Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Trimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.ChlorobenzenesNitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Hormesis: Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (1/3258)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. (2/3258)

Polyspecific organic cation transporters in epithelia play an important role in the elimination of many endogenous bioactive amines and therapeutically important drugs. Recently, the first human organic cation transporter (hOCT1) was cloned from liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of molecular size and hydrophobicity on the transport of organic cations by hOCT1. We studied the interaction of a series of n-tetraalkylammonium (n-TAA) compounds (alkyl chain length, N, ranging from 1 to 6 carbons) with hOCT1 in a transiently transfected human cell line, HeLa. [14C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake was measured under different experimental conditions. Both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation studies were carried out. With the exception of tetramethylammonium, all of the n-TAAs significantly inhibited [14C]TEA uptake. A reversed correlation of IC50 values (range, 3.0-260 microM) with alkyl chain lengths or partition coefficients (LogP) was observed. trans-Stimulation studies revealed that TEA, tetrapropylammonium, tetrabutylammonium, as well as tributylmethylammonium trans-stimulated TEA uptake mediated by hOCT1. In contrast, tetramethylammonium and tetrapentylammonium did not trans-stimulate [14C]TEA uptake, and tetrahexylammonium demonstrated an apparent "trans-inhibition" effect. These data indicate that with increasing alkyl chain lengths (N >/= 2), n-TAA compounds are more poorly translocated by hOCT1 although their potency of inhibition increases. Similar findings were obtained with nonaliphatic hydrocarbons. These data suggest that a balance between hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties is necessary for binding and subsequent translocation by hOCT1.  (+info)

Synaptic activation of GABAA receptors induces neuronal uptake of Ca2+ in adult rat hippocampal slices. (3/3258)

Synaptically evoked transmembrane movements of Ca2+ in the adult CNS have almost exclusively been attributed to activation of glutamate receptor channels and the consequent triggering of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Using microelectrodes for measuring free extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) and extracellular space (ECS) volume, we show here for the first time that synaptic stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors can result in a decrease in [Ca2+]o in adult rat hippocampal slices. High-frequency stimulation (100-200 Hz, 0.4-0.5 s) applied in stratum radiatum close (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (4/3258)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Selective effects of a 4-oxystilbene derivative on wild and mutant neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic receptor. (5/3258)

1. We assessed the pharmacological activity of triethyl-(beta-4-stilbenoxy-ethyl) ammonium (MG624), a drug that is active on neuronal nicotinic receptors (nicotinic AChR). Experiments on the major nicotinic AChR subtypes present in chick brain, showed that it inhibits the binding of [125I]-alphaBungarotoxin (alphaBgtx) to the alpha7 subtype, and that of [3H]-epibatidine (Epi) to the alpha4beta2 subtype, with Ki values of respectively 106 nM and 84 microM. 2. MG624 also inhibited ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha7 and alpha4beta2 chick subtypes with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of respectively 109 nM and 3.2 microM. 3. When tested on muscle-type AChR, it inhibited [125I]-alphaBgtx binding with a Ki of 32 microM and ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha1beta1gammadelta chick subtype with an IC50 of 2.9 microM. 4. The interaction of MG624 with the alpha7 subtype was investigated using an alpha7 homomeric mutant receptor with a threonine-for-leucine 247 substitution (L247T alpha7). MG624 did not induce any current in oocytes expressing the wild type alpha7 receptor, but did induce large currents in the oocyte-expressed L247T alpha7 receptor. The MG624 elicited current (I(MG62)) has an EC50 of 0.2 nM and a Hill coefficient nH of 1.9, and is blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. These binding and electrophysiological studies show that MG624 is a potent antagonist of neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic AChR, and becomes a competitive agonist following the mutation of the highly conserved leucine residue 247 located in the M2 channel domain.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of multiple subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and their physiological functions in canine hearts. (6/3258)

M2 receptors have long been believed to be the only functional subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in the heart, although recent studies have provided evidence for the presence of other subtypes. We performed a detailed study to clarify this issue. In the presence of tetramethylammonium (1 microM to 10 mM), a novel K+ current with both delayed rectifying and inward rectifying properties (IKTMA) was activated in single canine atrial myocytes. 4-Aminopyridine (0.05-2 mM) also induced a K+ current (IK4AP) with characteristics similar to but distinct from those of IKTMA. Both IKTMA and IK4AP were abolished by 1 microM atropine. IK4AP, but not IKTMA, was minimized by treatment with pertussis toxin. IKTMA was markedly decreased by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (a selective antagonist for M3 subtype) but was not altered by pirenzepine (for M1), methoctramine (for M2), and tropicamide (for M4). Tropicamide substantially reduced IK4AP, but the antagonists for other mAChR subtypes had no effects on IK4AP. By comparison, IKACh (ACh-induced K+ current) was significantly depressed by methoctramine but was unaltered by other antagonists. Results from displacement binding of [methyl-3H]N-scopolamine methyl chloride with pirenzepine, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, or tropicamide revealed the coexistence of multiple mAChR subtypes in canine atrium. Cloning of cDNA fragments and detection of mRNAs coding for M2, M3, and M4 provided further supporting evidence. Our results suggest that 1) multiple subtypes of mAChRs (M2/M3/M4) coexist in the dog heart and 2) different subtypes of mAChRs are coupled to different K+ channels. Our findings represent the first functional evidence for the physiological role of cardiac M3 and M4 receptors.  (+info)

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (7/3258)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

Adenosine inhibits the transfected Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 in Xenopus laevis renal epithelial cells (A6/C1). (8/3258)

1. Adenosine influences the vectorial transport of Na+ and HCO3- across kidney epithelial cells. However, its action on effector proteins, such as the Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3, an epithelial brush border isoform of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) gene family, is not yet defined. 2. The present study was conducted in Xenopus laevis distal nephron A6 epithelia which express both an apical adenosine receptor of the A1 type (coupled to protein kinase C (PKC)) and a basolateral receptor of the A2 type (coupled to protein kinase A (PKA)). The untransfected A6 cell line expresses a single NHE type (XNHE) which is restricted to the basolateral membrane and which is activated by PKA. 3. A6 cell lines were generated which express exogenous rat NHE3. Measurements of side-specific pHi recovery from acid loads in the presence of HOE694 (an inhibitor with differential potency towards individual NHE isoforms) detected an apical resistant Na+-H+ exchange only in transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of the basolateral NHE to HOE694 was unchanged, suggesting that exogenous NHE3 was restricted to the apical membrane. 4. Stimulation of the apical A1 receptor with N 6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) inhibited both apical NHE3 and basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by the addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and partially prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C which also blocked the effect of PMA. 5. Stimulation of the basolateral A2 receptor with CPA inhibited apical NHE3 and stimulated basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and partially prevented by the PKA inhibitor H89 which entirely blocked the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. 6. In conclusion, CPA inhibits rat NHE3 expressed apically in A6 epithelia via both the apical PKC-coupled A1 and the basolateral PKA-coupled A2 adenosine receptors.  (+info)

... definition. Explain quaternary ammonium compound. What is quaternary ammonium compound? quaternary ammonium compound meaning. quaternary ammonium compound sense. quaternary ammonium compound FAQ. quaternary ammonium compound synonyms.
A synergistic cleaning composition has been discovered comprising an aqueous solution a quaternary ammonium compound component; a nonionic surfactant component; and a glycol ether solvent. Surprisingly, the combination of the quaternary ammonium compound component, the nonionic surfactant component, and glycol ether solvent provides a synergistic effect where the cleaning composition functions with a low level of quaternary ammonium compound component while still maintaining at least one of the following desirable properties, as follows: an acceptable cleaning efficacy; a low level irritation or toxicity profile; and/or a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diffusion limitation in the block by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. AU - Blaustein, Robert O.. AU - Finkelstein, Alan. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Current flow through the channel formed in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by the PA65 fragment of anthrax toxin is blocked, in a voltage-dependent manner, by tetraalkylammonium ions (at micromolar concentrations), which bind to a blocking site within the channel lumen. We have presented evidence that diffusion plays a significant role in the kinetics of blocking by tetrabutylammonium ion (Bu4N+) from the cis (toxin-containing) side of the membrane (Blaustein, R. O., E. J. A. Lea, and A. Finkelstein. 1990. J. Gen. Physiol. 96:921-942); in this paper we examine the implications and consequences of diffusion control for binding kinetics. As expected for a diffusion-affected reaction, both the entry rate constant (k1cis) of Bu4N+ from the cis solution to the ...
Define quaternary ammonium compound: any of numerous strong bases and their salts derived from ammonium by replacement of the hydrogen atoms with…
The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the environment, posing a potential risk to organisms. This study examined the effects of three typical QACs, dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (DBAC), and didodecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), on hydroponically cultured wheat seedlings. After 14 days of exposure, both hormesis and phytotoxicity were observed in the wheat seedlings. The shoot and root fresh weight gradually increased as QAC concentrations rose from 0.05 to 0.8 mg L-1. However, higher QAC concentrations severely inhibited plant growth by decreasing shoot and root fresh weight, total root length, and photosynthetic pigment content. Moreover, the increase in malondialdehyde and O-2(.-) contents, as well as root membrane permeability, reflected an oxidative burst and membrane lipid peroxidation caused by QACs. However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative
Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts. ...
Fibrous cellulose materials useful in the manufacture of soft, absorbent paper products such as paper towels, facial tissues, and toilet tissue are disclosed. The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower oil. Variables that need to be adjusted to maximize the fluidity of vegetable oil based acyl groups include the cis/trans isomer ratio or the Iodine Value (IV) of the fatty acyl groups. The tissue softness is further enhanced by controlling the purity of the fatty acyl groups and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds.
This invention relates to the use of alkyl amido quaternary ammonium salts, and formulations thereof, as thickening agents in aqueous based fluids, especially those used in oil field applications. The quaternary ammonium salts of the present invention exhibit improved gelling characteristics.
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Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in patients and in the environment. QAC-induced overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to: cross resistance with fluoroquinolones mediated by multidrug efflux pumps; stress response facilitating mutation in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region; and biofilm formation increasing the risk of transfer of mobile genetic elements carrying fluoroquinolone or QAC resistance determinants. By following the European Biocidal Product Regulation, manufacturers of QAC are required to ensure that their QAC-based biocidal products are safe and will not contribute to emerging bacterial resistance.. ...
99035-72-0 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C10-16-alkylbis(hydroxyethyl), chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
91721-91-4 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, di-C10-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Are there hydrogen bonds in supercritical methanol and ethanol? Temperature and length scale dependence of tetraalkylammonium ion-amide interaction
New quaternary ammonium salts have been prepared from an amino amide and an amino ester and found to be useful in hair cream rinse formulations.
ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the role of quaternary ammonium salt of U50,488H (Q-U50,488H) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and underlying mechanisms involved. A HPH animal model was established in rats under hypoxia and the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and right
Quaternary ammonium compounds are molecules which contain a nitrogen atom with four other atoms bonded to it. Most quaternary ammonium compounds are organic compounds and have biological activity. These compounds often work well as disinfectants, offering bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Modified Letheen Agar is used as a quaternary ammonium compound neutralizer for the sampling of environmental surfaces. Quaternary ammonia compounds are neutralized by lecithin while phenolic disinfectants and hexacholorphene are neutralized by Tween® 80. Together, lecithin and Tween® 80 neutralize ethanol.. Modified Letheen Agar is formulated as described in the 7th edition of the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual.(1) Modified Letheen Agar is recommended by the FDA for use in the microbiological testing of cosmetics.(2) The medium contains beef extract and peptone to provide a nutrient rich medium supporting the growth of a variety of microorganisms. The tryptone level was increased in the ...
Page contains details about TUSC2 expression vector in N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride : cholesterol liposome nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We have investigated the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DoTA) micelle with weak polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(methacrylic acid). Anionic as well as un-ionized forms of the polyelectrolytes were studied. Polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes were formed within 5-11 ns of the simulation time and were found to be stable. Association is driven purely by electrostatic interactions for anionic chains whereas dispersion interactions also play a dominant role in the case of un-ionized chains. Surfactant headgroup nitrogen atoms are in close contact with the carboxylic oxygens of the polyelectrolyte chain at a distance of 0.35 nm. In the complexes, the polyelectrolyte chains are adsorbed on to the hydrophilic micellar surface and do not penetrate into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Polyacrylate chain shows higher affinity for complex formation with DoTA as compared to polymethacrylate chain. Anionic polyelectrolyte chains show higher interaction strength as compared to
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-44239, Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Avhandlingar om DODECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
Read "Solid-Phase Synthesis of Triethylammonium Salt of 4-Oxothiazolidine-2-thione, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
For surface active substances the critical micelle concentration (CMC) method is used as an alternative to the water solubility. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is determined by measuring the surface tension of test substance solutions at different test substance concentration. For surface active substances which form micelles in solution, the surface tension decreases with increasing concentration until the CMC is reached. At concentrations above the CMC, the surface tension remains constant. The CMC is determined from a plot of the surface tension versus the logarithm of the test substance concentration ...
In vitro An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the potential of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (25% purity), to induce gene mutations Salmonella typhimurium strains, according to OECD Guideline 471, in compliance with GLP. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA were treated with the test substance using the Ames plate incorporation (pre-experiment and experiment I) and pre-incubation methods (experiment II). The assay was performed in three independent experiments both with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). All positive control showed a distinct increase in the number of revertant colonies. Strong cytotoxic effects, evidenced by a reduction in the number of revertants, occurred in the test groups with and without S9 mix. No substantial increase in revertant colony numbers in any of the five tester strains was observed following treatment with the test substance either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. ...
Oral: Study 1: A study was conducted to determine the oral repeated dose toxicity of the read across substance, C16 TMAC (24 -26% active in water), according to a method similar to OECD Guideline 407, in compliance with GLP. Groups of 10 male and female rats were administered 0, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day of read across substance by oral gavage for 28 days. The read across substance used was a 24-26% aqueous solution but it is not clear if the doses mentioned were corrected. There were no treatment-related changes at the 30 and 100 mg/kg bw/day. In the high-dose group there was an increase in water consumption, changes in the absolute and relative weights of the adrenals and spleens (in males) without corresponding effects on haematology, clinical chemistry and histology. The forestomach of the high-dose group showed few microscopic changes, however animals in the high-dose recovery group showed a complete and regular regeneration of the forestomach mucosa. Hence, the forestomach effects were ...
The public activities coordination tool (PACT) provides an overview of the substance-specific activities that authorities are working on under REACH and the CLP Regulation. These activities are being carried out in line with ECHAs Integrated Regulatory Strategy.. PACT provides up-to-date information on the activities planned, ongoing or completed by ECHA and/or MSCAs for a given substance in the following areas:. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on tetrapentylammonium chloride Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New tetrapropylammonium bromide-based deep eutectic solvents. T2 - Synthesis and characterizations. AU - Jibril, Baba. AU - Mjalli, Farouq. AU - Naser, Jamil. AU - Gano, Zaharaddeen. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Deep eutectic solvents are analogues of ionic liquids that are environmentally benign, have a range of desirable liquid properties and are easy to prepare. In this study, new tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are introduced. Different hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) - ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and glycerol were used at different molar ratios of TPAB:HBD (1:2.5-1:5). Effects of temperature and the TPAB:HBD ratios on the DESs were investigated. Solvents of different physicochemical properties andwide liquid rangeswithminimummelting point temperatures of 249.75, 253.95 and 257.05 Kwere obtained for TPAB:ethylene glycol (1:4), TPAB:triethylene glycol (1:3) and TPAB/glycerol (1:3) respectively. The samples were further characterized in ...
Co-exposure of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is widely present in the aquatic environment. The knowledge about their toxicities to microorganism at low concentration is lacking. This study aims to test the toxic response of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67 (12-h exposure) to individual and mixtures of QACs by the long-term microplate toxicity analysis method (L-MTA). Hormetic effects were observed for five individual QACs at 12-h exposure of Vibrio qinghaiensis Q67. The maximum stimulation effect of − 339.66% was present in the 0.00561 mol/L tetraethylammonium bromide solution. A stimulation effect (− 23.55%) was detected when each of QACs in the five-component mixture was present at 50% effect concentration (
This research emphasized fundamental physical and electrochemical studies of systems based on the room temperature fused salt, triethyl-ammonium dichlorocuprate(I). Such systems, which must be maintained under a protective atmosphere, were also used in some preliminary battery studies. Spectra of dark green solutions of copper (II) chloride in triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) obey Beers law, with an absorption maximum at 402 nm, ε 2.02x10³ lit /mol cm. This behavior is typical of chlorocuprate(II) complexes. No special behavior due to intervalence transfer absorption is observed. Densities of solutions of various salts in triethylammotium dichlorocuprate(I) were determined dilatometrically in the range 25-50°C, permitting concentrations to be expressed both on weight and molarity bases. The endothermic formation of liquid triethylammonium dichlorocuprate( I) involved a 10.9% increase in molar volume. The specific conductance of triethylammonium dichlorocuprate(I) increases from ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
0031]Disclosed herein are ophthalmic solutions and methods for their use, which comprise a complex of at least one cationic compound and at least one an anionic polymer. In one embodiment, the complex can comprise a first and second cationic compound. In one embodiment, the first and second cationic compounds are antimicrobial agents. In one embodiment, the first cationic compound can be a polymeric quaternary ammonium compound. In one embodiment, the complex is formed of a first cationic component, a second cationic component and an anionic polymer. The complex can be used as an antimicrobial agent or as an antimicrobial component. The antimicrobial complexes disclosed herein can provide enhanced biocidal activity over other antimicrobial agents, without significantly contributing to ocular irritation or user discomfort. Typically, when mixing hydrophilic anionic polymers with cationic polymeric antimicrobial agents, formation of precipitates occurs and the antimicrobial activity is lost. This ...
NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, or --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), a cyano group, --NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), and a halogen atom; and n is an integer from 1 to 12); (ix) --(CH2)nNR12COR13 (where R12 and R13 are groups independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) a hydrogen atom; (2) a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched; (3) an aryl group, wherein the aryl group may be substituted with at least one group selected from the group consisting of: a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched, a C1 to C5 alkoxy group that may be ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
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Abstract: UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FL), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the three quaternary ammonium surfactants N-dodecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, Ndimethyl ammonium bromide (DHDAB), N-tetradecyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (THDAB) and N-cetyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N, N-dimethyl ammonium bromide (CHDAB). These surfactants quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, with longer alkyl chains resulting in more significant quenching. This was attributed to static quenching. Further evidence of static quenching was provided by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The particle size of BSA was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing surfactant concentration. The concentration of surfactant changed the type of interaction mode. This work revealed the mechanism and binding characteristics between surfactants ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
The effects of added ammonium ion (10-1000 μM) on photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation by tissues slices from the mantle of tridacnid clams, by coral tips, and by isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle were examined. Ammonium ions stimulated photosynthesis in tissue slices but not in freshly isolated zooxanthellae. When ammonium stimulated 14CO2 fixation by coral tips an increase in water-soluble labelled compounds, especially amino acids, was observed. Even though ammonium ions did not stimulate photosynthesis in isolated zooxanthellae from clam mantle, light stimulated ammonium uptake in these cells. Studies with 15NH+4 confirmed earlier observations (in zooxanthellae isolated from Hippopus) of light-stimulated transfer of ammonium from the amido-N of glutamine to the amino-N of glutamate, glutamine and other amino acids. This observation, in isolated zooxanthellae and tissue slices, suggests that the glutamine synthase-glutamate synthetase pathway of ammonium incorporation is light-driven in these ...
Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing
Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing
The results of the studies on the influence of the phase transfer catalyst on the epoxidation of (Z,E,E)-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene (CDT) to 1,2-epoxy-5,9-cyclododecadiene (ECDD) in the H2O2/H3PW12O40 system by a method of phase transfer catalysis (PTC) were presented. The following quaternary ammonium salts were used as phase transfer catalysts: methyltributylammonium chloride, (cetyl)pyridinium bromide, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, (cetyl)pyridinium chloride, dimethyl[dioctadecyl(76%)+dihexadecyl(24%)] ammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and methyltrioctylammonium bromide. Their catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the degree of CDT and hydrogen peroxide conversion and the selectivities of transformation to ECDD in relation to consumed CDT and hydrogen peroxide. The most effective PT catalysts were selected based on the obtained results. Among the onium salts under study, the epoxidation of CDT with hydrogen peroxide proceeds ...
The invention relates to quaternary ammonium amide and/or ester salts and their use as additives, including their use in fuels, such as diesel fuel. The invention particularly relates to the use of quaternary ammonium amide and/or ester salts as detergents in diesel fuels.
Shop Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Quaternary ammonium compound-resistance protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Of the total number of soak buckets containing disinfectant, 67% contained viable bacteria, including spore-forming bacteria (causes botulism and tetanus) and coliform bacteria. A second, separate companion study: Decreased activity of commercially available disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) when exposed to cotton towels, also conducted by the team, found laundered cotton towels can reduce the strength of the hospital-grade disinfectants (QACs) by up to 85.3%. "It is very concerning to think that the very process by which hospitals are trying to prevent the spread of bacteria, may actually be causing it," says Dr. Gerba. "Whether alone or in combination, the presence of bacteria on the towels and the inactivation of the cleaning agent may increase the risk for transmission of pathogens in hospitals. These observations indicate the need to critically re-evaluate current hospital cleaning practices associated with reuse of cloth towels.". Proper cleaning practices in ...
Browse MacRaesBlueBook.com for comprehensive listings of Ammonium Compounds Chemicals Manufacturers in Florida. View contact information and prices.
With a different antimicrobial, a very different pattern is seen (Video 2). In this 1 h time-lapse video, a staphylococcal biofilm is being treated with 50 mg per liter of a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). This type of disinfectant is commonly used in industry and in consumer products. With the QAC there is no removal of biomass or change in the biofilm structure. Flow is from left to right. The biofilm does wiggle in the flow some, a reminder that biofilms are viscoelastic structures that can deform and move. The spatial and temporal patterns of loss of green fluorescence is complex (Figure 4). There appear to be three phases. In the first phase, the rate of green fluorescence loss is controlled by penetration into the biofilm. Once the QAC penetrates to a particular depth, it acts quickly on about half the cells. The remaining cells lose color more slowly. This is suggestive of a subpopulation that is less susceptible.. Chlorine and QAC have quite different effects on the biofilm. This ...
A set of broad-range PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene in bacteria were tested, along with three series of oligonucleotide probes… Expand ...
* found in: QAC Reagent 2 Powder Pillows, QAC Reagent 1 Powder Pillows, For determination of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) by the Direct Binary..
Tristel Solo for Ultrasound disinfectant wipes are designed specifically for the simple and effective disinfection of skin surface probes and ultrasound station monitors, keyboards, probe holders and cables. Tristel Solo for Ultrasound disinfectant wipes are based on a Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) in the form of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. To aid cleaning and soil removal, the formulation incorporates two non-ionic surfactants and one chelating agent.
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur™, ≥99.0%; CAS Number: 32503-27-8; EC Number: 251-068-5; Synonym: Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate; Linear Formula: C16H37NO4S; find Supelco-86853 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Acetic acid, ammonium salt, 98+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics™ 5kg; Plastic bucket Acetic acid, ammonium salt, 98+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics™ Acetic...
Quaternary ammonium compoundsEdit. Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of ... Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and ... "In vitro Antifungal Efficacy of Biguanides and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Cleanroom Fungal Isolates". PDA J Pharm ... Inorganic compoundsEdit. ChlorineEdit. This group comprises aqueous solution of chlorine, hypochlorite, or hypochlorous acid. ...
... is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound.[2] It is not well absorbed in the ... "PubChem Compound. Retrieved 6 March 2014.. *^ Sanders KM, Zhu MH, Britton F, Koh SD, Ward SM (February 2012). "Anoctamins and ...
Neef, C.; Oosting, R.; Meijer, D. K. F (1984). "Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds". ... Banus, M. D.; Bragdon, R. W.; Gibb, T. R. P. (1952). "Preparation of quaternary ammonium borohydrides from sodium and lithium ... TMA salts do possess some of the phase-transfer catalytic properties that are characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds, ... Burn, J. H.; Dale, H. H. (1915). "The action of certain quaternary ammonium bases". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 6: 417-438. ...
Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and ... These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl ...
The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... Ioannou, C.; Hanlon, G.; Denyer, S. (2007). "Action of Disinfectant Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...
... is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. It has a choline cation with chloride anion. ... In foodstuffs the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. It is also used as a clay control additive in fluids used ... It forms a deep eutectic solvent with urea, ethylene glycol, glycerol and many other compounds. Other commercial choline salts ...
... and the related compounds isolane, pirimicarb and triazamate. The quaternary ammonium compounds neostigmine finds ...
... is a chemical antiseptic and a quaternary ammonium compound. Active ingredients used in cosmetics: safety ...
"Distribution of new quaternary ammonium compounds, solorinine and peltigerine, in the peltigerales". Bryologist. 102 (2): 196- ... Peltigera leucophlebia contains the compounds tenuiorin and methyl orsellinate, which are inhibitory to the enzyme 15- ...
... is a short chain aldehyde and quaternary ammonium compound. It can be considered a derivative of the ...
... is a quaternary ammonium compound used as antiseptic and disinfectant. It is white to yellowish ...
... is an quaternary ammonium compound isolated from the marine fireworm Eurythoe complanata. It causes an inflammatory ... It is presumed that this compound's function is to deter predators of the fireworm. Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yu Tachikawa; Makoto ... Complanine was the first compound isolated from the fireworm which causes these effects. The chemical structure of Complanine ...
Effects of a quaternary ammonium compound and gibberellic acid on the growth of Phaseolus. Ph.D. Thesis. University of ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some ... Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and ... and a quaternary ammonium compound". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 20 (12): 821-7. doi:10.1086/501591. PMID ... "In vitro Antifungal Efficacy of Biguanides and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds against Cleanroom Fungal Isolates". PDA J Pharm ...
CAV-1 is destroyed in the environment by steam cleaning and quaternary ammonium compounds. Otherwise, the virus can survive in ...
It is a quaternary ammonium compound and a semisynthetic derivative of hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine). The attachment of ...
Jimenez L, Chiang M (2006). "Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a ... care environments where medical electronics would be adversely affected by aerosolized chlorine or other caustic compounds. In ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds can be added to the water of infected adult fish and fry. Alternatively, the antibiotic ...
"Human studies on the bioavailability of a quaternary ammonium compound, tiemonium iodide and tiemonium methosulphate". Current ... The active moiety is tiemonium, a quaternary ammonium cation. Scoular, I. T.; Monks, Anne; Burgess, C.; Turner, P. (1977). " ...
These preparations include acetic acid, propylene glycol, quaternary ammonium compounds, and any alcohol-based preparations. ... The anti-bacterial activity of aminoglycoside compounds is due to inhibition of ribosome function and these compounds similarly ... The related compound ethacrynic acid has a higher association with ototoxicity, therefore it is preferred only for patients ... Ototoxicity is less frequently seen with the related compound oxaliplatin. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is dose-dependent, ...
Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, aldehydes, oxidizing agents, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They ...
"Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus". Am J ...
The block's functionality is enhanced by saturating it with a scenting compound and quaternary ammonium compounds. They come in ...
It is also an ingredient in some disinfectants, for example in combination with quaternary ammonium compounds. The effects of ... TBT compounds are organotin compounds, with 3 butyl groups covalently bonded to a tin(IV) centre. A general formula for these ... TBT compounds are banned and are included in the Rotterdam Convention and have been banned by the International Convention on ... TBT compounds have been described to interfere with glucocorticoid metabolism in the liver, by inhibiting the activity of the ...
... and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are inactivated by heat of 133 °F (56 °C) for minimum of 60 minutes, as well as by low ...
In particular, the quaternary ammonium cations (NR+. 4) are very useful since they are permanently charged, and they are often ... Compounds with the group 13 elementsEdit. The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements ( ... Ammonium and derivativesEdit. Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium ... CompoundsEdit. The alkali metals form complete series of compounds with all usually encountered anions, which well illustrate ...
... quaternary ammonium compound meaning. quaternary ammonium compound sense. quaternary ammonium compound FAQ. quaternary ammonium ... Explain quaternary ammonium compound. What is quaternary ammonium compound? ... quaternary ammonium compound. Search Dictionary: quaternary ammonium compound Definition. *(n) a compound derived from ammonium ... quaternary ammonium compound. English Dictionary -> Letter Q -> ... quaternary ammonium compound Synonyms. *quaternary ammonium ...
Browse fuzing.com to find Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide(,99%) sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, ... hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Classification: Quaternary Ammonium Compound Cas No. : 57-09-0 Molecular Formula: C16H33( ... cetyl trimethyl ammonium cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide Synonym: ... Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide(,99%). You May Also Be Interested In: ammonium bromide bromide ...
... is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound used in some types of mouthwashes , toothpastes , lozenges , throat sprays, breath ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C20-22-alkyldimethyl, chlorides * Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C20-22- ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C20-22-alkyldimethyl, chlorides ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, N,N,N-tris(hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-C16-18 (even numbered) and C18 unsatd., ...
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with ... Typically employed as the cetylpyridinium chloride salt, this compound is commonly used as an active ingredient in various over ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds 1 and 3 (see mono- and bifunctional quaternary ammonium salts tested in this study, Figure 1) ... The quaternary ammonium group is at the surface. (b) Biquat entangled with a polyethylene chain. Both quaternary ammonium ... Antimicrobial Polyethylene through Melt Compounding with Quaternary Ammonium Salts. Fernanda F. Rossetti,1 Konstantin Siegmann, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) can have biocidal properties and attempts to immobilize quats onto surfaces have been ...
Name of test material (as cited in study report): Quaternary ammonium compounds, (C16-18 and C18-unsatd. alkyl) trimethyl, ... C16-C18 and C18 unsaturated alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and SDA Reporting Number: 11-045-00. ...
... Paula A. ... "Physiological changes induced by the quaternary ammonium compound benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride on Pseudomonas ... T. E. Cloete, "Resistance mechanisms of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds," International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ...
Get Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Find a wide selection of quaternary ammonium compounds at Spectrum ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top quarternary ammonium compounds but if you do not see the product, grade or form of ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. These quarternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were identified for action under the Chemicals ... For general inquiries, please contact us and use the subject line "Quaternary ammonium compounds s.46 inquiry". ... refer to the Guidance manual for completing the Notice with respect to certain quaternary ammonium compounds in Canadian ...
The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred ... vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride ( ... and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds. ... DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower ...
US3497482A - Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds - Google Patents. Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds Download PDF ... US3497482A 1963-10-14 1963-10-14 Polymers of quaternary ammonium compounds Expired - Lifetime US3497482A (en) Priority ... United States Patent 3,497,482 POLYMERS 0F QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS Jesse C. H. Hwa, Stamford, Conn., assignor to Rohm & ... Examples of comonomers that may be polymerized with the quaternary ammonium sulfo monomer include the vinyl aromatic compounds ...
... Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound and is used as a preservative in many ... DYMED and POLYQUAD are also examples of quaternary ammonium compounds that are used in ophthalmic preparations. The quatenary ... ammonium compounds have a surfactant quality which has a detergent like property, disrupting cell membranes, and they are also ... Alkyl triethanol ammonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, CETRIMIDE (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), ...
This page contains information on the chemical Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl)Methyl, ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl) Methyl, Chlorides. Identifications. *CAS Number: 61789-73-9 ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl) Methyl, Chlorides Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous ... Chemical Database - Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Benzylbis(Hydrogenated Tallow Alkyl)Methyl, Chlorides. ...
... with German, Dutch, French, Italian, and Spanish translations and search. ... Sponsor an extended definition for quaternary ammonium compound for as little as $10 per month. quaternary ammonium compound. ... quaternary ammonium compound. noun *(chemistry) An amine derivative, containing four radicals, of general formula R1R2R3R4-N+X- ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 61789-18-2 Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. ... Product Name: Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. *Synonyms: quaternary ammonium compound - ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides(61789-18-2). *EPA Substance Registry System: Quaternary ammonium ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, coco alkyltrimethyl, chlorides. Cas No: 61789-18-2. USD $ 3.0-3.0 / Kilogram. 1 Kilogram. 1-100 ...
A] 0.1% ammonium acetate in water (pH unadjusted): [B] 0.1% ammonium acetate in acetontrile; (10:90, A:B). ...
... Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir. ... aeruginosa cells were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of 750 ppm alkyldimethylethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ...
Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ... Death-rate Study on a High Molecular Quaternary Ammonium Compound With Bacillus metiens ...
However, the effects of QACs on the levels of these oxidative stress markers were compound-specific, and the changes in ... could potentially be used to assess the risk posed by these compounds in the environment. ... The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the ... Quaternary ammonium compounds Wheat seedlings PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS COMPOUNDS QACS DETOXIFICATION MECHANISMS CHLOROPHYLL ...
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Qams, are an important class of chemicals which present interesting challenges to analysts. This ... Ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography techniques for the determination of quaternary ammonium compounds Public Deposited ...
Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ... Intervention of nitrite in the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compounds.. E N Maduagwu ...
EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ... EXCITATORY AND ANTI-CURARE PROPERTIES OF ACETYLCHO-LINE AND RELATED QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ...
... to a protonated or quaternary amine ester of the following formula: wherein A − is an inorganic or organic anion. ... D. ADDITIONAL CONVENTIONAL QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS. Additional conventional quaternary ammonium compounds or salts may be ... Heretofore quaternary ammonium compounds and a very few dialkyl ammonium compounds ("conventional quats") have found widespread ... As with the compounds of formulas (I) and/or (II), these conventional quaternary ammonium compounds (quats or salts) may have ...
  • European Standard EN-1276, Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics-Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in food, industrial, domestic, and institutional areas-Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1), 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • The large-scale use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in medicines or disinfectants can lead to their release into the environment, posing a potential risk to organisms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are widely used as disinfectants, biocides, and detergents, among a variety of other applications. (iwaponline.com)
  • diphtheriae is frequent in tropical countries such as Mayotte, this bacterium could be exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds contained in disinfectants, hygienic hand washes, and cosmetic products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The efficacy of three disinfectants containing either sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox, Chlorox Company, CA), quaternary ammonium compounds (Conflikt[R], Decon Laboratories, PA), or 70% isopropyl alcohol were tested and compared with a sterile water control. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study establish minimum cut-offs for specific fungal isolates that are problematic in cleanrooms against commonly used disinfectants (quaternary ammonium compounds and biguanides). (pda.org)
  • 2015. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Cause Subfertility in Mice by Targeting both Male and Female Reproductive Processes. (ewg.org)
  • 2014. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. (ewg.org)
  • Disinfectants are available in many forms including physical factors (such as x-rays, ultraviolet radiation or heat) and chemical compounds (including alcohols, aldehydes, halogens, oxidising agents, phenolics and quaternary ammonium compounds) (McDonnell and Russell, 1999). (essaywriter.co.uk)
  • For BAPLA, compliance with hospital recommended dosages and practices whereby operators are required to prepare tailored quantities of detergents and disinfectants for each specific task could largely explain the limited release of this compound. (springer.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoos). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long alkyl chains, are used as antimicrobials and disinfectants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). (cf.ac.uk)
  • This work has been undertaken to find the influence of biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds like cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) on the corrosion of mild steel and copper in the presence of phosphonates. (csircentral.net)
  • 13. The method of claim 1 wherein the imidazolinium quaternary compound is blended with a fatty acid alkoxylate and a polyether having a molecular weight of from 200 to 300. (google.ca)
  • We screened 122 multiple drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolated from admitted patients in one of the tertiary care hospital in Malaysia for the presence of antiseptic resistant genes qacA and qacE (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) and susceptibility towards chlorhexidine (CLX), benzalkonium (BZK) and benzethonium (BZT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds, N,N,N'-tris(hydroxyethyl)-N,N'-dimethyl-N'-C16-18 (even numbered) and C18 unsatd. (europa.eu)
  • Previous studies have shown that both quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan can activate effluxpumps in bacteria that transfer plasmids containing resistance genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This invention relates to pharmaceutical, ophthalmic or cosmetic compositions containing quaternary ammonium compounds, more preferably to ophthalmic emulsions being useful for eye care or for the treatment of eye conditions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • We studied the activity of this and other quaternary ammonium compounds on different non-tuberculous mycobacteria by transforming the mycobacteria with a dnaA-gfp fusion and then monitoring fluorescence to gauge the capacity of different quaternary ammonium compounds to inhibit bacterial growth . (bvsalud.org)
  • Accumulation of proline (Pro) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC's), activities of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), proline dehydrogenase (PDH), water potential (Cw), osmotic adjustment (OA), relative elongation rate (RER) and electrolyte leakage (EL) were examined during stress and recovery. (scribd.com)
  • The quatenary ammonium compounds have a surfactant quality which has a detergent like property, disrupting cell membranes, and they are also bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal depending on the concentrations used. (academy.org.uk)
  • Biocidal ingredients in these products often are quaternary ammonium compounds (such as BZK) and triclosan. (thefreedictionary.com)