwards between the abductor ... Front of right upper extremity, showing surface markings for bones, arteries, and nerves. Back of right upper extremity, ... Anterolateral view Axillary nerve Median nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Radial nerve N, Catena; Mg, Calevo; D, Fracassetti; D, ...
Flexor digiti minimi brevis The radial and ulnar arteries. Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Flexor digiti minimi brevis ... by the deep branches of the ulnar artery and the ulnar nerve. The flexor digiti minimi brevis is sometimes not present; in ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Nerves of the left upper extremity. Flexor pollicis longus muscle Flexor pollicis longus ... The anterior interosseous nerve (a branch of the median nerve) and the anterior interosseous artery and vein pass downward on ... extending from immediately below the radial tuberosity and oblique line to within a short distance of the pronator quadratus ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Arteries of the back of the forearm and hand. Supinator muscle Muscles of upper limb. ... the radial collateral ligament, and the annular radial ligament. The superficial fibers (pars superficialis) surround the upper ... The deep radial nerve passes through the belly of supinator in 70% of cases and via the arcade of Frohse in remaining cases. ... The radial nerve divides into deep and sensory superficial branches just proximal to the supinator muscle - an arrangement that ...
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view. Tendons of forefinger and vincula tendina. (Flexor digitorum profundus labeled at bottom ... The lumbricals of the hand arise from the radial side of its tendons. Flexor digitorum profundus is a composite muscle ...
The radial artery passes between the two heads, travelling from the back of the hand into the palm, where it forms the deep ... The radial and ulnar arteries. Superficial palmar nerves. Deep palmar nerves. Front of the left forearm. Deep muscles. ( ...
The radial and ulnar arteries. Arteries of the back of the forearm and hand. Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Extensor ...
The radial and ulnar arteries. Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle Flexor digitorum ... The muscle has two classically described heads - the humeroulnar and radial - and it is between these heads that the median ... nerve and ulnar artery pass. The ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint gives its origin to part of this muscle. Four long ...
... the radialis indicis artery, or the median artery, the former two of which are branches from the radial artery. Alternative ... The radial and ulnar arteries. Superficial palmar arterial and venous arches Superficial palmar arterial and venous arche ... However, in some individuals the contribution from the radial artery might be absent, and instead anastomoses with either the ... with a contribution from the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery. ...
Historically, vessels-such as the great saphenous vein in the leg or the radial artery in the arm-were obtained using a ... Patel AN (2004). "Endoscopic radial artery harvesting is better than the open technique". Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 78 (1): ... Chong CF (2004). "Effects of hydrostatic distention on in vitro vasoreactivity of radial artery conduits". J Thorac Cardiovasc ... Connolly MW (2002). "Endoscopic radial artery harvesting: results of first 300 patients". Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 74 (2): ...
The radial artery may also be used for cannulation; this approach offers several advantages, including the accessibility of the ... This most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery (but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or ... the use of angioplasty for the treatment of obstruction of coronary arteries as a result of coronary artery disease. A deflated ... Downsides to this approach include spasm of the artery and pain, inability to use larger catheters needed in some procedures, ...
In anatomy, the radial veins are paired veins that accompany the radial artery through the back of the hand and the lateral ... They follow the same course as the radial artery. "Radial vein". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Archived from the original on June 12, ...
"Radial artery use for CABG doesn't impact blood flow 20 years later". Cardiovascular Business. Retrieved 30 October 2018. ... McKeown, L.A. (8 October 2018). "Twenty-Year Data Show No Negative Impact of Radial Artery Harvest on Blood Flow of CABG ... Wendling, Patrice (17 October 2018). "Forearm Blood Flow Preserved Long After Radial Artery Harvest". Medscape www.medscape.com ... Van Den Berg, Lucy (17 November 2017). "Hearty use of artery". Herald Sun www.heraldsun.com.au, p. 3. Retrieved 30 October 2018 ...
Deep to the tendons which form the borders of the anatomical snuff box lies the radial artery, which passes through the ... In the anatomical snuffbox, the radial artery is closely related (. ... The lateral border (radial side) is a pair of parallel and intimate tendons, of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor ... The anatomical snuff box or snuffbox or foveola radialis is a triangular deepening on the radial, dorsal aspect of the hand-at ...
The radial artery can be less easily felt as it crosses the anatomical snuff box. The radial artery is used for coronary artery ... In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the ... Radial recurrent artery - arises just after the radial artery comes off the brachial artery. It travels superiorly to ... Front of right upper extremity, showing surface markings for bones, arteries, and nerves. Radial artery and vein Radial artery ...
Barkas Konstantinos shares a case of Radial Artery Occlusion that Developed Post Trans-Radial Catheterization - Managed with ... TRIPLEX RIGHT RADIAL AND ULNAR ARTERIES (3/2020): shows complete occlusion from clot in the middle of the radial artery, with ... TRIPLEX RIGHT RADIAL AND ULNAR ARTERIES (25/09/2020): History of thrombosis of the radial artery after catheterization. The ... Ulnar artery with physiological width, wall, and flow spectrum Doppler. Diagnosis: occlusion of right radial artery (03LB3ZZ - ...
Acute extracranial-intracranial bypass using a radial artery graft along with trapping of a ruptured blood blister-like ... aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. Clinical article. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Ischemic complications after radial artery grafting and aneurysmal trapping for ruptured internal carotid artery anterior wall ... Changing treatment strategy from clipping to radial artery graft bypass and parent artery sacrifice in patients with ruptured ...
Prediction of carotid pressure waveforms by mathematical transformation of pressure waves recorded from the radial artery. / ... Prediction of carotid pressure waveforms by mathematical transformation of pressure waves recorded from the radial artery. ... Prediction of carotid pressure waveforms by mathematical transformation of pressure waves recorded from the radial artery. ... T1 - Prediction of carotid pressure waveforms by mathematical transformation of pressure waves recorded from the radial artery ...
How To Do Radial Artery Cannulation, Ultrasound-Guided - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from ... Equipment for US-Guided Radial Artery Cannulation In addition to standard equipment needed to cannulate the radial artery ... Relevant Anatomy for US-Guided Radial Artery Cannulation *. The radial artery lies close to the skin over the ventrolateral ... Then, release ulnar artery compression while maintaining radial artery compression. If the hand and fingers on the radial side ...
... and radial artery (RA), most confounders affecting comparison between conduits can be mitigated. Additionally, since SVG ... Background Where each patient has all three conduits of internal mammary artery (IMA), saphenous vein graft (SVG) ... IMA, internal mammary artery, RA, radial artery, SVG, saphenous vein graft, LAD, left anterior descending artery, D1-2, ... LAD, left anterior descending artery territory, IMA, internal mammary artery, RA, radial artery, SVG, saphenous vein graft, ...
Pseudoaneurysm of radial artery after heart catheterisation. Tineke Henriët Pinxterhuis*, Sjoerd H. Hofma, C.A. da Fonseca. * ... Pseudoaneurysm of radial artery after heart catheterisation. / Pinxterhuis, Tineke Henriët; Hofma, Sjoerd H.; da Fonseca, C.A. ... Pseudoaneurysm of radial artery after heart catheterisation. Netherlands heart journal. 2022 Feb;30:117-118. Epub 2021 Jun 1. ... title = "Pseudoaneurysm of radial artery after heart catheterisation",. author = "Pinxterhuis, {Tineke Henri{e}t} and Hofma ...
A Prospective Comparison of Ultrasound-guided and Blindly Placed Radial Arterial Catheters (Acad Emerg Med 2006;13(12):1275- ...
Cardiology demonstrated through the early 2000s the feasibility of conducting the procedure through the radial artery, a ... Originally performed through larger arteries including the femoral artery in the groin and the brachial artery in the upper arm ... smaller artery in the wrist. Gaining access to the heart through the ... Radial Artery Catheterization. Radial Artery Catheterization. Originally performed through larger arteries including the ...
It becomes the radial and ulnar arteries. Radial artery[edit , edit source]. The radial artery appears, from its direction, to ... which is situated nearer to the radial than to the ulnar border of the front of the wrist and medial to the radial artery. ... Arteries[edit , edit source]. Superficial view. Deep view. The brachial artery normally bifurcates in the distal cubital fossa ... Immediately below the radial tuberosity it gives rise to the common interosseous artery, which passes backward to the upper ...
A needle will be placed through your skin and into your radial artery. Next, a flexible guidewire will be passed through the ... 3d, angiogram, angiography, animated, animation, animations, arterial, arteries, artery, blockage, blocking, blood, buildup, ... After the balloon catheter is taken out the stent will stay in place to hold the artery open. At the end of the procedure, the ... But you will not feel it moving inside your artery. Next, the guidewire will be advanced up to your heart. A flexible tube ...
Gersh, Bell, and Eleid discuss whether the radial approach should be the standard for primary PCI. ... Radial vs Femoral Artery Access Bernard J. Gersh, MB ChB, DPhil: Hello. I am Bernard Gersh from the Mayo Clinic, and we are ... The radial artery is in the arm, isnt it?. Malcolm R. Bell, MD: No coincidence there -- we actually gave that some thought. It ... Our topic today is radial vs femoral artery access in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the subject of ...
Radial artery (#1705). Radial artery (#1705) Shown from anterior perspective. Licence * Science License for academic purposes ...
Trans radial carotid artery stenting: the GISE consensus document and a technical appraisal (web-meeting with interventional ... Trans radial carotid artery stenting. Trans radial carotid artery stenting: the GISE consensus document and a technical ...
... De Wolf E.. ;Claes K.;Sommeling ... Free Bipedicled Radial Forearm and Posterior Interosseous Artery Perforator Flap Phalloplasty. J Sex Med 2019;16:1111-1117. ... Free Bipedicled Radial Forearm and Posterior Interosseous Artery Perforator Flap Phalloplasty. J Sex Med 2019;16:1111-1117. ... 2019). Free Bipedicled Radial Forearm and Posterior Interosseous Artery Perforator Flap Phalloplasty. JOURNAL OF SEXUAL ...
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superficial palmar branch / radial artery / anastomoses / radialis indicis artery. Izvor:. Folia Morphologica, 2018, 77, 4, 649 ... The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery: a corrosion cast study. ... PB - Via Medica, Gdansk T2 - Folia Morphologica T1 - The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery: a corrosion cast study ... Background: Surgical procedures such as thenar flaps and radial artery (RA) harvesting call for an elaborate anatomical study ...
... without sacrificing the radial artery.",. keywords = "Anatomy, angio computed tomographic, perforator flap, radial artery, ... without sacrificing the radial artery.. AB - © 2018 Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery. Background: Radial forearm free flap with ... Vascular analysis of radial artery perforator flaps. / Sham, Ehtaih; Masia, Jaumie Ayala; Reddy, Thyagraj Jayaram. In: Annals ... Vascular analysis of radial artery perforator flaps. Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018 Jan 1;8(1):66-72. doi: 10.4103/ams. ...
... as a safe and effective modality for the treatment of radial artery PA. We present 2 cases of radial artery PA after ... Current methods of treatment for radial artery PA are adopted from those of femoral artery PA, including ultrasound-guided ... Treatment of Radial Artery Pseudoaneurysm Using a Novel Compression Device.. Michael Liou, Frank Tung, Yumiko Kanei, Tak Kwan. ... ABSTRACT:Radial artery pseudoaneurysm is an extremely rare complication associated with transradial catheterization. We report ...
Reply: Dominant Radial Artery Perforator in the Proximal Forearm. Saint-Cyr, Michel ... Islanded Posterior Tibial Artery Perforator Flap for Lower Limb Reconstruction: Review of Lower Leg Anatomy. Jack, Megan C.; ... Radial Nerve Injuries and Outcomes: Our Experience. Terzis, Julia K.; Konofaos, Petros ... Reply: Islanded Posterior Tibial Artery Perforator Flap for Lower Limb Reconstruction: Review of Lower Leg Anatomy. Schaverien ...
The Radial Artery Database International ALliance (RADIAL) project is an individual patient-level meta-analysis developed to ... Since the re-introduction of the radial artery (RA) to clinical use as a bypass conduit in the 1990s, there have been several ... Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery was first performed in the 1960s. As the surgery has evolved, there has been a ... The Radial Artery Database International ALliance (RADIAL) project is an individual patient-level meta-analysis developed to ...
Radial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), before and after the intra-arterial infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), ... Radial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), before and after the intra-arterial infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), ... Ramipril dose-dependently increases nitric oxide availability in the radial artery of essential hypertension patients. GHIADONI ... were measured at baseline and after the two treatment periods as a change in artery diameter (computerized system from ...
Return to Article Details Axillary Origin of Radial Artery In Common With Sub-Scapular Artery: A Case Report Download Download ...
... via the radial artery.. Methods and results: 500 consecutive patients scheduled to have CA, ECA and PCI via radial artery were ... PreviousPrevious post:Left Radial versus Right Radial Approach for Coronary Artery Catheterization :A Prospective Comparison.. ... Is it possible to do an angiography via radial artery without vasospasm? ... Is it possible to do an angiography via radial artery without vasospasm?. ...
Recurrent radial artery. Several branches of the artery have been cut off. These supplied the extensor muscles shown in ... Terminal superficial branch of recurrent radial artery 5 . Upper pointer: Origin of extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle Lower ... Recurrent radial artery. Image #107-5. KEYWORDS: Elbow, Forearm, Peripheral nervous system. ...
FREE Answer to I need to trace the blood flow right renal vein to the right radial artery. I... ... Brachiocephalic artery 4. Common carotid artery 5. Vertebral artery 6. Descending aorta 7. Subclavian artery 8. Axillary artery ... trace the blood flow from Right Brachial Artery to Left Femoral Artery. Starting from Right brachial artery -, arteriole -, ... I need to trace the blood flow right renal vein to the right radial artery. I.... I need to trace the blood flow right renal ...
3D How To: Radial Artery Catheterization. 3D animation demonstrating an ultrasound guided radial artery catheterization ... 3D How To: Radial Artery Catheterization 3D How To: Radial Artery Catheterization. ...
Radial Artery Compression Devices Market 2022 Players Targeting Application to B … The Radial Artery Compression Devices market ... The research offers Radial Artery Compression Devices demand outlook and studies opportunities existing in key segments, ...
Most commonly, blood may be collected from one of the following arteries:. *Radial artery in the wrist ... Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some ... Brachial artery in the arm. The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample of blood from the ... The provider inserts a small needle through the skin into the artery. The sample is quickly sent to a laboratory for analysis. ...
  • The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the antecubital fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial recurrent artery - arises just after the radial artery comes off the brachial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally performed through larger arteries including the femoral artery in the groin and the brachial artery in the upper arm, pioneers in the field of Interventional Cardiology demonstrated through the early 2000s the feasibility of conducting the procedure through the radial artery, a smaller artery in the wrist. (ascentcardiology.com)
  • The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. (healthline.com)
  • In cases where distal perfusion is compromised and distal pulses are diminished, femoral or brachial artery puncture can be performed instead. (medscape.com)
  • The brachial artery commences at the lower margin of the tendon of the teres major. (medscape.com)
  • While doing the normal dissection of the left upper limb on the 35 year old female cadaver, medical students saw a strangely and superficially placed ulnar artery that arose from the brachial artery way up within the upper part of the middle 3rd of the arm. (bvsalud.org)
  • The brachial artery coursed normally and bifurcated at the cubital fossa to give radial artery laterally and common interosseous artery medially. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acute extracranial-intracranial bypass using a radial artery graft along with trapping of a ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Fragile aneurysm walls and poorly defined necks render the surgical treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) located at nonbranching sites of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery extremely challenging. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The authors describe the clinical course of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by BBA rupture and emphasize the value of internal carotid artery trapping combined with high-flow extracranial-intracranial (trapping/EC-IC) bypass during the acute period following SAH. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Kamijo K, Matsui T. Acute extracranial-intracranial bypass using a radial artery graft along with trapping of a ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Kamijo,Koji, AU - Matsui,Toru, PY - 2009/11/26/entrez PY - 2009/11/26/pubmed PY - 2010/10/29/medline SP - 781 EP - 5 JF - Journal of neurosurgery JO - J Neurosurg VL - 113 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECT: Fragile aneurysm walls and poorly defined necks render the surgical treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) located at nonbranching sites of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery extremely challenging. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • What is a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)? (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • What are the Different Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Procedures? (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery was first performed in the 1960s. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since the re-introduction of the radial artery (RA) to clinical use as a bypass conduit in the 1990s, there have been several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which have compared saphenous vein graft (SVG) conduits to RA use in CABG. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), targeting the native vessel is preferred. (austin.org.au)
  • Arterial grafting has been demonstrated to confer long-term survival advantages to patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Occlusion of the radial artery is the most common complication after the procedure, and it has an impact because it precludes the use of the same radial artery for future procedures or as a conduit for CABG," he said. (tctmd.com)
  • Women with heart disease tend to receive fewer surgical coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures than men, but gender bias in selecting patients for surgery is not to blame, new research suggests. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers assessed gender differences in surgical procedures for coronary artery disease using the Ottawa Heart Institute database of patients who have undergone CABG at the institution since 1990. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and more knowledge is needed regarding prediction of POAF, the extent of early atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after discharge, and the associations between POAF and short and long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and morbidity.After CABG, 31-32% of all patients developed POAF. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The aim of the dissertation was to describe cognitive changes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the predictors and consequences thereof. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The aim was to study pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and the effect of thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA).The study comprised 141 patients undergoing CABG, including 45 patients randomised for TEA intra- and postoperatively. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve quality of life and reduce cardiac-related mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound guided right common femoral artery access 3. (aapc.com)
  • However, the procedural complications of TRA include radial artery spasm and perforation and the post procedural complication includes radial artery occlusion and pseudo-aneurysm. (hpathy.com)
  • 4 , 5 Here, we present to you a case of radial artery occlusion caused due to procedural error treated with classical homeopathy. (hpathy.com)
  • A 48-year-old woman sought homeopathic treatment for radial artery occlusion post transradial catheterization. (hpathy.com)
  • TRIPLEX RIGHT RADIAL AND ULNAR ARTERIES (3/2020): shows complete occlusion from clot in the middle of the radial artery, with absence of flow peripheral to it. (hpathy.com)
  • Outcomes of a Modified Technique for Deflation of Distal Radial Artery Occlusion Device on Radial Artery Patency After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to compare two protocols of deflation with increased intervals versus late deflation with smaller intervals for distal radial artery occlusion device (DROAD) removal to assess for radial artery occlusion (RAO). (bvsalud.org)
  • Objectives: Radial artery occlusion is a silent complication of a transradial approach to cardiac catheterization that may complicate subsequent transradial procedures in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. (aku.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of radial artery occlusion in 180 patients undergoing transradial coronary catheterization. (aku.edu)
  • Radial artery occlusion was found in 14 (7.8%) patients. (aku.edu)
  • When stratifying by age group and sex, there was no significant difference in radial artery occlusion between age groups and sex. (aku.edu)
  • It was likewise found that comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking, increased the risk of radial artery occlusion however this was observed to be significant only for diabetes mellitus. (aku.edu)
  • We therefore conclude that a transradial pneumatic pressure band is an extremely helpful and safe strategy to prevent radial artery occlusion. (aku.edu)
  • Advances in technique with use of ultrasound for access to properly size the sheath, proper dosing of anticoagulation and new techniques for sheath removal have dramatically lowered radial artery occlusion rates. (intechopen.com)
  • PARIS, France-When it comes to reducing the risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO), there is no significant advantage to using the relatively novel distal radial approach over conventional radial access, according to results of a new randomized trial. (tctmd.com)
  • Decreasing the rate of occlusion should be central to all radial programs. (tctmd.com)
  • Distal radial access-where the radial artery is punctured distal to the superficial palmar arch-has emerged as an alternative to reduce the risk of occlusion. (tctmd.com)
  • Frequency and Predictors of Radial Artery Occlusion in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • This arterial variation can be mistaken for the cephalic vein as accidental injection of this variant radial artery has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial artery is often punctured in a common procedure to obtain an arterial blood gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial artery is a common site for the insertion of an arterial line, such as for blood pressure monitoring in an intensive care unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radial artery is the most frequent site of arterial catheterization. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our institutional practice had relatively few patients that received all three conduits of internal mammary artery (IMA), radial artery (RA) and saphenous vein (SVG) at the same time, with subsequent experience being predominantly total arterial revascularization [1, 2]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Radial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), before and after the intra-arterial infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), to block NO synthase, and the response to sublingual glyceril trinitrate (GTN, 25 microg) were measured at baseline and after the two treatment periods as a change in artery diameter (computerized system from ultrasound scans). (unipi.it)
  • Lesser incidence of accidental catheter removal with femoral versus radial arterial access. (medscape.com)
  • Kim WY, Jun JH, Huh JW, Hong SB, Lim CM, Koh Y. Radial to femoral arterial blood pressure differences in septic shock patients receiving high-dose norepinephrine therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Femoral-radial arterial pressure gradients in critically ill patients. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound Guidance Versus Landmark-Guided Palpation for Radial Arterial Line Placement by Novice Emergency Medicine Interns: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (medscape.com)
  • There are few data regarding arterial graft intervention, particularly to a radial artery (RA) graft. (austin.org.au)
  • Arterial revascularization in primary coronary artery bypass grafting: direct comparison of 4 strategies-results of the Stand-in-Y Mammary Study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Arterial revascularization may be achieved through the sole utilization of sequential Bilateral Internal Mammary Arteries (BIMA) in a Y-graft construct, or the use of BIMAs with additional radial arteries (RA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the low risk of RAO with distal radial access, though, this technique could be a "valid alternative," although physicians must balance its benefits against its more demanding arterial puncture, they say. (tctmd.com)
  • Occasionally, an individual may experience an arterial blockage in the radial artery. (healthline.com)
  • Coronary catheterization can be done by gaining access to the coronary artery either through the radial artery or femoral artery. (hpathy.com)
  • Radial artery pseudoaneurysm is an extremely rare complication associated with transradial catheterization. (trico.guru)
  • We present 2 cases of radial artery PA after transradial catheterization, both resolved by using the TR Band. (trico.guru)
  • 3D animation demonstrating an ultrasound guided radial artery catheterization transverse approach. (sonosite.com)
  • Ultrasound Guidance Facilitates Radial Artery Catheterization: A Meta-analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (medscape.com)
  • It travels superiorly to anastomose with the radial collateral artery around the elbow joint Palmar carpal branch of radial artery - a small vessel which arises near the lower border of the pronator quadratus Superficial palmar branch of the radial artery - arises from the radial artery, just where this vessel is about to wind around the lateral side of the wrist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In less than 1% of the population, the radial artery takes a superficial course in the anatomical snuff box. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Surgical procedures such as thenar flaps and radial artery (RA) harvesting call for an elaborate anatomical study of the RA's superficial palmar branch (SPB). (ac.rs)
  • TY - JOUR AU - Ilić, M. AU - Milisavljević, M. AU - Maliković, A. AU - Laketić, D. AU - Erić, D. AU - Boljanović, J. AU - Dožić, Aleksandra AU - Stimec, Bojan V. AU - Manojlović, R. PY - 2018 UR - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2274 AB - Background: Surgical procedures such as thenar flaps and radial artery (RA) harvesting call for an elaborate anatomical study of the RA's superficial palmar branch (SPB). (ac.rs)
  • Bleeding at the catheter entry site, because the radial artery is small and superficial, and bleeding can be easily controlled with gentle pressure. (medicinenet.com)
  • ABG sampling is usually performed on the radial artery because the superficial anatomic presentation of this vessel makes it easily accessible. (medscape.com)
  • This superficial ulnar artery coursed within the deep brachial and ante-brachial fascia, making it superficial to all flexor muscles of the flexor compartment of the forearm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions All but one patent internal mammary artery or radial artery grafts had perfect patency and had superior perfect patency and overall patency compared to saphenous vein grafts. (researchsquare.com)
  • Radial-artery or saphenous-vein grafts in coronary-artery bypass surgery. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Radial spasm occurred in four patients in group L and only one in the group LN. (nih.gov)
  • Radial artery spasm has improved with vasodilators and proper sedation. (intechopen.com)
  • Current methods of treatment for radial artery PA are adopted from those of femoral artery PA, including ultrasound-guided compression, percutaneous thrombin injection and surgical repair.1 We propose the use of a novel compression device specifically designed for radial artery hemostasis called the TR Band (Terumo®, Tokyo, Japan) as a safe and effective modality for the treatment of radial artery PA. (trico.guru)
  • We sought to evaluate Nalbufine Chloridrate (NC) safety and efficacy in preventing vasospasm during coronary angiography (CA), elective carotid angiography (ECA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via the radial artery. (trico.guru)
  • Transradial versus transfemoral approach for diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in people with coronary artery disease. (medscape.com)
  • Liquid stylet" for percutaneous radial artery cannulation. (medscape.com)
  • Characteristics of Radial Artery Coronary Bypass Graft Failure and Outcomes Following Subsequent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. (austin.org.au)
  • Presented yesterday as a late-breaking clinical trial at EuroPCR 2022 and published simultaneously in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions , the DISCO RADIAL study randomized 1,307 patients with clinical indications for a percutaneous coronary procedure using a 6-Fr Slender sheath (Terumo Europe) to conventional radial or distal radial access. (tctmd.com)
  • whereas other conduits are used to revascularize the right coronary artery (RCA) which has the lowest patency [1, 10]. (researchsquare.com)
  • When ultrasonographic equipment and trained personnel are available, ultrasonographic guidance may be helpful in cannulating nonpalpable arteries (eg, due to obesity or a small artery) and increases the success rate of radial artery cannulation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Background Where each patient has all three conduits of internal mammary artery (IMA), saphenous vein graft (SVG) and radial artery (RA), most confounders affecting comparison between conduits can be mitigated. (researchsquare.com)
  • Median (interquartile range) observation time: 10.0 (8.5-11.4) years in the radial artery group vs 10.0 (6.1-10.2) years in the saphenous vein group. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Median (interquartile range) observation time: 10.0 (9.2-12.1) years in the radial artery group vs 10.0 (7.0-10.4) years in the saphenous vein group (patients analyzed according to their randomization group). (jamanetwork.com)
  • Radial artery versus saphenous vein as the second conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery: a meta-analysis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The radial artery commences at the bifurcation of the brachial, and passes along the radial side of the forearm to the wrist. (medscape.com)
  • The radial and ulnar arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passing down the arm, it ends about 1 cm below the bend of the elbow, where it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries. (medscape.com)
  • The artery winds laterally around the wrist, passing through the anatomical snuff box and between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaining access to the heart through the radial artery in the wrist decreases complications, improves patient comfort and reduces costs without affecting procedural success rates. (ascentcardiology.com)
  • This muscle, lying to the medial side of pronator teres, is the most prominent and may be traced downward to its tendon, which is situated nearer to the radial than to the ulnar border of the front of the wrist and medial to the radial artery. (wikibooks.org)
  • The princeps pollicis artery branches from the radial artery near the wrist and extends into the hand toward the thumb. (healthline.com)
  • You can feel the radial pulse on the artery of the wrist in line with the thumb. (cdc.gov)
  • During his physical examination, this seated male patient was having his pulse rate determined by a female clinician, who held his right wrist at the region of the radial artery. (cdc.gov)
  • an integrated catheter-over-guidewire device or an angiocatheter (catheter-over-needle) is used to thread a catheter into the radial artery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A flexible tube called a catheter will be advanced over the wire to your coronary arteries. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • Then, the doctor will move the tip of the catheter just inside the coronary artery to be examined. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • After the balloon catheter is taken out the stent will stay in place to hold the artery open. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted through the radial artery in the hand and into the heart and its blood vessels. (medicinenet.com)
  • The short-axis (transverse, cross-sectional) ultrasound view is easy to obtain and is the best view for identifying veins and arteries and their orientation to each other. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ultrasound guided left radial artery access 2. (aapc.com)
  • The radial artery is used for coronary artery bypass grafting and is growing in popularity among cardiac surgeons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, trans-radial approach has gained popularity over the years due to its technical advances and is widely accepted as a safe approach among the cardiac community. (hpathy.com)
  • All patients who underwent PCI with distal radial access were enrolled in the study. (bvsalud.org)
  • With distal radial access, hemostasis was achieved according to hospital practice. (tctmd.com)
  • At discharge, the rate of RAO was 0.91% for those randomized to conventional radial access and 0.31% among those treated with distal radial access ( P = 0.29). (tctmd.com)
  • Crossover was higher in the distal radial access arm-7.4% of operators switched to the conventional radial approach-and this highlights the technical demands of the procedure, even amongst this group of experienced radial operators, said Aminian. (tctmd.com)
  • In the RATATOUILLE study, also published yesterday in JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions , investigators showed that use of distal radial access was safe, reporting that it wasn't associated in any functional hand impairment in 313 patients who underwent detailed testing after undergoing distal radial access PCI/angiography. (tctmd.com)
  • Immediate sheath removal, use of thin needle, checking the patency of the artery and short time compression post the procedure have proven to reduce the occurrence of RAO. (hpathy.com)
  • The procedure is done on blood vessels called coronary arteries. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • Pseudoaneurysm (PA) of the radial artery is an extremely rare complication associated with this procedure and is most often localized in the area of penetrating vascular trauma. (trico.guru)
  • Unmeasured confounders in observational studies comparing bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • CTA showed thrombus in the popliteal artery and poor flo. (aapc.com)
  • CTA showed thrombus in the popliteal artery and poor flow from the mid calf down He is here for a right leg. (aapc.com)
  • The popliteal artery branches off from the femoral artery. (healthline.com)
  • In brief, after applying the air-filled compression device and removing the sheath, hemostatic pressure was set to a level just enough to maintain hemostasis without harming radial artery patency as assessed by the reverse Barbeau test. (tctmd.com)
  • Background: Radial forearm free flap with all its present day modifications is the workhorse of soft tissue reconstruction in head & neck. (uab.cat)
  • The fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flap (FCRFFF) is the most common free flap used in head and neck reconstruction. (medscape.com)
  • Previous attempts to use an osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OCRFFF) for head and neck reconstruction have been associated with unacceptable donor site morbidity, most commonly fracture of the radius. (medscape.com)
  • in 1978, the radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has become a workhorse flap in head and neck reconstruction. (medscape.com)
  • Two issues have been largely to blame for limiting surgeons' consideration of the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OCRFFF) as an option for single-stage reconstruction of composite defects in the head and neck: the inadequacy of available bone and the potential for radial bone fracture. (medscape.com)
  • Areas of clinical research include use of ulnar artery compared to radial, left versus right radial access, use of radial artery for a surgical conduit after angiography, radiation exposure and advantage of radial approach in the elderly. (intechopen.com)
  • Use of three arteries was greater in men (10.5% versus 7.3%, P =0.048). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Advances in lower profile sheaths and sheathless systems allow larger catheters in smaller arteries. (intechopen.com)
  • This may cause blood to flow more slowly or not at all to the smaller arteries of the hand. (healthline.com)
  • The Radial Artery Database International ALliance (RADIAL) project is an individual patient-level meta-analysis developed to adequately power a study to assess if the RA has superior clinical outcomes compared with the SVG. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While the radial artery is the first choice for vascular access owing to its safety-and is endorsed by both the US and European clinical guidelines-it's not without some risks, he said. (tctmd.com)
  • The utilisation IV NC is safe and efficacious to prevent vasospasm in trans radial intervention to perform CA, ECA and PCI. (trico.guru)
  • Eighty-four consecutive patients undergoing coronary procedures using radial approach were randomly assigned between two types of local anesthesia (double blind): 5 ml lidocaine (group L)-5 ml lidocaine + 0.5 mg dinitrate isosorbide (group LN). The primary endpoint was the duration of radial puncture (from beginning of local anesthesia to sheath insertion) and the total number of punctures. (nih.gov)
  • Developed SPB type, was present in 31.4% of hands, with the diameter of 1.7 mm and larger (mean 1.95 mm), continuing distally to become the radialis indicis artery, with an average calibre of 1.2 mm, and with important branches to the thumb. (ac.rs)
  • Both techniques resulted in very low rates of RAO-less than 1.0%-and affirm the role of conventional radial vascular access for coronary angiography and PCI, say investigators. (tctmd.com)
  • Materials and Methods: 12 fresh human cadavers & 24 cadaveric forearms were dissected to determine the total number, location, size & vascular territory of radial artery adipo-fascio cutaneous perforator. (uab.cat)
  • Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography reveals a network of linking vessels found to communicate between adjacent perforators & running parallel to radial artery. (uab.cat)
  • Is it possible to do an angiography via radial artery without vasospasm? (trico.guru)
  • Radial artery access for angiography has matured over the past two decades and is now the preferred point of access for most patients. (intechopen.com)
  • Introduction: The free radial forearm (FRFA) flap is universally still considered as the gold standard technique in penile reconstruction. (unipa.it)
  • In case of insufficient perfusion at the distalmost part of the flap, a supramicrosurgical anastomosis was performed between the FRFA pedicle and the PIOA (artery only). (unipa.it)
  • Methylene blue injections into the proximal part of radial artery demonstrated clusters both in proximal & distal forearm & also cutaneous territory of flap. (uab.cat)
  • Conclusion: Increase in knowledge of vascular territory of radial artery perforators with regards to numbers, size, location, and cutaneous territory can lead to expanded use of radial forearm flap based on either distal or proximal perforator alone, without sacrificing the radial artery. (uab.cat)
  • It passes anteriorly between the heads of the adductor pollicis, and becomes the deep palmar arch, which joins with the deep branch of the ulnar artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two arteries may arise from a common trunk, the first palmar metacarpal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep palmar arch - terminal part of radial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in support boards and sheath extension have opened up left radial access. (intechopen.com)
  • Treatment of Radial Artery Pseudoaneurysm Using a Novel Compression Device. (trico.guru)
  • We report 2 cases of pseudoaneurysm of the radial artery that were successfully treated using the Terumo TR band. (trico.guru)
  • it is here that clinician takes the radial pulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of radial pulse was thought to indicate a systolic blood pressure of at least 70 mmHg, as estimated from the 50% percentile, although this was found to generally be an overestimation of a patient's true blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exclusion criteria were defined as patients with positive Allen test, arterio-venous (AV) fistula, cardiogenic shock, patients anticipating hemo-dyalisis, need for a 7Fr system or not palpable radial pulse. (trico.guru)
  • In 1989, trans-radial access (TRA) was introduced as an alternative to the trans-femoral access (TFA), as the latter carried a significant risk of access site bleeding complications. (hpathy.com)
  • If a significant blockage is found, your doctor will insert a guidewire into the artery. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • In such circumstances, if the princeps pollicis artery and other arteries of the hand are not able to supply the cells with oxygen, then emergent surgery may be required to correct or bypass the blockage. (healthline.com)
  • Increasing amounts of data support the benefits of radial PCI in terms of improved survival in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (ascentcardiology.com)
  • In a recent large meta-analysis of all randomized trials addressing this issue, which included nearly 20,000 patients, ACS patients receiving radial access enjoyed a 28 percent reduction in all-cause mortality. (ascentcardiology.com)
  • To surmount the risk/treatment paradox, and thus provide proven benefits to more patients, operators must achieve a higher proficiency in radial PCI. (ascentcardiology.com)
  • 500 consecutive patients scheduled to have CA, ECA and PCI via radial artery were enrolled in a prospective fashion. (trico.guru)
  • For the patients treated with conventional radial access, hospital staff followed the PROPHET protocol to achieve patent hemostasis. (tctmd.com)
  • The radial artery can be less easily felt as it crosses the anatomical snuff box. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this cadaveric observational anatomical study was to determine the location, size & vascular territory of the radial artery cutaneous perforators. (uab.cat)
  • Aberrant origin of ulnar artery that potentially changes its normal anatomical relationship is considerable rare. (bvsalud.org)
  • This permits access into your artery. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • We made the hypothesis that adjunction of nitrate to lidocaine for local anesthesia may facilitate accessibility of radial access. (nih.gov)
  • Local anesthesia using lidocaine plus nitrate is feasible and improves the accessibility of radial access. (nih.gov)
  • Advances in longer balloons and sheaths have opened up radial access for peripheral interventions. (intechopen.com)
  • Although it wasn't superior to conventional radial access, distal radial was safe and might be a useful option in select cases. (tctmd.com)
  • Everything in interventional cardiology starts with vascular access and finishes with vascular access," said lead investigator Adel Aminian, MD (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Charleroi, Belgium), explaining the rationale for the DISCO RADIAL trial to the media. (tctmd.com)
  • In fact, the DISCO RADIAL researchers say this trial establishes a new benchmark for RAO rates after conventional transradial access. (tctmd.com)
  • Despite considerable research efforts, the incidence and mechanisms of diffuse cognitive impairment after coronary artery bypass surgery are not fully understood. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Princeps pollicis artery - arises from the radial artery just as it turns medially to the deep part of the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The princeps pollicis artery branches off into two smaller branches near the second joint of the thumb. (healthline.com)
  • The named branches of the radial artery may be divided into three groups, corresponding with the three regions in which the vessel is situated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several branches of the artery have been cut off. (stanford.edu)
  • Technically more challenging and requires a high level of expertise to negotiate the loops in the radial artery and aortic arch. (medicinenet.com)