Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Zinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.PhotochemistrySpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (1/1423)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. (2/1423)

Release of excitatory transmitter from boutons on crayfish nerve terminals was inhibited by (R,S)-baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Baclofen had no postsynaptic actions as it reduced quantal content without affecting quantal amplitude. The effect of baclofen increased with concentration producing 18% inhibition at 10 microM; EC50, 50% inhibition at 30 microM; maximal inhibition, 85% at 100 microM and higher. There was no desensitization, even with 200 or 320 microM baclofen. Phaclofen, an antagonist at GABAB receptors, competitively antagonized the inhibitory action of baclofen (KD = 50 microM, equivalent to a pA2 = 4.3 +/- 0.1). Phaclofen on its own at concentrations below 200 microM had no effect on release, whereas at 200 microM phaclofen itself increased the control level of release by 60%, as did 2-hydroxy-saclofen (200 microM), another antagonist at GABAB receptors. This increase was evidently due to antagonism of a persistent level of GABA in the synaptic cleft, since the effect was abolished by destruction of the presynaptic inhibitory fiber, using intra-axonal pronase. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors, with a pharmacological profile similar to that of mammalian GABAB receptors, are involved in the control of transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Effect of hypertonicity on augmentation and potentiation and on corresponding quantal parameters of transmitter release. (3/1423)

Augmentation and (posttetanic) potentiation are two of the four components comprising the enhanced release of transmitter following repetitive nerve stimulation. To examine the quantal basis of these components under isotonic and hypertonic conditions, we recorded miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) from isolated frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscles, before and after repetitive nerve stimulation (40 s at 80 Hz). Continuous recordings were made in low Ca2+ high Mg2+ isotonic Ringer solution, in Ringer that was made hypertonic with 100 mM sucrose, and in wash solution. Estimates were obtained of m (no. of quanta released), n (no. of functional release sites), p (mean probability of release), and vars p (spatial variance in p), using a method that employed MEPP counts. Hypertonicity abolished augmentation without affecting potentiation. There were prolonged poststimulation increases in m, n, and p and a marked but transient increase in vars p in the hypertonic solution. All effects were completely reversed with wash. The time constants of decay for potentiation and for vars p were virtually identical. The results are consistent with the notion that augmentation is caused by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels and that potentiation is due to Na+-induced Ca2+ release from mitochondria. The results also demonstrate the utility of this approach for analyzing the dynamics of quantal transmitter release.  (+info)

Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (4/1423)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (5/1423)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (6/1423)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

Glutamate uptake limits synaptic excitation of retinal ganglion cells. (7/1423)

EPSCs of retinal ganglion cells decay more slowly than do those of most other CNS neurons, in part because of the long time course of glutamate release from bipolar cells. Here we investigated how glutamate clearance and AMPA receptor desensitization affect ganglion cell EPSCs in the salamander retinal slice preparation. Inhibition of glutamate uptake greatly prolonged ganglion cell EPSCs evoked by light or monosynaptic electrical stimuli but had little effect on spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). This suggests that single quanta of glutamate are cleared rapidly by diffusion but multiple quanta can interact to lengthen the postsynaptic response. Some interaction between quanta is likely to occur even when glutamate uptake is not inhibited. This seems to depend on quantal content, because reducing glutamate release with low Ca2+, paired-pulse depression, or weak stimuli shortened the EPSC decay. High quantal content glutamate release may lead to desensitization of postsynaptic receptors. We reduced the extent of AMPA receptor desensitization by holding ganglion cells at positive potentials. This increased the amplitude of the late phase of evoked EPSCs but did not affect the decay rate after the first 50 msec of the response. In contrast, the holding potential had little effect on mEPSC kinetics. Our results suggest that desensitization limits the late phase of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, whereas glutamate uptake controls the duration of both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses.  (+info)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. (8/1423)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. We have analyzed the possibility of quantal interactions by inspecting action potential-evoked postsynaptic multiquantal responses recorded extracellularly from the lobster neuromuscular junction. These recorded responses were compared with simulated multiquantal responses constructed from statistically independent quantal events. The simulated multiquantal responses were generated by random superposition of single quantal responses aligned according to the timing of the action potential. The methods of analysis consisted of 1) the comparison of quantal contents obtained from direct counting or by measuring of the size of the responses and 2) the analysis of distributions of quantal latencies. This analysis revealed a large error in the detection of quantal events for responses simulated with no quantal interaction. In contrast, very few errors in quantal detection were made in the analysis of experimental recordings. Latency histograms of recorded responses demonstrate that the proportion of late quantal events (those with latencies of >/=5 ms) increased as a function of quantal content. This shift in latency histograms was not observed for simulated responses. Our interpretation is that quanta interact presynaptically to cause asynchrony of quantal events in evoked responses.  (+info)

  • The class BQP of languages that are efficiently decidable (with small error-probability) on a quantum Turing machine satisfies BPP ⊆ BQP ⊆ P ♯P. Therefore, there is no possibility of giving a mathematical proof that quantum Turing machines are more powerful than classical probabilistic Turing machines (in the unrelativized setting) unless there is a major breakthrough in complexity theory. (psu.edu)
  • It is fitting that the final chapter provides a mathematical perspective on musical theory, one that reveals an unexpected connection with some of the book's main themes. (google.com)
  • The following is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory . (physicsforums.com)
  • He and many of his colleagues proved otherwise, and much of their theories are used in mathematical equations for the solving of complex problems. (hubpages.com)
  • The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. (ebooks.com)
  • Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta . (techtarget.com)
  • While many of the mathematical intricacies of this approach have found solutions over the decades, most of these rely on global properties of Minkowski spacetime such as translation invariance and existence of an invariant vacuum quantum state , hence on a consistent concept of particles . (ncatlab.org)
  • It also explains how thinking about diffusion can lead to a radical re-examination of the structure of mathematical analysis.Faris, William G. is the author of 'Diffusion, Quantum Theory, and Radically Elementary Mathematics ', published 2006 under ISBN 9780691125459 and ISBN 0691125457. (valorebooks.com)
  • QFT is successful because it includes a specific class of theories that have a lot of symmetry, and a very tight mathematical structure. (columbia.edu)
  • The theory of resurgence is a mathematical tool which allows us to effectively study this connection and its consequences. (cern.ch)
  • Finally, a major group of papers is concerned with the purely mathematical framework that underlies the physically-motivated research on quantum integrable models, including elliptic deformations of groups, representation theory of non-compact quantum groups, and quantization of moduli spaces. (bookdepository.com)
  • The book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • Quantum theory is often seen as the root cause of unrelated, mysterious phenomena. (slashdot.org)
  • A more precise and far-seeing way to predict how quantum phenomena will proceed could impact everything from industrial processes to quantum cryptography. (geek.com)
  • This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory. (ebooks.com)
  • The development of quantum technologies presents both a chance to exploit to exotic quantum phenomena and also new questions for the foundations of quantum theory. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between light and matter provides the most controllable arena for exploring and, indeed, exploiting quantum phenomena. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Combined with the AdS/CFT computations that can reproduce the anomalous linear resistivity and other non-standard transport phenomena found in quantum criticical electron systems, these results give reason to believe that AdS/CFT string theories are good phenomenological models for quantum-critical Fermi systems. (ifae.es)
  • In the late 1890s, calculations of the spectrum of blackbody radiation based on classical electromagnetic theory and thermodynamics could not duplicate the results of careful measurements. (britannica.com)
  • For instance, the electromagnetic force can be described quantum-mechanically by the motion of photons. (scientificamerican.com)
  • theory of interactions between molecules and electromagnetic fields Author: Hendrik F Hameka Publisher: Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. (worldcat.org)
  • The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems, as well as offering applications using methods for calculating the symmetry properties and the energetic values of systems and the calculation of properties of high harmonics in interactions between very intense electromagnetic fields and electrons. (platekompaniet.no)
  • But at the beginning of the twentieth century, Newton's equations have been replaced by those of quantum theory, which bring back an element of indeterminism, quite similar, in fact, to Epicurus's correction of Democritus's determinism. (edge.org)
  • Here we address these questions by studying how compatibility with thermodynamics constrains the structure of quantum theory. (arxiv.org)
  • Real quantum theory has no conceivable relevance to paranormal claims like The Secret or What the Bleep Do We Know, thus its frequent employ is almost always without any scientific meaning. (skeptoid.com)
  • Whenever a quantum state exists in some indeterminate state, as when an electron could be anywhere within a certain area around an atom for instance, its collapse to a finite reality creates another world. (geek.com)
  • In collaboration with David Jao and Anirudh Sankar, I also described a quantum algorithm which finds an isogeny between two given supersingular curves over a finite field, a hard problem on which some post-quantum cryptosystem rely. (msdn.com)
  • Such a restriction is motivated by observations in one heavily doped quantum critical system, Ce(Ru 0.24 Fe 0.76 ) 2 Ge 2 , in which finite-size effects of magnetic clusters become inportant as is discussed in Section 3. (scirp.org)
  • Prof Andrews said: "Everything has a certain quantum 'fuzziness' to it, and photons are not the hard little bullets of light that are popularly imagined. (uea.ac.uk)
  • One may object that these assumptions are unrealistic 3 , but, crucially, the laws of quantum theory do not preclude that they be satisfied to arbitrarily good approximation 4 . (nature.com)
  • Albert Einstein's theory of light Learn about Albert Einstein's 1905 paper on why light is a particle. (britannica.com)
  • In his presentation, Wald disentangles essential features of the theory from inessential ones (such as a particle interpretation) and clarifies relationships between various approaches to the formulation of the theory. (uchicago.edu)
  • It also introduces a 'field calculus' which acts as a succinct alternative to standard Feynman diagrams and formulates quantum field theory (cumulant moments, Dyson-Schwinger equation, tree expansions, 1-particle irreducibility) in this language. (cambridge.org)
  • Particular emphasis is placed on the concept of a quantum field and its particle content to provide an appropriate description of physical processes at high energies, where relativity becomes indispensable. (ebooks.com)
  • Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be (for example, a wave or a particle), but that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured. (techtarget.com)
  • One place fractal theory can be used effectively is light theory, when we need to treat light as both a particle and a wave simultaneously. (fluther.com)
  • Here, we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. (nature.com)
  • The elegant functional differential approach put forward by Schwinger, referred to as the quantum dynamical (action) principle, and its underlying theory are used systematically in order to generate the so-called vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude of both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, in addition to Feynman's well-known functional integral approach, referred to as the path-integral approach. (ebooks.com)
  • This theory became known as the uncertainty principle , which prompted Albert Einstein's famous comment, 'God does not play dice. (techtarget.com)
  • Web Reference Library However, because structures depend greatly not presented to a unique download quantum theory of solids or hydration, presentation changes themselves have associated. (prigsbee.com)
  • The first group of papers published here is concerned with integrable structures of quantum lattice models related to quantum group symmetries. (bookdepository.com)
  • In fact most topics in the early development of quantum theory (the so-called old quantum theory, 1900-25) were related to the interaction of radiation and matter and thus should be treated by quantum field theoretical methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods should be the given choice for any introductory course in QM, not because it is easy or simple but just because there are no better books! (ebooks.com)
  • The book can be roughly dividedinto four parts: chapters 1-12 deal with general field theory, functional integrals, and functional methods. (google.de)
  • 3. Integrate quantum-computing methods with tensor network theory and/or machine learning. (quantiki.org)
  • Using a thought experiment by von Neumann, we show that these theories admit a consistent thermodynamic notion of entropy, and prove that the second law holds for projective measurements and mixing procedures. (arxiv.org)
  • Orch OR was harshly criticized from its inception, as the brain was considered too "warm, wet, and noisy" for seemingly delicate quantum processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This opens a potential Pandora's Box, but our theory accommodates both these views, suggesting consciousness derives from quantum vibrations in microtubules, protein polymers inside brain neurons, which both govern neuronal and synaptic function, and connect brain processes to self-organizing processes in the fine scale, 'proto-conscious' quantum structure of reality. (eurekalert.org)
  • The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information that is compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes. (mdpi.com)
  • In part 1 of this talk we outline the PAPA approach to multi-qubit process tomography, and show through theoretical simulation how it can be used for excellent characterization of multi-qubit quantum processes. (aps.org)
  • What Busemeyer and co are saying is that the principles of quantum information processing, including the ideas of superposition and interference, lead to better models of the way humans make decisions. (technologyreview.com)
  • 6: Basic Principles Of Quantum Measure Theory. (indigo.ca)
  • Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. (mdpi.com)
  • Because distorted of the pious download quantum differences using 5HT panel do Second enable also within the alleged or initial times and the Principles by which they are broadly observed has compared then by the caries over thin enforcement than by H2O)4 distribution benefits, the reason's parasite illustrates the activity between location and mutation. (prigsbee.com)
  • The word quantum refers to the smallest discrete unit possible. (skeptoid.com)
  • Max Planck discovered around 1900 that energy is always transmitted and absorbed in discrete units, which are called quanta. (skeptoid.com)
  • This is the Most Simple Science Theory of Physical Reality (despite many claims to the contrary, science does actually work, we just needed the correct foundation of continuous Space rather than discrete matter). (spaceandmotion.com)
  • Further development of quantum theory led to the realization that our physical intuition, developed in everyday life, fails significantly at the atomic and subatomic level. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • But, Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt, the Gregory R. Choppin Professor of Chemistry at FSU, found that these rules are somewhat overridden by Einstein's Theory of Relativity when it comes to the heavier, lesser known elements of the Periodic Table. (eurekalert.org)
  • It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. (nature.com)
  • Direct experimental tests of quantum theory are mostly restricted to microscopic domains. (nature.com)
  • After the training phase with theoretical data, the neural network had to apply what it had learned and assign snapshots from the quantum simulators to theory A or B. The network thus selected the theory which is more predictive. (eurekalert.org)
  • The retrodictive form embodies a synthesis of conventional predictive quantum theory with Bayes' theorem and we have used this as the basis of a practical approach to image reconstruction [7, (gla.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the complexity class BQP is defined to be the set of problems solvable by a quantum computer in polynomial time with bounded error. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recent work in collaboration with Fang Song, I presented a quantum polynomial time algorithm for solving the so-called 'Principal Ideal Problem' (among other things) in arbitrary fields. (msdn.com)
  • On the basis of these findings, we derive an expression for the adiabatic energy flux from density-functional theory, which allows heat transport to be simulated using ab initio equilibrium molecular dynamics. (nature.com)
  • Part III: Quantum Dynamics and Information. (ebooks.com)
  • In addition to exploring how the strange properties of quantum theory can be harnessed for information processing, tools and concepts from this field have led to a much deeper understanding of quantum theory. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • By starting from experimental facts he shows in a clear way which concepts are necessary for QM and what the theory actually implies on the real world. (ebooks.com)
  • The applicant should expect​ ​interaction with experimental collaborators from Skoltech, MSU and leading theory research groups overseas. (quantiki.org)
  • As we uncover Lagrangian field theory further below, we discover ever more general concepts of " space " in differential geometry, such as smooth manifolds , diffeological spaces , infinitesimal neighbourhoods , supermanifolds , Lie algebroids and super Lie ∞-algebroids . (physicsforums.com)
  • Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. (frontiersin.org)
  • Theories of concepts struggle to capture the creative flexibility with which concepts are used in natural language, and combined into larger complexes with emergent meaning, as well as the context-dependent manner in which concepts are understood ( Geeraerts, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)