The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (1/1423)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. (2/1423)

Release of excitatory transmitter from boutons on crayfish nerve terminals was inhibited by (R,S)-baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Baclofen had no postsynaptic actions as it reduced quantal content without affecting quantal amplitude. The effect of baclofen increased with concentration producing 18% inhibition at 10 microM; EC50, 50% inhibition at 30 microM; maximal inhibition, 85% at 100 microM and higher. There was no desensitization, even with 200 or 320 microM baclofen. Phaclofen, an antagonist at GABAB receptors, competitively antagonized the inhibitory action of baclofen (KD = 50 microM, equivalent to a pA2 = 4.3 +/- 0.1). Phaclofen on its own at concentrations below 200 microM had no effect on release, whereas at 200 microM phaclofen itself increased the control level of release by 60%, as did 2-hydroxy-saclofen (200 microM), another antagonist at GABAB receptors. This increase was evidently due to antagonism of a persistent level of GABA in the synaptic cleft, since the effect was abolished by destruction of the presynaptic inhibitory fiber, using intra-axonal pronase. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors, with a pharmacological profile similar to that of mammalian GABAB receptors, are involved in the control of transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Effect of hypertonicity on augmentation and potentiation and on corresponding quantal parameters of transmitter release. (3/1423)

Augmentation and (posttetanic) potentiation are two of the four components comprising the enhanced release of transmitter following repetitive nerve stimulation. To examine the quantal basis of these components under isotonic and hypertonic conditions, we recorded miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) from isolated frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscles, before and after repetitive nerve stimulation (40 s at 80 Hz). Continuous recordings were made in low Ca2+ high Mg2+ isotonic Ringer solution, in Ringer that was made hypertonic with 100 mM sucrose, and in wash solution. Estimates were obtained of m (no. of quanta released), n (no. of functional release sites), p (mean probability of release), and vars p (spatial variance in p), using a method that employed MEPP counts. Hypertonicity abolished augmentation without affecting potentiation. There were prolonged poststimulation increases in m, n, and p and a marked but transient increase in vars p in the hypertonic solution. All effects were completely reversed with wash. The time constants of decay for potentiation and for vars p were virtually identical. The results are consistent with the notion that augmentation is caused by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels and that potentiation is due to Na+-induced Ca2+ release from mitochondria. The results also demonstrate the utility of this approach for analyzing the dynamics of quantal transmitter release.  (+info)

Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (4/1423)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (5/1423)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (6/1423)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

Glutamate uptake limits synaptic excitation of retinal ganglion cells. (7/1423)

EPSCs of retinal ganglion cells decay more slowly than do those of most other CNS neurons, in part because of the long time course of glutamate release from bipolar cells. Here we investigated how glutamate clearance and AMPA receptor desensitization affect ganglion cell EPSCs in the salamander retinal slice preparation. Inhibition of glutamate uptake greatly prolonged ganglion cell EPSCs evoked by light or monosynaptic electrical stimuli but had little effect on spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). This suggests that single quanta of glutamate are cleared rapidly by diffusion but multiple quanta can interact to lengthen the postsynaptic response. Some interaction between quanta is likely to occur even when glutamate uptake is not inhibited. This seems to depend on quantal content, because reducing glutamate release with low Ca2+, paired-pulse depression, or weak stimuli shortened the EPSC decay. High quantal content glutamate release may lead to desensitization of postsynaptic receptors. We reduced the extent of AMPA receptor desensitization by holding ganglion cells at positive potentials. This increased the amplitude of the late phase of evoked EPSCs but did not affect the decay rate after the first 50 msec of the response. In contrast, the holding potential had little effect on mEPSC kinetics. Our results suggest that desensitization limits the late phase of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, whereas glutamate uptake controls the duration of both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses.  (+info)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. (8/1423)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. We have analyzed the possibility of quantal interactions by inspecting action potential-evoked postsynaptic multiquantal responses recorded extracellularly from the lobster neuromuscular junction. These recorded responses were compared with simulated multiquantal responses constructed from statistically independent quantal events. The simulated multiquantal responses were generated by random superposition of single quantal responses aligned according to the timing of the action potential. The methods of analysis consisted of 1) the comparison of quantal contents obtained from direct counting or by measuring of the size of the responses and 2) the analysis of distributions of quantal latencies. This analysis revealed a large error in the detection of quantal events for responses simulated with no quantal interaction. In contrast, very few errors in quantal detection were made in the analysis of experimental recordings. Latency histograms of recorded responses demonstrate that the proportion of late quantal events (those with latencies of >/=5 ms) increased as a function of quantal content. This shift in latency histograms was not observed for simulated responses. Our interpretation is that quanta interact presynaptically to cause asynchrony of quantal events in evoked responses.  (+info)

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In theoretical physics, thermal quantum field theory (thermal field theory for short) or finite temperature field theory is a ... Quantum field theory, Statistical mechanics, All stub articles, Quantum physics stubs). ... S. Ganesh (2022). "Quantum theory, thermal gradients and the curved Euclidean space". International Journal of Modern Physics A ... doi:10.1016/0370-1573(87)90121-9. A.J. Niemi, G.W. Semenoff (1984). "Finite Temperature Quantum Field Theory in Minkowski Space ...
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Non-relativistic Theory. Pergamon Press. Wikiquote has quotations related to Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics). "L1.1 ... Perturbation theory is an important tool for describing real quantum systems, as it turns out to be very difficult to find ... In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for ... In the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), in which the electron-photon interaction is treated perturbatively, the ...
Quantum Field Theory (2 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 254. ISBN 9780471496847. Weinberg, S. (1995). "6". The Quantum Theory of ... Effective action Green's function (many-body theory) Partition function (mathematics) Schwartz, M.D. "7". Quantum Field Theory ... They are a key object of study in quantum field theory where they can be used to calculate various observables such as S-matrix ... In quantum field theory, correlation functions, often referred to as correlators or Green's functions, are vacuum expectation ...
... along with Nielsen and Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information and Mark Wilde's Quantum Information Theory. In ... Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods is a 1993 quantum physics textbook by Israeli physicist Asher Peres. In his preface, Peres ... Healey, Richard (2016). "Quantum-Bayesian and Pragmatist Views of Quantum Theory". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford ... quantum chaos, and the treatment of measurement in quantum mechanics. To generate the figures in his chapter on quantum chaos, ...
Algebraic quantum field theory Axiomatic quantum field theory Topological quantum field theory (TQFT) History of quantum ... Quantum field theory originated in the 1920s from the problem of creating a quantum mechanical theory of the electromagnetic ... QED, and indeed, all field theories, were generalized to a class of quantum field theories known as gauge theories. That ... Moreover, it has not been established that a theory of quantum gravity is necessary (see Quantum field theory in curved ...
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An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory. Westview Press. pp. 289-292. ISBN 9780201503975. Schwartz, M. D. (2014). "34". Quantum ... In quantum field theory, partition functions are generating functionals for correlation functions, making them key objects of ... A thermal field theory at temperature T {\displaystyle T} is equivalent in Euclidean formalism to a theory with a compactified ... Năstase, H. (2019). "9". Introduction to Quantum Field Theory. Cambridge University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-1108493994. Birrell ...
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Quantum field theory sum rules should not be confused with sum rules in quantum chromodynamics or quantum mechanics. Many sum ... Quantum field theory, Quantum chromodynamics, Hadrons, Nuclear physics, All stub articles, Quantum physics stubs). ... Quantum field theory sum rules are useful in a variety of ways. They permit to test the theory used to derive them, e.g. ... In quantum field theory, a sum rule is a relation between a static quantity and an integral over a dynamical quantity. ...
History of quantum field theory Local quantum field theory Statistical field theory Topological quantum field theory Quantum ... The theory of quantum field theory in curved spacetime may be considered as an intermediate step towards quantum gravity. QFT ... In theoretical physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime (QFTCS) is an extension of quantum field theory from Minkowski ... Quantum field theory in curved spacetime is a semiclassical approximation to quantum gravity theory, where the curved ...
In quantum field theory n-dimensional integrals of the form ∫ − ∞ ∞ exp ⁡ ( − 1 ℏ f ( q ) ) d n q {\displaystyle \int _{-\infty ... Common integrals in quantum field theory are all variations and generalizations of Gaussian integrals to the complex plane and ... The first integral, with broad application outside of quantum field theory, is the Gaussian integral. G ≡ ∫ − ∞ ∞ e − 1 2 x 2 d ... ISBN 0486-61272-4. Section 11.4.44 Jackson, p. 116 Abramowitz and Stegun, Section 11.4.28 (Quantum field theory, Mathematical ...
... is a textbook by Anthony Zee covering quantum field theory. The book has been adopted by ... Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691140346. Retrieved 2017-10-04. "Quantum Field Theory ... Peskin, Michael E. (2011). "Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell (2nd edn)". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 28 (8): 089003. ... Quantum Field Theory". See the PDF. Retrieved 2017-10-04. Bern, Zvi (1 April 2004). "Review of Quantum ...
... Google Scholar. 2013-09-07 Popper, Karl Raimund (1989). Quantum Theory and the ... including quantum theory, Heisenberg discusses the basis for the fundamental concepts of quantum theory. Also by this time ... 1) an Outline of Wave Mechanics (2) the Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (3) Quantum Chemistry: A Short Introduction ... Official website The Physical Principles Of The Quantum Theory. by Werner Heisenberg. (Articles with short ...
... pure qubit state quantum dot Kane quantum computer quantum cryptography quantum decoherence quantum circuit universal quantum ... picture Hilbert space Interaction picture Measurement in quantum mechanics quantum field theory quantum logic quantum operation ... spin network black hole thermodynamics Quantum group Hopf algebra Noncommutative quantum field theory See list of string theory ... This is a list of mathematical topics in quantum theory, by Wikipedia page. See also list of functional analysis topics, list ...
In the late 1980s, Witten coined the term topological quantum field theory for a certain type of physical theory in which the ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Quantum gravity, Gauge theories, Knot theory). ... Yang-Mills theory. We first describe the quantum theory in terms of connection variable. In the connection representation the ... This is the action for Yang-mills theory. We consider a change of representation in the quantum Maxwell gauge theory. The idea ...
String theory, Quantum field theory, All stub articles, Quantum physics stubs). ... Many first principles in quantum field theory are explained, or get further insight, in string theory. Emission and absorption ... Coupling constant: in quantum field theory this is, roughly, the probability for one particle to emit or absorb another ... Gauge symmetry: in quantum field theory, the mathematical description of physical fields include non-physical states. In order ...
... (1978; second edition 1987) is a book by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn ... Kuhn surveys the development of quantum mechanics by Max Planck at the end of the 19th century. He argues that Planck misread ... morality and the meaning of quantum mechanics. Scientific American, blog Cross-Check (Retrieved, November 19, 2018) v t e v t e ... in which the author surveys the development of quantum mechanics. The second edition has a new afterword. ...
Transition state analyses have used isotopic effects and quantum calculations to reveal a completely dissociated dianionic ... analogues where the carboxylate groups is replaced by a cationic substituent have shown some evidence against this theory. OMP ...
The Blank Theory covered "Sour Times" on their Beyond the Calm of the Corridor release, which was featured in the trailer for ... He added, "Their first single, Numb, was a non-starter, but Portishead make a quantum jump with this single. This is a ...
He is lead author of the ORCA quantum chemistry computer program. His methods have been applied to a range of problems in ... His work focuses on the theory of magnetic spectroscopies (electron paramagnetic resonance, magnetic circular dichroism) and ... "International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science". Retrieved 16 December 2021. Website at the Max-Planck- ... He was Associate Editor (2011-2014) of the journal PhysChemChemPhys and is a Member of the International Academy of Quantum ...
... such as quantum mechanics, and information theory. See for example, Schrödinger's cat and Maxwell's demon. In general ... In quantum mechanics, "observation" is synonymous with quantum measurement and "observer" with a measurement apparatus and ... ISBN 0-387-95210-1. Richard L. Faber (1983). Differential Geometry and Relativity Theory: an introduction. CRC Press. p. 134. ... ISBN 1-58488-363-4. Oliver Davis Johns (2005). Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Oxford University ...
In theory, the particles analyzed by Mie theory are commonly spherical but, in practice, particles are usually fabricated as ... Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics. 21 (2): 153-160. Bibcode:1978R&QE...21..153M. doi:10.1007/BF01078707 (inactive 31 July ... "Light Scattering Theory" (PDF). University of Florida. Retrieved 2017-09-22. Stratton, J. A. (1941). Electromagnetic Theory. ... The term Mie theory is sometimes used for this collection of solutions and methods; it does not refer to an independent ...
Bardeen is considered one of the leading authorities on quantum field theory and its application to the phenomena of elementary ... He has played a major role in the development of perturbation theory for quantum chromodynamics, and dynamical approaches to ... Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship for research on the application of quantum field theory to elementary particle ... Bardeen is co-inventor of the theory of the axial vector current anomaly which is of foundational importance in modern ...
A common setting for explicit symmetry breaking is perturbation theory in quantum mechanics. The symmetry is evident in a base ... A typical question in perturbation theory might then be to determine the spectrum of the system to first order in the ... In theoretical physics, explicit symmetry breaking is the breaking of a symmetry of a theory by terms in its defining equations ... In the latter, the defining equations respect the symmetry but the ground state (vacuum) of the theory breaks it. Explicit ...
... is a tape recording (Computer storage media) technology developed by Quantum Corporation packs data ... From Theory to Practical Systems. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 4-. ISBN 978-0-470-97578-7. Andrei Khurshudov (2001). The Essential ...
Electromagnetic Theory". Journal of the Optical Society of America. 46 (2): 126-131. Bibcode:1956JOSA...46..126J. doi:10.1364/ ... Jones, R. Clark (1959). "Quantum Efficiency of Human Vision". Journal of the Optical Society of America. 49 (7): 645-653. ... Jones, R. Clark (1941). "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems, III The Sohncke Theory of optical activity". ... Jones, R. Clark (1953). "The General Theory of Bolometer Performance". Journal of the Optical Society of America. 43 (1): 1-10 ...
Another solution to this problem is to use a set theory with proper classes, such as NBG or Morse-Kelley set theory, and allow ... John C. Baez (6 Nov 2001). "quantum mechanics over a commutative rig". Newsgroup: sci.physics.research. Usenet: 9s87n0$iv5@gap. ... a theory of relations by Charles Sanders Peirce Order theory, investigates properties of order relations Authors who deal with ... A strict order on a set is a homogeneous relation arising in order theory. In 1951 Jacques Riguet adopted the ordering of a ...
... a former sound level unit De Broglie-Bohm theory, an interpretation of quantum theory Deep Banana Blackout, an American jazz- ...
Geometric Formulation of Classical and Quantum Mechanics (World Scientific, 2010) ISBN 981-4313-72-6 (arXiv:1005.1212). ( ... of submanifolds generalizes that of jets of sections of fiber bundles which are utilized in covariant classical field theory ... Differential equations, Classical mechanics, Theory of relativity). ...
She is also known for her work in cosmological perturbation theory, on integral constraint vectors of spacelike hypersurfaces. ... and quantum gravity. She is a professor of physics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Traschen took three years to ... Traschen's research has included work with Robert Geroch critiquing certain approximations used in string theory and defining a ... The Mathematical Theory of Cosmic Strings: Cosmic Strings in the Wire Approximation, Series in High Energy Physics, Cosmology ...
He was a member of the International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science and the Society of Catholic Scientists. He turned 100 ... Roothaan, C. C. J. (1951). "New Developments in Molecular Orbital Theory". Reviews of Modern Physics. 23 (2): 69-89. Bibcode: ... A big name in Quantum Chemistry!" (Tweet). Retrieved 2018-10-17 - via Twitter. "News & Announcements". 19 June ... Restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock "Clemens C. J. Roothaan". International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science. Retrieved 7 ...
... (3 November 2013). "Quantum Black Holes and Number Theory" (YouTube video). ICTP Math. (CS1 maint: multiple ... The Bhatnagar prize cites Dabholkar's "outstanding contributions for establishing how quantum theory modifies the entropy of ... theory which played an important role in the discovery of duality symmetries in string theory and later in the study of quantum ... that mock modularity is generic and essential for exhibiting the duality symmetries of quantum gauge theories and M-theory. ...
... a procedure to calculate the effective action of a quantum field theory Bacterial flagellar motor of a cell flagellum Bond ...
Quantum Leap episode "Mirror Image", aired May 5, 1993 Page, Matthew (31 March 2009). "Dr. Beckett's String Theory". Retrieved ... A few months later in 1989, Sam and Al spearheaded Project Quantum Leap, a time travel experiment based on the string theory ... Al explains the string theory in the pilot episode, and Sam, recovering his memory of the theory, explains it to Donna in the ... Al conveys to Sam a theory to return Sam to the present: that an unknown influence (God, Fate, or Time) was using Sam to ...
Many times, as part of this mutual 'give-and-take', an attempt is made by the groom's family to dictate the quantum of each ... at least in theory, women economic and financial security in their marriage in the form of movable goods. This helped prevent ...
Belkale, Prakash (2004). "Invariant Theory of GL(n) and intersection theory of Grassmannians". Int. Math. Res. Not. 2004 (69): ... Belkale, Prakash (2008). "Quantum generalization of the Horn conjecture" (PDF). J. Amer. Math. Soc. 21 (2): 365-408. arXiv:math ... and the Schubert calculus and its connections to intersection theory and representation theory. He is a professor at the ... Belkale works on enumerative algebraic geometry, quantum cohomology and moduli spaces of vector bundles on curves (conformal ...
Supersymmetric quantum field theory, Anomalies (physics), All stub articles, Quantum physics stubs). ... Konishi anomaly is the violation of the conservation of the Noether current associated with certain transformations in theories ...
The two other fundamental quantum field theories are quantum chromodynamics and the electroweak theory. In quantum ... deals with quantum field theory at finite temperatures, something seldom considered in quantum field theory. In BRST theory one ... The resulting field theories are referred to as classical or quantum field theories. The dynamics of a classical field are ... Conformal field theory Covariant Hamiltonian field theory Field strength History of the philosophy of field theory Lagrangian ...
... but all modern theories, such as electromagnetism, theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, are the mathematical description of ... starting from astronomical theories of Ancient Greek to the modern theories. In contrast to the numerous theories, that have ... About the concepts that appear and are used in these theories to describe the physical world, we are the only known - ... but rather what human-made mathematical theories say. Morris Kline, Mathematics and the Search for Knowledge, Oxford University ...
CSL in Collapse Theories (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) v t e (Quantum mechanics, All stub articles, Quantum physics ... A dynamical reduction theory (DRT) is an extension of quantum mechanics (QM) that attempts to account for the collapse of the ... Even if we include the quantum state of the measuring devices, and even if we include the quantum state of the surrounding ... The reason that QM does not account for measurements is that the time evolution of the quantum state of a system is described ...
In quantum information theory, a quantum channel is a communication channel which can transmit quantum information, as well as ... Consider quantum channels that transmit only quantum information. This is precisely a quantum operation, whose properties we ... In quantum teleportation, a sender wishes to transmit an arbitrary quantum state of a particle to a possibly distant receiver. ... In other words, a quantum channel is just a quantum operation viewed not merely as the reduced dynamics of a system but as a ...
American electrical engineer and quantum information theory pioneer Hellstrom (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists ... in quantum mechanics and mathematics, defining an infinitesimal distance between density matrix operators Echo Helstrom (band ...
Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Density functional theory (DFT), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, MCSCF, MRCI, CC ... "2MOLCAS as a development platform for quantum chemistry software". International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. 100 (4): 626-635 ... MOLCAS also contains second order perturbation theory codes CASPT2 and RASPT2. MOLCAS code has been created at the late 1980s ... 2016), "Molcas 8: New capabilities for multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations across the periodic table" (PDF), ...
Bose-Einstein condensate Fermi liquid Many-body theory Quantum fluid R. Balescu, Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical ... Such non-classical Fermi systems, i.e., quantum fluids, can be studied using quantum Monte Carlo methods, Feynman path integral ... that quantum effects can be neglected. A system of hard spheres, interacting only by hard collisions (e.g., billiards, marbles ...
Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) 313-322, [arXiv:gr-qc/0410088] Deffke, Uta. "The octave magician: Nichol (Cohl) Furey is a researcher ... J. C, 78 5 (2018) 375 C. Furey, "A demonstration that electroweak theory could violate parity automatically (leptonic case)", ... Furey, Cohl (2012-07-20). "Unified theory of ideals". Physical Review D. 86 (2): 025024. arXiv:1002.1497. Bibcode:2012PhRvD.. ... Furey, Cohl (2012-07-20). "Unified theory of ideals". Physical Review D. 86 (2): 025024. arXiv:1002.1497. Bibcode:2012PhRvD.. ...
"Theory of quantum error correction for general noise", Physical Review Letters, 84 (11): 2525-2528, arXiv:quant-ph/9604034, ... "Theory of decoherence-free fault-tolerant universal quantum computation", Physical Review A, 63 (4): 042307, arXiv:quant-ph/ ... In brief, when a quantum register (a Hilbert space) is subjected to decoherence due to an interaction with an external and ... It has been shown that when the source of decoherence exhibits some symmetries, certain subsystems of the quantum register are ...
... wrote about 100 scientific papers on thermodynamics, theory of relativity, quantum theory, theory of ...
... and it follows the theory of Nobel Laureate and quantum theory founder Erwin Schrödinger," he told Medscape Medical News, who ... Cite this: Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment Taps Into Quantum Theory - Medscape - Sep 30, 2014. ... says the approach is based on the principles of quantum theory. ... Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment Taps Into Quantum Theory. Nancy ... We dont know, and we do need long-term follow-up studies to prove the efficacy, but I think its a great new theory and the ...
Quantum Theory Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... In unfibrillized samples (C), the three-quantum amplitude is small and no four-quantum signal is observed. ... at a single site in the peptide and measuring 13C multiple quantum NMR spectra, because observation of an n-quantum signal ... In the fibrillized samples (A and B), the amplitudes of two-, three-, and four-quantum signals increase with increasing τMQ. ...
Quantum Theory Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... The major departure from previous force fields is that all quantum mechanical calculations were done in the condensed phase ... A point-charge force field for molecular mechanics simulations of proteins based on condensed-phase quantum mechanical ... A point-charge force field for molecular mechanics simulations of proteins based on condensed-phase quantum mechanical ...
Quantum Theory Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast Download. NLM Classification: QV 38 NLM ID: 101724465 ...
Quantum Theory; Rats; Solubility; Thiourea/analogs & derivatives*; Thiourea/chemical synthesis; Thiourea/pharmacology* ...
He presented on how looking at genetics and networks led to solving a quantum gravity problem. ... Gates is a theoretical physicist known for his work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory. ... In the middle of the 1990s, a physicist named Edward Witten proposed the existence of M-Theory as a candidate for a theory of ... Gates is a theoretical physicist known for his work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory. Dr. Gates is ...
quantum field theory (19) * venture capital (19) * gender (18) * goldman sachs (18) ...
So there was something called reciprocity, which I learned in quantum field theory [laugh] [??] was useful, but it applies to ... ZIERLER: Theres the theory-the physics and the theory, like how the math and the equations work. ... But the basic theory was what I wrote down. And I still remember there was a factor of two I had introduced in the math ... One was statistical quantum mechanics where I did some things with Michael-and we actually had a Physics Review Letters paper ...
Quantum Theory Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Using multiple quantum coherence to increase the 15N resolution in a three-dimensional TROSY HNCO experiment for accurate PRE ... Using multiple quantum coherence to increase the 15N resolution in a three-dimensional TROSY HNCO experiment for accurate PRE ...
Wilbers wonderful discussion and criticism of quantum physicists monopolization of the Theory of Everything (See A Theory ... INTEGRAL WORLD: EXPLORING THEORIES OF EVERYTHING An independent forum for a critical discussion of the integral philosophy of ... The first tenet is the base tenet for all tenets that follow, and all other theories that transcend and include this premise. ... The concept of holons underlies Wilbers spectrum of theories and applications that attempt to depict the nature of the Kosmos ...
Quantum Theory Preferred Concept UI. M0018322. Scope Note. The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in ... Quantum Theory Preferred Term Term UI T034832. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1964). ... The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size ... Quantum Theory. Tree Number(s). H01.671.579.800. Unique ID. D011789. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
The Rempe lab has used quasi-chemical statistical theory and quantum calculations to advance basic understanding of the ... To disseminate enhanced methods and tools for: theory and computation related to transport, experimental characterization of ... taking important quantum effects into account. These simulations will help to guide the fabrication of selective silica ... biomolecular theory and computation, transport processes, and nanoscale device design. ...
Information was provided on the nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, quantum theory, emission spectra, incandescence ...
... makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the ...
Up: Top -=- Next: Theory -=- Previous: Quanta. Status of MMFF implementation into CHARMM (February 1996 ... How to use MMFF from QUANTA * Status:: Current status of MMFF implementation in CHARMM * Theory:: Basis for, parameterization ... File: MMFF -=- Node: Quanta. Up: Top -=- Next: Status -=- Previous: Usage. Here is the current prescription for to use MMFF ... File: MMFF -=- Node: Theory. Up: Top -=- Next: Refs -=- Previous: Status. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) A Broadly ...
Baggott, J. (1993). The meaning of quantum theory. A guide for students of chemistry and physics. Oxford: Oxford University ...
Quantum Theory Preferred Concept UI. M0018322. Scope Note. The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in ... Quantum Theory Preferred Term Term UI T034832. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1964). ... The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size ... Quantum Theory. Tree Number(s). H01.671.579.800. Unique ID. D011789. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
Then I earned a masters in quantum theory. But by then, all the bits of quantum theory that I really liked turned out to be ... There are standard techniques such as optimization, queueing theory, mathematical modeling or simulation. But the heart of ... Physician, author, and educator; Professor and Vice Chair, Theory & Practice of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford ...
Quantum Theory Format:. Text Extent:. 3 pages Language:. English Legacy Source Citation:. Periodical. Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert. ... In this lecture, Szent-Gyorgyi suggested for the first time that quantum theory might be productively applied to explain ...
Quantum Theory. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. Lectures. Abstract:. In this lecture, Szent-Gyorgyi suggested for the ... first time that quantum theory might be productively applied to explain certain biological processes. From the late 1950s on, ...
Quantum Dots QT 36.5 See also Semiconductors Quantum Theory QC 173.96 - QC 174.52 ...
Quantum Field Theory Demystified Djvu Free. 0. prisctadle. 77. Mar 27 Sep - 19:43 (2016). prisctadle ...
Video: Erich Jarvis on Theories About the Origin of Vocal Learning (Quanta Magazine) ...
The quantum theory. Electrons in atoms. The periodic table. Chemical bonds. Solids. Liquids. Solutions. Acids & bases. Redox ...
  • Wrapping your head around quantum physics is tricky, no matter how well-educated you are -- if it were easy, there wouldn't be problems making quantum computers . (
  • This effort suggests that the Quantum physics concept of Superposition (Superposition suggests that any two states can be combined as one, becoming one distinct state) has had a profound effect on early sociological classic theory. (
  • Hoava's theory has been generating excitement since he proposed it in January, and physicists met to discuss it at a meeting in November at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. (
  • One of the surprising aspects of quantum physics is the fact that the results of measurements are random and cannot be foreseen, because the reality we live in is intrinsically dominated by chance. (
  • Carlos Abellán talks about the importance and applications of random numbers in cryptography and the QuSide random number generator, thanks to quantum physics. (
  • If (quantum theory) is correct, it signifies the end of physics as a science. (
  • Quantum mechanics (QM) - the theory of matter and fields - and Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) - the theory of space, time, and gravity - are the odd couple of physics. (
  • Only an all-encompassing theory of quantum gravity which unifies these two fundamental pillars of physics could provide an insight into how the universe began. (
  • For almost a century, the two major theories of physics have coexisted but have been irreconcilable: while Einstein's General Theory of Relativity describes gravity and thus the world at large, quantum physics describes the world of atoms and elementary particles. (
  • Then we need quantum physics. (
  • Oriti now breaks down this space into tiny elementary cells and applies the principles of quantum physics to them, thus to space itself and to the theory of relativity describing it. (
  • Then I went to Michael Fisher to learn about phase transitions and quantum statistical physics, essentially, and I was his TA for a bit, teaching a graduate level course I didn't take myself-actually I hadn't taken. (
  • Keeping to this maxim, we record a paradigmatic shift in the foundations of quantum mechanics, where the focus has recently from interpreting to reconstructing quantum theory. (
  • Are quantum mechanics still complicated? (
  • What better way to get the little grey cells going than by unifying quantum mechanics and special relativity? (
  • Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with gravity for decades. (
  • The snag is that in quantum mechanics, time retains its Newtonian aloofness, providing the stage against which matter dances but never being affected by its presence. (
  • If we could unify quantum mechanics with general relativity, it would change everything. (
  • In this work, the concept of PQL is applied to create a logical model presenting the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics that support particle-wave theory. (
  • in the PQL Lattice that express the symmetry and the entanglement of Quantum Mechanics. (
  • The constructed model adapts well to the quantum phenomena, is strongly consistent, and can be considered as an innovative form of analysis in the field of quantum mechanics. (
  • From Aeon Video comes a short, vividly-animated tribute to Grete Hermann (1901-1984), the German mathematician and philosopher who made important, but often forgotten, contributions to quantum mechanics. (
  • Space consists of tiny elementary cells or "atoms of space" in some modern theories of quantum gravity trying to unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. (
  • This shows that quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity really can be unified. (
  • The scientists have therefore succeeded in bridging the gap from the microworld to the macroworld, and thus from quantum mechanics to the General Theory of Relativity: they show that space emerges as the condensate of these elementary cells and evolves into a universe which resembles our own. (
  • The physical content of quantum kine-matics and mechanics. (
  • The first Israel Quantum Information Theory Day workshop will be held on 21/12/2022 at the Weizmann Institute of Science. (
  • More specifically, the problem is the way that time is tied up with space in Einstein's theory of gravity: general relativity. (
  • General relativity scored a knockout blow when Einstein predicted the motion of Mercury with greater accuracy than Newton's theory of gravity could. (
  • This department attends to the development of a theory that unifies quantum theory and general relativity - in the framework of superstring theory as well as canonical quantization. (
  • We do this by starting out from the core basics of quantum theory: unitary dynamics on closed quantum systems. (
  • On this basis, it is now possible to study the full quantum dynamics of gravity and space-time itself. (
  • Standard Monte Carlo techniques are unable to access real-time quantum dynamics due to a sign problem. (
  • Quantum fluid (or hydrodynamic) models provide an attractive alternative for the modeling and simulation of the electron dynamics in nano-scale objects. (
  • The long term impact is hard to nail down, but the university believes that it could lead to new approaches to quantum cryptography . (
  • The field of quantum computation heavily relies on the belief that quantum computation violates the extended Church Turing thesis, namely, that quantum many body systems cannot be simulated by classical ones with only polynomially growing overhead. (
  • I will describe the extension of this result to the computation of S-matrix elements (albeit for a smaller class of field theories). (
  • To advance theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for understanding and quantitatively characterizing biomembrane and other nanoscale transport processes, through interactive teams doing collaborative macromolecular design and synthesis, computation/theory, and experimental functional characterization. (
  • To interact synergistically with other workers in the areas of membrane processes, membrane structure, biomolecular design, biomolecular theory and computation, transport processes, and nanoscale device design. (
  • To disseminate enhanced methods and tools for: theory and computation related to transport, experimental characterization of membrane function, theoretical and experimental characterization of nanoscale fluid flow, and nanotransport aspects of device design. (
  • For this reason, the department aims to represent all the major current approaches to quantum gravity, in particular supergravity and string theory and their modern developments, as well as canonical quantization (e.g. loop quantum gravity) and discrete models of quantum gravity. (
  • The canonical approaches to quantum gravity emphasize the geometrical aspects and appear well suited to deal with unsolved conceptual issues of quantum gravity, such as e.g. the problem of time or the interpretation of the wave function of the universe. (
  • A fundamental problem of all approaches to quantum gravity consists in bridging the huge dimensional scales from the space atoms to the dimensions of the universe. (
  • The goal of the workshop is to bring together the Israeli scientific commnunty interested in the theoretical aspects of quantum information theory. (
  • Dr. Gates is a theoretical physicist known for his work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory. (
  • Important new insights have been gained over the past decade in the framework of loop quantum gravity, whose modern variants (spin foam gravity and group field theory) are among the department's main research directions. (
  • This is closely related to loop quantum gravity, which the AEI has been developing for some time. (
  • Beyond possible technological advances, a quantum gravity theory might answer the elusive questions about the beginning of our universe. (
  • Da Silva Filho, J. (2016) Undulatory Theory with Paraconsistent Logic (Part I): Quantum Logical Model with Two Wave Functions. (
  • The study of quantum fields in curved spacetime has delivered many important insights not only in the regime of extreme gravitational phenomena, but also in the foundations of quantum field theory. (
  • Quantum Chemistry Calculations for Metabolomics. (
  • In this review, we cover the major roadblocks currently facing metabolomics and discuss applications where quantum chemistry calculations offer a solution. (
  • Finally, we consider current best practices, sources of error, and provide an outlook for quantum chemistry calculations in metabolomics studies. (
  • 10. Representative Amino Acid Side-Chain Interactions in Protein-DNA Complexes: A Comparison of Highly Accurate Correlated Ab Initio Quantum Mechanical Calculations and Efficient Approaches for Applications to Large Systems. (
  • 11. Reference MP2/CBS and CCSD(T) quantum-chemical calculations on stacked adenine dimers. (
  • SPARTA theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations (de Dios et al. (
  • In this way it may become possible to understand how the Big Bang singularity of classical relativity is "dissolved" in quantum cosmology. (
  • One such 20th century period man was Einstein, and his work on Theory of Relativity. (
  • Central to the Theory of Relativity is the concept of Superposition. (
  • When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. (
  • Physicists from the Max Planck Institute and the Perimeter Institute in Canada have developed a new approach to the unification of the general theory of relativity and quantum theory. (
  • Quantum theory and the theory of relativity fail in this almost infinitely dense and hot primal state of the universe. (
  • This fundamental equation, which describes the expanding universe, was derived by the Russian mathematician Alexander Friedman in the 1920s on the basis of the General Theory of Relativity. (
  • This may not only lead to a geometrization of the other fundamental forces (as exemplified by Kaluza-Klein theories and supergravity) and the unification of matter and gravity, but to an entirely new type of theory, which could explain how space-time is dissolved at very small distances, and in which Einstein's theory emerges only as an effective low energy theory, valid above distances above the Planck scale. (
  • The requirement of mathematical consistency and the non-renormalizability of perturbatively quantized gravity, and the need to incorporate the non-gravitational interactions are likely to force us to modify Einstein's theory at the smallest distances (Planck scale). (
  • In this lecture, Szent-Gyorgyi suggested for the first time that quantum theory might be productively applied to explain certain biological processes. (
  • I went on to meet Paul Steinhardt who is currently the Albert Einstein Professor in Science at Princeton University and best known for his development of new theories of the origin, evolution, and future of the universe. (
  • Daniele Oriti from the Albert Einstein Institute uses a fluid to illustrate this situation: "We can describe the behavior of flowing water with the long-known classical theory of hydrodynamics. (
  • Due to the advancement of designing nanoscale engines, especially in the light of devices that are used today in the processing of quantum information, is thermodynamics still applicable? (
  • Can we refine the core principles of thermodynamics to suit such nanoscale quantum systems as well? (
  • The central aim of this thesis is to construct a theory of thermodynamics that holds for nanoscale quantum systems, even those as small and simple as a single qubit. (
  • In other words, we find additional restrictions that surface in the study of quantum nanoscale heat engines, which are a direct consequence of the generalized second laws. (
  • A rigorous account of quantum nonlocal effects is paramount for understanding the optical response of metal nanostructures and for designing plasmonic devices at the nanoscale. (
  • We explore a new formalism to study the nonlinear electronic density response based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) at partially and strongly quantum degenerate regimes. (
  • We present a short review of discrete- time quantum walks (DTQW) as a potentially useful and rich formalism to model human decision -making. (
  • We suggest that DTQW are particularly suitable for combining the two strands of literature on evidence accumulator models and on the quantum formalism of cognition . (
  • I will explore some of their applications in algorithms and briefly discuss their polynomial speedup on some quantum algorithms. (
  • In fact, he has co-opted the mathematics of exotic phase transitions to build his theory of gravity. (
  • Computational quantum chemistry methods, which can be used to calculate chemical properties that are then measured by analytical platforms, offer an alternative route for building reference libraries, i.e., in silico libraries for "standards-free" identification. (
  • For instance, the electromagnetic force can be described quantum-mechanically by the motion of photons. (
  • I will conclude by outlining the landscape of computational tasks in field theories: what is provably intractable, what is doable today, and what we might hope for in the future. (
  • The development of kinetic energy (KE) functionals is one of the current challenges in density functional theory (DFT). (
  • 20. Density functional theory based study of molecular interactions, recognition, engineering, and quantum transport in π molecular systems. (
  • Information was provided on the nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, quantum theory, emission spectra, incandescence, fluorescence and fluorescent lamps, and the properties of different light sources. (
  • On the use of discrete-time quantum walks in decision theory. (
  • Based on this model, we present in two parts (Part I and Part II) the comparative analysis of values found in Schr Ö dinger's equation and probabilistic models of wave-particle theory using Bonferroni inequality. (
  • We show how quantum walks predict observed probabilistic misperception like S-shaped subjective probability and conjunction fallacy. (
  • Despite intense efforts over the last years it is far from clear at this time what a consistent theory of quantum gravity will look like and what its main features will be. (
  • Then I will move on to the main part of the talk, which is their use in simulation of physical theories. (
  • Then we will explore a broader class of quantum walks and their use in two main theories. (
  • When used to model quantum phenomena, PAL2v is called paraquantum logic (PQL). (
  • This study uses the well-known Young's double-slit experiment, wherein quantum phenomena appear when a monochromatic light beam passes through the two slits. (
  • They've determined that wave-particle duality (where quantum objects behave like waves) is really a manifestation of the uncertainty principle, which limits your ability to know two related properties of a quantum particle. (
  • Considering that the effect in this 2W region is very similar to that studied by Huygens, we adopt a paraquantum logical model in which a particle (or quantum) is represented by two wave functions. (
  • I will present their analogy with the classical random walk, discuss the properties that they present and why quantum walks may present an advantage over their classical counterpart. (
  • It seems that unzipping the fabric of spacetime and harking back to 19th-century notions of time could lead to a theory of quantum gravity. (
  • Quantum Field Theory, As Simply As Possible is delivered with humour and erudition by Anthony Zee. (
  • Eventually, I met Brian Greene who is world-renowned for his groundbreaking discoveries in the field of superstring theory. (
  • In some cases, overcoming the sign problem is probably hard in the following sense: in some field theories, arbitrary correlation functions can be shown to be BQP-hard to compute. (
  • Their approach is based on so-called group field theory. (
  • Short range interaction and orbital expansion, Gaussian Basis set, molecular integral evaluation, Hartree-Fock theory, configuration interaction theory, multyconfigurational self-consistent field theory, coupled cluster theory, perturbation theory, calibration of the electronic-structure models. (
  • These experiments can be modeled as sampling from a random quantum circuit where each gate is subject to a small amount of noise. (
  • I started writing articles on my blog on the subject and would enjoy torturing my dinner guests with endless dissertations on the weirdness of quantum behaviour, the Big Bang and black holes. (
  • Paul, who is also chairman of Vancouver-based quantum computing company, D-Wave, shared my love of the subject and introduced me to a like-minded group, including Terry Hui, Moe Kermani, and Markus Frind. (
  • We initiate the study of constructive quantum reductions and present positive and negative results for converting large classes of classical reductions to the post-quantum setting in a constructive manner. (
  • Major progress in this area has been recently achieved by members of the department, in particular the framework of the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence, and the study of certain infinite dimensional symmetries, which might underlie a unified and non-perturbative description of string theory (M theory). (
  • This has provided us with a deeper understanding into the fundamental limitations of how efficient devices can be made in the realm of microscopic quantum systems. (
  • Try and work out the gravitational force between two objects in terms of a quantum graviton, however, and you quickly run into trouble-the answer to every calculation is infinity. (
  • Quantum gravity should make it possible to describe the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to today within one single theory. (
  • This goes completely against our intuition and deterministic thinking, and was not easily accepted by the first scientists to lay the bases of this theory. (
  • By the end of the 17th century, several scientists supported the wave theory of light that affirmed the pure wave character of light. (
  • More than just a puzzle for scientists to sort out, this quantum strangeness had unsettling implications for our understanding of reality, including the very concept of truth. (
  • String theory, on the other hand, takes a very different point of departure in tackling the problem of quantum gravity. (
  • In the middle of the 1990s, a physicist named Edward Witten proposed the existence of 'M-Theory' as a candidate for a theory of Quantum Gravity. (
  • It may sound like very heady stuff that is only important to eggheads in white coats, but these theories have very real-world applications. (
  • In this work, quantum chemical methods are used to predict water-octanol partition coefficients as a part of the SAMPL6 blind challenge. (
  • We give a polynomial time classical algorithm for sampling from the output distribution of a noisy random quantum circuit in the regime of anti-concentration to within inverse polynomial total variation distance. (
  • Is it possible to convert classical cryptographic reductions into post-quantum ones? (
  • As was mentioned earlier because Quantum Superposition has had a major influence on Classical Sociological Theory, this effort will suggest that the outcomes of these earlier theories can be referred to as "Social Superposition" (Theory having two social states combined and layered as one. (
  • The concept of Superposition has had a profound effect on the early sociologist's work and their theories. (
  • Each theory has revolutionized our understanding of nature, and both work perfectly, making incredible predictions that have been verified again and again over the past 100 years. (