Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Butylamines are a class of organic compounds where a butyl group is attached to an amine functional group, with the general structure (C4H9)NHR or (C4H9)NR'R", commonly used as stimulants, entactogens, and psychedelics.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Phenanthrenes are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of three benzene rings fused together in a linear arrangement, commonly found in various plants and some animals, and can act as precursors for certain steroid hormones or exhibit pharmacological activities with potential therapeutic uses.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A neoplasm derived from blood vessels, characterized by numerous prominent endothelial cells that occur singly, in aggregates, and as the lining of congeries of vascular tubes or channels. Hemangioendotheliomas are relatively rare and are of intermediate malignancy (between benign hemangiomas and conventional angiosarcomas). They affect men and women about equally and rarely develop in childhood. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Thioglucosides are organic compounds primarily found in plants, characterized by the functional group consisting of a sulfur atom linked to a glucose molecule through a sulfur-carbon bond.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
A cytotoxic polypeptide quinoxaline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces echinatus that binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis.
Inorganic compounds that contain uranium as an integral part of the molecule.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a naphthyridine nucleus, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyridine ring, and they have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, including as antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A class of organic compounds containing three ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (1/3263)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization. (2/3263)

From the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) inventory, thirteen 8-aminoquinoline analogs of primaquine were selected for screening against a panel of seven Plasmodium falciparum clones and isolates. Six of the 13 8-aminoquinolines had average 50% inhibitory concentrations between 50 and 100 nM against these P. falciparum clones and were thus an order of magnitude more potent than primaquine. However, excluding chloroquine-resistant clones and isolates, these 8-aminoquinolines were all an order of magnitude less potent than chloroquine. None of the 8-aminoquinolines was cross resistant with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast to the inactive primaquine prototype, 8 of the 13 8-aminoquinolines inhibited hematin polymerization more efficiently than did chloroquine. Although alkoxy or aryloxy substituents at position 5 uniquely endowed these 13 8-aminoquinolines with impressive schizontocidal activity, the structural specificity of inhibition of both parasite growth and hematin polymerization was low.  (+info)

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. (3/3263)

1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (4/3263)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Moxifloxacin: a comparison with other antimicrobial agents of in-vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (5/3263)

Two hundred representative isolates, including 26 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with intermediate resistance to penicillin, were selected from a collection obtained from blood cultures of patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. The MICs of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039), grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and penicillin G were determined by a standard agar dilution technique. Moxifloxacin had the highest in-vitro activity against S. pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.25 mg/L; MIC range 0.06-0.25 mg/L). The MIC90 values were one dilution lower than those obtained with sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin, three dilutions lower than those obtained with levofloxacin, and four dilutions lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

The effect of reserpine, an inhibitor of multidrug efflux pumps, on the in-vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. (6/3263)

In Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to mutations in the grl and gyr gene loci, multidrug efflux pumps like NorA contribute to decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility. Efflux pumps can be inhibited by the plant alkaloid reserpine, which, at 20 mg/L, reduced sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin IC50s and MICs by up to four-fold in 11, 21 and 48 of the 102 unrelated clinical isolates tested, respectively. The effect was less pronounced with the hydrophobic drugs sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin than with the hydrophilic drug ciprofloxacin and was stable in all 25 clonally related isolates tested.  (+info)

Multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein enhances esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol. (7/3263)

Class I P-glycoproteins (Pgp) confer multidrug resistance in tumors, but the physiologic function of Pgp in normal tissues remains uncertain. In cells derived from tissues that normally express Pgp, recent data suggest a possible role for Pgp in cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. We investigated the esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol under basal conditions and in response to sphingomyelinase treatment in transfected and drug-selected cell lines expressing differing amounts of functional class I Pgp. Compared with parental NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, cells transfected with human multidrug resistance (MDR1) Pgp esterified more cholesterol both without and with sphingomyelinase. Esterification also was greater in drug-selected Dox 6 myeloma cells than parental 8226 cells, which express low and non-immunodetectable amounts of Pgp, respectively. However, no differences in total plasma membrane cholesterol were detected. Transfection of fibroblasts with the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not alter esterification, showing that cholesterol trafficking was not generally affected by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Steroidal (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and non-steroidal antagonists (verapamil, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918) were evaluated for effects on both cholesterol trafficking and the net content of 99mTc-Sestamibi, a reporter of drug transport activity mediated by Pgp. In Pgp-expressing cells treated with nonselective and selective inhibitors, both the kinetics and efficacy of inhibition of cholesterol esterification differed from the antagonism of drug transport mediated by Pgp. Thus, although the data show that greater expression of class I Pgp within a given cell type is associated with enhanced esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol in support of a physiologic function for Pgp in facilitating cholesterol trafficking, the molecular mechanism is dissociated from the conventional drug transport activity of Pgp.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (8/3263)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Hydroxyquinolines are a group of synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a quinoline ring. They have been used in the treatment of various bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. Some common examples of hydroxyquinolines include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and quinacrine. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms, although their exact mechanisms of action may vary. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, for example, are known to interfere with the replication of the malaria parasite within red blood cells, while quinacrine has been used to treat certain types of protozoal infections.

It is important to note that the use of hydroxyquinolines is associated with a number of potential side effects and risks, including gastrointestinal disturbances, visual disturbances, and cardiac toxicity. As such, they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Aminoquinolines are a class of drugs that contain a quinoline chemical structure and an amino group. They are primarily used as antimalarial agents, with the most well-known members of this class being chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. These drugs work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells, which is necessary for its survival and reproduction.

In addition to their antimalarial properties, aminoquinolines have also been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They have been investigated as a treatment for various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, although their use in these conditions is not yet widely accepted.

It's important to note that aminoquinolines can have significant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms, retinopathy, and cardiac toxicity. They should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, and their use may be contraindicated in certain populations, such as pregnant women or individuals with preexisting heart conditions.

Mefloquine is an antimalarial medication that is used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by interfering with the growth of the parasite in the red blood cells of the body. Mefloquine is a synthetic quinoline compound, and it is available under the brand name Lariam, among others.

Mefloquine is typically taken once a week, starting one to two weeks before traveling to an area where malaria is common, and continuing for four weeks after leaving the area. It may also be used to treat acute malaria infection in conjunction with other antimalarial medications.

It's important to note that mefloquine has been associated with serious neuropsychiatric side effects, including anxiety, depression, hallucinations, and seizures. Therefore, it is usually reserved for use in situations where other antimalarial drugs cannot be used or have failed. Before taking mefloquine, individuals should discuss their medical history and potential risks with their healthcare provider.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease drug. It works by increasing the pH or making the environment less acidic in the digestive vacuoles of malaria parasites, which inhibits the polymerization of heme and the formation of hemozoin. This results in the accumulation of toxic levels of heme that are harmful to the parasite. Chloroquine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus, and photodermatitis.

The chemical name for chloroquine is 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline, and it has a molecular formula of C18H26ClN3. It is available in the form of phosphate or sulfate salts for oral administration as tablets or solution.

Chloroquine was first synthesized in 1934 by Bayer scientists, and it has been widely used since the 1940s as a safe and effective antimalarial drug. However, the emergence of chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria parasites has limited its use in some areas. Chloroquine is also being investigated for its potential therapeutic effects on various viral infections, including COVID-19.

Antimalarials are a class of drugs that are used for the prevention, treatment, and elimination of malaria. They work by targeting the malaria parasite at various stages of its life cycle, particularly the erythrocytic stage when it infects red blood cells. Some commonly prescribed antimalarials include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin-based combinations. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other antimalarial agents to increase their efficacy and prevent the development of drug resistance. Antimalarials are also being investigated for their potential use in treating other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Butylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a butyl group (a chain of four carbon atoms) attached to an amine functional group, which consists of nitrogen atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms. The general structure of a primary butylamine is R-NH2, where R represents the butyl group.

Butylamines can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. Some of them have important uses in industry as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, or building blocks for pharmaceuticals. However, some butylamines are also known to have psychoactive effects and may be used as recreational drugs or abused.

It is worth noting that the term "butylamine" can refer to any of several specific compounds, depending on the context. For example, n-butylamine (also called butan-1-amine) has the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2, while tert-butylamine (also called 2-methylpropan-2-amine) has the formula (CH3)3CNH2. These two compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to their structural differences.

In a medical context, butylamines may be encountered as drugs of abuse or as components of pharmaceuticals. Some examples of butylamine-derived drugs include certain antidepressants, anesthetics, and muscle relaxants. However, it is important to note that these compounds are often highly modified from their parent butylamine structure, and may not resemble them closely in terms of their pharmacological properties or toxicity profiles.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Phenanthrenes are not typically defined in a medical context, but they are a class of organic compounds that have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structure consisting of three benzene rings fused together. They can be found in some natural products and have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties. Some phenanthrenes have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, among others. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics, including drugs and toxins, in the body. This enzyme is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, or liver cells, and plays a significant role in the oxidative metabolism of certain medications, such as caffeine, theophylline, and some antidepressants.

CYP1A2 is induced by various factors, including smoking, charcoal-grilled foods, and certain medications, which can increase its enzymatic activity and potentially affect the metabolism and clearance of drugs that are substrates for this enzyme. Genetic polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene can also lead to differences in enzyme activity among individuals, resulting in variable drug responses and potential adverse effects.

In summary, Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 is a liver enzyme involved in the metabolism of various drugs and toxins, with genetic and environmental factors influencing its activity and impacting individual responses to medications.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain at least one atom within the ring structure, other than carbon, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds make up a large class of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including many drugs, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. The presence of the heteroatom in the ring can have significant effects on the physical and chemical properties of the compound, such as its reactivity, stability, and bonding characteristics. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include pyridine, pyrimidine, and furan.

Chlorophyllides are the breakdown products of chlorophyll, which is the green pigment found in plants and algae that is essential for photosynthesis. Chlorophyllides are formed when chlorophyll is broken down by enzymes or through other chemical processes. They differ from chlorophyll in that they lack a phytol tail, which is a long hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the chlorophyll molecule.

Chlorophyllides have been studied for their potential health benefits, as they are thought to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some research has suggested that chlorophyllides may help protect against certain types of cancer, improve immune function, and reduce the risk of heart disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods for consuming chlorophyllides.

It's worth noting that chlorophyllides are not typically found in significant quantities in the diet, as they are primarily produced during the breakdown of chlorophyll in plants. However, some supplements and green superfood powders may contain chlorophyllides or chlorophyllin, which is a semi-synthetic form of chlorophyll that is more stable and easier to absorb than natural chlorophyll.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxyquinoline" does not have a specific medical definition as it is not a widely recognized medical term or a medication used in human healthcare. Oxyquinoline is an organic compound that contains a quinoline ring substituted with an alcohol group (hydroxyl) at position 8. It has been used in the past as a disinfectant and antiseptic, but it's not common in modern medical practice.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, please provide more context so I can offer a more accurate and helpful response.

Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50) is a measure used in pharmacology, toxicology, and virology to describe the potency of a drug or chemical compound. It refers to the concentration needed to reduce the biological or biochemical activity of a given substance by half. Specifically, it is most commonly used in reference to the inhibition of an enzyme or receptor.

In the context of infectious diseases, IC50 values are often used to compare the effectiveness of antiviral drugs against a particular virus. A lower IC50 value indicates that less of the drug is needed to achieve the desired effect, suggesting greater potency and potentially fewer side effects. Conversely, a higher IC50 value suggests that more of the drug is required to achieve the same effect, indicating lower potency.

It's important to note that IC50 values can vary depending on the specific assay or experimental conditions used, so they should be interpreted with caution and in conjunction with other measures of drug efficacy.

Intercalating agents are chemical substances that can be inserted between the stacked bases of DNA, creating a separation or "intercalation" of the base pairs. This property is often exploited in cancer chemotherapy, where intercalating agents like doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used to inhibit the replication and transcription of cancer cells by preventing the normal functioning of their DNA. However, these agents can also have toxic effects on normal cells, particularly those that divide rapidly, such as bone marrow and gut epithelial cells. Therefore, their use must be carefully monitored and balanced against their therapeutic benefits.

Quinine is defined as a bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree, primarily used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. It works by interfering with the reproduction of the malaria parasite within red blood cells. Quinine has also been used historically as a muscle relaxant and analgesic, but its use for these purposes is now limited due to potential serious side effects. In addition, quinine can be found in some beverages like tonic water, where it is present in very small amounts for flavoring purposes.

Heme proteins are a type of protein that contain a heme group, which is a prosthetic group composed of an iron atom contained in the center of a large organic ring called a porphyrin. The heme group gives these proteins their characteristic red color. Hemeproteins have various important functions in biological systems, including oxygen transport (e.g., hemoglobin), electron transfer (e.g., cytochromes), and enzymatic catalysis (e.g., peroxidases and catalases). The heme group can bind and release gases, such as oxygen and carbon monoxide, and can participate in redox reactions due to the ease with which iron can change its oxidation state.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

Hemangioendothelioma is a rare type of vascular tumor, which means it arises from the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it most commonly involves the soft tissues and bones. Hemangioendotheliomas are often classified as borderline malignant tumors because they can behave either indolently (like a benign tumor) or aggressively (like a malignant tumor), depending on their specific type and location.

There are several subtypes of hemangioendothelioma, including:

1. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: This subtype typically affects young adults and can involve various organs, such as the liver, lungs, or soft tissues. It tends to have a more indolent course but can metastasize in some cases.
2. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: This is an aggressive subtype that usually occurs in infants and children. It often involves the skin and soft tissues, causing local invasion and consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon).
3. Retiform hemangioendothelioma: A rare and low-grade malignant tumor that typically affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue of adults. It has a favorable prognosis with a low risk of metastasis.
4. Papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA): This is a rare, slow-growing tumor that usually occurs in the head and neck region of children and young adults. It has an excellent prognosis with no reported cases of metastasis or recurrence after complete surgical resection.

Treatment for hemangioendotheliomas typically involves surgical excision when possible. Other treatment options, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies, may be considered depending on the tumor's location, size, and behavior. Regular follow-up is essential to monitor for potential recurrence or metastasis.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals that includes spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. They are characterized by having two main body segments (the cephalothorax and the abdomen), eight legs, and simple eyes. Most arachnids produce silk, which they use for various purposes such as capturing prey or building shelters.

Arachnids are arthropods, a group that also includes insects, crustaceans, and other related animals. They are found worldwide in diverse habitats, ranging from forests and grasslands to deserts and caves. Many arachnids are predators, feeding on insects and other small animals. Some species are parasites, living on the blood or tissue of other organisms.

Arachnids have a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, which provides protection and support for their soft internal organs. They molt periodically to grow and replace damaged body parts. Arachnids also have a complex reproductive system that involves the transfer of sperm from the male to the female through specialized structures called pedipalps.

While some arachnids are harmless or even beneficial to humans, others can be dangerous or pests. For example, spider bites can cause painful reactions and in rare cases, death. Ticks and mites can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease and scrub typhus. Scorpions can deliver venomous stings that can be fatal to humans. Despite these risks, arachnids play important roles in ecosystems, controlling pests and contributing to nutrient cycling.

Clioquinol is an antimicrobial drug that contains a combination of clioquinal and hydrocortisone acetate. It is used topically to treat various skin infections and inflammatory conditions. Clioquinol has antibacterial and antifungal properties, while hydrocortisone acetate is a corticosteroid that reduces inflammation and suppresses the immune response.

Clioquinol was first synthesized in the 1930s and was widely used as an antidiarrheal medication until it was banned in many countries due to its association with a neurological disorder called subacute myelooptic neuropathy (SMON). However, topical clioquinol is still available in some countries for the treatment of skin conditions.

It's important to note that topical clioquinol should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause skin irritation and sensitization in some individuals. Additionally, prolonged or excessive use of corticosteroids like hydrocortisone acetate can lead to thinning of the skin, increased susceptibility to infection, and other adverse effects.

Oxidoreductases acting on CH-CH group donors are a class of enzymes within the larger group of oxidoreductases, which are responsible for catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions. Specifically, this subclass of enzymes acts upon donors containing a carbon-carbon (CH-CH) bond, where one atom or group of atoms is oxidized and another is reduced during the reaction process. These enzymes play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown and synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids.

The reactions catalyzed by these enzymes involve the transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms between the donor and an acceptor molecule. This process often results in the formation or cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds, making them essential for numerous biological processes. The systematic name for this class of enzymes is typically structured as "donor:acceptor oxidoreductase," where donor and acceptor represent the molecules involved in the electron transfer process.

Examples of enzymes that fall under this category include:

1. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, using NAD+ as an electron acceptor.
2. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC This enzyme is responsible for the oxidation of dihydrodiols to catechols in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds.
3. Succinate dehydrogenase (EC A key enzyme in the citric acid cycle, succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate and reduces FAD to FADH2.
4. Xylose reductase (EC This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of pentoses, where it reduces xylose to xylitol using NADPH as a cofactor.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents that are widely used in medicine to treat various types of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. These synthetic drugs contain a chemical structure related to quinoline and have broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Quinolones work by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes, which are essential for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

The first quinolone antibiotic was nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962. Since then, several generations of quinolones have been developed, with each generation having improved antibacterial activity and a broader spectrum of action compared to the previous one. The various generations of quinolones include:

1. First-generation quinolones (e.g., nalidixic acid): Primarily used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
2. Second-generation quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin): These drugs have improved activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are used to treat a wider range of infections, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin infections.
3. Third-generation quinolones (e.g., levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin): These drugs have enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some anaerobes and atypical organisms like Legionella and Mycoplasma species.
4. Fourth-generation quinolones (e.g., moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin): These drugs have the broadest spectrum of activity, including enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains.

Quinolones are generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, they can have side effects. Common adverse reactions include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, and dizziness. Serious side effects, such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and QT interval prolongation, are less common but can occur, particularly in older patients or those with underlying medical conditions. The use of quinolones should be avoided or used cautiously in these populations.

Quinolone resistance has become an increasing concern due to the widespread use of these antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance through various mechanisms, including chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of quinolones contribute to the emergence and spread of resistant strains, which can limit treatment options for severe infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to use quinolones judiciously and only when clinically indicated, to help preserve their effectiveness and prevent further resistance development.

4-Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents that are chemically characterized by a 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline ring. They include drugs such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, among others. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes, which are essential for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. This leads to bacterial cell death.

4-Quinolones have a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are used to treat a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and intra-abdominal infections. However, the use of 4-quinolones is associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture, as well as other serious adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy, QT interval prolongation, and aortic aneurysm and dissection. Therefore, their use should be restricted to situations where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Thioglucosides are organic compounds that contain a sulfur atom bonded to a glucose molecule and another group, usually a methane or phenyl group. They are found in certain plants, particularly in the Brassicaceae family (which includes vegetables like broccoli, brussels sprouts, and cabbage) and in the Liliaceae family (which includes onions and garlic). These compounds are responsible for the characteristic flavors and odors of these plants. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. However, they can also be toxic in high concentrations.

Quinacrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called antimalarials. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. Quinacrine works by inhibiting the growth of the malarial parasites in the red blood cells.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, quinacrine has been used off-label for various other medical conditions, including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a type of skin lupus. However, its use in these conditions is not approved by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to limited evidence and potential side effects.

Quinacrine has several known side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and potential neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, or confusion. Long-term use of quinacrine may also lead to yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as quinacrine jaundice) and other eye-related issues. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting quinacrine or any other medication for appropriate dosage, duration, and potential side effects.

Primaquine is an antimalarial medication used to prevent and treat malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It is the only antimalarial drug effective against the liver stages (hypnozoites) of P. vivax and P. ovale, which can cause relapses if not treated.

Primaquine works by producing free radicals that damage the malaria parasite's DNA, leading to its death. It is a relatively inexpensive drug and is often used in mass drug administration programs for malaria elimination. However, primaquine can cause hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, so it is important to screen for this condition before prescribing the drug.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, primaquine has also been used off-label to treat certain types of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania species.

Carbolines are a type of chemical compound that contain a carbazole or dibenzopyrrole structure. These compounds have a variety of uses, including as pharmaceuticals and dyes. Some carbolines have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as their ability to act as antioxidants or to inhibit the growth of certain types of cells. However, it is important to note that many carbolines are also known to be toxic and can cause harm if ingested or otherwise introduced into the body. As with any chemical compound, it is essential to use caution when handling carbolines and to follow all safety guidelines to minimize the risk of exposure.

Beta-Naphthoflavone is a type of compound known as an aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist. It is often used in research to study the effects of AHR activation on various biological processes, including the regulation of gene expression and the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

In the medical field, beta-Naphthoflavone may be used in experimental settings to investigate its potential as a therapeutic agent or as a tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying AHR-mediated diseases. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in humans.

Quinidine is a Class IA antiarrhythmic medication that is primarily used to treat and prevent various types of cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). It works by blocking the rapid sodium channels in the heart, which helps to slow down the conduction of electrical signals within the heart and stabilize its rhythm.

Quinidine is derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree and has been used for centuries as a treatment for malaria. However, its antiarrhythmic properties were discovered later, and it became an important medication in cardiology.

In addition to its use in treating arrhythmias, quinidine may also be used off-label for other indications such as the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps or myasthenia gravis. It is available in various forms, including tablets and injectable solutions.

It's important to note that quinidine has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is only a small difference between an effective dose and a toxic one. Therefore, it must be carefully monitored to ensure that the patient is receiving a safe and effective dose. Common side effects of quinidine include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as visual disturbances, headache, and dizziness. More serious side effects can include QT prolongation, which can lead to dangerous arrhythmias, and hypersensitivity reactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nitroquinolines" is not a recognized term in medical or pharmacological sciences. It seems to be a chemical category that consists of compounds containing a quinoline nucleus (a heterocyclic aromatic compound) with one or more nitro groups attached to it.

Quinoline derivatives have been explored for their potential medicinal properties, including antimalarial and antibacterial activities. However, the term "Nitroquinolines" does not specifically refer to a medical definition or a particular therapeutic application. If you're looking for information on specific quinoline-based compounds with nitro groups, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context or details.

Echinomycin is a type of antibiotic that is derived from a species of bacteria called Streptomyces echinatus. It has been studied for its potential as an anticancer agent, due to its ability to bind to DNA and inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, its use in clinical practice is not widespread, and more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy for treating cancer.

Echinomycin works by binding to the minor groove of DNA, which prevents the transcription of genes that are necessary for cell growth and division. This can lead to the death of cancer cells and may help to slow or stop the progression of tumors. However, echinomycin can also bind to DNA in normal cells, which can cause toxic side effects and limit its therapeutic potential.

Echinomycin has been studied in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of cancer, including lung cancer, leukemia, and brain tumors. While some studies have shown promising results, others have found that echinomycin has limited efficacy or is too toxic to be used as a standalone therapy. Therefore, more research is needed to determine the best way to use echinomycin in cancer treatment and to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from it.

Uranium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the actinide metal uranium (U) in its various oxidation states, which range from +2 to +6. These compounds are formed through the combination of uranium with other elements or groups of elements. Examples of uranium compounds include uranium dioxide (UO2), uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2), and triuranium octoxide (U3O8).

It is important to note that many uranium compounds, especially those containing uranium in its higher oxidation states, can be radioactive and should be handled with appropriate precautions. Additionally, some uranium compounds have potential applications in the energy sector, such as in nuclear reactors, while others may have uses in medical imaging or cancer treatment.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

Dealkylation is a chemical process that involves the removal of an alkyl group from a molecule. In the context of medical and biological sciences, dealkylation often refers to the breakdown of drugs or other xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body by enzymes.

Dealkylation is one of the major metabolic pathways for the biotransformation of many drugs, including chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, and benzodiazepines. This process can result in the formation of more polar and water-soluble metabolites, which can then be excreted from the body through the urine or bile.

Dealkylation can occur via several mechanisms, including oxidative dealkylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as non-oxidative dealkylation mediated by other enzymes. The specific dealkylation pathway depends on the structure of the substrate and the type of enzyme involved.

Amodiaquine is an antimalarial medication used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by inhibiting the growth of the parasite in red blood cells. Amodiaquine is often used in combination with other antimalarial drugs, such as artesunate or chloroquine.

The chemical name for amodiaquine is 4-[(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)methyl]-1-(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)piperazine and it has the molecular formula C18H24ClN3O. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

Like all medications, amodiaquine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and headache. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as liver damage, abnormal heart rhythms, and blood disorders. It is important to take amodiaquine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

It's important to note that Amodiaquine is not available in all countries and it's use is limited due to the risk of severe side effects, especially when used alone. It should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and with regular monitoring of blood cells, liver function and heart activity.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain a ring structure made up of at least one atom that is not carbon, known as a heteroatom. These heteroatoms can include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or other elements. In the case of "2-ring" heterocyclic compounds, the molecule contains two separate ring structures, each of which includes at least one heteroatom.

The term "heterocyclic compound" is used to describe a broad class of organic molecules that are found in many natural and synthetic substances. They play important roles in biology, medicine, and materials science. Heterocyclic compounds can be classified based on the number of rings they contain, as well as the types and arrangements of heteroatoms within those rings.

Two-ring heterocyclic compounds can exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties, depending on the nature of the rings and the heteroatoms present. Some examples of two-ring heterocyclic compounds include quinoline, isoquinoline, benzothiazole, and benzoxazole, among many others. These compounds have important applications in pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments, and other industrial products.

Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a naphthyridine core structure, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a tetrahydropyridine ring. They have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used in the development of various therapeutic agents, including antibiotics, antivirals, and anticancer drugs.

In medical terms, naphthyridines do not have a specific clinical definition or application, but they are rather a chemical class that is utilized in the design and synthesis of drugs with potential therapeutic benefits. The unique structure and properties of naphthyridines make them attractive candidates for drug development, particularly in areas where new treatments are needed to overcome drug resistance or improve efficacy.

It's worth noting that while naphthyridines have shown promise in preclinical studies, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and effectiveness in humans before they can be approved as therapeutic agents.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

Meglumine is not a medical condition but a medication. It is an anticholinergic drug that is used as a diagnostic aid in the form of meglumine iodide, which is used to test for kidney function and to visualize the urinary tract. Meglumine is an amino sugar that is used as a counterion to combine with iodine to make meglumine iodide. It works by increasing the excretion of iodine through the kidneys, which helps to enhance the visibility of the urinary tract during imaging studies.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sulfonic acids" are not a medical term. They are a type of compound in chemistry, specifically strong organic acids that contain the functional group -SO3H. Sulfonic acids are widely used in industry and research, including the production of detergents, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with various clinical manifestations. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Southern Europe.

The Leishmania species have a complex life cycle that involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which is found in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which infects mammalian hosts, including humans. The clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on the specific Leishmania species and the host's immune response to the infection.

The three main forms of Leishmaniasis are:

1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): This form is characterized by skin lesions, such as ulcers or nodules, that can take several months to heal and may leave scars. CL is caused by various Leishmania species, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica.

2. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL): Also known as kala-azar, VL affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. VL is caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi species.

3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL): This form affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat, causing destruction of tissues and severe disfigurement. MCL is caused by L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis species.

Prevention and control measures for Leishmaniasis include vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and bed nets.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain a ring structure made up of at least one atom that is not carbon, known as a heteroatom. These heteroatoms can include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or other elements. In the case of "3-ring" heterocyclic compounds, the molecule contains three interconnected ring structures, at least one of which includes a heteroatom.

Examples of 3-ring heterocyclic compounds include:

1. Triazoles: These are compounds with two nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom in each of the three rings.
2. Oxadiazoles: These are compounds that contain two nitrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in their three-ring structure.
3. Thiadiazoles: These are compounds containing two nitrogen atoms and one sulfur atom in their three-ring structure.

These 3-ring heterocyclic compounds have significant importance in medicinal chemistry, as they often exhibit unique biological activities and can serve as the basis for drug design and development.

Imidazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a double-bonded nitrogen atom and two additional nitrogen atoms in the ring. They have the chemical formula C3H4N2. In a medical context, imidazoles are commonly used as antifungal agents. Some examples of imidazole-derived antifungals include clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. These medications work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of the fungal cells. Imidazoles may also have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer properties.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Coumarins are a class of organic compounds that occur naturally in certain plants, such as sweet clover and tonka beans. They have a characteristic aroma and are often used as fragrances in perfumes and flavorings in food products. In addition to their use in consumer goods, coumarins also have important medical applications.

One of the most well-known coumarins is warfarin, which is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant medication used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger. Warfarin works by inhibiting the activity of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the liver, which helps to prolong the time it takes for blood to clot.

Other medical uses of coumarins include their use as anti-inflammatory agents and antimicrobial agents. Some coumarins have also been shown to have potential cancer-fighting properties, although more research is needed in this area.

It's important to note that while coumarins have many medical uses, they can also be toxic in high doses. Therefore, it's essential to use them only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

... is only slightly soluble in cold water but dissolves readily in hot water and most organic solvents. Quinoline itself ... Quinoline was first extracted from coal tar in 1834 by German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge; he called quinoline leukol (" ... Quinolines are present in small amounts in crude oil within the virgin diesel fraction. It can be removed by the process called ... Quinolines are used in the manufacture of dyes and the preparation of hydroxyquinoline sulfate and niacin. It is also used as a ...
... may refer to two chemically related dyes: Quinoline Yellow SS, a bright yellow dye Quinoline Yellow WS, a ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Quinoline Yellow. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
Some quinoline alkaloids show antiseptic, convulsive or antineoplastic effects. Alkaloids with a quinoline partial structure ... are also counted among the quinoline alkaloids. Also nitramarine (1-(2-quinolinyl)-β-carboline) belongs to the quinoline ... Among the quinoline alkaloids are the cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine, which are important due to their therapeutic ... Quinoline alkaloids are naturally occurring chemical compounds from the group of alkaloids, which are chemically derived from ...
... is a quaternary ammonium compound produced by reaction of quinoline with methyl iodide. It has paralyzing ... Quaternary ammonium compound Stockman, R (September 1893). "The Physiological Action of Quinoline, Isoquinoline and some of ... Quinolines, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Iodides, All stub articles, Heterocyclic compound stubs). ...
There are multiple ways to synthesize quinoline, one of which is the Combes quinoline synthesis. The synthesis of quinoline ... The Combes quinoline synthesis is often used to prepare the 2,4-substituted quinoline backbone and is unique in that it uses a ... resulting in the end product of a substituted quinoline. The formation of the quinoline product is influenced by the ... "Quinolines". Sigma-Aldrich. Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC. Retrieved 7 December 2013. Luo, Z.G.; Zeng, C.C; Wang, F.; HE, H.Q.; Wang, C ...
The Knorr quinoline synthesis is an intramolecular organic reaction converting a β-ketoanilide to a 2-hydroxyquinoline using ... 2007, 72, 9761-9764 doi:10.1021/jo7013092 (Use dmy dates from June 2013, Ring forming reactions, Quinoline forming reactions, ...
The Niementowski quinoline synthesis is the chemical reaction of anthranilic acids and ketones (or aldehydes) to form γ- ... Wang, M. -X., Liu, Y., Huang, Z, -T.; Liu; Huang (2001). "Novel and convenient synthesis of polyfunctionalized quinolines, ... 376-384 Manske, R. H. (1942). "The Chemistry of Quinolines". Chem. Rev. 30: 127. doi:10.1021/cr60095a006. Hisano, T. (1973). " ... The temperatures required for this reaction make it less popular than other quinoline synthetic procedures. However, variations ...
In enzymology, a quinoline 2-oxidoreductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction quinoline + ... Bauder R, Tshisuaka B, Lingens F (1990). "Microbial metabolism of quinoline and related compounds. VII Quinoline oxidoreductase ... XII Isolation and characterization of the quinoline oxidoreductase from Rhodococcus spec. B1 compared with the quinoline ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is quinoline:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). As of late 2007, only one ...
... is a mixture of organic compounds derived from the dye Quinoline Yellow SS (spirit soluble). Owing to the ... "QUINOLINE YELLOW WS (C.I. ACID YELLOW 3)". Retrieved 30 June 2023. Additives FAO[dead link] "Quinoline Yellow for microscopy ( ... In the EU and Australia, Quinoline Yellow is permitted in beverages and is used in foods, like sauces, decorations, and ... freepatentsonline.com - Process for purification of quinoline yellow efsa.europa.eu - EFSA updates safety advice on six food ...
Quinoline yellow is representative of a large class of quinophthalone pigments. It is suggested that quinoline yellow exhibits ... When sulfonated, it converts to a water-soluble derivative, Quinoline Yellow WS. Quinoline Yellow SS is used in spirit lacquers ... Quinoline Yellow SS is a bright yellow dye with green shade. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents ... Quinoline Yellow SS is used in some yellow colored smoke formulations. It may cause contact dermatitis. It has the appearance ...
"Microbial metabolism of quinoline and related compounds. XV Quinoline-4-carboxylic acid oxidoreductase from Agrobacterium spec. ... In enzymology, a quinoline-4-carboxylate 2-oxidoreductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is quinoline-4-carboxylate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). Other names in ... reduced acceptor The 3 substrates of this enzyme are quinoline-4-carboxylate, acceptor, and H2O, whereas its two products are 2 ...
3-(2-furoyl)-quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ) is a fluorogenic amine labeling dye that is not fluorescent itself, but reacts ... "3-(2-Furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde". sigmaaldrich.com. Retrieved 2023-03-09. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Beale, Stephen C.; Hsieh, You-Zung; Wiesler, Donald; Novotny, Milos (1990). "Application of 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2- ... quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde". Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 780 (2 ...
... (CBQCA) is a fluorogenic amine labeling dye that is not fluorescent itself, but ... quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde, a Reagent with Broad Dynamic Range for the Assay of Proteins and Lipoproteins in Solution". ... Quinolines, Aldehydes, Benzoic acids, Aromatic ketones, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
The Skraup synthesis is a chemical reaction used to synthesize quinolines. It is named after the Czech chemist Zdenko Hans ... Manske, R. H. F. (1942). "The Chemistry of Quinolines". Chem. Rev. 30: 113-144. doi:10.1021/cr60095a006. Manske, Richard H. F ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)98495-9. Clarke, H. T.; Davis, A. W. (1941). "Quinoline". Organic Syntheses.{{cite journal}}: CS1 ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Ring forming reactions, Condensation reactions, Quinoline forming reactions, Name ...
Jia, C.-S.; Zhang, Z.; Tu, S.-J.; Wang, G.-W. (2006). "Rapid and efficient synthesis of poly-substituted quinolines assisted by ... Hexacyclic Compounds: Pyridine, Quinoline, and Isoquinoline". Chem. Rev. 35 (2): 77-277. doi:10.1021/cr60111a001. Cheng, C.-C ... Wu, J.; Xia, H.-G.; Gao, K. (2006). "Molecular iodine: A highly efficient catalyst in the synthesis of quinolines via ... The Friedländer synthesis is a chemical reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with ketones to form quinoline derivatives. It is ...
Reaction of N-acyl isatins with base gives 2-hydroxy-quinoline-4-carboxylic acids. Camps quinoline synthesis Friedländer ... Hexacyclic Compounds: Pyridine, Quinoline, and Isoquinoline". Chem. Rev. 35 (2): 77-277. doi:10.1021/cr60111a001. Shvekhgeimer ... Manske, R. H. (1942). "The Chemistry of Quinolines". Chem. Rev. 30 (1): 113-144. doi:10.1021/cr60095a006. Bergstrom, F. W. ( ... is the chemical reaction of isatin with base and a carbonyl compound to yield substituted quinoline-4-carboxylic acids. Several ...
"Quinoline". Organic Syntheses. 2: 79. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.002.0079. Fahlbusch, Karl-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef; Panten, ...
It has been used as a mild oxidant in reactions like the Skraup quinoline synthesis. Nitrobenzene is highly toxic (Threshold ... "Quinoline". Organic Syntheses. 1: 478. Division, US EPA, ORD, Integrated Risk Information System. "Nitrobenzene CASRN 98-95-3 ...
It is one of the methyl derivatives of the heterocyclic compound quinoline. It is bioactive and is used in the preparation of ... "Quinoline and Isoquinoline". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_465 ... 1911). "Quinoline" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 758-760. (Articles without ... Quinoline Yellows, pinacyanol). It is the precursor to the pH indicator Quinaldine Red. Quinaldine sulfate is an anaesthetic ...
It is a structural isomer of quinoline. Isoquinoline and quinoline are benzopyridines, which are composed of a benzene ring ... S. Hoogewerf and W.A. van Dorp (1885) "Sur un isomére de la quinoléine" (On an isomer of quinoline), Recueil des Travaux ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-2000-8_1. ISBN 978-1-4612-7375-2. "Quinoline" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. ... exploiting the fact that isoquinoline is more basic than quinoline. Isoquinoline can then be isolated from the mixture by ...
... (4NQO) is a quinoline, a carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical. Quinolines, like 4NQO, possess a ... 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (also known as 4-NQO, 4NQO, 4Nqo, NQO and NQNO) is a quinoline derivative and a tumorigenic compound ... "Quinoline (Benzopyridine)". LaVoie, Edmond J.; Adams, Elisabeth Ann; Shigematsu, Akemi; Hoffman, Dietrich (September 1983). "On ... the metabolism of quinoline and isoquinoline: possible molecular basis for differences in biological activities". ...
The root contains benzophenanthridines and quinolines. Alkaloids: dictamnine. dimethylaheleryth-rine, austrosinensine, 8- ...
The analogous quinoline compound behaves similarly. Pyridinium tribromide can be obtained by reacting pyridinium bromide with ... Smalley, Robert K. (2009). "3. Haloquinolines". In Jones, Gurnos (ed.). The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Quinolines. ...
... is an organic compound that is the semi-hydrogenated derivative of quinoline. It is a colorless oil. ... Typically tetrahydroquinoline derivatives are prepared by hydrogenation of the corresponding quinoline using heterogeneous ... Tetrahydroquinolines are produced by hydrogenation of quinolines. Because the hydrogenation is reversible, tetrahydroquinoline ...
8-quinoline > 8-quinazoline > 8-isoquinoline ≥ cinnoline > phthalazine > quinoxaline > 5-quinoline e.g. AMG-517 (fig. 8b), ... structure-activity relationships for ureas with quinoline, isoquinoline, quinazoline, phthalazine, quinoxaline, and cinnoline ...
... is the 8-amino derivative of quinoline. Often abbreviated AQ, it is a pale yellow solid. It is structurally ... The original synthesis of AQ involved nitration of quinoline to give a mixture of the 5- and 8-nitroderivatives, which were ... Kaufmann, Adolf; Zeller, Otto (1917). "Über Nitro‐amino‐chinoline". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 50 (2): ... Nqoro, Xhamla; Tobeka, Naki; Aderibigbe, Blessing (2017). "Quinoline-Based Hybrid Compounds with Antimalarial Activity". ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-(hydroxyamino)quinoline N-oxide:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use ... Toriyama N (1965). "[Metabolism of quinoline derivatives. On the reducing enzyme of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide]". Nichidai Igaku ... quinoline N-oxide + 2 NAD(P)+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide + 2 NAD(P)H + 2 H+ The 4 ...
Quinolines such as hydroxyquinolone, dequalium chloride, or chlorquinaldol. Actinonin Henry Jacques Garrigues, introduced ...
Quinolines hinder the growth of the hemozoin crystals. Leiserowitz and Ronit Buller modeled the growth of the hemozoin crystals ... "Quinoline Binding Site on Malaria Pigment Crystal: A Rational Pathway for Antimalaria Drug Design". Crystal Growth & Design. 2 ... and studying antimalarial drugs such as quinoline compounds. The malaria pathogen breaks down hemoglobin, producing a poisonous ... using computer simulation and found that their crystal surfaces were ideal for the docking of the quinolines. This explained ...
"Graduate Chemist Develops Three New Quinoline Drugs". The Technique. 1942-02-20. Retrieved 2010-02-02. "A study of quinoline ...
Quinoline is only slightly soluble in cold water but dissolves readily in hot water and most organic solvents. Quinoline itself ... Quinoline was first extracted from coal tar in 1834 by German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge; he called quinoline leukol (" ... Quinolines are present in small amounts in crude oil within the virgin diesel fraction. It can be removed by the process called ... Quinolines are used in the manufacture of dyes and the preparation of hydroxyquinoline sulfate and niacin. It is also used as a ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Quinoline. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Quinoline results for Barrow County ... Quinoline. Barrow County Water System. Quinoline is an industrial chemical used to manufacture other products, including dyes. ... Exposure to quinoline may harm the liver, and it is classified as a possible human carcinogen. ...
Comprehensive suppliers list with E-mail/RFQ form for Quinoline Yellow ... Quinoline Yellow Suppliers. EMAIL INQUIRY to 2 suppliers Molecular Depot LLC , Address: 7915 Silverton Ave #315, San Diego, ...
The quinoline compound showed significant activity against the viral pathogen serotype 2 (DENV-2). In vitro conditions and the ... We have synthesized a new quinoline (4,7-dichloroquinoline) derivative which showed significant larvicidal and pupicidal ... purified quinoline exhibited insignificant toxicity on the host system up to 100 µM/mL. Overall, 4,7-dichloroquinoline ... 59 showed that quinoline and non-quinoline derivatives were highly effective against both P. falciparum W2 chloroquine- ...
Crystal structure of 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-iso-quinoline trihydrate
... quinoline derivatives from arylsulfonyl hydrazides and 1-(2-(arylethynyl)phenyl)indoles in the presence of TBAI/TBHP. ... Metal-free sulfonyl radical-initiated cascade cyclization to access sulfonated indolo[1,2-a]quinolines K. Sun, X. Chen, Y. ... Metal-free sulfonyl radical-initiated cascade cyclization to access sulfonated indolo[1,2-a]quinolines† ... A metal-free cascade reaction was developed for the synthesis of indolo[1,2-a]quinoline derivatives from arylsulfonyl ...
Naphthalene derivatives and halogenate quinoline from the coral-derived fungus Trichoderma harzianum (XS-20090075) through ... Compound 9 was the first halogenate quinoline derivative isolated from the genus of Trichoderma. ...
... quinoline. Synonyms: 3,6-Dibromo-4-piperazin-1-yl-quinoline; 3,6-dibromo-4-(1-piperazinyl)quinoline; quinoline, 3,6-dibromo-4-( ... 3,6-Dibromo-4-piperazin-1-yl-quinoline; 3,6-dibromo-4-(1-piperazinyl)quinoline; quinoline, 3,6-dibromo-4-(1-piperazinyl)- ... Suppliers of 3,6-Dibromo-4-(piperazin-1-yl)quinoline. Supplier:. Ubichem. ...
Molecules of the quinoline family block tau self-aggregation: implications toward a therapeutic approach for Alzheimers ... The quinolines 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methyl quinoline (THQ-4S) and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylquinoline (THQ-55) inhibited in ... The quinolines 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methyl quinoline (THQ-4S) and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylquinoline (THQ-55) inhibited in ... seems to be a site for binding of quinolines. Studies suggest the potential clinical use of these quinolines and of their ...
Help with quinoline synthesis. We have been puzzled by a synthesis problem for a while now where our target molecule is a 4- ... The 4-OH-quinoline apparently does a good job at complexing with the aluminium hydrides rendering the reagent inert. Oh well, ... The 4-OH-quinoline apparently does a good job at complexing with the aluminium hydrides rendering the reagent inert. ... Sciencemadness Discussion Board » Fundamentals » Organic Chemistry » Help with quinoline synthesis. Select A Forum. ...
... quinoline , C15H16N2 , CID 3040275 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
2-b]quinoline-3,14(4H,12H)-di. one *Molecular FormulaC21H18N2O5 ... o[1,2-b]quinoline-3. ,14(4H,12H)-dione [ACD/IUPAC Name] ...
A comparative study of 131I-labeled quinoline and tyrosine derivatives. - B Bubeck, M Eisenhut, U Heimke, K zum Winkel ... Melanoma affine radiopharmaceuticals I. A comparative study of 131I-labeled quinoline and tyrosine derivatives.. Abstract. We ... For the chosen tumor model and in comparison with the quinoline derivative (I), the tyrosine derivative (IV) proved to have ...
... Molecular ... 2-(4-butan-2-ylphenyl)-N-[[3-methoxy-4-(2-morpholin-4-ylethoxy)phenyl]methylideneamino]quinoline-4-carboxamide ...
methyl 9-[[2-(3-propan-2-yloxyphenyl)quinoline-4-carbonyl]thiocarbamoylamino]-8-thiabicyclo[5.3.0]deca-9,11-diene-10- ... methyl 9-[[2-(3-propan-2-yloxyphenyl)quinoline-4-carbonyl]thiocarbamoylamino]-8-thiabicyclo[5.3.0]deca-9,11-diene-10- ...
Design, Synthesis and Screening of Newer-8-Hydroxy Quinoline Derivatives as Novel Anti Tubercular Agents Authors. * S R Surekha ... 8-hydroxy Quinolines, Docking, Antitubercular, Antibacterial, Antifungal activity Abstract. A series of 8-hydroxyquinolines are ... Surekha, S. R., Joseph, L., & George, M. (2014). Design, Synthesis and Screening of Newer-8-Hydroxy Quinoline Derivatives as ... Quinolines are found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, analgesic, vasorelaxing, Antiplasmodial, ...
8-trifluoro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid Manufacturers, provide 1-Cyclopropyl-6,7,8-trifluoro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic ... acid product and the products related with China 1-Cyclopropyl-6,7,8-trifluoro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid - louston ... 8-trifluoro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid Suppliers and China 1-Cyclopropyl-6,7, ... 1-Cyclopropyl-6,7,8-trifluoro-4-oxo-3-quinoline carboxylic acid. Category:. Pharmaceuticals and Biochemicals. ...
Long-term exposure to 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline can trigger a potential risk of Parkinsons disease.. Feb 8, 2021 ... Here, we studied the neurotoxicity of the HCA 2-amino-3-methylimidazole[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in vivo by utilizing a zebrafish ...
1]benzothieno[2,3-c]tetraazolo[1,5-a]quinoline - C15H8N4S, synthesis, structure, density, melting point, boiling point ... quinoline , density of [1]benzothieno[2,3-c]tetraazolo[1,5-a]quinoline , refractive index of [1]benzothieno[2,3-c]tetraazolo[1, ... Tags: melting point of [1]benzothieno[2,3-c]tetraazolo[1,5-a]quinoline , boiling point of [1]benzothieno[2,3-c]tetraazolo[1,5-a ...
Learn more about quinoline and other terms defined in Sensient Colors Glossary of Terms. ... Quinoline Yellow. A bright greenish-yellow, water-soluble synthetic dye. It has excellent heat and light stability. In the USA ... A chemical class of colorants characterized by the quinoline structure derived from quinaldine. ...
"Quinolines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Quinolines" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Quinolines" by people in Profiles. ...
Hes working on a new book called Quinolines I Have Known And Loved. Quinolines are non-mescaline chemicals found in certain ...
We are specialized in developing, manufacturing and distribution of Quinolines. ...
Reagent Chemical Suppliers : chemistry supplies - Quinoline
Quinoline. more about. this contaminant. Quinoline is an industrial chemical used to manufacture other products, including dyes ... Exposure to quinoline may harm the liver, and it is classified as a possible human carcinogen. ...
Quinoline is the synthetic heteroaromatic compound that conforms to the formula: C9H7N. ... Quinoline is the synthetic heteroaromatic compound that conforms to the formula: C9H7N. ...
Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline catalyzed by MCM-41-supported nickel phosphides. In: Energy and Fuels. 2007 ; Vol. 21, No. 2 ... Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline catalyzed by MCM-41-supported nickel phosphides. / Lu, Mohong; Wang, Anjie; Li, Xiang et al. ... Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline catalyzed by MCM-41-supported nickel phosphides. Energy and Fuels. 2007 Mar 1;21(2):554-560. ... Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline catalyzed by MCM-41-supported nickel phosphides. Mohong Lu, Anjie Wang, Xiang Li, Xinping ...
Quinolines, quinazolines and quinazolinones, highly. bioactive heterocyclic compounds with a nitrogen core, have been employed ... Application of Modern Green Chemistry Methods in the Synthesis of Quinolines, Quinazolines and Quinazolinones. Author(s): Mario ... Keywords: Deep eutectic solvents, Mechanochemical synthesis, Microwaveassisted synthesis, Quinazoline, Quinazolinone, Quinoline ... Application of Modern Green Chemistry Methods in the Synthesis of Quinolines, Quinazolines and Quinazolinones, Advances in ...
electronic hardwood draughtsmen idm quinoline yellow skam uchel001 uchelfa abstract electronic ambient electronic glitch ...
  • Quinoline itself has few applications, but many of its derivatives are useful in diverse applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, such as pyridine derivatives, quinoline is often reported as an environmental contaminant associated with facilities processing oil shale or coal, and has also been found at legacy wood treatment sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • A metal-free cascade reaction was developed for the synthesis of indolo[1,2- a ]quinoline derivatives from arylsulfonyl hydrazides and 1-(2-(arylethynyl)phenyl)indoles in the presence of TBAI/TBHP. (rsc.org)
  • Studies suggest the potential clinical use of these quinolines and of their derivatives to inhibit tau aggregation and possible therapeutic routes for AD. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Melanoma affine radiopharmaceuticals I. A comparative study of 131I-labeled quinoline and tyrosine derivatives. (curehunter.com)
  • A new series of amino acid derivatives of quinolines was synthesized through the hydrolysis of amino acid methyl esters of quinoline carboxamides with alkali hydroxide. (abo.fi)
  • Reaction of 2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetohydrazide 1with phenyl isothiocyanate, carbon dsulphide, nitrous acid,active methylene compound and aromastic aldehydes afforded different heterocyclic compounds containing quinoline moiety 2-11. (researchcommons.org)
  • Going clockwise from top these are: Combes quinoline synthesis using anilines and β-diketones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline is used as a solvent and reagent in organic synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study the synthesis, antitubercular, antifungal, and antibacterial activities and structure activity relationship of aryloxypropanolamine substituted 8-hydroxy quinolines are reported. (nepjol.info)
  • Application of Modern Green Chemistry Methods in the Synthesis of Quinolines, Quinazolines and Quinazolinones, Advances in Organic Synthesis (2022) 16: 63. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Iron Single Atom Catalyzed Quinoline Synthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The carbon -based SACs exhibit excellent activity and selectivity (≈68%) for the synthesis of substituted quinolines by a three-component oxidative cyclization , affording a wide assortment of quinolines (23 examples) from anilines and acetophenones feedstock in an efficient, atom-economical manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • The design and synthesis of some cyclometalated iridium-(III) complexes containing quinoline-type ligands as ancillary ligands are reported. (figshare.com)
  • We have synthesized a new quinoline (4,7-dichloroquinoline) derivative which showed significant larvicidal and pupicidal properties against a malarial and a dengue vector and a lethal toxicity ranging from 4.408 µM/mL (first instar larvae) to 7.958 µM/mL (pupal populations) for Anopheles stephensi and 5.016 µM/mL (larva 1) to 10.669 µM/mL (pupae) for Aedes aegypti . (nature.com)
  • Compound 9 was the first halogenate quinoline derivative isolated from the genus of Trichoderma . (nih.gov)
  • Doebner reaction using anilines with an aldehyde and pyruvic acid to form quinoline-4-carboxylic acids Doebner-Miller reaction using anilines and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2011, several quinoline compounds have shown Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibition 22 . (nature.com)
  • Quinoline also occurs in the processing of petroleum and shale oil, and is found in groundwater and soil at sites contaminated by coal tar and creosote. (who.int)
  • This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene, and styrene-7,8-oxide. (who.int)
  • In March, 2018, a Working Group of 23 scientists from 12 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of quinoline, styrene , and styrene -7,8-oxide. (cdc.gov)
  • The Working Group classified quinoline as "possibly carcinogenic to humans", Group 2B, based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Kairine) Several anti-malarial drugs contain quinoline substituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline provided the first anti-malarial medicine. (nature.com)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that the IARC Monographs volume on styrene, styrene-7,8-oxide, and quinoline is now available online. (who.int)
  • Quinoline and styrene are present in air pollution and in tobacco smoke. (who.int)
  • Quinoline and styrene are high production volume chemicals. (who.int)
  • Quinolines are used in the manufacture of dyes and the preparation of hydroxyquinoline sulfate and niacin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline is an industrial chemical used to manufacture other products, including dyes. (ewg.org)
  • Quinoline is used to produce various drugs and dyes. (who.int)
  • A high production volume chemical, quinoline is used to produce a variety of drugs and dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Docking studies based on tau modeling, as a structural approach to the analysis of the interaction of tau-binding ligands, indicated that a C-terminal tau moiety, involved in the formation of PHFs, seems to be a site for binding of quinolines. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Owing to its relatively high solubility in water quinoline has significant potential for mobility in the environment, which may promote water contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline is considered as genotoxic and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo only after metabolisation by the liver. (europa.eu)
  • There was strong evidence that quinoline is genotoxic in experimental systems, inducing mutations and chromosomal damage in rodents and in vitro (upon metabolic activation), but no human data on cancer mechanisms were available. (cdc.gov)
  • Over 200 biologically active quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids are identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quinoline metabolite recovered by hydrolysis of these adducts is 3 -hydroxyquinoline. (europa.eu)
  • Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quinoline compound showed significant activity against the viral pathogen serotype 2 (DENV-2). (nature.com)
  • Quinoline is the synthetic heteroaromatic compound that conforms to the formula: C 9 H 7 N. (productingredients.com)
  • 2,4-Di(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinoline is a useful chemical compound with a variety of research applications. (georganics.sk)
  • Quinolines are often synthesized from simple anilines using a number of named reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quinolines 2-(4-methylphenyl)-6-methyl quinoline (THQ-4S) and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-methylquinoline (THQ-55) inhibited in vitro aggregation of heparin-induced polymers of purified brain tau and aggregates of human recombinant tau. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Quinolines are present in small amounts in crude oil within the virgin diesel fraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In view of the potential nature of these moieties it was considered worthwhile to study the effects of two pharmacophoric moieties such as quinoline and propanolamines/amino ethane in a single molecule. (nepjol.info)
  • Long-term exposure to 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline can trigger a potential risk of Parkinson's disease. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Here, we studied the neurotoxicity of the HCA 2-amino-3-methylimidazole[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in vivo by utilizing a zebrafish model. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Most of the synthesized amino acid-quinolines show more potent or equipotent inhibitory action against the tested bacteria than their correspond esters. (abo.fi)
  • Quinoline Yellow is a bright greenish yellow, water soluble dye, which is known as food additive that is developed using sulfonating 2-(2-quinolyl) Indan-1, 3-dione. (syntheticfoodcolors.com)
  • Quinoline Yellow is the only dye in this group of importance for use in food coloration. (syntheticfoodcolors.com)
  • QUINOLINE YELLOW 70% E104-C is a water soluble dye in compliance with EU, Japanese and Chinese cosmetic regulations. (sensient-beauty.com)
  • Exposure to quinoline may harm the liver, and it is classified as a possible human carcinogen. (ewg.org)
  • However, the results on TA100 are quite obvious and were obtained in a lot of different laboratories: quinoline induces gene mutation (missense mutations, by base pair substitution) with metabolic activation from liver of rat, mice, human or hamster. (europa.eu)
  • So, quinoline was able to induce chromosomal aberrations in vivo , when the examined organ is the liver. (europa.eu)
  • So, in the liver, quinoline produces genotoxicity effects in vivo . (europa.eu)
  • In both sexes of Crj:BDF1 mice, drinking water exposure to quinoline increased the incidences of liver histiocytic sarcoma, and in various organs, haemangioma and haemangiosarcoma. (cdc.gov)
  • In three feeding studies, quinoline increased the incidence of liver haemangiosarcoma in male rats of various strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Quinoline is an azaarene that is present in tobacco smoke and air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • Several tests about the clastogenicity of quinoline have been published using mainly the chromosomal aberrations assessment, one test was based on micronucleus determination. (europa.eu)
  • No data were available on cancer in humans, or on exposure, absorption, or distribution of quinoline in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the 5 valid studies, 2 gave positive results and 2 gave negative results and in the last one which was performed in 2 laboratories, quinoline was positive in one lab and negative in the other lab. (europa.eu)
  • Moreover, these quinolines exhibit physical chemical properties similar to drugs able to penetrate the human brain blood barrier. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A chemical class of colorants characterized by the quinoline structure derived from quinaldine. (sensientfoodcolors.com)
  • In vitro conditions and the purified quinoline exhibited insignificant toxicity on the host system up to 100 µM/mL. (nature.com)
  • In vitro studies indicated a significantly lower inhibitory effect of amyloid-β42 on the aggregation, suggesting that tau aggregates are specific targets for quinoline interactions. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Quinoline was shown to produce adducts with nucleic acids in vitro in presence of metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • Quinolines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Coal tar remains the principal source of commercial quinoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that molecules from a family of quinolines interact specifically with oligomeric forms of tau, inhibiting their assembly into AD filaments. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A silylative reduction of quinolines to synthetically versatile tetrahydroquinoline molecules involving the formation of a C(sp 3 )-Si bond exclusively β to nitrogen is described. (gtiit.edu.cn)
  • The reduction of quinoline with sodium borohydride in the presence of acetic acid is known to produce Kairoline A. (C.f. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline is mainly used as in the production of other specialty chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinolines are non-mescaline chemicals found in certain psychoactive cacti. (technoccult.net)
  • In mice and rats, quinoline induced rare tumours of various embryological origins. (cdc.gov)
  • In male and female F344/DuCrj rats, drinking water containing quinoline increased the incidences of haemangiosarcoma (in various organs), and hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • In these cases, quinoline doesn't induce mutations in the tester strains. (europa.eu)
  • However, in the conditions of this test, quinoline induced forward mutations. (europa.eu)
  • Quinoline is only slightly soluble in cold water but dissolves readily in hot water and most organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline is readily degradable by certain microorganisms, such as Rhodococcus species Strain Q1, which was isolated from soil and paper mill sludge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinoline administered by intraperitoneal injection in CD-1 mice induced lymphoma in females and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of H 2 S dramatically reduced the hydrogenation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline to decahydroquinoline, altering unfavorably the reaction pathways involved in the HDN of quinoline. (psu.edu)
  • In addition, the effects of H 2 S (CS 2 as the precursor) on HDN and the performances of the prepared nickel phosphide catalysts in the simultaneous HDN of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) were investigated. (psu.edu)
  • This is the only test showing a mutagenic activity of quinoline in absence of metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • The only report of quinoline as a natural product is from the Peruvian stick insect Oreophoetes peruana. (wikipedia.org)
  • XRD patterns of both high-performance phosphide catalysts revealed that the active phase was Ni 2 P. It is indicated that the HDN of quinoline on the MCM-41-supported nickel phosphides exclusively proceeds via a pathway, which involves fully saturated intermediates. (psu.edu)
  • We are pleased to offer high quality 2,4-Di(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinoline in various sizes (for research, pilot-scale, or production applications) from milligrams to multi-kilogram batches, making it easy for you to choose the right amount to suit your needs. (georganics.sk)
  • Quinoline was tested for its ability to produce cross-link between DNA interstrands and DNA proteins. (europa.eu)
  • We value your input so if you have suggestions regarding new applications for 8-(Bromomethyl)Quinoline email us and we will include your contribution on the website. (discofinechem.com)