Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.
An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (1/3258)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (2/3258)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Synaptic activation of GABAA receptors induces neuronal uptake of Ca2+ in adult rat hippocampal slices. (3/3258)

Synaptically evoked transmembrane movements of Ca2+ in the adult CNS have almost exclusively been attributed to activation of glutamate receptor channels and the consequent triggering of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Using microelectrodes for measuring free extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) and extracellular space (ECS) volume, we show here for the first time that synaptic stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors can result in a decrease in [Ca2+]o in adult rat hippocampal slices. High-frequency stimulation (100-200 Hz, 0.4-0.5 s) applied in stratum radiatum close (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (4/3258)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Selective effects of a 4-oxystilbene derivative on wild and mutant neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic receptor. (5/3258)

1. We assessed the pharmacological activity of triethyl-(beta-4-stilbenoxy-ethyl) ammonium (MG624), a drug that is active on neuronal nicotinic receptors (nicotinic AChR). Experiments on the major nicotinic AChR subtypes present in chick brain, showed that it inhibits the binding of [125I]-alphaBungarotoxin (alphaBgtx) to the alpha7 subtype, and that of [3H]-epibatidine (Epi) to the alpha4beta2 subtype, with Ki values of respectively 106 nM and 84 microM. 2. MG624 also inhibited ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha7 and alpha4beta2 chick subtypes with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of respectively 109 nM and 3.2 microM. 3. When tested on muscle-type AChR, it inhibited [125I]-alphaBgtx binding with a Ki of 32 microM and ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha1beta1gammadelta chick subtype with an IC50 of 2.9 microM. 4. The interaction of MG624 with the alpha7 subtype was investigated using an alpha7 homomeric mutant receptor with a threonine-for-leucine 247 substitution (L247T alpha7). MG624 did not induce any current in oocytes expressing the wild type alpha7 receptor, but did induce large currents in the oocyte-expressed L247T alpha7 receptor. The MG624 elicited current (I(MG62)) has an EC50 of 0.2 nM and a Hill coefficient nH of 1.9, and is blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. These binding and electrophysiological studies show that MG624 is a potent antagonist of neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic AChR, and becomes a competitive agonist following the mutation of the highly conserved leucine residue 247 located in the M2 channel domain.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of multiple subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and their physiological functions in canine hearts. (6/3258)

M2 receptors have long been believed to be the only functional subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in the heart, although recent studies have provided evidence for the presence of other subtypes. We performed a detailed study to clarify this issue. In the presence of tetramethylammonium (1 microM to 10 mM), a novel K+ current with both delayed rectifying and inward rectifying properties (IKTMA) was activated in single canine atrial myocytes. 4-Aminopyridine (0.05-2 mM) also induced a K+ current (IK4AP) with characteristics similar to but distinct from those of IKTMA. Both IKTMA and IK4AP were abolished by 1 microM atropine. IK4AP, but not IKTMA, was minimized by treatment with pertussis toxin. IKTMA was markedly decreased by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (a selective antagonist for M3 subtype) but was not altered by pirenzepine (for M1), methoctramine (for M2), and tropicamide (for M4). Tropicamide substantially reduced IK4AP, but the antagonists for other mAChR subtypes had no effects on IK4AP. By comparison, IKACh (ACh-induced K+ current) was significantly depressed by methoctramine but was unaltered by other antagonists. Results from displacement binding of [methyl-3H]N-scopolamine methyl chloride with pirenzepine, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, or tropicamide revealed the coexistence of multiple mAChR subtypes in canine atrium. Cloning of cDNA fragments and detection of mRNAs coding for M2, M3, and M4 provided further supporting evidence. Our results suggest that 1) multiple subtypes of mAChRs (M2/M3/M4) coexist in the dog heart and 2) different subtypes of mAChRs are coupled to different K+ channels. Our findings represent the first functional evidence for the physiological role of cardiac M3 and M4 receptors.  (+info)

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (7/3258)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

Adenosine inhibits the transfected Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 in Xenopus laevis renal epithelial cells (A6/C1). (8/3258)

1. Adenosine influences the vectorial transport of Na+ and HCO3- across kidney epithelial cells. However, its action on effector proteins, such as the Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3, an epithelial brush border isoform of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) gene family, is not yet defined. 2. The present study was conducted in Xenopus laevis distal nephron A6 epithelia which express both an apical adenosine receptor of the A1 type (coupled to protein kinase C (PKC)) and a basolateral receptor of the A2 type (coupled to protein kinase A (PKA)). The untransfected A6 cell line expresses a single NHE type (XNHE) which is restricted to the basolateral membrane and which is activated by PKA. 3. A6 cell lines were generated which express exogenous rat NHE3. Measurements of side-specific pHi recovery from acid loads in the presence of HOE694 (an inhibitor with differential potency towards individual NHE isoforms) detected an apical resistant Na+-H+ exchange only in transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of the basolateral NHE to HOE694 was unchanged, suggesting that exogenous NHE3 was restricted to the apical membrane. 4. Stimulation of the apical A1 receptor with N 6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) inhibited both apical NHE3 and basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by the addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and partially prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C which also blocked the effect of PMA. 5. Stimulation of the basolateral A2 receptor with CPA inhibited apical NHE3 and stimulated basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and partially prevented by the PKA inhibitor H89 which entirely blocked the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. 6. In conclusion, CPA inhibits rat NHE3 expressed apically in A6 epithelia via both the apical PKC-coupled A1 and the basolateral PKA-coupled A2 adenosine receptors.  (+info)

quaternary ammonium compound definition. Explain quaternary ammonium compound. What is quaternary ammonium compound? quaternary ammonium compound meaning. quaternary ammonium compound sense. quaternary ammonium compound FAQ. quaternary ammonium compound synonyms.
A synergistic cleaning composition has been discovered comprising an aqueous solution a quaternary ammonium compound component; a nonionic surfactant component; and a glycol ether solvent. Surprisingly, the combination of the quaternary ammonium compound component, the nonionic surfactant component, and glycol ether solvent provides a synergistic effect where the cleaning composition functions with a low level of quaternary ammonium compound component while still maintaining at least one of the following desirable properties, as follows: an acceptable cleaning efficacy; a low level irritation or toxicity profile; and/or a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffusion limitation in the block by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. AU - Blaustein, Robert O.. AU - Finkelstein, Alan. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Current flow through the channel formed in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by the PA65 fragment of anthrax toxin is blocked, in a voltage-dependent manner, by tetraalkylammonium ions (at micromolar concentrations), which bind to a blocking site within the channel lumen. We have presented evidence that diffusion plays a significant role in the kinetics of blocking by tetrabutylammonium ion (Bu4N+) from the cis (toxin-containing) side of the membrane (Blaustein, R. O., E. J. A. Lea, and A. Finkelstein. 1990. J. Gen. Physiol. 96:921-942); in this paper we examine the implications and consequences of diffusion control for binding kinetics. As expected for a diffusion-affected reaction, both the entry rate constant (k1cis) of Bu4N+ from the cis solution to the ...
Define quaternary ammonium compound: any of numerous strong bases and their salts derived from ammonium by replacement of the hydrogen atoms with…
Visit ChemicalBook To find more Dodecyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate(103999-25-3) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Dodecyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate(103999-25-3). At last,Dodecyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate(103999-25-3) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the environment, posing a potential risk to organisms. This study examined the effects of three typical QACs, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (DBAC), and didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), on hydroponically cultured wheat seedlings. After 14 days of exposure, both hormesis and phytotoxicity were observed in the wheat seedlings. The shoot and root fresh weight gradually increased as QAC concentrations rose from 0.05 to 0.8 mg L-1. However, higher QAC concentrations severely inhibited plant growth by decreasing shoot and root fresh weight, total root length, and photosynthetic pigment content. Moreover, the increase in malondialdehyde and O-2(.-) contents, as well as root membrane permeability, reflected an oxidative burst and membrane lipid peroxidation caused by QACs. However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative
Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
Fibrous cellulose materials useful in the manufacture of soft, absorbent paper products such as paper towels, facial tissues, and toilet tissue are disclosed. The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower oil. Variables that need to be adjusted to maximize the fluidity of vegetable oil based acyl groups include the cis/trans isomer ratio or the Iodine Value (IV) of the fatty acyl groups. The tissue softness is further enhanced by controlling the purity of the fatty acyl groups and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds.
This invention relates to the use of alkyl amido quaternary ammonium salts, and formulations thereof, as thickening agents in aqueous based fluids, especially those used in oil field applications. The quaternary ammonium salts of the present invention exhibit improved gelling characteristics.
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Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance.. ...
99035-72-0 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C10-16-alkylbis(hydroxyethyl), chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
91721-91-4 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C10-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
We report herein the efficiency of quaternary ammonium salts as co-catalysts in organocatalytic Michael reactions involving iminium activation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The enantioselective formal benzylation of these substrates has been optimized and used to rationalize the role of the ammonium salts in Organocatalysis
Are there hydrogen bonds in supercritical methanol and ethanol? Temperature and length scale dependence of tetraalkylammonium ion-amide interaction
New quaternary ammonium salts have been prepared from an amino amide and an amino ester and found to be useful in hair cream rinse formulations.
ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the role of quaternary ammonium salt of U50,488H (Q-U50,488H) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and underlying mechanisms involved. A HPH animal model was established in rats under hypoxia and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and right
Stable aqueous compositions of silane quaternary ammonium compounds are provided by diluting an alkanol solution of the silane quaternary ammonium compound in water with at least one nonionic surfacta
Quaternary ammonium compounds are molecules which contain a nitrogen atom with four other atoms bonded to it. Most quaternary ammonium compounds are organic compounds and have biological activity. These compounds often work well as disinfectants, offering bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Modified Letheen Agar is used as a quaternary ammonium compound neutralizer for the sampling of environmental surfaces. Quaternary ammonia compounds are neutralized by lecithin while phenolic disinfectants and hexacholorphene are neutralized by Tween® 80. Together, lecithin and Tween® 80 neutralize ethanol.. Modified Letheen Agar is formulated as described in the 7th edition of the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual.(1) Modified Letheen Agar is recommended by the FDA for use in the microbiological testing of cosmetics.(2) The medium contains beef extract and peptone to provide a nutrient rich medium supporting the growth of a variety of microorganisms. The tryptone level was increased in the ...
Page contains details about TUSC2 expression vector in N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride : cholesterol liposome nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We have investigated the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTA) micelle with weak polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid). Anionic as well as un-ionized forms of the polyelectrolytes were studied. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes were formed within 5-11 ns of the simulation time and were found to be stable. Association is driven purely by electrostatic interactions for anionic chains whereas dispersion interactions also play a dominant role in the case of un-ionized chains. Surfactant headgroup nitrogen atoms are in close contact with the carboxylic oxygens of the polyelectrolyte chain at a distance of 0.35 nm. In the complexes, the polyelectrolyte chains are adsorbed on to the hydrophilic micellar surface and do not penetrate into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Polyacrylate chain shows higher affinity for complex formation with DoTA as compared to polymethacrylate chain. Anionic polyelectrolyte chains show higher interaction strength as compared to
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-44239, Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
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Read Solid-Phase Synthesis of Triethylammonium Salt of 4-Oxothiazolidine-2-thione, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Guanosine-3ʹ-5ʹ-cyclic Monophosphate, 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-, Triethylammonium Salt - Calbiochem Selective membrane-permeable activator of protein kinase G that has a higher activation potential than cGMP. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Buy Emtricitabine Triphosphate Triethylammonium Salt online at LGC Standards, high-quality reference standards for pharmaceutical testing.
For surface active substances the critical micelle concentration (CMC) method is used as an alternative to the water solubility. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is determined by measuring the surface tension of test substance solutions at different test substance concentration. For surface active substances which form micelles in solution, the surface tension decreases with increasing concentration until the CMC is reached. At concentrations above the CMC, the surface tension remains constant. The CMC is determined from a plot of the surface tension versus the logarithm of the test substance concentration ...
In vitro An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the potential of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (25% purity), to induce gene mutations Salmonella typhimurium strains, according to OECD Guideline 471, in compliance with GLP. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA were treated with the test substance using the Ames plate incorporation (pre-experiment and experiment I) and pre-incubation methods (experiment II). The assay was performed in three independent experiments both with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). All positive control showed a distinct increase in the number of revertant colonies. Strong cytotoxic effects, evidenced by a reduction in the number of revertants, occurred in the test groups with and without S9 mix. No substantial increase in revertant colony numbers in any of the five tester strains was observed following treatment with the test substance either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. ...
Arquad C-35, Cocotrimethylammonium chloride, Quaternary ammonium compounds Alkyltrimethyl, Arquad C-35 is a quaternary ammonium compound - Cocotrimethylammonium chloride.
Oral: Study 1: A study was conducted to determine the oral repeated dose toxicity of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (24 -26% active in water), according to a method similar to OECD Guideline 407, in compliance with GLP. Groups of 10 male and female rats were administered 0, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day of read across substance by oral gavage for 28 days. The read across substance used was a 24-26% aqueous solution but it is not clear if the doses mentioned were corrected. There were no treatment-related changes at the 30 and 100 mg/kg bw/day. In the high-dose group there was an increase in water consumption, changes in the absolute and relative weights of the adrenals and spleens (in males) without corresponding effects on haematology, clinical chemistry and histology. The forestomach of the high-dose group showed few microscopic changes, however animals in the high-dose recovery group showed a complete and regular regeneration of the forestomach mucosa. Hence, the forestomach effects were ...
The actual intake of test substance for both males and females given 250, 1000 and 2000 ppm throughout the study is approximately 16-25, 61-101 and 123-208 mg/kg bw/day, respectively for the F0 generation and 24-31, 96-123 and 202-252 mg/kg bw/day for the F1 generation. Details on results: Parent males (F0): No effects:mortality, clinical signs, mating and fertility indices, seminology parameters, macroscopic post-mortem examination and histopathology. Body weight: During the first week of dosing, the body weight gains were slightly low at the low and mid dose-levels (-13% and -11%, p,0.01, p,0.05, respectively) and moderately low at the high dose-level (days 1 to 8, -24%, p,0.001). This effect on body weight gain was observed over all the dosing period (days 1 to 106, - 11%, p,0.01; -8%, non-statistically significant and -20%, p,0.001, at 250, 1000 and 2000 ppm, respectively). At all dose-levels, when compared to controls, body weights were marginally lower for the low and mid dose-levels ...
The public activities coordination tool (PACT) provides an overview of the substance-specific activities that authorities are working on under REACH and the CLP Regulation. These activities are being carried out in line with ECHAs Integrated Regulatory Strategy.. PACT provides up-to-date information on the activities planned, ongoing or completed by ECHA and/or MSCAs for a given substance in the following areas:. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on tetrapentylammonium chloride Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New tetrapropylammonium bromide-based deep eutectic solvents. T2 - Synthesis and characterizations. AU - Jibril, Baba. AU - Mjalli, Farouq. AU - Naser, Jamil. AU - Gano, Zaharaddeen. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Deep eutectic solvents are analogues of ionic liquids that are environmentally benign, have a range of desirable liquid properties and are easy to prepare. In this study, new tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are introduced. Different hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) - ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and glycerol were used at different molar ratios of TPAB:HBD (1:2.5-1:5). Effects of temperature and the TPAB:HBD ratios on the DESs were investigated. Solvents of different physicochemical properties andwide liquid rangeswithminimummelting point temperatures of 249.75, 253.95 and 257.05 Kwere obtained for TPAB:ethylene glycol (1:4), TPAB:triethylene glycol (1:3) and TPAB/glycerol (1:3) respectively. The samples were further characterized in ...
Co-exposure of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widely present in the aquatic environment. The knowledge about their toxicities to microorganism at low concentration is lacking. This study aims to test the toxic response of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67 (12-h exposure) to individual and mixtures of QACs by the long-term microplate toxicity analysis method (L-MTA). Hormetic effects were observed for five individual QACs at 12-h exposure of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67. The maximum stimulation effect of − 339.66% was present in the 0.00561 mol/L tetraethylammonium bromide solution. A stimulation effect (− 23.55%) was detected when each of QACs in the five-component mixture was present at 50% effect concentration (
TATVA CHINTAN based in Gujarat, India is a manufacturer, supplier, exporter of Cetrimide, Tetrabutylammonium Hydrogen Sulphate, Tetrabutylammonium Chloride, Tetrabutylammonium Bromide at the best price.
This research emphasized fundamental physical and electrochemical studies of systems based on the room temperature fused salt, triethyl-ammonium dichlorocuprate(I). Such systems, which must be maintained under a protective atmosphere, were also used in some preliminary battery studies. Spectra of dark green solutions of copper (II) chloride in triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) obey Beers law, with an absorption maximum at 402 nm, ε 2.02x10³ lit /mol cm. This behavior is typical of chlorocuprate(II) complexes. No special behavior due to intervalence transfer absorption is observed. Densities of solutions of various salts in triethylammotium dichlorocuprate(I) were determined dilatometrically in the range 25-50°C, permitting concentrations to be expressed both on weight and molarity bases. The endothermic formation of liquid triethylammonium dichlorocuprate( I) involved a 10.9% increase in molar volume. The specific conductance of triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) increases from ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
0031]Disclosed herein are ophthalmic solutions and methods for their use, which comprise a complex of at least one cationic compound and at least one an anionic polymer. In one embodiment, the complex can comprise a first and second cationic compound. In one embodiment, the first and second cationic compounds are antimicrobial agents. In one embodiment, the first cationic compound can be a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound. In one embodiment, the complex is formed of a first cationic component, a second cationic component and an anionic polymer. The complex can be used as an antimicrobial agent or as an antimicrobial component. The antimicrobial complexes disclosed herein can provide enhanced biocidal activity over other antimicrobial agents, without significantly contributing to ocular irritation or user discomfort. Typically, when mixing hydrophilic anionic polymers with cationic polymeric antimicrobial agents, formation of precipitates occurs and the antimicrobial activity is lost. This ...
NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, or --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), a cyano group, --NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), and a halogen atom; and n is an integer from 1 to 12); (ix) --(CH2)nNR12COR13 (where R12 and R13 are groups independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) a hydrogen atom; (2) a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched; (3) an aryl group, wherein the aryl group may be substituted with at least one group selected from the group consisting of: a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched, a C1 to C5 alkoxy group that may be ...
Author: Ondřej Suk Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds Diploma thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Study program: Pharmacy Background: The aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of newly proposed and prepared quaternary ammonium salts. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to measure antimicrobial activity of 8 new substances divided into three structure groups on 8 bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia bercovieri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL positive and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Out of the 3 structure groups, the highest antimicrobial potential was found with some methylmorpholine salts and benzylimidazole substituted salts. Generally, the substances were, as supposed, more efficient with the Gram-positive bacteria tribes than with ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
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Abstract: UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FL), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the three quaternary ammonium surfactants N-dodecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, Ndimethyl ammonium bromide (DHDAB), N-tetradecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (THDAB) and N-cetyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (CHDAB). These surfactants quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, with longer alkyl chains resulting in more significant quenching. This was attributed to static quenching. Further evidence of static quenching was provided by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The particle size of BSA was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. The concentration of surfactant changed the type of interaction mode. This work revealed the mechanism and binding characteristics between surfactants ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
The effects of added ammonium ion (10-1000 μM) on photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation by tissues slices from the mantle of tridacnid clams, by coral tips, and by isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle were examined. Ammonium ions stimulated photosynthesis in tissue slices but not in freshly isolated zooxanthellae. When ammonium stimulated 14CO2 fixation by coral tips an increase in water-soluble labelled compounds, especially amino acids, was observed. Even though ammonium ions did not stimulate photosynthesis in isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle, light stimulated ammonium uptake in these cells. Studies with 15NH+4 confirmed earlier observations (in zooxanthellae isolated from Hippopus) of light-stimulated transfer of ammonium from the amido-N of glutamine to the amino-N of glutamate, glutamine and other amino acids. This observation, in isolated zooxanthellae and tissue slices, suggests that the glutamine synthase-glutamate synthetase pathway of ammonium incorporation is light-driven in these ...
Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C ...
The concentrations of iodophor necessary to reduce the activity of several metabolic enzyme systems 50 percent was used as the basic approach in attempts to elucidate the mechanism of germicidal action of iodine. For comparisons, a chlorine-releasing germicide (Trichlorocide) and a quaternary ammonium compound were also tested. It was found that on parts per million basis, Trichlorocide inhibited the activity of most of the enzymes 50 percent in smaller concentrations than either iodophor or the quaternary ammonium compound. However on a molar basis iodophor was the most effective in inhibiting the activity of a majority of the enzymes. Conversely, the activity of most enzymes was not inhibited by the quaternary ammonium compound. In all tests where there was at least 50 percent inhibition of enzyme activity, the concentration of the germicide was well below that normally used for disinfection and sanitation purposes, providing further evidence on the sensitive nature of certain enzyme systems ...
Biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds and the use of same as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical compositions are described. The biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds are useful in the preservation of pharmaceutical compositions, particularly ophthalmic pharmaceutical compositions and compositions for treating contact lenses. The compounds are especially useful for disinfecting contact lenses.
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US EPA PC Code ); 069151 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68002-62-0 (CAS number); 68002620; 68002620 (CAS number without hyphens); Alkyl* trimethyl ammonium chloride *(90%C18, 10%C16); Alkyl*trimethylammoniumchloride*90%C1810%C16; Arquad S-50; C16-18-Alkyltrimethylchlorides quaternary ammonium compounds; Quaternary ammonium compounds, C16-18-alkyltrimethyl, ...
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The surface disinfectants market is segmented on the basis of type, formulation, application, and end user. On the basis of type, the market is segmented into quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, phenolic compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and other surface disinfectants. The quaternary ammonium compounds segment is expected to account for the largest share of the market in 2017. The growth in this segment is primarily attributed to widespread availability and large consumption of surface disinfectants in hospitals.. Based on formulation, the surface disinfectant market is segmented into liquids, wipes, and sprays. In 2017, the liquids segment accounted for the largest share of the market. Factors such as the increasing demand for the disinfection of hospital areas and the wide adaptability of these formulations are expected to drive the growth of this market segment.. By region, the surface disinfectants market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia, and the Rest of the ...
Multiple drug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) ranks top among the nosocomial pathogen due to their environmental elasticity, ability to colonize various body sites of hospitalized patients, long-time persistence, association with multiple drug resistance and their successful outbreak potential [1-5]. It causes a wide spectrum of nosocomial infections which includes infections of bloodstream, urinary and respiratory tract, and ventilator associated pneumonia commonly among Intensive Care Unit patients (ICU) [6,7].. The main sources of transmission implicated with A. baumannii infections are person to person contact or through contaminated surface [8] and previous room occupancy by patients with A. baumannii infection or colonization. Epidemiological studies have clearly shown that hospital environment and colonized patients as the major reservoirs of A. baumannii infections [9]. Management of A. baumannii infections is the greatest challenge for patients, clinicians and infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of manganite perovskites by reverse homogeneous precipitation method in the presence of alkylammonium cations. AU - Teraoka, Yasutake. AU - Nanri, Shinichi. AU - Moriguchi, Isamu. AU - Kagawa, Shuichi. AU - Shimanoe, Kengo. AU - Yamazoe, Noboru. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - A single-phase LaMnO3+δ perovskite with high surface area could be synthesized after air-calcining the hydroxide precursor at 650 °C and above. The precursor was easily obtained by dropping a mixed aqueous solution of La and Mn nitrates into highly basic aq NH3 with and without the presence of N(CH3)4Br. The addition of N(CH3)4Br was effective in increasing the specific surface area of the products as well as in stabilizing the colloidal solution of the hydroxide precursor.. AB - A single-phase LaMnO3+δ perovskite with high surface area could be synthesized after air-calcining the hydroxide precursor at 650 °C and above. The ...
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The purpose of this study was to identify anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and to support quantitative PCR results which were performed for searching an effective seeding sludge to achieve successful enrichment of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Eleven sludge-samples originated from ten purification facilities for livestock wastewater were used in this study. At first, six samples among the eleven samples were selected by gas productivity per a gram biomass. The selected samples were used for the experiments of qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing after extraction of the genomic DNAs. The quantitative PCR was done with the primer sets of AMX818F/AMX1066R and HZO2aF/HZO2aR. The amplicons for pyrosequencing analysis were constructed by using the primer-set which is consisted of a specific pla46F primer targeting the conserved 16S rRNA gene belongs to Plantomycetes phylum and eub 518R targeting the conserved 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria. There is no meaningful correlation between the results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancing the electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur batteries using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide coated separator. AU - Cho, Sung Ho. AU - Cho, Sung Man. AU - Bae, Ki Yoon. AU - Kim, Byung Hyuk. AU - Son, Byung Dae. AU - Yoon, Wooyoung. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - In this study, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified separator is developed by using a simple and facile method for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. CTAB is coated on only one side of separator using a doctor blade. The coated CTAB on the separator improves wettability between separator and electrolyte and ionic conductivity of separator. In addition, CTAB also inhibits the migration of dissolved polysulfides to the anode side. These phenomena improve the electrochemical properties of Li-S batteries using CTAB-coated separators. Cells using the CTAB-coated separator exhibit an initial capacity of 1136 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C-rate. In addition, they can maintain a higher capacity (765 mAh g−1) and ...
The apparent molar heat capacities, ϕ C p , of ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and tetraethylammonium, tetra-n-propylammonium, tetra-n-butylammonium and tetra-n-pentylammonium bromides have been measured measured using a Picker flow calorimeter (Sodev, Canada, Model CP-Cpr) at 298.15 K in water-N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures. The contribution of the CH2 moiety, ϕ C p (CH2), was estimated from these data as the change in ϕ C p per additional CH2 unit. The values of ϕ C p (CH2) in water (ca. 100 J·K−1·mol−1) are two to three times those in neat organic solvents (ca. 30-40 J·K−1·mol−1), consistent with a substantial contribution from hydrophobic solvation in water. In water-rich aqueous DMF solutions, ϕ C p (CH2) decreases monotonically with increasing DMF concentration, the decrease being more rapid for the n-alcohols. This trend differs significantly from that reported in the literature for highly aqueous mixtures of t-butanol, where ϕ C p (CH2) passes through a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalyst poisoning and selectivity constants in polyethylene glycol catalyzed phase transfer catalysis. AU - Neumann, Ronny. AU - Sasson, Yoel. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Polyethylene glycol was found to undergo anionic catalyst poisoning by lipophilic anions in a manner similar to that of quaternary ammonium salts, even though the interaction between alkali salts and the catalyst is generally considered to be influenced only by the cation. From reaction profiles which indicated catalyst poisoning, an exact kinetic equation describing the conversion as a function of time could be used to compute selectivity constants, Ks, by graphic iterations.. AB - Polyethylene glycol was found to undergo anionic catalyst poisoning by lipophilic anions in a manner similar to that of quaternary ammonium salts, even though the interaction between alkali salts and the catalyst is generally considered to be influenced only by the cation. From reaction profiles which indicated catalyst ...
Cyndan Econo 701 is an affordable powder puff fragranced antiseptic germicide and disinfectant, refined quaternary ammonium compound.
Ferric ammonium citrate, key ingredient for processes such as cyanotype or Vandyke brownprint. Analytical grade for highest quality (p.p.a). 50 grams
Roccal-D is a disinfectant manufactured by Pfizer that is used in many animal care facilities and some biological laboratories. It is effective against bacteria including Mycoplasma, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, E. coli, and Salmonella. It also destroys viruses including canine parvovirus, parainfluenza-3 and pseudorabies. Roccal was originally produced by Winthrop Laboratories. Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and didecyldimethylammonium chloride. These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. The greatest bactericidal activity is associated with the C12-C14 alkyl derivatives. The current formulation of Roccal also includes tributyltin oxide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Studies of PET nonwovens modified by novel antimicrobials configured with both N-halamine and dual quaternary ammonium with different alkyl chain length. AU - Chien, Hsiu Wen. AU - Chen, Ying Yuan. AU - Chen, Yen Lun. AU - Cheng, Chi Hui. AU - Lin, Jui-Che. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - This work describes the synthesis of novel antimicrobial agents consisting of N-halamine and dual quaternary ammonium with different alkyl chain lengths and their antimicrobial applications for PET nonwovens. The antimicrobial agents were grafted onto PET nonwovens via esterification with a crosslinker, 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA). The cyclic amide structure in the antimicrobial agents could be easily converted to N-halamine after immersion in a diluted chlorine bleach solution. Variations in surface chemical composition of the modified PET nonwovens were examined by XPS. Antimicrobial activities of the nonwovens/fabrics were tested against S. aureus (Gram-positive) and E. coli ...
Distribution The steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) of methylnaltrexone is approximately 1.1 L/kg. The fraction of methylnaltrexone bound to human plasma proteins is 11% to 15%, as determined by equilibrium dialysis. Elimination Following oral administration of a single 450 mg dose of RELISTOR tablets, concentrations of methylnaltrexone declined in multiphasic manner with a terminal half-life (t1/2) of approximately 15 hours.. Metabolism In an intravenous mass balance study, approximately 44% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine over 24 hours with 5 distinct metabolites. None of the detected metabolites was in amounts over 6% of administered radioactivity. Conversion to methyl-6-naltrexol isomers (5% of total) and methylnaltrexone sulfate (1% of total) appear to be the primary pathways of metabolism. N‑demethylation of methylnaltrexone to produce naltrexone is not significant.. Systemic exposure of methylnaltrexone metabolites after oral administration of a ...
Activated carbon (AC) was functionalized with two types of quaternary ammonium groups to achieve antibacterial properties. The first route utilized covalently coupled 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride (QAS) on the AC surface, while the second route employed a polycation, poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide). The successful attachment of these two types of quaternary ammonium was indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Both types of functionalized ACs show highly effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the functionalized ACs can be used in repeated antibacterial applications with little loss in efficacy. Using phenol as a model compound, the adsorption capacity of the different ACs was also investigated. The different degrees of decrease in the adsorptive capacity of the two types of functionalized ACs can be related to the changes in the surface area and pore size distribution arising ...
A library of hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) functionalized with different mole fractions of zwitterionic sulfabetaine and cationic quaternary ammonium ligands was synthesized and characterized. A post-polymerization method was employed that utilized double bond moieties on the dendritic HPG for the coupling of thiol-terminated ligands via UV initiated thiol-ene click chemistry. The proportions of different ligands were precisely controlled by varying the ligand concentration during the irradiation process. The effect of the polymer library on hemostasis was investigated using whole human blood. It was found that polymer with ≥40% of alkenes converted to positive charges and the remainder to sulfabetaines caused hemagglutination at ≥1 mg/mL, without causing red blood cell lysis. The quaternary ammonium groups can interact with the negative charged sites on the membranes of erythrocytes, which provides the bioadhesion. The zwitterionic sulfabetaine evidently provides a hydration layer to ...
Capsular antigens of Staphylococcus aureus Smith and 2-8 strains were evaluated for immunogenicity in mice. Cultural conditions necessary for maximum expression of the antigens were also defined. Actively growing S. aureus Smith strain culture was used to challenge lactating GF-1 strain mice which had been vaccinated with various capsule antigen preparations. Capsule antigen production was evaluated using shaker flask and fermenter cultures. Immunogenicity evaluations using single vaccinations showed that semi-purified capsule preparations elicited a protective response against challenge. Mice vaccinated twice showed that oil and aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted capsule antigens protected against challenge, but DDA (dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide) adjuvanted capsule antigens resulted in more mastitis than non-vaccinated controls. Cultural evaluations showed that media high in nitrogen and carbohydrate content and grown at pH 5.5 resulted in the greatest amount of capsule antigen ...
*If you are looking for bulk quantity of this product (50 + units), please contact us directly [email protected] and our sales team we will be in contact with you.* Cleansan is a liquid type disinfectant that contains QAC (quaternary ammonium compounds). QAC is a powerful disinfectant commonly found in disinfectant wi
Sugar Process Decolorant Quaternary Ammonium Polymer 50% Solid Content Cationic Polyeletrolyte Images - buy direct from Quaternary Ammonium Polymer of waterpurifyingchemicals - China Wholesale Factory.
US EPA PC Code ); 069167 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68956-79-6 (CAS number); 68956796; 68956796 (CAS number without hyphens); Alkyl* dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride *(60%C14, 30%C16, 5%C12, 5%C18); Alkyl*dimethylethylbenzylammoniumchloride*60%C1430%C165%C125%C18; Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18-alkyl((ethylphenyl)methyl)dimethyl, ...
Nominated Substances: Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Nomination Date: 12/22/1987 Nominator: NIEHS Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 3, 8 Status: Selected ...
It is important to note that soil reduces the effectiveness of disinfectants. Different soil types have varying impacts on the effectiveness of the products. However, research has shown that once the equivalent of 1g of soil is present in 20mL of solution (1% product) then the effectiveness of products is compromised or reduced. Investigations into DDAC products (e.g. Steri-maX®, Path-X™, Sporekill® made at 1% solution) has found that when there is no soil contamination, these products remain effective as a disinfectant after being exposed to sunlight, temperature and humidity for up to 12 months. Quaternary ammonium compound test strips have shown to be an effective tool that measures the concentration of the active ingredient DDAC or BZK in disinfectant products. These easy-to-use test strips do not require dilution of the sample and are used by comparing the colour development on the test strip to the colour scale. ...
Although the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has attracted attention regarding its application in ammonia wastewater treatment based on its efficiency, the physiological characteristics of anammox bacteria remain unclear because of the lack of pure-culture representatives. The coexistence of heterotrophic bacteria has often been observed in anammox reactors, even in those fed with synthetic inorganic nutrient medium. In this study, we recovered 37 draft genome bins from a long-term-operated anammox column reactor and predicted the metabolic pathway of coexisting bacteria, especially Patescibacteria (also known as Candidate phyla radiation). Genes related to the nitrogen cycle were not detected in Patescibacterial bins, whereas nitrite, nitrate, and nitrous oxide-related genes were identified in most of the other bacteria. The pathway predicted for Patescibacteria suggests the lack of nitrogen marker genes and its ability to utilize poly-N-acetylglucosamine produced by dominant anammox
Cationic lipid DNA complexes based on DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethyammonium) propane) and mixtures of DOTAP and cholesterol (DC) have been previously optimized for transfection efficiency in the absence of serum and used as a non-viral gene delivery system. To determine whether DOTAP and DC lipid DNA complexes could be obtained with increased transfection effciency in the presence of high serum concentrations, the composition of the complexes was varied systematically and a total of 162 different complexes were analyzed for transfection efficiency in the presence and absence of high serum concentrations. Increasing the ratio of DOTAP or DC to DNA led to a dose dependent enhancement of transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations up to a ratio of approximately 128 nmol lipid/μg DNA. Transfection efficiency could be further increased for all ratios of DOTAP and DC to DNA by addition of the DNA condensing agent protamine sulfate (PS). For DOTAP DNA complexes with ratios of ≤ 32
Kills at least 99.999% of all germs including MRSA. Clinell Universal Disinfectant Spray provide a single, universal product to disinfect and clean, surfaces and equipment. Containing a unique, patented antimicrobial formula they can be used as a disinfectant and detergent spray - replacing the need for multiple surface cleaners. The Clinell Disinfectant Spray is designed for sanitising areas that are hard to reach with wipes. Proven to kill at least 99.999% of germs - Clinell Universal Wipes are one of the most effective antimicrobial products on the market. This revolutionary formula contains 6 different biocides. Each biocide acts with a different mechanism of action, reducing the risk of germs developing resistance. Powerful, patented biocidal formulation, based on a synergistic mix of quaternary ammonium compounds and a polymeric biguanide each with a completely different mechanism of action. This ensures the widest spectrum of activity whilst mediating against resistance.
Kills at least 99.999% of all germs including MRSA. Clinell Universal Disinfectant Spray provide a single, universal product to disinfect and clean, surfaces and equipment. Containing a unique, patented antimicrobial formula they can be used as a disinfectant and detergent spray - replacing the need for multiple surface cleaners. The Clinell Disinfectant Spray is designed for sanitising areas that are hard to reach with wipes. Proven to kill at least 99.999% of germs - Clinell Universal Wipes are one of the most effective antimicrobial products on the market. This revolutionary formula contains 6 different biocides. Each biocide acts with a different mechanism of action, reducing the risk of germs developing resistance. Powerful, patented biocidal formulation, based on a synergistic mix of quaternary ammonium compounds and a polymeric biguanide each with a completely different mechanism of action. This ensures the widest spectrum of activity whilst mediating against resistance.
Disinfectant - Hospital Grade is a blue liquid with a pleasant eucalyptus fragrance, which deodorises, cleans and disinfects in one action. It contains 50g/L concentrated quaternary ammonium compound that kills most of common bacteria at the dilution.
Cyndan Econo 705 is a refined quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant and germicide antiseptic cleaner, with pine fragranced and great economy.
Ranes Disinfectant Solution is a lemon-scented quaternary ammonium compound that is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms including H1N1 Influenza A virus, TB, MRSA, Hepatitis B/C, VISA, VRE, HIV-1, and pathogenic fungi. Our disinfectant solution is concentrated and cleans at a dilution ratio of 2 oz. of disinfectant solution to 1-gallon of water. Available in 1-gallon bottle, 4 one-gallon bottles per case.. ...
Cetrimonium Chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound with the following functions...|br/| |br| Antistatic Agent, Cosmetic Biocide, Emulsifying agent and Surfactant, Antimicrobial, Preservative.|br/| |br| INCI: Cetrimonium Chloride.|br/| |br| T
Antimicrobial compositions are provided wherein there is obtained an enhancement of the activity of an antimicrobial agent exemplified by quaternary ammonium compounds, bisdiguanides, anti-fungal agents, phenols, hydroxydiphenyls, carbanilides, salicylanilides, organo-metalic antiseptics, antibiotics, halogens, organic halogen derivatives and iodophores derived from nonionic surface active agents and from polyvinylpyrrolidone by combining the antimicrobial agent with an effective amount of a potentiator. The potentiator is an alcohol or phenol derivative selected from the group consisting of (a) aliphatic straight or branched chain primary, secondary and tertiary monohydric alcohols wherein the straight chain alcohols have from about 5 to about 10 carbon atoms; and the branched chain alcohols have up to about 17 carbon atoms, their longest straight chain of carbon to carbon bonds having from about 5 to about 10 carbon atoms; (b) a primary, secondary or tertiary cyclohexylalkanol or
A method of solubilizing/removing cellulose or chemically-modified cellulosic polymers utilized in subterranean drilling operations such as fracturing. The method involves introducing a deep eutectic solvent (DES) into a subterranean region. Deep eutectic solvents useful as cellulose solvents include quaternary ammonium compounds, including choline chloride and chlorcholine chloride, reacted with a compound selected from amides, amines, carboxylic acids alcohols, and metal halides. The DES material can be pumped downhole after fracturing operations to remove cellulosic material used, for example, to thicken fracturing fluid which is left behind in the created fractures, on the face of the formation, along the wellbore, or elsewhere within the subterranean region. The DES can be used alone or in a sequential treatment protocol, whereby the DES is introduced into the subterranean region, followed by post-treatment introduction of water, caustic, acid or anhydride into the subterranean as a flush.
To study the spread of viruses within a building, researchers contaminated a variety of surfaces in several different buildings with a benign virus that lives and multiplies within bacteria to use as a tracer. The particular virus used was bacteriophage MS-2, which is similar to noroviruses which are a common cause of the stomach flu.. After some time had passed, researchers sampled surfaces that can harbor infectious organisms, such a light switches and faucet handles, to see how far the planted virus had spread. What they found was that the virus had spread to a majority of commonly touched surfaces after just two to four hours. They also found that the bathroom wasnt the worst offender; the break room was the most contaminated location. (Just think how many people touch the coffee pot handle!). The study also included an intervention phase where cleaning personal and employees were provided with quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) disinfectant containing wipes and instructed on proper use ...
The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption in mice of the anticholinergic quaternary ammonium compound emepronium, assessed by the urinary excretion of radioactivity and unchanged drug, increased from 1% to 7% and from 0.5% to 5%, respectively, in the dose range 0.1 to 40 mg/kg, whereafter a plateau was reached. Changes in the metabolism were evident at doses exceeding 80 mg/kg when 80% of the radioactivity was excreted as unchanged emepronium, as compared to 50% at lower doses. No dose-dependent urinary excretion of radioactivity was detected following intravenous injection. The increase in the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine after oral administration therefore cannot be easily explained by a dose-dependent metabolism or renal excretion. However, a relationship was seen between the reduced gastrointestinal motility, produced by increasing doses of the drug, and the increased bioavailability. Atropine sulphate given subcutaneously (1-50 mg/kg) more than doubled the urinary recovery of a small
Integrons are the moving agents that can be located in plasmids, chromosomes, or transposons (6). These agents, similar to plasmid and transposons, play an important role in the development of multiple drug resistances. Nowadays, more than 21 different gene cassettes are recognized that are capable of providing the prerequisites needed to become resistant to antibiotics such as aminoglycosides, penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenems, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, erythromycin and the quaternary ammonium compounds. Furthermore, it was reported by many studies that integrons containing more than 1 gene cassette enable the carrying bacteria to develop multi drug resistances (21). Among the discovered integrons, class 1 integrons are the most prevalent and the most important ones to transfer drug resistant genes.. The current study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical and environmental specimens. Among the 150 P. ...
An organoclay made by the reaction of smectite clay and a quaternary ammonium compound derived from an oil having 50% or more of its carbon chain lengths consisting of C14 or lower is described as an effective oil spill remediation agent. Oils used include coconut, babasso and palm-kennel oil. Such organoclays effectiveness as an oil spill remediation agent, and that of organoclays can be increased by (a) further treatment with a water insoluble compound such as vegetable oil and b) by mixture with an organic fibrous material such as waste paper pulp. The agents produced are particularly effective in polar and arctic waters in maintaining buoyancy of the oil agglomeration formed by their use. Methods of remediating oil spills using organoclays particularly useful in regions such as waters of the Alaska oceans and inlets of the North Sea are also described.
Melvin Pascall and colleagues 2007 assessed the sanitization efficiency of the manual cleaning dishwashing procedure. Pascall and colleagues found that using a combination of low washing temperatures of 75°F (24°) and and minimal sanitizer concentration (150 ppm) of quaternary ammonium compounds the FDA recommended bacteria reduction greater than 5-log bacterial reductions were achieved. The stress, however, that different material of the utensils and different food residues, like milk may have different survival opportunities for various bacteria. The authors recommend to wash dishes right away before food dries. It saves washing time and gets rid of problematic places, like gaps between prongs of forks,where bacteria might be able to survive washing and drying. This is valid for restaurants as well as for home kitchen.. Read Also Global Food Safety and Global Food Trade. ...
Quaternary ammonium compoundsEdit. Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of ... Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and ... "In vitro Antifungal Efficacy of Biguanides and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Cleanroom Fungal Isolates". PDA J Pharm ... Inorganic compoundsEdit. ChlorineEdit. This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid. ...
Quaternary ammonium compound Stockman, R (September 1893). "The Physiological Action of Quinoline, Isoquinoline and some of ... Quinoline methiodide is a quaternary ammonium compound produced by reaction of quinoline with methyl iodide. It has paralyzing ...
Neef, C.; Oosting, R.; Meijer, D. K. F (1984). "Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds". ... Banus, M. D.; Bragdon, R. W.; Gibb, T. R. P. (1952). "Preparation of quaternary ammonium borohydrides from sodium and lithium ... TMA salts do possess some of the phase-transfer catalytic properties that are characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds, ... Burn, J. H.; Dale, H. H. (1915). "The action of certain quaternary ammonium bases". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 6: 417-438. ...
Also applied are dibrom nitrilopropionamide and quaternary ammonium compounds. For underwater ship hulls bottom paints are ... inorganic chlorine and bromide compounds, chlorine and bromide cleavers, ozone and oxygen cleavers, unoxidizable biocides. One ...
Non-oxidized toxicants include isothiazolinones and quaternary ammonium compounds. An intoxicant is a substance that ...
The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... Ioannou, C.; Hanlon, G.; Denyer, S. (2007). "Action of Disinfectant Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...
... is a family of water-soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Choline hydroxide is known as choline base. It is ... The compound now known as neurine is unrelated to choline. In the early 1930s, Charles Best and colleagues noted that fatty ... Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM (May 2003). "Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods ... Diethanolamine is another such compound, but also an environmental pollutant. N-cyclohexylcholine inhibits choline uptake ...
WILLEY, GL (December 1955). "Stimulant activities of quaternary ammonium compounds on mammalian skeletal muscle". British ...
It is a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound. The cation, which is the active moiety, is called glycopyrronium (INN) or ...
Milder forms include ethanol and quaternary ammonium compounds in low concentration. A formaldehyde based chemical was used for ...
... and the related compounds isolane, pirimicarb and triazamate. The quaternary ammonium compounds neostigmine finds ...
Babayan's main research is devoted to amines and quaternary ammonium compounds. She established a number of new laws in the ... chemistry of quaternary ammonium compounds. Babayan proposed a method for synthesizing acetylene glycols, known in the chemical ... In 1953, she discovered the catalytic action of ammonium salts for the alkylation reaction of organic acids. In 1955-1957 ... Babayan was a head of the organic chemistry sector and from 1957 to 1993 head of the laboratory of the amino compounds of ...
... is a chemical antiseptic and a quaternary ammonium compound. Active ingredients used in cosmetics: safety ...
"Distribution of new quaternary ammonium compounds, solorinine and peltigerine, in the peltigerales". Bryologist. 102 (2): 196- ... Peltigera leucophlebia contains the compounds tenuiorin and methyl orsellinate, which are inhibitory to the enzyme 15- ...
The toxicity of quaternary ammonium compounds, which are antibacterial and antifungal, varies. Dialkyldimethylammonium ... The cationic part is based on primary, secondary, or tertiary amines or quaternary ammonium cations. The anionic part can be ... Permanently charged quaternary ammonium salts: cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzalkonium ... Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a ...
... is a short chain aldehyde and quaternary ammonium compound. It can be considered a derivative of the ...
... and cetrimonium are all quaternary ammonium compounds containing nitrogen. The antibacterial activity of these compounds is ... Polymer quaternary ammonium compounds containing nitrogen induce cell death through electrostatic interactions and the ... Optimal antimicrobial activity is generally seen in quaternary ammonium compounds with a long chain length, containing 8-18 ... Polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity include chitosan, poly‐ε‐lysine, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyethylenimine ...
... is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound.[2] It is not well absorbed in the ... "PubChem Compound. Retrieved 6 March 2014.. *^ Sanders KM, Zhu MH, Britton F, Koh SD, Ward SM (February 2012). "Anoctamins and ...
Many of these compounds are quaternary ammonium salts, as well as cetrimonium bromide (CTAB). Non-ionic surfactants are non- ... In general, compounds with an HLB between one and four will not mix with water. Compounds with an HLB value above 13 will form ... These compounds have both positively and negatively charged components. An example of a zwitterionic compound is ... Compounds which interact too harshly with oil dispersants should be tested to ensure that they meet three criteria: They should ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some ... Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and ... "In vitro Antifungal Efficacy of Biguanides and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Cleanroom Fungal Isolates". PDA J Pharm ... Quaternary ammonia at or above 200ppm plus alcohol solutions exhibit efficacy against difficult to kill non-enveloped viruses ...
CAV-1 is destroyed in the environment by steam cleaning and quaternary ammonium compounds. Otherwise, the virus can survive in ...
"Evidence That Two Alkyl Ester Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Lack Substantial Human Skin-Sensitizing Potential". Dermatitis. 18 ... these readily absorb DNA and other negatively charged organic compounds. The DNA laden liposomes can then be added directly to ... In practice the saturated di-sterate compound tend to be the major component of these mixtures. Material intended for ...
It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. ADBACs have three main categories of use: as a biocide, a ... Thorup I: Evaluation of health hazards by exposure to Quaternary ammonium compounds, The Institute of Food Safety and ... manufacturer and marketer of topical antimicrobial pharmaceuticals based on quaternary ammonium compounds, found that their own ... Ogilvie, Benjamin; Solis-Leal, Antonio (November 28, 2020). "Alcohol-free hand sanitizer and other quaternary ammonium ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds can be added to the water of infected adult fish and fry. Alternatively, the antibiotic ...
Scoular IT, Monks A, Burgess C, Turner P (1977). "Human studies on the bioavailability of a quaternary ammonium compounds, ... The active moiety is tiemonium, a quaternary ammonium cation. ...
These preparations include acetic acid, propylene glycol, quaternary ammonium compounds, and any alcohol-based preparations. ... The anti-bacterial activity of aminoglycoside compounds is due to inhibition of ribosome function and these compounds similarly ... The related compound ethacrynic acid has a higher association with ototoxicity, and is therefore used only in patients with ... Ototoxicity is less frequently seen with the related compound oxaliplatin. The severity of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is ...
Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, aldehydes, oxidizing agents, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They ...
... is a quaternary ammonium compound used as antiseptic and disinfectant. It is white to yellowish ...
The block's functionality is enhanced by saturating it with a scenting compound and quaternary ammonium compounds. They come in ...
In particular, the quaternary ammonium cations (NR+. 4) are very useful since they are permanently charged, and they are often ... Compounds with the group 13 elementsEdit. The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements ( ... Ammonium and derivativesEdit. Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium ... CompoundsEdit. The alkali metals form complete series of compounds with all usually encountered anions, which well illustrate ...
Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and ... These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl ...
... quaternary ammonium compounds and detergents have little effect on endospores. However, sterilant alkylating agents such as ...
These species are not amines but are quaternary ammonium cations and have a charged nitrogen center. Quaternary ammonium salts ... Typically salts of ammonium compounds exhibit the following order of solubility in water: primary ammonium (RNH+. 3) , ... substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d. e. h. y. d. r. a. t. i. o. n. h. e. a. t. N. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. C. O. ‖. −. R. ... Reduction of nitro compounds Nitro compounds Can be accomplished with elemental zinc, tin or iron with an acid. ...
Organic phosphonium cations are lipophilic and can be useful in phase transfer catalysis, much like quaternary ammonium salts. ... Phosphorus pentachloride and related compoundsEdit. Solid phosphorus pentachloride is an ionic compound, formulated PCl+. 4PCl− ... The most common phosphonium compounds have four organic substituents attached to phosphorus. The quaternary phosphonium cations ... Quaternary phosphonium cations (PR+. 4) are produced by alkylation of organophosphines.[3] For example, the reaction of ...
Trumbore, Susan (2000). Noller, J. S.; J. M. Sowers; W. R. Lettis (eds.). Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications. ... Organic compound. *Outer space. *PAH world hypothesis. *Panspermia. *Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Carboxylate esters. *Xanthenes. *Abandoned drugs. *Gastrointestinal system drug stubs ...
... while quaternary ammonium compounds can be used with alcohol so that the sanitizing effect lasts for longer.[134] In hospitals ... quaternary ammonium compounds and bleach are used to sanitize rooms or equipment that have been occupied by people with ...
This is called a quaternary ammonium cation. This is not an amine but is a salt. If one of the groups on the nitrogen is a ... Nitro compound. *Nitroso compound. *Organophosphorus. *Oxime. *Peroxide. *Phosphonous and Phosphonic acid. *Pyridine derivative ...
Quaternary. ammonium. compounds. *Benzilone. *Mepenzolate. *Pipenzolate. *Glycopyrronium. *Oxyphenonium. *Penthienate. * ... Sneader, Walter (2005). "Plant Product Analogues and Compounds Derived from Them". Drug discovery : a history. Chichester: John ...
The leaves of Annona muricata contain annonamine, which is an aporphine-class alkaloid featuring a quaternary ammonium group.[ ... The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[5] The compound annonacin, which is contained ... The compound annonacin, which is contained in the fruit and seeds of soursop, is a potent neurotoxin associated with ...
The functional group of the anion exchange resin is a quaternary ammonium group attached to an inert styrene-divinylbenzene ... Ointments containing colestyramine compounded with aquaphor have been used in topical treatment of diaper rash in infants and ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Bromides. *Benzilate esters. Hidden categories: *Template:drugs.com link with non-standard ...
... ternary compound, quaternary compound or has even more elements. ... Ammonium ion. *Formaldehyde. *Formyl radical. *Heavy water. * ... General forms for organic compounds[edit]. A chemical formula used for a series of compounds that differ from each other by a ... The law of constant composition says that, in any particular chemical compound, all samples of that compound will be made up of ... However, there is a class of compounds, called non-stoichiometric compounds, that cannot be represented by small integers. Such ...
In the Menshutkin reaction, a tertiary amine is converted into a quaternary ammonium salt by reaction with an alkyl halide. ... These compounds typically can add to an electron-deficient carbon atom such as at a carbonyl group. Nucleophilic alkylating ... Examples include the use of organometallic compounds such as Grignard (organomagnesium), organolithium, organocopper, and ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Alkaloids. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1 German-language sources ... Being a quaternary ammonium salt, muscarine is less completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract than tertiary amines, ... Muscarine is only a trace compound in the fly agaric Amanita muscaria; the pharmacologically more relevant compounds from this ... A paucity of research exists on the metabolism of muscarine in the human body, suggesting this compound is not metabolized by ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Alcohols. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter. *Articles without KEGG source ... Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. It is bifunctional, containing both quaternary ... In foodstuffs the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. References[edit]. *^ "Chemical Safety Information from ... It forms a deep eutectic solvent with urea, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and many other compounds. ...
Some examples of functional groups of strong ion exchange resins are quaternary ammonium cation (Q), which is an anion ... A use of ion chromatography can be seen in the argentation ion chromatography.[citation needed] Usually, silver and compounds ... The isoelectric point is the pH at which a compound - in this case a protein - has no net charge. A protein's isoelectric point ... This phenomenon has been widely tested on olefin compounds. The ion complexes the olefins make with silver ions are weak and ...
The angles and intensities of diffracted X-rays are measured, with each compound having a unique diffraction pattern.[103] As ... Levy ED (November 2007). "PiQSi: protein quaternary structure investigation". Structure. 15 (11): 1364-7. doi:10.1016/j.str. ... the octahedral bonding of metals observed in ammonium hexachloroplatinate (IV),[46] and the resonance observed in the planar ... The first structure of an organic compound, hexamethylenetetramine, was solved in 1923.[77] This was followed by several ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Benzalkonium. *Benzethonium chloride. *Cetrimonium (bromide/chloride). *Cetylpyridinium. * ... "Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Mercury Compounds in the List". Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). U.S. ... Merbromin is an organomercuric disodium salt compound and a fluorescein. Readily available in most countries, it is no longer ...
... the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. The ammonium sulfate center is positively charged.[2] ... a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) ... Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not ...
"Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus". Am J ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Bromides. *Analgesic stubs. Hidden categories: *Articles without EBI source ...
Sulfuric acid is the most commonly used acid for commercial lactam production due to its formation of an ammonium sulfate by- ... Quaternary carbon centers promote fragmentation by stabilizing carbocation formation through hyperconjugation. As shown in the ... "Zur Kenntniss der Isonitrosoverbindungen" [On [our] knowledge of isonitroso compounds]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Benzalkonium. *Benzethonium chloride. *Cetrimonium (bromide/chloride). *Cetylpyridinium. * ... Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO. 3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other ... "Silver (metal dust and soluble compounds, as Ag)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National ... Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York City: D. Van ...
In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including ... Evidence for variations in the extraterrestrial dust flux through the Quaternary" (PDF). Bibcode:2017Geo....45..119G. doi: ... These refractory mineral grains may earlier have been coated with volatile compounds, but those are lost in the dissolving of ... Some molecules also formed complex organic compounds and some molecules formed frozen ice mantles, of which either could coat ...
Some of these functional groups include hydrocarbon chains of variable length (for reversed phase SPE), quaternary ammonium or ... Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is an extractive technique by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture ... Strong anion exchange sorbents contain quaternary ammonium groups that have a permanent positive charge in aqueous solutions, ... The stationary phase of a reversed phase SPE cartridge is derivatized with hydrocarbon chains, which retain compounds of mid to ...
Quaternary. ammonium. compounds. *Benzilone. *Mepenzolate. *Pipenzolate. *Glycopyrronium. *Oxyphenonium. *Penthienate. * ... The most common atropine compound used in medicine is atropine sulfate (monohydrate) (C. 17H. 23NO. 3)2·H2SO4·H2O, the full ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Benzalkonium. *Benzethonium chloride. *Cetrimonium (bromide/chloride). *Cetylpyridinium. * ... After continued exposure to antibiotics, bacteria may evolve to the point where they are no longer harmed by these compounds. ... Polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB) is an antimicrobial compound suitable for clinical use in critically colonized ...
1. quaternary ammonium compound, organic compound. usage: a compound derived from ammonium with hydrogen atoms replaced by ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds 1 and 3 (see mono- and bifunctional quaternary ammonium salts tested in this study, Figure 1) ... The quaternary ammonium group is at the surface. (b) Biquat entangled with a polyethylene chain. Both quaternary ammonium ... Antimicrobial Polyethylene through Melt Compounding with Quaternary Ammonium Salts. Fernanda F. Rossetti,1 Konstantin Siegmann, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) can have biocidal properties and attempts to immobilize quats onto surfaces have been ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C16-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides. Regulatory process names 2 CAS names 1 IUPAC names 8 Trade ... Lead and its compounds). In these cases, Infocards may not identify all substances in the group.Therefore it does not ...
For surface active substances the critical micelle concentration (CMC) method is used as an alternative to the water solubility. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is determined by measuring the surface tension of test substance solutions at different test substance concentration. For surface active substances which form micelles in solution, the surface tension decreases with increasing concentration until the CMC is reached. At concentrations above the CMC, the surface tension remains constant. The CMC is determined from a plot of the surface tension versus the logarithm of the test substance concentration ...
The substance is considered to be readily biodegradable as demonstrated in various Closed Bottle Tests. Complete removal from the waste water in biological wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated in a CAS test. Removal occured primarily through biodegradation as confirmed by chemical analysis. The 10-day time window has been ignored as a pass fail criterion. Poor water solubility and/or adsorption of the substance onto solids do affect biodegradation kinetics because of low desorption and dissolution rates of the test substance. Dissolution and desorption rates in the tests do probably not reflect these processes in the environment because concentrations used in the tests are a few orders higher than the environmental concentrations. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
MQAC stands for Methylated Quaternary Ammonium Compound. MQAC is defined as Methylated Quaternary Ammonium Compound very rarely ... www.acronymfinder.com/Methylated-Quaternary-Ammonium-Compound-(MQAC).html,MQAC,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "MQAC." Acronym ... www.acronymfinder.com/Methylated-Quaternary-Ammonium-Compound-(MQAC).html. *APA style: MQAC. (n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). ... www.acronymfinder.com/Methylated-Quaternary-Ammonium-Compound-(MQAC).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "MQAC." ...
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with ... Typically employed as the cetylpyridinium chloride salt, this compound is commonly used as an active ingredient in various over ...
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-C8-18-ALKYLDIMETHYL, CHLORIDES can be found in 3 products. ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ... Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 50, ...
The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred ... vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride ( ... and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds. ... DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. These quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were identified for action under the Chemicals ... For general inquiries, please contact us and use the subject line "Quaternary ammonium compounds s.46 inquiry". ... refer to the Guidance manual for completing the Notice with respect to certain quaternary ammonium compounds in Canadian ...
... Paula A. ... "Physiological changes induced by the quaternary ammonium compound benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride on Pseudomonas ... T. E. Cloete, "Resistance mechanisms of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds," International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ...
Get Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Find a wide selection of quaternary ammonium compounds at Spectrum ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top quarternary ammonium compounds but if you do not see the product, grade or form of ...
... with German, Dutch, French, Italian, and Spanish translations and search. ... Sponsor an extended definition for quaternary ammonium compound for as little as $10 per month. quaternary ammonium compound. ... quaternary ammonium compound. noun *(chemistry) An amine derivative, containing four radicals, of general formula R1R2R3R4-N+X- ...
US3497482A - Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds - Google Patents. Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds Download PDF ... US3497482A 1963-10-14 1963-10-14 Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds Expired - Lifetime US3497482A (en) Priority ... United States Patent 3,497,482 POLYMERS 0F QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS Jesse C. H. Hwa, Stamford, Conn., assignor to Rohm & ... Examples of comonomers that may be polymerized with the quaternary ammonium sulfo monomer include the vinyl aromatic compounds ...
... Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir. ... aeruginosa cells were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of 750 ppm alkyldimethylethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ...
Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ...
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Ammonium). Subscribe to New Research on Quaternary Ammonium Compounds ... 11/01/2000 - "The results of more recent studies about the therapeutic role of quaternary ammonium compounds in vulvo-vaginal ... 01/01/2014 - "Relationship between the resistance genes to quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotic resistance in ...
This page contains information on the chemical Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl)Methyl, ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl) Methyl, Chlorides. Identifications. *CAS Number: 61789-73-9 ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl) Methyl, Chlorides Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous ... Chemical Database - Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl)Methyl, Chlorides. ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 61789-18-2 Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. ... Product Name: Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. *Synonyms: quaternary ammonium compound - ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides(61789-18-2). *EPA Substance Registry System: Quaternary ammonium ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. Cas No: 61789-18-2. USD $ 3.0-3.0 / Kilogram. 1 Kilogram. 1-100 ...
A] 0.1% ammonium acetate in water (pH unadjusted): [B] 0.1% ammonium acetate in acetontrile; (10:90, A:B). ...
Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. Roy M. Ventullo, Robert J. Larson ... Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... The effects of long-chain (C12 to C18) quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the density, heterotrophic activity, and ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), are broad-spectrum antimicrobials widely used for ... Use of Antibacterial Consumer Products Containing Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Drug Resistance in the Community. Citation ... Use of Antibacterial Consumer Products Containing Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Drug Resistance in the Community ... Use of Antibacterial Consumer Products Containing Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Drug Resistance in the Community. Journal ...
However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative stress markers were compound-specific, and the changes in ... could potentially be used to assess the risk posed by these compounds in the environment. ... The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the ... Quaternary ammonium compounds Wheat seedlings PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS COMPOUNDS QACS DETOXIFICATION MECHANISMS CHLOROPHYLL ...
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Qams, are an important class of chemicals which present interesting challenges to analysts. This ... Ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography techniques for the determination of quaternary ammonium compounds Public Deposited ...
Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ...
... quaternary ammonium compound meaning. quaternary ammonium compound sense. quaternary ammonium compound FAQ. quaternary ammonium ... Explain quaternary ammonium compound. What is quaternary ammonium compound? ... quaternary ammonium compound. Search Dictionary: quaternary ammonium compound Definition. *(n) a compound derived from ammonium ... quaternary ammonium compound. English Dictionary -> Letter Q -> ... quaternary ammonium compound Synonyms. *quaternary ammonium ...
EFFECTS OF SOME QUATERNARY AMMONIUM AND ANALOGOUS COMPOUNDS ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. REID HUNT and R. R. RENSHAW ... EFFECTS OF SOME QUATERNARY AMMONIUM AND ANALOGOUS COMPOUNDS ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. REID HUNT and R. R. RENSHAW ... EFFECTS OF SOME QUATERNARY AMMONIUM AND ANALOGOUS COMPOUNDS ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. REID HUNT and R. R. RENSHAW ... EFFECTS OF SOME QUATERNARY AMMONIUM AND ANALOGOUS COMPOUNDS ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ...
EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ...
... to a protonated or quaternary amine ester of the following formula: wherein A − is an inorganic or organic anion. ... D. ADDITIONAL CONVENTIONAL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS. Additional conventional quaternary ammonium compounds or salts may be ... Heretofore quaternary ammonium compounds and a very few dialkyl ammonium compounds ("conventional quats") have found widespread ... As with the compounds of formulas (I) and/or (II), these conventional quaternary ammonium compounds (quats or salts) may have ...
  • Examples of preferred vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower oil. (google.co.uk)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound and is used as a preservative in many ophthalmic solutions. (academy.org.uk)
  • Alkyl triethanol ammonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, CETRIMIDE (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), DYMED and POLYQUAD are also examples of quaternary ammonium compounds that are used in ophthalmic preparations. (academy.org.uk)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of 750 ppm alkyldimethylethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (QAC). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), are broad-spectrum antimicrobials widely used for decades to disinfect environmental surfaces in clinical and industrial settings. (unc.edu)
  • We have summarized chemical, physical, and microbiological characteristics of Quaternary Ammonium Salts: particularly, benzalchonium chloride and didecyl-dimethyl- ammonium chloride characteristics were analyzed. (minervamedica.it)
  • In vitro antifungal activities of three biocides including one biguanide (chlorhexidine) and two quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide) were studied against eight cleanroom fungal isolates by using a microbiological broth dilution technique as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A guidelines. (pda.org)
  • To explore other options, they treated samples of the novel coronavirus with benzalkonium chloride, which is commonly used in alcohol-free hand sanitizers, and several other quaternary ammonium compounds regularly found in disinfectants. (4dangehnews.ir)
  • Chemical structure of benzalkonium chloride compounds. (mazikcare.com)
  • For example, benzalkonium chloride is a nitrogenous cationic surface-acting agent belonging to the quaternary ammonium group. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Compared with dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227), which is a commercially available quaternary ammonium salt type fungicide, acrylpimaric acid quaternary ammonium salts have approximate bioactivity against Gloeophyllum trabeum . (reedforiowa.com)
  • N2 - Quaternized derivatives of pectic galactan (QPG) were synthesized by a reaction of pectic galactan (PG) with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution under mild reaction conditions. (reedforiowa.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium cationic polymers, such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) are widely used for coagulating and removing negatively charged particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from drinking water. (reedforiowa.com)
  • In this study, a novel quaternary phosphonium cationic polymer, poly(diallyldiethylphosphonium chloride) (polyDADEPC), was synthesized such that the quaternary nitrogen atom of polyDADMAC was substituted with a phosphorus atom. (reedforiowa.com)
  • The influence of N-hexadecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride on the corrosion of mild steel in acids Corros. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds such as ammonium chloride , cetylpyridinium and miramistin represent widely accessible antiseptic molecules with well-known broad-spectrum antiviral activities and represent a repurposing opportunity as therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • A typical synthesis is for benzalkonium chloride from a long-chain alkyldimethylamine and benzyl chloride: CH3(CH2)nN(CH3)2 + ClCH2C6H5 → [CH3(CH2)nN(CH3)2CH2C6H5]+Cl− Quaternary ammonium cations are unreactive toward even strong electrophiles, oxidants, and acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are quaternary ammonium compounds, as defined by the alkylation of tertiary Amines with a halocarbon K.... The only protocols that appear to safely disinfect these … Ebola virus also can be evaluated in suspensions and disinfection. (4dangehnews.ir)
  • The reaction of nucleophilic tertiary amines with trifluoromethyl and pentafluoroethyl methyl ethers provides quaternary ammonium trifluoromethoxide (NROCF) and pentafluoroethoxide (NROCFCF) salts, respectively, in good yields. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2. Amines and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds a. (elsevier.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds (called quaternary amines in oilfield parlance) are salts of quaternary ammonium cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are prepared by the alkylation of tertiary amines with a halocarbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Cause Subfertility in Mice by Targeting both Male and Female Reproductive Processes. (ewg.org)
  • 2014. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. (ewg.org)
  • European Standard EN-1276, Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics-Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in food, industrial, domestic, and institutional areas-Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1), 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the environment, posing a potential risk to organisms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are widely used as disinfectants, biocides, and detergents, among a variety of other applications. (iwaponline.com)
  • diphtheriae is frequent in tropical countries such as Mayotte, this bacterium could be exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds contained in disinfectants, hygienic hand washes, and cosmetic products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The efficacy of three disinfectants containing either sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox, Chlorox Company, CA), quaternary ammonium compounds (Conflikt[R], Decon Laboratories, PA), or 70% isopropyl alcohol were tested and compared with a sterile water control. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study establish minimum cut-offs for specific fungal isolates that are problematic in cleanrooms against commonly used disinfectants (quaternary ammonium compounds and biguanides). (pda.org)
  • Advancements in the quaternary salts Obtained from Halogenacetyl compounds, as well disinfectants! (4dangehnews.ir)
  • The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. (mazikcare.com)
  • Disinfectants are available in many forms including physical factors (such as x-rays, ultraviolet radiation or heat) and chemical compounds (including alcohols, aldehydes, halogens, oxidising agents, phenolics and quaternary ammonium compounds) (McDonnell and Russell, 1999). (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoos). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long alkyl chains, are used as antimicrobials and disinfectants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • These quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were identified for action under the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). (canada.ca)
  • The effects of long-chain (C 12 to C 18 ) quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the density, heterotrophic activity, and biodegradation capabilities of heterotrophic bacteria were examined in situ in a lake ecosystem. (asm.org)
  • However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative stress markers were compound-specific, and the changes in superoxide dismutase, peroxidases, and catalase activity were partly related to reactive oxygen species levels. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • McpX is the first known bacterial sensor of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) such as choline and betaines. (biochemj.org)
  • Blood Borne Pathogens Protect Against Infection Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Human Immunodeficiency Virus Soap And Water TERMS IN THIS SET (50) State agencies set guidelines for the manufacturing, sale, and use of equipnent and chemical ingredients T OR F QACs are a group of chemicals known for their anti‐microbial properties. (4dangehnews.ir)
  • The attractive interactions between the cationic ammonium groups of the QACs and the negatively charged cell membrane of the microbe create the antimicrobial activity, which in turn results in the formation of a surfactant-microbe complex. (mazikcare.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are sometimes referred to as quats. (mazikcare.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are salts formed through the reaction of a 'quaternary ammonium cation' with an anion. (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • However, the biocidal polymer used was based on amino substituted methacrylate and did not contain quaternary ammonium moieties [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Such products often contain quaternary ammonium compounds, or quats. (mazikcare.com)
  • The objective of this study was to synthesize low viscosity ionic dimethacrylate monomers (IDMAs) that contain quaternary ammoniums groups (antimicrobial functionalities) and are compatible with existing dental dimethacrylate-based monomers. (reedforiowa.com)
  • Older aluminium electrolytic capacitors and spermicidal jellies also contain quaternary ammonium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a group of compounds composed of a cation, in which a central nitrogen atom is joined to four organic groups, and any of various anions, used as antiseptics, solvents, and emulsifying agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A quaternary ammonium cation is a compound consisting of four alkyl groups bonded to a central nitrogen atom. (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds that consist of an ammonium cation where the central nitrogen atom is bonded to four ethyl groups. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This compound was discontinued because the cation biodegrades too slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another use of the term in organic chemistry, a quaternary compound is or has a cation consisting of a central positively charged atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selected mono- and bicationic quats were compounded with polyethylene. (hindawi.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) can have biocidal properties and attempts to immobilize quats onto surfaces have been ample [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Utilizing SACHEM's quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats), as strong organic bases or catalysts can adjust pH and prevent unwanted reactions. (sacheminc.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+ 4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buffet-Bataillon S, Tattevin P, Bonnaure-Mallet M, Jolivet-Gougeon A: Emergence of resistance to antibacterial agents: the role of quaternary ammonium compounds - a critical review. (akjournals.com)
  • [0001] This invention relates to pharmaceutical, ophthalmic or cosmetic compositions containing quaternary ammonium compounds, more preferably to ophthalmic emulsions being useful for eye care or for the treatment of eye conditions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). (cf.ac.uk)
  • A case study of 2 nurses developing eczema on their hands and arms after contact with a new disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds. (ilo.org)
  • We deliver a full portfolio of quaternary ammonium salts used in the production of many different types of polymers but especially epoxies. (sacheminc.com)
  • Polymers containing quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) have been incorporated into dental composites and dental adhesives. (mazikcare.com)
  • Synthesis and corrosion inhibition study of some 1,6-hexanediamine-based N,N-diallyl quaternary ammonium salts and their polymers. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • The fatty quaternary polymers and copolymers are stated to be useful in treating circulating water systems and swimming pools and other bodies of stagnant water to inhibit algae and bacteria. (google.co.uk)
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds based disinfectant are the most widely used biocides in food or beverage businesses. (acuro.in)
  • Disineer Disinfection is one of the most reliable Object Surface Disinfectant manufacturers and suppliers in China, welcome to wholesale compound double-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant at a good price from our factory, and get free sample through our website. (disineers.com)
  • So, the quaternary ammonium compounds dimethyl-di(hydrogenated tallow) alkyl ammonium salt shows ease of crosslinking as compared to other primary amine modifier. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amphoterics, silicone, fluorosurfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds, and fatty amine oxides are among the surfactants that will show healthy growth going forward. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • Other cationic compounds can be derived from imidazolium, guanidinium, substituted amine salts, or quaternary alkoxy ammonium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four kinds of quaternary ammonium cations based on long-alkyl chain are used to hydrophobic parts of clays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+ 4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium cations containing N-C-C-H units can also undergo the Hofmann elimination and Emde degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristically, the cations contain one or two long alkyl chains derived from fatty acids linked to an ethoxylated ammonium salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention also relates to compositions including at least one quaternary ammonium compound as cationic agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 16. The method of claim 1 wherein said cationic surfactant is erucyl amidopropyltrimethyl ammonium quaternary salt, and said additive is sodium xylene sulfonate. (google.com)
  • Highly hydrophilic cationic gold nanorods stabilized by novel quaternary ammonium surfactant with negligible cytotoxicity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The photothermal cancer therapy using cationic gold nanorods (GNRs) stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) have a great potential to enhance conventional cancer treatment as it promises the eff. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This work has been undertaken to find the influence of biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds like cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) on the corrosion of mild steel and copper in the presence of phosphonates. (csircentral.net)
  • Is implicated for the resistance to bacteriocidal quaternary ammonium compounds and ethidium bromide. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein QacC (Ethidium bromide resistance protein) (Multidrug resistance protein) (Quaternary ammonium determinant C). (mybiosource.com)
  • Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide on the corrosion of carbon steel in acids. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • Comparative efficacy of 3rd generation quaternary ammonium compounds and formaldehyde for fumigation of operation theatres. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. (drugbank.ca)
  • These topics are followed by the classification, nomenclature, preparation, and reactions of other aliphatic compound derivatives, including nitrogen derivatives and sulfur analogues. (elsevier.com)
  • Disruption of the cellular membrane (using phenol or quaternary ammonium compounds) is an effective method for lysing cells. (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • We screened 122 multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolated from admitted patients in one of the tertiary care hospital in Malaysia for the presence of antiseptic resistant genes qacA and qacE (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) and susceptibility towards chlorhexidine (CLX), benzalkonium (BZK) and benzethonium (BZT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein QacE (Quaternary ammonium determinant E). (mybiosource.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that both quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan can activate effluxpumps in bacteria that transfer plasmids containing resistance genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Melt compounding of small amounts of a biocidal polymer with polyethylene has shown producing a composite whose surface is antimicrobial. (hindawi.com)
  • Find a wide selection of quaternary ammonium compounds at Spectrum Chemical which have been shown to have antimicrobial activity. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • A very good compliance and low costs of these compounds suggest that they may be used alone as well in association with specific antimicrobial agents in the treatment of most of gynecological infections, and particularly in bacterial vaginosis. (minervamedica.it)
  • [0002] Quaternary ammonium compounds are organic compounds usually used as an antiseptic or antimicrobial agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A wide array of Austrian surface waters and wastewater effluents were screened for the selected key compounds, benzalkonium chlorides and dialkyldimethylammonium chlorides with different C-chain lengths. (iwaponline.com)
  • inorganic compounds are those that do not contain carbon atoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • quaternary ammonium compound an organic compound containing a quaternary ammonium group, a nitrogen atom carrying a single positive charge bonded to four carbon atoms, e.g., choline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In chemistry, quaternary ammonium compounds are the most commonly used 'phase transfer catalysts', which facilitate reactions between normally immiscible compounds. (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • Lipid membranes in living cells facilitate non-polar chemistry in an aqueous environment by forming microscopic spaces friendly to fat-soluble compounds. (asknature.org)
  • The concluding chapter focuses on the chemistry of aliphatic organometallic and organometalloidal compounds. (elsevier.com)
  • In organic chemistry, quaternary ammonium salts are employed as phase transfer catalysts (PTCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, a quaternary compound is a compound consisting of exactly four chemical elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact-active antibacterial polyethylene foils via atmospheric air plasma induced polymerisation of quaternary ammonium salts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Polyethylene (PE) foils were modified with potent contact-active antibacterial quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) by an atmospheric air plasma activation step, followed by graft-polymerisation of vinylbe. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 1 wherein the imidazolinium quaternary compound is blended with a fatty acid alkoxylate and a polyether having a molecular weight of from 200 to 300. (google.ca)
  • This invention relates to the use of alkyl amido quaternary ammonium salts, and formulations thereof, as thickening agents in aqueous based fluids, especially those used in oil field applications. (google.com)
  • The quaternary ammonium salts of the present invention exhibit improved gelling characteristics. (google.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds for use as hydrate inhibitors can be prepared by the reaction of alkoxylated alkylamines or alkylaminoalkylenamines with monochlorocarboxylic acids to give the corresponding ether carboxylic acids, which are subsequently esterified with alkanols. (mazikcare.com)
  • The cuticle of the thistle plant controls its degree of elasticity by regulating the degree of hydration of constituent trihydroxy fatty acids compounds. (asknature.org)
  • Application to Sediment and Sludge Samples in Austria, Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. (4dangehnews.ir)
  • Provides comprehensive data for each element of the periodic table of elements including up to 40 properties, names in 10 languages and common chemical compounds. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Some chemicals listed in this database or not pure chemical compounds, rather they are mixtures/solutions of chemicals. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • In the healthcare setting, "alcohol" refers to two water-soluble chemical compounds-ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol-that have generally underrated germicidal characteristics 482 . (cdc.gov)
  • The inhibition of the corrosion of pure iron in 0.5 M sulphuric acid by n-alkyl quaternary ammonium iodides. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium salt as effective corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel dissolution in sulphuric acid media. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • Esters of Sulphuric Acid and Related Compounds i. (elsevier.com)
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Qams, are an important class of chemicals which present interesting challenges to analysts. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The debonder/softening agents belong to a group of organic chemicals that include several imidazolinium quaternary. (google.ca)
  • 9. The paper product according to claim 8 wherein said wetting agent is a water soluble polyhydroxy compound. (google.co.uk)
  • U.K. patent application No. 2,027,040A discloses the use of water soluble terpolymers of diallylamine quaternary salts as sterilizing agents for contact lenses. (google.co.uk)
  • The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. (akjournals.com)
  • This study investigates corrosion inhibition of X70 steel surfaces, by Butyl-Quaternary-Ammonium halides, in a 3% of NaCl solution with pH = 6. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • Corrosion inhibition of iron in acidic solutions by alkyl quaternary ammonium halides: Correlation between inhibition efficiency and molecular structure. (eurasianjournals.com)
  • The quatenary ammonium compounds have a surfactant quality which has a detergent like property, disrupting cell membranes, and they are also bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal depending on the concentrations used. (academy.org.uk)
  • This study is a pooled statistical analysis of the data from 2 studies concerning efficacy of ammonium-succinate based dietary supplement. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Biocidal ingredients in these products often are quaternary ammonium compounds (such as BZK) and triclosan. (thefreedictionary.com)