The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (1/1423)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. (2/1423)

Release of excitatory transmitter from boutons on crayfish nerve terminals was inhibited by (R,S)-baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Baclofen had no postsynaptic actions as it reduced quantal content without affecting quantal amplitude. The effect of baclofen increased with concentration producing 18% inhibition at 10 microM; EC50, 50% inhibition at 30 microM; maximal inhibition, 85% at 100 microM and higher. There was no desensitization, even with 200 or 320 microM baclofen. Phaclofen, an antagonist at GABAB receptors, competitively antagonized the inhibitory action of baclofen (KD = 50 microM, equivalent to a pA2 = 4.3 +/- 0.1). Phaclofen on its own at concentrations below 200 microM had no effect on release, whereas at 200 microM phaclofen itself increased the control level of release by 60%, as did 2-hydroxy-saclofen (200 microM), another antagonist at GABAB receptors. This increase was evidently due to antagonism of a persistent level of GABA in the synaptic cleft, since the effect was abolished by destruction of the presynaptic inhibitory fiber, using intra-axonal pronase. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors, with a pharmacological profile similar to that of mammalian GABAB receptors, are involved in the control of transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction.  (+info)

Effect of hypertonicity on augmentation and potentiation and on corresponding quantal parameters of transmitter release. (3/1423)

Augmentation and (posttetanic) potentiation are two of the four components comprising the enhanced release of transmitter following repetitive nerve stimulation. To examine the quantal basis of these components under isotonic and hypertonic conditions, we recorded miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) from isolated frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscles, before and after repetitive nerve stimulation (40 s at 80 Hz). Continuous recordings were made in low Ca2+ high Mg2+ isotonic Ringer solution, in Ringer that was made hypertonic with 100 mM sucrose, and in wash solution. Estimates were obtained of m (no. of quanta released), n (no. of functional release sites), p (mean probability of release), and vars p (spatial variance in p), using a method that employed MEPP counts. Hypertonicity abolished augmentation without affecting potentiation. There were prolonged poststimulation increases in m, n, and p and a marked but transient increase in vars p in the hypertonic solution. All effects were completely reversed with wash. The time constants of decay for potentiation and for vars p were virtually identical. The results are consistent with the notion that augmentation is caused by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels and that potentiation is due to Na+-induced Ca2+ release from mitochondria. The results also demonstrate the utility of this approach for analyzing the dynamics of quantal transmitter release.  (+info)

Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (4/1423)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (5/1423)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (6/1423)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

Glutamate uptake limits synaptic excitation of retinal ganglion cells. (7/1423)

EPSCs of retinal ganglion cells decay more slowly than do those of most other CNS neurons, in part because of the long time course of glutamate release from bipolar cells. Here we investigated how glutamate clearance and AMPA receptor desensitization affect ganglion cell EPSCs in the salamander retinal slice preparation. Inhibition of glutamate uptake greatly prolonged ganglion cell EPSCs evoked by light or monosynaptic electrical stimuli but had little effect on spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). This suggests that single quanta of glutamate are cleared rapidly by diffusion but multiple quanta can interact to lengthen the postsynaptic response. Some interaction between quanta is likely to occur even when glutamate uptake is not inhibited. This seems to depend on quantal content, because reducing glutamate release with low Ca2+, paired-pulse depression, or weak stimuli shortened the EPSC decay. High quantal content glutamate release may lead to desensitization of postsynaptic receptors. We reduced the extent of AMPA receptor desensitization by holding ganglion cells at positive potentials. This increased the amplitude of the late phase of evoked EPSCs but did not affect the decay rate after the first 50 msec of the response. In contrast, the holding potential had little effect on mEPSC kinetics. Our results suggest that desensitization limits the late phase of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, whereas glutamate uptake controls the duration of both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses.  (+info)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. (8/1423)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. We have analyzed the possibility of quantal interactions by inspecting action potential-evoked postsynaptic multiquantal responses recorded extracellularly from the lobster neuromuscular junction. These recorded responses were compared with simulated multiquantal responses constructed from statistically independent quantal events. The simulated multiquantal responses were generated by random superposition of single quantal responses aligned according to the timing of the action potential. The methods of analysis consisted of 1) the comparison of quantal contents obtained from direct counting or by measuring of the size of the responses and 2) the analysis of distributions of quantal latencies. This analysis revealed a large error in the detection of quantal events for responses simulated with no quantal interaction. In contrast, very few errors in quantal detection were made in the analysis of experimental recordings. Latency histograms of recorded responses demonstrate that the proportion of late quantal events (those with latencies of >/=5 ms) increased as a function of quantal content. This shift in latency histograms was not observed for simulated responses. Our interpretation is that quanta interact presynaptically to cause asynchrony of quantal events in evoked responses.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of enzyme catalysis. T2 - The case of histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9. AU - Wang, Shenglong. AU - Hu, Po. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2007/4/12. Y1 - 2007/4/12. N2 - To elucidate enzyme catalysis through computer simulation, a prerequisite is to reliably compute free energy barriers for both enzyme and solution reactions. By employing on-the-fly Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations with the ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach and the umbrella sampling method, we have determined free energy profiles for the methyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by the histone lysine methyltransferase SET7/9 and its corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in aqueous solution, respectively. Our calculated activation free energy barrier for the enzyme catalyzed reaction is 22.5 kcal/mol, which agrees very well with the experimental value of 20.9 kcal/mol. The difference in potential of mean ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serine protease acylation proceeds with a subtle re-orientation of the histidine ring at the tetrahedral intermediate. AU - Zhou, Yanzi. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2011/2/7. Y1 - 2011/2/7. N2 - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. AB - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. DO - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. M3 - Article. C2 - 21116528. AN - SCOPUS:78751489563. VL - 47. SP - 1577. EP - 1579. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical ...
Molecular dynamics studies have been performed on the zwitterionic form of the dipeptide glycine-alanine in water, with focus oil the solvation and electrostatic properties using a range of theoretical methods, from purely classical force fields, through mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, to fully quantum mechanical Car-Parrinello calculations. The results of these studies show that the solvation pattern is similar for all methods used for most atoms in the dipeptide, but call differ substantially for some groups; namely the carboxy and aminoterminii, and the backbone amid NH group. This might have implications in other theoretical studies of peptides and proteins, with charged -NH3+ and -CO2- side chains solvated in water. Hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations successfully reproduce the solvation patterns from the fully quantum mechanical simulations (PACS numbers: 87.14.Ee, 87.15.Aa, 87.15.He. 71.15.Pd). ...
Ornithine cyclodeaminase (OCD) is an NAD+-dependent deaminase that is found in bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida. Importantly, it catalyzes the direct conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-proline. Using molecular dynamics (MD) and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method in the ONIOM formalism, the catalytic mechanism of OCD has been examined. The rate limiting step is calculated to be the initial step in the overall mechanism: hydride transfer from the L-ornithines Cα-H group to the NAD+ cofactor with concomitant formation of a Cα=NH2+ Schiff base with a barrier of 90.6 kJ mol−1. Importantly, no water is observed within the active site during the MD simulations suitably positioned to hydrolyze the Cα=NH2+ intermediate to form the corresponding carbonyl. Instead, the reaction proceeds via a non-hydrolytic mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack of the δ-amine at the Cα-position. This is then followed by cleavage and loss of the α-NH2 group to give
wp-content/uploads/2017/10/blank-box.png 0 0 admin /wp-content/uploads/2017/10/blank-box.png admin2015-01-16 20:47:322015-02-17 21:23:51Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical study of the HDV ribozyme: Impact of the catalytic metal ion on the mechanism ...
Calculations have been performed on the entire Fe(Schiff base) · cdHO system using the QM/MM ONIOM (DFT : AMBER) method implemented in Gaussian 09 [29]. The charges and protonation states of all titrable amino acids were automatically assigned using the interface provided by the UCSF Chimera package [30] with the exception of the iron-chelating histidine His20, which was manually set to be consistent with the coordination rules of the metal. Visual inspection was subsequently performed. The total charge of the system is −8 or −7 depending on the oxidation state of the iron. It can be divided by −10 for the isolated protein and +2 or +3 for the inorganic complex. The QM part in the QM/MM partition has a charge +1 in the Fe(II) species and +2 for the Fe(III) ones.. One of the main objectives of this work is to determine whether the experimental structure corresponds to a plausible electronic structure of the metal centre in a resting state configuration or not. Thus, we are interested in ...
Townsend Quantum Mechanics Solutions. Read and Download A Modern Approach To Quantum Mechanics Townsend Solutions Manual Free Ebooks in PDF format MODERN BUDDHISM VOLUME 1 SUTRA MODERN BUDDHISM VOLUME 2, Modern Approach To Quantum Mechanics Solutions Manual might have many A MODERN APPROACH TO QUANTUM MECHANICS TOWNSEND. (PDF) Townsend Modern Approach Quantum. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics uses an innovative approach that students find both accessible and exciting. John S. Townsend Required †A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition, by John S. Townsend, A group solution will be submitted,. Read and Download A Modern Approach To Quantum Mechanics Townsend Solution Manual Free Ebooks in PDF format - 2018 AQUATRAX SERVICE MANUAL 2018 HONDA TRX450R WIRING Townsend Quantum Mechanics a Modern Approach 2e Ocr - Ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online. Quantum mechanics by Townsend, very. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics uses an ...
Abstract: Well-developed conventional single-reference electron-correlation methods usually fail to describe the dissociation of covalent bonds, di(or poly)radical systems or electronic structures of the excited states. Based on a multi-determinantal wave function, recently emerged multireference perturbation theories and coupled cluster theories can give drastically improved results; however, there is still no satisfactory scheme so far. In this monograph, alternative multireference perturbation theories and coupled cluster theories based on the block-correlation framework has been introduced and illustrated in detail, together with proper comparisons with other common electron-correlation methods. Future perspectives upon multireference theories have also been briefly discussed.. Key words: Multireference, Block-correlated perturbation theory, Block-correlated coupled cluster theory, Multiple bond dissociation, Energy potential surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-trapping properties and recurrence phenomena in a modified discrete non-linear Schrodinger equation. AU - Kalosakas, G.. AU - Tsironis, G. P.. AU - Economou, E. N.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - We study the properties of a modified discrete non-linear Schrodinger equation (MDNLS) that arises from the coupling of an excitation to an acoustic chain. We find exact results for self-trapping in chains of two and three sites and approximate results for longer chains. We also study possible recurrence phenomena in the equation and compare our findings with those of the standard DNLS as well as the integrable DNLS. We find that dynamics in MDNLS becomes more rapidly irregular compared to the other two equations.. AB - We study the properties of a modified discrete non-linear Schrodinger equation (MDNLS) that arises from the coupling of an excitation to an acoustic chain. We find exact results for self-trapping in chains of two and three sites and approximate results for ...
You may have read that quantum computers one day could break most current cryptography systems. They will be able to do that because there are some very clever algorithms designed to run on quantum computers that can solve a hard math problem, which in turn can be used to factor very large numbers. One of the most famous is Shors Factoring Algorithm. The difficulty of factoring large numbers is essential to the security of all public-private key systems - which are the most commonly used today. Current quantum computers dont have nearly enough qubits to attempt the task, but various experts predict they will within the next 3-8 years. That leads to some potentially dangerous situations, such as if only governments and the super-rich had access to the ultra-secure encryption provided by quantum computers ...
Read Multiple network alignment on quantum computers, Quantum Information Processing on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Electronic spectra of guanine in the gas phase and in water were studied by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Geometries for the excited-state calculations were extracted from ground-state molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method for the QM region and the TIP3P force field for the water environment. Theoretical absorption spectra were generated from excitation energies and oscillator strengths calculated for 50 to 500 MD snapshots of guanine in the gas phase (QM) and in solution (QM/MM). The excited-state calculations used time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and the DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) method of Grimme and Waletzke, in combination with two basis sets. Our investigation covered keto-N7H and keto-N9H guanine, with particular focus on solvent effects in the low-energy spectrum of the keto-N9H tautomer. When compared with the vertical excitation ...
The mission of QICI is to promote the growth of the quantum information area in Hong Kong, and to develop Hong Kong as an international research hub for quantum information and computation. QICI has been established in November 2018 under the auspices of the HKU Department of Computer Science. Its research platform consists of 3 research teams working on quantum information theory, quantum cryptography, quantum gravity, and quantum foundations. ...
The research is oriented toward the Density Functional Theory (DFT) based dissection of catalytic mechanism (transition state and possible intermediate structures) of proteins containing metallic cofactors, as well as of their synthetic models. Particular interest is devoted to the mechanism of activation of small molecules such as hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The former activity is performed by hydrogenases (Fe-Fe and Ni-Fe, according to the different ions being in the cofactor) whereas the latter is carried out by vanadium haloperoxidase (VHPO). Quantum Mechanics (QM) tools and hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) represent a valid resource to elucidate possible speciation forms in solution of synthetic models of enzymes, permit rationalization at molecular level of experimentally observed lower activity of synthetic models with respect to the natural bio-system. Furthermore they can help in showing alternative routes for catalytic productions and in elucidating ...
The research is oriented toward the Density Functional Theory (DFT) based dissection of catalytic mechanism (transition state and possible intermediate structures) of proteins containing metallic cofactors, as well as of their synthetic models. Particular interest is devoted to the mechanism of activation of small molecules such as hydrogen (H2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The former activity is performed by hydrogenases (Fe-Fe and Ni-Fe, according to the different ions being in the cofactor) whereas the latter is carried out by vanadium haloperoxidase (VHPO). Quantum Mechanics (QM) tools and hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) represent a valid resource to elucidate possible speciation forms in solution of synthetic models of enzymes, permit rationalization at molecular level of experimentally observed lower activity of synthetic models with respect to the natural bio-system. Furthermore they can help in showing alternative routes for catalytic productions and in elucidating ...
Polymer quantum systems are mechanical models quantized similarly as loop quantum gravity. It is actually in quantizing gravity that the polymer term holds proper as the quantum geometry excitations yield a reminiscent of a polymer material. In such an approach both non-singular cosmological models and a microscopic basis for the entropy of some black holes have arisen. Also important physical questions for these systems involve thermodynamics. With this motivation, in this work, we study the statistical thermodynamics of two one dimensional polymer quantum systems: an ensemble of oscillators that describe a solid and a bunch of non-interacting particles in a box, which thus form an ideal gas. We first study the spectra of these polymer systems. It turns out useful for the analysis to consider the length scale required by the quantization and which we shall refer to as polymer length. The dynamics of the polymer oscillator can be given the form of that for the standard quantum pendulum. ...
Recent devices, using hundreds of superconducting quantum bits, claim to perform quantum computing. However, it is not an easy task to determine and quantify the degree of quantum coherence and control used by these devices. Namely, it is a difficult task to know with certainty whether or not a given device (e.g., the D-Wave One or D-Wave Two) is a quantum computer. Such a verification of quantum computing would be more accessible if we already had some kind of working quantum computer, to be able to compare the outputs of these various computing devices. Moreover, the verification process itself could strongly depend on whether the tested device is a standard (gate-based) or, e.g., an adiabatic quantum computer. Here we do not propose a technical solution to this quantum-computing
Filling the lowest quantum state of the conduction band (CB) of colloidal nanocrystals with a single electron, which is analogous to the filling the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in a molecule with a single electron, has attracted much attention due to the possibility of harnessing the electron spin for potential spin-based applications. The quantized energy levels of the artificial atom, in principle, make it possible for a nanocrystal to be filled with an electron if the Fermi-energy level is optimally tuned during the nanocrystal growth. Here, we report the singly occupied quantum state (SOQS) and doubly occupied quantum state (DOQS) of a colloidal nanocrystal in steady state under ambient conditions. The number of electrons occupying the lowest quantum state can be controlled to be zero, one (unpaired) and two (paired) depending on the nanocrystal growth time via changing the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) proved the ...
This is the draft version of a textbook, which aims to introduce the quantum information science viewpoints on condensed matter physics to graduate students in physics (or interested researchers). We keep the writing in a self-consistent way, requiring minimum background in quantum information science. Basic knowledge in undergraduate quantum physics and condensed matter physics is assumed. We start slowly from the basic ideas in quantum information theory, but wish to eventually bring the readers to the frontiers of research in condensed matter physics, including topological phases of matter, tensor networks, and symmetry-protected topological phases ...
The solutions quantum mechanics and path integrals solutions manual have been made possible by two major advances. In order to observe a specific path one needs to design an appropriate observable. Liboff Quantum Mechanics Solution Manual introductory quantum mechanics by liboff solution manual Problems in Quantum Mechanics: With SolutionsQuantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications Nouredine Zettili on Amazon. We apply the method to the free particle and quantum harmonic oscillator, investigate the. Within either of these contexts, the text and derivations are crystal clear and highly pedagogic. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics Dennis V. Lecture Series on Quantum Mechanics from the University of Maryland. Path Integral 1 Feynmans Path Integral Formulation Feynmans formulation of quantum mechanics using the so-called path inte-gral is arguably the most elegant.. ) as well as specialized topics (scattering, dissipative systems, spin &92;& color in the path integral, lattice methods etc. We ...
The reaction of the potential anticancer drug kiteplatin, cis-[PtCl2(cis-1,4-DACH)], with oligomers of single- and double-stranded DNA ranging from 2 to 12 base pairs in length was performed as a model for DNA interaction. The potential for conformational flexibility of single-stranded adducts was examined with density functional theory (DFT) and compared with data from 1H-NMR 1D and 2D spectroscopy. This indicates the presence of multiple conformations of an adduct with d(GpG), but only one form of the adduct with d(TGGT). The importance of a suitable theoretical model, and in particular basis set, in reproducing experimental data is demonstrated. The DFT theoretical model was extended to platinated base pair step (GG/CC), allowing a comparison to the related compounds cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Adducts of kiteplatin with larger fragments of double-stranded DNA, including tetramer, octamer, and dodecamer, were studied theoretically using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydride transfer in liver alcohol dehydrogenase. T2 - Quantum dynamics, kinetic isotope effects, and role of enzyme motion. AU - Billeter, S. R.. AU - Webb, S. P.. AU - Agarwal, P. K.. AU - Iordanov, T.. AU - Hammes-Schiffer, S.. PY - 2001/11/14. Y1 - 2001/11/14. N2 - The quantum dynamics of the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) are studied with real-time dynamical simulations including the motion of the entire solvated enzyme. The electronic quantum effects are incorporated with an empirical valence bond potential, and the nuclear quantum effects of the transferring hydrogen are incorporated with a mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method in which the transferring hydrogen nucleus is represented by a three-dimensional vibrational wave function. The equilibrium transition state theory rate constants are determined from the adiabatic quantum free energy profiles, which include the free energy of the zero point motion for the ...
The hemoprotein myoglobin is a model system for the study of protein dynamics. We used time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an x-ray free-electron laser to resolve the ultrafast structural changes in the carbonmonoxy myoglobin complex upon photolysis of the Fe-CO bond. Structural changes appear throughout the protein within 500 femtoseconds, with the C, F, and H helices moving away from the heme cofactor and the E and A helices moving toward it. These collective movements are predicted by hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations. Together with the observed oscillations of residues contacting the heme, our calculations support the prediction that an immediate collective response of the protein occurs upon ligand dissociation, as a result of heme vibrational modes coupling to global modes of the protein ...
Feb 4, 2020: In a measurement process, a quantum system is subject to an unavoidable back-action due to the quantum fluctuations of the detector. As a consequence, the system evolves along stochastic quantum trajectories. This features can be used as a tool to engineer and control quantum states, e.g. via feedback mechanisms, as well as to access new properties of open quantum systems. This is possible in actual experiments thanks to the degree of control of some quantum systems. In this talk, I present two application of quantum measurement. First, I will discuss the thermodynamics, i.e. the energy and information exchange, of a qubit coupled to a quantum detector [1]. In particular, I will show how information gained by tracking single quantum trajectories of the qubit can be converted into work using quantum coherent feedback. I show that quantum backaction can lead to a loss of information in imperfect measurements in a superconducting circuit. As a second example, I will show that a time-dependent
An implementation of Ewald summation for use in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations is presented, which builds upon previous work by others that was limited to semi-empirical electronic structure for the QM region. Unlike previous work, our implementation describes the wave functions periodic images using ChElPG atomic charges, which are determined by fitting to the QM electrostatic potential evaluated on a real-space grid. This implementation is stable even for large Gaussian basis sets with diffuse exponents, and is thus appropriate when the QM region is described by a correlated wave function. Derivatives of the ChElPG charges with respect to the QM density matrix are a potentially serious bottleneck in this approach, so we introduce a ChElPG algorithm based on atom-centered Lebedev grids. The ChElPG charges thus obtained exhibit good rotational invariance even for sparse grids, enabling significant cost savings. Detailed analysis of the optimal choice of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Density functional theory studies of chloroethene adsorption on zerovalent lron. AU - Lim, Dong Hee. AU - Lastoskie, Christian M.. AU - Soon, Aloysius. AU - Becker, Udo. PY - 2009/2/15. Y1 - 2009/2/15. N2 - Adsorption of perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) on zerovalentiron is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate hypotheses concerning the relative reactivity of these compounds on zerovalent iron. Four different chloroethene adsorption modes on the Fe(110) surface were studied using periodic DFT and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Of the adsorption sites examined, the atop site, where the chloroethene C=C bond straddles a surface iron atom, was the most energetically favorable site for the adsorption of all three chloroethenes. Electronic structure and property analyses provide an indication of the extent of sp 2-sp 3 hybridization. The strong hybridization of the π-bonding orbital between the ...
Abstract: Over the last century, a large number of physical and mathematical developments paired with rapidly advancing technology have allowed the field of quantum chemistry to advance dramatically. However, the lack of computationally efficient methods for the exact simulation of quantum systems on classical computers presents a limitation of current computational approaches. We report, in detail, how a set of pre-computed molecular integrals can be used to explicitly create a quantum circuit, i.e. a sequence of elementary quantum operations, that, when run on a quantum computer, to obtain the energy of a molecular system with fixed nuclear geometry using the quantum phase estimation algorithm. We extend several known results related to this idea and discuss the adiabatic state preparation procedure for preparing the input states used in the algorithm. With current and near future quantum devices in mind, we provide a complete example using the hydrogen molecule, of how a chemical Hamiltonian ...
Clients will have online access to the computing power of the first IBM Q systems by the end of 2017, with a series of planned upgrades during 2018. IBM is focused on making available advanced, scalable universal quantum computing systems to clients to explore practical applications. The latest hardware advances are a result of three generations of development since IBM first launched a working quantum computer online for anyone to freely access in May 2016. Within 18 months, IBM has brought online a 5 and 16 qubit system for public access through the IBM Q experience and developed the worlds most advanced public quantum computing ecosystem.. We are, and always have been, focused on building technology with the potential to create value for our clients and the world, said Dario Gil, vice president of AI and IBM Q, IBM Research. The ability to reliably operate several working quantum systems and putting them online was not possible just a few years ago. Now, we can scale IBM processors up to ...
Pour Elise Dumont, une chimiste française, elegante comme tous les françaises. The arrogant but brilliant physicist Paul Dirac, after solving one of the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, was alleged to have said ...the rest, is chemistry. Oh what weasely words they were. True, quantum chemistry can be seen as merely the solution of the Schrodinger equation, but what rich solutions! Dirac would not have known the dazzling complexity that was to take place in the field that would come to be known as quantum chemistry.. There have been, at times, heroic attempts to find tractable approximations to solve the Schrodinger equation for larger and larger molecules. Weve also realized that the Schrodinger equation is actually an insufficient principle to do chemistry because in the end, the Schrodinger equation is a single electron equation. Reality is made up of more than 1 electron. However, there does not exist an authoritative multi-electron theory, there are several competing ...
A randomized controlled trial was set up to test the hypothesis that the fertilization rate of oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is higher after immobilization of the spermatozoa with the Fertilase-laser system technology than after immobilization of the spermatozoa with the conventional mechanical method. Metaphase II oocytes were injected with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the conventional mechanical method (group A, n=177) or with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the Fertilase-laser system technology (group B, n=179). The fertilization rate per successfully injected oocyte was comparable in group A (62.6%; 92/147) and in group B (56.3%; 89/158)(p=0.3). No difference could be observed in fertilization rates of oocytes injected with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the Fertilase-laser system technology compared to spermatozoa immobilized with the conventional mechanical method ...
In the present study, the binding free energy of some classical inhibitors (DMT, DNP, GNT, HUP, THA) with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is calculated by means of the free energy perturbation (FEP) method based on hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials. The results highlight the key role of the van der Waals interaction for the inhibition process, since the contribution of this term to the binding free energy is almost as decisive as the electrostatic one. The analysis of the geometrical parameters and the interaction energy per residue along the QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD) simulations highlights the most relevant interactions in the different AChE-ligand systems, showing that the charged residues with a more prominent contribution to the interaction energy are Asp72 and Glu199, although the relative importance depends on the molecular size of the ligand ...
Groundbreaking approach could impact fields from cryptography to materials science. In an important first for a promising new technology, scientists have used a quantum computer to calculate the precise energy of molecular hydrogen. This groundbreaking approach to molecular simulations could have profound implications not just for quantum chemistry, but also for a range of fields from cryptography to materials science.. One of the most important problems for many theoretical chemists is how to execute exact simulations of chemical systems, says author Alán Aspuru-Guzik, assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Harvard University. This is the first time that a quantum computer has been built to provide these precise calculations.. The work, described this week in Nature Chemistry, comes from a partnership between Aspuru-Guziks team of theoretical chemists at Harvard and a group of experimental physicists led by Andrew White at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, ...
Quantum chemical calculations on the geometrical, conformational, spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman) analysis and NLO activity of milrinone [5-cyano-2-methyl-(3,4-bipyridin)-6(1h)-one] by using hartree-fock and density functional methods
Accurate and efficient control of quantum systems is one of the central challenges for quantum information processing. Current state-of-the-art experiments rarely go beyond 10 qubits and in most cases demonstrate only limited control. Here we demonstrate control of a 12-qubit system, and show that the system can be employed as a quantum processor to optimize its own control sequence by using measurement-based feedback control (MQFC). The final product is a control sequence for a complex 12-qubit task: preparation of a 12-coherent state. The control sequence is about 10% more accurate than the one generated by the standard (classical) technique, showing that MQFC can correct for unknown imperfections. Apart from demonstrating a high level of control over a relatively large system, our results show that even at the 12-qubit level, a quantum processor can be a useful lab instrument. As an extension of our work, we propose a method for combining the MQFC technique with a twirling protocol, to optimize the
Use of Genetic Algorithm for Quantum Information Processing by NMR V.S. Manu and Anil Kumar Centre for quantum Information and Quantum Computing Department of Physics and NMR Research Centre Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012. The Genetic Algorithm. John Holland. Slideshow 6634576 by kalia-delacruz
TY - JOUR. T1 - Density Functional Theory study of alloy interstitials in Al. AU - Klaver, Peter. AU - Chen, J.H.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. M3 - Article. VL - 10. SP - 155. EP - 162. JO - Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design. JF - Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design. SN - 0928-1045. ER - ...
DFT and Quantum Chemical Studies for Heterocyclic Compounds, 978-3-659-21601-5, 9783659216015, 3659216011, Inorganic chemistry , The study of corrosion processes and their inhibition by organic inhibitors is a very active field of research. The presence of nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulphur in the organic molecules has a major effect on the inhibition efficiency and consequently on the phenomenon of adsorption on some metals surface. A great number of heterocyclic compounds were found to be excellent inhibitors of copper and steel corrosion. The inhibition effect mainly depends on some physicochemical and electronic properties of the organic inhibitor which relate to its functional groups, steric effects, electronic density of donor atoms, and orbital character of donating electrons. DFT Quantum chemical methods have already proven to be very useful in determining the molecular structure as well as elucidating the electronic structure and reactivity. Thus, it has become a common practice to
A series of density functional theory (DFT) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations are used to investigate the binding of platinum and ruthenium anticancer drugs to DNA. The qualitative and quantitative features of Beckes half-and-half (BHandH) functional for calculating geometries, binding energies and harmonic frequencies of non- covalently bound systems are tested and the intermolecular interactions are characterised and quantified using the QTAIM electron densities. Application of this DFT-QTAIM approach to complexes of the type (n6-arene)Ru(en)(nucleobase) 2+ shows a clear preference for binding at guanine over any other base both in gas phase and in aqueous solution, a trend explained on the basis of QTAIM and molecular orbital data. Key parameters of the QM/MM methodology within the ONIOM scheme and efficient geometry optimisation strategies are examined for applications involving DNA oligonucleotides. Calculations on cis- Pt(NH3)2 2+ (cisplatin) bound to ...
We present an investigation of optimal control techniques applied to computational and transport processes in the field of quantum information. We implement these processes using a range of different quantum systems: a harmonic oscillator, a pair of trapped Rydberg atoms, and a spin chain. In each case, we explore how application of analytic and numerical optimal control techniques (such as the Krotov method) can effect fast, efficient, and error-free unitary operations and information transfer processes, with particular attention to experimental uncertainties present in such systems and their implementations. In the pursuit of fast quantum operations, we discover that in our spin chain system our optimal control algorithm will fail to find solutions as the total operation time falls below a critical value. We postulate a correspondence between this value and that of the quantum speed limit, which defines a physical bound on the allowed rate of information transfer in quantum sytems when given a ...
Within the Born-Oppenheimer picture of the electronic Schrödinger equation the external potential due to the nuclei influences the resulting expectation values during the self consistent field procedure. In this thesis, the optimization and the benefit of atom centered potentials for an improved description and design of molecules is studied using density functional theory (DFT). It is shown that atom centered potentials can be used to increase the accuracy of the description of molecular properties as well as to generally explore chemical space rationally for structures which exhibit desired properties. The wide range of possible applications is illustrated by addressing several issues. First, an automated procedure is proposed for the design of optimal link pseudopotentials for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. Secondly, it is shown how to tune variationally atom centered potentials within density functional perturbation theory in order to minimize the deviation in electron density
In this talk, we present our recent development of a rigorous framework which is based on the Feynman-Venron path integral formalism for open quantum systems. By resorting on quantum fields to describe the quantum excitation dynamics and taking the classical limit for the molecular degrees of freedom, we are able to analytically perform the path integral over the heat-bath and olecular vibrations. As a result, the matrix elements of the density matrix are described by an effective field theory for the quantum degrees of freedom only, and can be computed in perturbation theory, using appropriate Feynman rules. Extension to non-perturbative approximative approaches is alsodiscussed. As an illustrative example, we will apply this approach to study quantum transport and de-coherence in a simple model for an organic conjugate polymer.. ...
Löwdin appeared on the scene when quantum chemistry had already a very rich history and with his work as well as his initiatives gave it a further dynamism. Rather than reiterate some of the landmarks of the history of quantum chemistry prior to Löwdin, which are more or less well known to the readers of this journal, we would like to present these developments in a different manner. The following reflects ways historians approach their subject matter and, more specifically, our own approach, which attempts to articulate a framework where the history of quantum chemistry can be narrated not in a strict chronological order.[5] It appears that a host of interesting developments concerning the development of quantum chemistry-a classic case of an in-between discipline-can be narrated through six interrelated clusters of issues that manifest the particularities of its evolving (re)articulations with chemistry, physics, mathematics, and biology, as well as its institutional positioning. We, ...
The path integral formulation of time-dependent quantum mechanics provides the ideal framework for rigorous quantum-classical or quantum-semiclassical treatments, as the spatially localized, trajectory-like nature of the quantum paths circumvents the need for mean-field-type assumptions. However, the number of system paths grows exponentially with the number of propagation steps. In addition, each path of the quantum system generally gives rise to a distinct classical solvent trajectory. This exponential proliferation of trajectories with propagation time is the quantum-classical manifestation of time nonlocality, familiar from influence functional approaches. A quantum-classical path integral (QCPI) methodology has been developed. The starting point is the identification of two components in the effects induced on a quantum system by a polyatomic environment. The first, classical decoherence mechanism dominates completely at high temperature/low-frequency solvents and/or when the ...
The emergence of quantum computers has brought an unprecedented opportunity for quantum algorithm development and applications in quantum chemistry, quantum simulation, machine learning, cryptography, etc. On universal quantum computers, quantum algorithms can offer exponential speed-ups compared with conventional approaches, yet with significant hardware and algorithmic challenges remaining. Since noisy, small-to-intermediate scale quantum computers (NISQ) are around the corner, it is now critical to innovate quantum algorithms for such devices. One example, compiler development, will require innovation that bridges quantum physics, statistics, applied mathematics, and hardware and software design. The compiler is comprised of algorithms that assemble possible physical realizations of a logical operator acting on physical qubits, and then use the error characteristics of qubits (ion or superconducting circuits) to optimize the choice of realization for this architecture. Quantum computing is ...
A new study from Yale University shows that scientists can create and control a large quantum mechanical system built on photons, suggesting that they might be able to expand the role of photons in quantum information systems.. Light might be able to play a bigger, more versatile role in the future of quantum computing, according to new research by Yale University scientists.. A team of Yale physicists has coaxed an unprecedented number of light particles, or photons, to behave quantum mechanically, or to assume more than one state simultaneously, such as alive and dead. In this case, the light is in the form of trapped microwave photons. Control over a greater number of photons - more than 100 in this case - raises the possibility that such states of light could play the part of several quantum bits (qubits), the building blocks typically found in a quantum computer. This could potentially minimize the physical scale and cost of building one.. The quantum computer, a still embryonic ...
In this paper we review a number of recent developments in the study of quantum tomography which is one of the useful methods for quantum state estimation and quantum information acquisition, having sparked explosion of interest in recent years. The quantum process tomography is also analyzed. At the same time, some success experiments and applications of quantum tomography are introduced. Finally, a number of open problems and future directions in this field are proposed.
Quantum computers, although not yet available on the market, will revolutionise the future of information processing. Already now, quantum computers of special purpose, i.e., quantum simulators, are within reach. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions, and molecules offers unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many systems, and novel possibilities of applications for quantum information and quantum metrology. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of using ultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of ultracold lattice gases as quantum simulators, an interdisciplinary field involving atomic, molecular, and optical physics; quantum optics; quantum information; and condensed matter and high energy physics. It includes some introductory chapters on basic concepts and methods, and focuses on the physics of spinor, dipolar, disordered, and frustrated lattice gases, before reviewing in detail artificial
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Quantum computers and Bitcoin. Quantum computers primarily perform calculations based on the probability of an objects state, even before it is measured.
A quantum computer can solve tasks where a classical computer fails. The question how one can, nevertheless, verify the reliability of a quantum computer was recently answered in an experiment at the University of Vienna. The conclusions are published in the reputed scientific journal Nature Physics.

No data available that match "quantum theory"

  • Although ideas from quantum physics play an important role in many parts of modern mathematics, there are few books about quantum mechanics aimed at mathematicians. (
  • This book introduces the main ideas of quantum mechanics in language familiar to mathematicians. (
  • and the path-integral approach to quantum mechanics. (
  • You should be aware that this problem is avoided by Bohm's intepretation of quantum mechanics - so it is not inherent in the physics. (
  • A new interpretation of the emission of light by heated objects and new experimental methods that opened the atomic world for study led to a radical departure from the classical theories of Newton and Maxwell- quantum mechanics was born. (
  • But why do this, especially as there is no apparent causal link between quantum mechanics and the conscious mind? (
  • Quantum field theory is a mathematical theory in physics which extends quantum mechanics . (
  • At present, the deepest problem in theoretical physics is harmonizing the theory of general relativity, which describes gravitation and applies to large-scale structures (stars, planets, galaxies), with quantum mechanics which describes the other three fundamental forces acting on the microscopic scale. (
  • Quantum mechanics says that if no one is observing it, the radioactive material is simultaneously in both the decaying and non-decaying states. (
  • This text is ideal for mathematicians, physicists dealing with quantum theory and mechanics, students, and professors in advanced mathematics. (
  • At the same time on the experimental side, equally spectacular progress has been made in developing experimental machinery and techniques to test the foundations of quantum mechanics. (
  • During recent years spectacular progress has been made in experimentally testing the foundations of quantum mechanics. (
  • But that is not how things work in the real world, the world of quantum mechanics. (
  • It is normal in quantum mechanics for an object to change gradually from state A to state B, even though there are no intermediate states between A and B. (
  • Quantum mechanics is a fundamental and universal principle of nature, confirmed by thousands of experiments. (
  • It is hard to make positive statements about the behavior of souls in the absence of positive evidence that they exist, but they would probably obey quantum mechanics like everything else. (
  • see below) shows that the very existence of a human being is subject to quantum mechanics, so the states where one would or would not expect a soul can be combined in continuously varying amplitudes. (
  • For the present argument, it is sufficient that there is no proof that souls (supposing they exist) are not governed by quantum mechanics. (
  • Busemeyer and co are at pains to distance themselves from research that uses quantum mechanics to model the brain in an attempt to understand consciousness. (
  • Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with gravity for decades. (
  • The snag is that in quantum mechanics, time retains its Newtonian aloofness, providing the stage against which matter dances but never being affected by its presence. (
  • To the average person, quantum mechanics is the convoluted, science fiction-y branch of physics. (
  • "The idea of parallel universes in quantum mechanics has been around since 1957," Wiseman said in a statement. (
  • "The beauty of our approach is that if there is just one world our theory reduces to Newtonian mechanics, while if there is a gigantic number of worlds it reproduces quantum mechanics," he said in the statement. (
  • I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics. (
  • "Any explanation of quantum phenomena is going to be weird, and standard quantum mechanics does not really offer any explanation at all ‒ it just makes predictions for laboratory experiments," Wiseman told the Huffington Post in an email. (
  • Others in the quantum mechanics field ranged from skepticism to excitement, Huffington Post reported, noting there is no consensus on whether "many interacting worlds" exist or interact. (
  • While I was away last week on vacation, it seems that Springer has published my book on quantum mechanics and representation theory (previously discussed in various blog posts ). (
  • Some consequences of (Everettian) quantum mechanics for decision theory itself are also discussed. (
  • if there are a functionally infinite number of universes, plugging such assumptions into the theory produces quantum mechanics. (
  • In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity and quantum mechanics. (
  • Each interaction can be visually represented by Feynman diagrams according to perturbation theory in quantum mechanics. (
  • Quantum field theory is the result of the combination of classical field theory, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. (
  • Max Planck's study of blackbody radiation marked the beginning of quantum mechanics. (
  • A physicist Max Planck first theorised in 1900, then Einstein reinforced his thinking in 1905, and by 1912 we had quantum theory, then quantum mechanics 1922, quantum jump 1955, and leaving us with quantum leap in 1970. (
  • Quantum mechanics is the study of matter and radiation at an atomic level. (
  • We develop and defend the thesis that the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics is a new theory of probability. (
  • Florida State University researchers found that the theory of quantum mechanics does not adequately explain how the heaviest and rarest elements found at the end of the table function. (
  • Quantum mechanics are essentially the rules that govern how atoms behave and fully explain the chemical behavior of most of the elements on the table. (
  • They weren't following the normal rules of quantum mechanics. (
  • Wick ordering of creation and annihilation operators is of fundamental importance for computing averages and correlations in quantum field theory and, by extension, in the Hudson-Parthasarathy theory of quantum stochastic processes, quantum mechanics, stochastic processes, and probability. (
  • It's neat that close to his 400th birthday (he was born on 23 November 1616), a new proof of his product-based approximation for π has been published, and that the proof arises from the study of quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom. (
  • Quantum mechanics is when God cheats . (
  • Yes, that is a summary of how quantum mechanics relates to the reality we perceive. (
  • When the dimensionality of the wave packet is negligible you get the special case of quantum mechanics known as classical mechanics. (
  • Peres's book is a treasure trove of novel perspectives on quantum mechanics and is in many ways the best book on physics that I have seen in a long time. (
  • The general theory of Quantum Mechanics is often hidden behind the applications in the more famous books like Sakurai, Gasiorowitz etc. (
  • Moreover, quantum mechanics implies that a wave function renormalization arises in the QFT field independent of any perturbation theory - a point not sufficiently emphasized in the literature. (
  • Though the author makes a point of deriving points in detail, the book still requires good background knowledge of quantum mechanics, including the Dirac Theory, as well as elements of the Klein-Gordon equation. (
  • I think it is safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics. (
  • The nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics. (
  • This touches on interpretational issues of quantum mechanics, cosmological observations and properties of quantum gravity. (
  • Chapters 39-43 describe the role of instantons in quantum mechanics and field theory. (
  • Quantum physics - also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory - can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. (
  • The success of this model led scientists such as Heisenberg, De Broglie and others to further expand on the concept of quantization and especially with Schrödinger's wave equation quantum mechanics a model of the atom essentially what it is today was developed. (
  • Hence, quantum mechanics defines how geometries organize energy, and the properties of all matter (all elements) is created by the build-up of such quantum states to higher levels. (
  • Attempts at such a unification, sometimes talked about as a Theory of Everything, have however not been successful and according to the official world of science the microcosmos is described by one theory with one set of basic premises - quantum mechanics - while the macrocosmos is best described by another theory - general relativity - with another set of basic premises. (
  • This title is organised around the motion of diffusive motion and the relevance of diffusive motion to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. (
  • Free will has nothing to do with quantum mechanics. (
  • He was a pioneer in quantum mechanics and the first to champion the idea that light can behave as a particle and as a wave. (
  • Blackness cannot be integrated with quantum mechanics at very high energies. (
  • 1.1 Information, computers and quantum mechanics. (
  • This will be performed in collaboration with experimental tests of the theory that olfaction uses non-classical mechanics. (
  • At the moment the differences between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity stand unresolved. (
  • The theory is applied to student understanding of quantum mechanics. (
  • This chapter introduces studies on student difficulties in learning Quantum Mechanics. (
  • The model evaluation process is used to investigate student understanding of classical pre-requisites for quantum mechanics and important quantum concepts. (
  • Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. (
  • However, they may still admit a class of theories beyond quantum mechanics. (
  • British physicist Roger Penrose recently argued "that we will need to invoke 'new physics and exotic biological structures': rewriting quantum theory to make sense of consciousness. (
  • For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. (
  • Understanding such extraordinary states of matter is challenging: quantum simulators based on ultracold Lithium atoms have been developed to study the physics of high-temperature superconductors. (
  • Quantum theory provides an extremely accurate description of fundamental processes in physics. (
  • String theory is often touted as the best option for physics beyond the Standard Model, and for unifying gravity with quantum theory. (
  • Renowned for his many contributions to particle physics and string theory, Witten has almost single-handedly constructed a new branch of mathematical physics. (
  • who assumes the physics of the analytic properties of the S-matrix, containing physical ideas and test results without using the proper mathematical methods, and Hwa and Teplitz, whose works are more mathematically inclined with applications of algebraic topology and homology theory. (
  • However, a later stage in the argument depends on another premise that neither the fundamentalists nor their critics have recognized: an assumption taken from classical non-quantum "common sense" physics. (
  • Hoava's theory has been generating excitement since he proposed it in January, and physicists met to discuss it at a meeting in November at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. (
  • Amsterdam, January 16, 2014 - A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons. (
  • This volume presents a summary of density functional theory and its applications in chemistry from atomic physics to molecular dynamics. (
  • In quantum physics, "why" is a bit of a dirty word. (
  • Quantum physics is great at describing such subatomic impossibilities and can even make useful predictions about how we could exploit them practically, but it says nothing about a principle that could actually explain them. (
  • Now, two Australian physicists say that interactions between these hypothetical worlds could explain quantum physics in much the same way. (
  • Interestingly, these researchers claim that their math can describe both classical and quantum physics with different assumptions for the nature of reality. (
  • The main research interest of our group is in fundamental aspects of quantum physics. (
  • Applications of this principle to various problems in quantum physics are considered (hidden variable problem, Wigner type theorems, decoherence functional, etc. (
  • On the theoretical physics side, they are instrumental in recovering technical assumptions of the axiomatics of quantum theories only by considering algebraic properties of finitely additive measures (states) on quantum propositions. (
  • 1. Introduction to Quantum Physics. (
  • But behind this revolution in technology stands an even greater revolution in general science: the field of quantum physics . (
  • Quantum physics is an incredibly complicated realm of science. (
  • Without a basic understanding of quantum physics, or at least an understanding of the scientific discoveries that led to its formulation, though, it is impossible to understand how and why semiconductor electronic devices function. (
  • Further attempts at defining atomic structure were undertaken, and these efforts helped pave the way for the bizarre discoveries of quantum physics. (
  • Nevertheless, despite the revolution of quantum physics and its contribution to our understanding of atomic structure, Rutherford's solar-system picture of the atom embedded itself in the popular consciousness to such a degree that it persists in some areas of study even when inappropriate. (
  • Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. (
  • Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory in 1918, but developments by various scientists over a thirty-year period all contributed to the modern understanding of quantum theory. (
  • The arXiv version, and the Physics Reports version to appear, use the spacetime metric signature (+1,-1,-1,-1), as is found for example in the field theory textbooks by Ramond , and by Peskin and Schroeder . (
  • A reference to the book "Quantum Physics" by Glimm and Jaffe might be helpful. (
  • While fundamental physics is at some level well described by quantum field theory , a typical Lagrangian used to define such a QFT can reasonably be expected to define only degrees of freedom and interactions that are relevant up to some given energy scale. (
  • On a side note, the faster rotational speeds of stars closer to the secondary density of the black hole are caused by the fact (within this theory), that the primary electron density of the black hole has been pushed beyond the event horizon due to the enormous density of the black hole due to as yet unknown facts about black hole physics. (
  • - The book is an introduction to quantum field theory and renormalization group.It shows that these frameworks are essential for the understanding of phenomena belonging to many different areas of physics, which range from phase transitions in macroscopic systems to the theory of fundamental interactions. (
  • Although there are several good textbooks on QFT, this is the first toemphasize the common aspects of particle physics and the theory of critical phenomena in a unified framework. (
  • In chapters 13-21, renormalization properties of theories with symmetries are studied and specific applications to particle physics are emphasized. (
  • Progress toward quantum simulation of quantum field theory will require the collaborative efforts of quantumists and field theorists, and though the physics payoff may still be far away, it's worthwhile to get started now. (
  • Today's research can hasten the arrival of a new era in which quantum simulation fuels rapid progress in fundamental physics. (
  • Preskill is the Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology, and director of the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech. (
  • Scientists have discovered a new mechanism involved in the creation of paired light particles, which could have significant impact on the study of quantum physics. (
  • The ground-breaking research could have significant implications for quantum physics, the theoretical basis of modern physics. (
  • The entanglement of the quantum states in each pair has important applications in quantum computing - theoretical computation systems that could potentially process big data problems at incredible speeds - as well as other areas of quantum physics. (
  • I often hear the terms quantum physics and quantum theory used by people pushing pseudoscience. (
  • It is so tiring to hear peddlers of supernatural nonsense supporting their claims by citing quantum physics. (
  • Quantum theory is the study of matter and physics at a very small, subatomic scale. (
  • In the quantum world, these physics no longer apply, in part because that world is driven by different fundamental forces, and we have weird things like particle-wave duality and singularities and spin and entanglement, for which there are no analogs in classical physics. (
  • When Rhonda Byrne wrote The Secret and claimed that quantum physics explains how you can wish for things and they'll magically appear, she didn't know anything more about quantum physics than the average person on the street. (
  • Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. (
  • From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. (
  • Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. (
  • How is it possible that a fundamental physical theory cannot be described using the ordinary language of Physics? (
  • It produces the observable numbers which are checked to great precision in experiments starting from the early development of quantum electrodynamics , fully established with the success of quantum chromodynamics and recently culminating in the Higgs field physics seen at the LHC experiment, confirming the standard model of particle physics . (
  • Quantum Field Theory is now well recognized as a powerful tool not only in Particle Physics but also in Nuclear Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Solid State Physics and even in Mathematics. (
  • In this book some current applications of Quantum Field Theory to those areas of modern physics and mathematics are collected, in order to offer a deeper understanding of known facts and unsolved problems. (
  • A quantum leap is instantaneous and in contrast to in Newtonian physics shifts in potential energy do not take place gradually or continuously. (
  • To further highlight the differences between Newtonian and quantum physics it might be added that the different electrons in different quantum states are entangled and that their effects are non-local implying that everything in the universe is connected through an underlying quantum field. (
  • For a long time modern physics has however tried to unify the quantum theory that describes the microcosmic realm well with Einstein's theory of general relativity which describes the macrocosmic space-time and gravitational phenomena. (
  • A controversial theory that the way we smell involves a quantum physics effect has received a boost, following experiments with human subjects. (
  • Tantalisingly, the idea hints at quantum effects occurring in biological systems - an idea that is itself driving a new field of science, as the BBC feature article Are birds hijacking quantum physics? (
  • This book deals with quantum field theory, the language of modern elementary particles physics. (
  • How could anyone seriously try to claim that the predictivity situation of the SM quantum field theory (our most successful fundamental theory of physics, which makes a wealth of detailed, accurate, tested predictions) and string theory unification (a theory that predicts nothing) was the same? (
  • CARLO ROVELLI is a theoretical physicist, working on quantum gravity and on foundations of spacetime physics. (
  • Walter Heitler (1904-81) was a noted Professor of Physics at the University of Zurich who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum theory. (
  • Applicants must have a PhD in Physics, Computer Science or Mathematics and a proven record of research in the areas of or quantum computations or quantum information science. (
  • Recent advancements in quantum physics have opened up new doors, where products called quantum random number generators that produce acclaimed true randomness have emerged. (
  • The basic problem of much of condensed matter and high energy physics, as well as quantum chemistry, is to find the ground state properties of some Hamiltonian. (
  • Tales of the Quantum' is a discussion of the fundamental principles of quantum physics for the non-scientific reader. (
  • The theoretical foundation is based on useful ideas from theories in cognitive science, education, and physics education. (
  • Despite its enormous empirical success, the formalism of quantum theory still raises fundamental questions: why is nature described in terms of complex Hilbert spaces, and what modifications of it could we reasonably expect to find in some regimes of physics? (
  • Our group's research is focused on understanding unique properties and behavior of materials and interfaces, using first principles quantum mechanical calculations based mostly on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. (
  • 8.1), perturbation theory (def. (
  • p. 16: I think it is worth mentioning that the strong coupling expansion has a finite radius of convergence, whereas perturbation theory is expected to be divergent and at best asymptotic. (
  • It is in principle possible that there is some more fundamental theory with plenty of excitations at high energies that is however degreewise finite in perturbation theory , whose effective description at low energy is given by the non-renormalizable Einstein-Hilbert action . (
  • We discuss the rigorous formulation of effective perturbative QFT in terms of causal perturbation theory / perturbative AQFT , due to ( Brunetti-Dütsch-Fredenhagen 09, section 5.2 , Dütsch 10 ), reviewed in Dütsch 18, section 3.8 ). (
  • Perturbation theory, one-loop effects for quantum electrodynamics, and renormalization properties are also covered. (
  • This has led to attempts at alternative formulations to reconcile Field Theory and GR. In contrast to the other three forces of nature (electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear), which have extensive and impressive experimental confirmation [9] , no alternative formulations of quantum gravity have experimental confirmation. (
  • Field theory can model the first three forces with a high degree of precision and success, but fails for gravity [13] , for reasons described below. (
  • No one disputes the need for a quantum theory of gravity, as general relativity is woefully insufficient for describing gravitational fields at extremely small distances. (
  • In particular, four options, including loop quantum gravity, asymptotically safe gravity, causal dynamical triangulations and emergent gravity are all worth considering as serious options. (
  • Ask Ethan #91: Does Quantum Gravity Need String Theory? (
  • It seems that unzipping the fabric of spacetime and harking back to 19th-century notions of time could lead to a theory of quantum gravity. (
  • More specifically, the problem is the way that time is tied up with space in Einstein's theory of gravity: general relativity. (
  • The solution, Hoava says, is to snip threads that bind time to space at very high energies, such as those found in the early universe where quantum gravity rules. (
  • In fact, he has co-opted the mathematics of exotic phase transitions to build his theory of gravity. (
  • So far it seems to be working: the infinities that plague other theories of quantum gravity have been tamed, and the theory spits out a well-behaved graviton. (
  • It also seems to match with computer simulations of quantum gravity. (
  • General relativity scored a knockout blow when Einstein predicted the motion of Mercury with greater accuracy than Newton's theory of gravity could. (
  • The present volume sets the language, the notation and provides additional background for reading Quantum Field Theory II - Introduction to Quantum Gravity, Supersymmetry and String Theory, by the same author. (
  • Quantum fluctuations of matter fields are supposed to have provided the initial seeds of all the structure of the current universe, and quantum gravity is assumed to have been essential in the earliest stages. (
  • New theory of dark matter and quantum gravity. (
  • Ok, all this sounds a bit grandiose but I think I've come up with a decent theory of dark matter that also explains gravity, and I'd love someone to prove me wrong (or at least give compelling reasons why this is incorrect). (
  • In my theory it's primarily the gravity of the other planets and secondarily the gravity of the rest of the galaxy that pulls on Mercury and causes precession in it's orbit. (
  • How Should We Interpret the Quantum Hamiltonian Constraints of Canonical Gravity? (
  • For quantum physicists, it is more of a tormentor, clawing at their belief in a treasured theory and coughing up hairballs over its claim to provide true enlightenment about the workings of reality. (
  • But while some physicists continue to debate the true significance of the result, others see an opportunity in it, a clue to where a more powerful theory of the world's fundamental workings might lie. (
  • Physicists are now using the method to analyze images - so-called snapshots - of quantum many-body systems and find out which theory describes the observed phenomena best. (
  • They take snapshots of the quantum system, which exists simultaneously in different configurations - physicists speak of a superposition. (
  • Because of the application of diffusive motion to quantum theory, it will interest physicists as well as mathematicians. (
  • Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have devised a potentially groundbreaking theory demonstrating how to control the spin of particles without using superconducting magnets - a development that could advance the field of spintronics and bring scientists a step closer to quantum computing. (
  • In the last few years, physicists have learned that the different string theories discovered and studied in different ways are limiting cases of a single, more powerful theory, known as M theory. (
  • The book is aimed at mathematical physicists, theoretical physicists, applied mathematicians, and experimental physicists working in such areas as decoherence, quantum information, and quantum optics. (
  • "All quantum effects arise from, and only from, the interaction between worlds," the physicists explained in their abstract. (
  • As a successful theoretical framework today, quantum field theory emerged from the work of generations of theoretical physicists spanning much of the 20th century. (
  • Featuring many worked examples, the book is aimed at mathematical physicists, quantum field theorists, and probabilists, including graduate and advanced undergraduate students. (
  • There is no fundamental disagreement among physicists on how to use the theory for these practical purposes. (
  • Physicists have been proposing strange theories for decades as unification becomes more and more frustrating. (
  • Further, it presents "deep inelastic" experiments as a fundamental application of quantum chromodynamics. (
  • Forthcoming exascale digital computers will further advance our knowledge of quantum chromodynamics, but formidable challenges will remain. (
  • Theory of Strong Interaction -- Quantum Chromodynamics. (
  • In particular, a major focus of our research has been quantum entanglement and non-locality. (
  • f) We hypothesize that even in the absence of decoherence macroscopic entanglement can very rarely be observed, and provide a precise conjecture to that effect .We also discuss the relation of the present approach to quantum logic, realism and truth, and the measurement problem. (
  • Quantum entanglement - when particles are linked so closely that what affects one directly affects the other - is widely used in labs in numerous processes from quantum cryptography to quantum teleportation. (
  • Ideas such as entanglement entropy from quantum information theory and quantum computing enable us to understand the difficulty of various problems. (
  • The class BQP of languages that are efficiently decidable (with small error-probability) on a quantum Turing machine satisfies BPP ⊆ BQP ⊆ P ♯P. Therefore, there is no possibility of giving a mathematical proof that quantum Turing machines are more powerful than classical probabilistic Turing machines (in the unrelativized setting) unless there is a major breakthrough in complexity theory. (
  • Ever since its mathematical rules began to crystallise in the 1920s, quantum theory has been an affront to our sense of decency. (
  • It is fitting that the final chapter provides a mathematical perspective on musical theory, one that reveals an unexpected connection with some of the book's main themes. (
  • The following is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory . (
  • He and many of his colleagues proved otherwise, and much of their theories are used in mathematical equations for the solving of complex problems. (
  • The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. (
  • The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. (
  • Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta . (
  • While many of the mathematical intricacies of this approach have found solutions over the decades, most of these rely on global properties of Minkowski spacetime such as translation invariance and existence of an invariant vacuum quantum state , hence on a consistent concept of particles . (
  • It also explains how thinking about diffusion can lead to a radical re-examination of the structure of mathematical analysis.Faris, William G. is the author of 'Diffusion, Quantum Theory, and Radically Elementary Mathematics ', published 2006 under ISBN 9780691125459 and ISBN 0691125457. (
  • QFT is successful because it includes a specific class of theories that have a lot of symmetry, and a very tight mathematical structure. (
  • The theory of resurgence is a mathematical tool which allows us to effectively study this connection and its consequences. (
  • Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. (
  • Due to the fundamental character of the effects we study, we are also interested in and able to contribute to various other fields, including quantum optics, thermodynamics, and quantum biology. (
  • QFT treats particles as excited states (also called quanta) of their underlying quantum fields, which are more fundamental than the particles. (
  • Planck assumed there was a theory yet to emerge from the discovery of quanta, but, in fact, their very existence implied a completely new and fundamental understanding of the laws of nature. (
  • In this perspective one speaks of the theory as being the effective quantum field theory of some - possibly known but possibly unspecified - more fundamental theory. (
  • In the perspective of effective field theory notably non-renormalizable interaction Lagrangians can still make perfect sense as effective theories and give rise to well defined predictions: they can be effective approximations to renormalizable more fundamental theories. (
  • Now, the identification of a new delocalized mechanism shows that each photon pair can be emitted from spatially separated points, introducing a new positional uncertainty of a fundamental quantum origin. (
  • Explaining these phenomena required the fundamental insight that on the scale of atoms energy is quantised , i.e. it can only be transferred in discrete packets, called quanta (the Planck Hypothesis). (
  • Fundamental to this project is the investigation of olfaction as a quantum effect, therefore it will comprise of an analysis of olfaction as a closed and an open quantum system. (
  • Quantum theory is often seen as the root cause of unrelated, mysterious phenomena. (
  • We also believe that, in providing a new mental picture of quantum effects, it will be useful in planning experiments to test and exploit quantum phenomena. (
  • A more precise and far-seeing way to predict how quantum phenomena will proceed could impact everything from industrial processes to quantum cryptography. (
  • This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory. (
  • The development of quantum technologies presents both a chance to exploit to exotic quantum phenomena and also new questions for the foundations of quantum theory. (
  • The interaction between light and matter provides the most controllable arena for exploring and, indeed, exploiting quantum phenomena. (
  • Combined with the AdS/CFT computations that can reproduce the anomalous linear resistivity and other non-standard transport phenomena found in quantum criticical electron systems, these results give reason to believe that AdS/CFT string theories are good phenomenological models for quantum-critical Fermi systems. (
  • Its development began in the 1920s with the description of interactions between light and electrons, culminating in the first quantum field theory-quantum electrodynamics. (
  • The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. (
  • The reasoning is that if quantum theory is a universally valid theory capable of making sense of reality, it should be able to describe people using quantum theory. (
  • In contrast, Field Theory can describe states containing arbitrary numbers of particles of different energies, masses, charges and types. (
  • Robert Dijkgraaf, on Verlinde's work There are many attempts out there to reconcile the quantum field theories that describe the electromagnetic and nuclear forces with general relativity, which describes the gravitational force. (
  • This quantum behavior is counterintuitive, even hard to describe without equations, but--strange as it may seem--this is how everything in the world works. (
  • If the principles of quantum information processing better describe the way humans make decisions, what does that imply about the way the brain works? (
  • While the Many Worlds are supposed to diverge and never interact with one another, these two researchers claim that their formulae describe ways that interacting parallel worlds could explain some of the truly incomprehensible behavior of quantum particles. (
  • In its insistence on C*-algebras its ambition is to describe the full non-perturbative quantum field theory. (
  • The theory you describe is Dijkgraaf-Witten theory with target space a discrete set with $r$ elements. (
  • We shall demonstrate that AdS/CFT is holographically able to describe the controlled emergence of regular and irregular Fermi liquids from a strongly coupled quantum critical state. (
  • and a chaper on finite temperature relativistic quantum field theory. (
  • We show the existence of a problem, relative to an oracle, that can be solved in polynomial time on a quantum Turing machine, but requires superpolynomial time on a bounded-error probabilistic Turing machine, and thus not in the class BPP. (
  • This book offers an excellent account of the probabilistic aspects of quantum theory, focused on the interplay between quantum field theory and quantum stochastic calculus. (
  • Quantum theory is a probabilistic calculus that enables the calculation of the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a measurement performed on a physical system. (
  • But what is the relationship between this probabilistic calculus and probability theory itself? (
  • We employ two postulates that any probabilistic theory with reasonable thermodynamic behavior should arguably satisfy. (
  • In the framework of generalized probabilistic theories, we show that these postulates already imply important aspects of quantum theory, like self-duality and analogues of projective measurements, subspaces and eigenvalues. (
  • Field theory describes the interactions between subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons, quarks and photons. (
  • The differences between basic QM and Field Theory are these: in QM, the interactions between more than two particles are increasingly difficult to model, and the creation and destruction of particles cannot be modeled at all. (
  • Field Theory also provides an elegant framework for describing the interactions between particles, and the creation of new particles and destruction of old ones-- for example, the emission and absorption of photons by electrons, and vice versa [2] . (
  • In a similar manner, in string theory, the elementary particles we observe in particle accelerators could be thought of as the 'musical notes' or excitation modes of elementary strings. (
  • Interactions between particles are described by interaction terms in the Lagrangian involving their corresponding quantum fields. (
  • Quantum or the actuality of measuring small particles was first considered in the 1600's, and there have been multitudes of conjectured thought since then. (
  • Quantum is simply the measuring of particles and sub particles that make up the substance of our universe. (
  • It provides periodic solutions of classical equations, semi-classical methods, and theories of systems composed of very intense electromagnetic fields and particles. (
  • Instead, another well-known scientific theory -- Albert Einstein's famous Theory of Relativity -- helps govern the behavior of the last 21 elements of the Periodic Table. (
  • 1.1.3 Emergence of quantum behavior. (
  • The final chapters introduce readers who are familiar with the theory of manifolds to more advanced topics, including geometric quantization. (
  • This is the structure which then further below leads over to the quantization ( deformation quantization ) of the prequantum field theory to a genuine perturbative quantum field theory . (
  • We establish how these familiar primitives can be implemented and introduce some new, purely quantum mechanical primitives, such as changing the computational basis and carrying out an arbitrary unitary transformation of polynomially bounded dimension. (
  • Each snapshot of the quantum system gives one specific configuration according to its quantum mechanical probability. (
  • Quantum simulation methods based on electronic-structure theory are deemed unfit to cope with atomic heat transport within the Green-Kubo formalism, because quantum-mechanical energy densities and currents are inherently ill-defined at the atomic scale. (
  • Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. (
  • The shortest summary of quantum mechanical reality I know of would be this: The dimensionality of the wave packet is not always negligible, although it often is. (
  • The earliest reference is On the controllability of quantum‐mechanical systems (1983). (
  • 4.3.1 Quantum mechanical projection postulate. (
  • 6.2 Quantum mechanical computers. (
  • 7.2.3 Quantum mechanical model. (
  • One theory suggests that odorants are characterized by their quantum mechanical vibrations (phonons) [1]. (
  • This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. (
  • Advances in quantum chemistry. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Advances in quantum chemistry. (
  • Add tags for "Advances in quantum chemistry. (
  • In this paper, we present some recent advances in our quantum approach to concepts. (
  • Locally covariant perturbative quantum field theory provides a synthesis of these two opposites. (
  • In order to study the weakly coupled regime of some given quantum theory we often make use of perturbative expansions of the physical quantities of interest. (
  • Applications are invited for a postdoctoral research position with a possibility for extension, in the field of theory of quantum computations and quantum algorithms. (
  • The successful applicant will work in the research group led by Prof Jacob Biamonte in the area of quantum computations and quantum networks, with a focus on quantum enhanced algorithms and error mitigation on experimental devices. (
  • 1. Develop, optimize, and benchmark variational quantum algorithms (e.g. (
  • 1.3.2 Quantum algorithms. (
  • Not only general relativity but also quantum theory plays important roles in current cosmology. (
  • None of this generalizes robustly to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes of relevance in cosmology , black hole radiation or the instanton vacuum of QCD . (
  • We have introduced the concept of Lagrangian field theories ##(E,\mathbf{L})## in terms of a field bundle ##E## equipped with a Lagrangian density ##\mathbf{L}## on its jet bundle (def. (
  • This book will be accessible to students and researchers who have had introductory courses in general relativity and quantum field theory, and will be of interest to scientists in general relativity and related fields. (
  • Whenever a quantum state exists in some indeterminate state, as when an electron could be anywhere within a certain area around an atom for instance, its collapse to a finite reality creates another world. (
  • H_0,H_1$ are nice operators (as nice as there is theory available, so for instance: $H_0$ has compact resolvent and $H_1$ is bounded, both on a finite interval with dirichlet conditions). (
  • For some quantum systems, such as spin systems, the quantum evolution equation (the Schrödinger equation) is finite-dimensional and old results on controllability of systems defined on on Lie groups and quotient spaces provide most of what is needed insofar as controllability of non-dissipative systems is concerned. (
  • Treatments of the optimality of quantum control are mainly restricted to finite-dimensional systems, but they do include the effects of coupling to the environment (which adds a non-unitary time-dependence, instead of the Schrödinger equation you would have the Lindblad equation). (
  • The book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors. (
  • As explained in section 3 of this paper of Freed, Hopkins, Lurie and Teleman, this topological field theory should actually extend all the way down to $0$-manifolds, yielding a fully extended topological field theory. (
  • In the late 1890s, calculations of the spectrum of blackbody radiation based on classical electromagnetic theory and thermodynamics could not duplicate the results of careful measurements. (
  • Here we address these questions by studying how compatibility with thermodynamics constrains the structure of quantum theory. (
  • In 1905 Albert Einstein gave a ground-breaking physical interpretation to Planck's mathematics when he proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is granular, consisting of quanta , each with an energy h f . (
  • For instance, the electromagnetic force can be described quantum-mechanically by the motion of photons. (
  • theory of interactions between molecules and electromagnetic fields Author: Hendrik F Hameka Publisher: Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. (
  • The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems, as well as offering applications using methods for calculating the symmetry properties and the energetic values of systems and the calculation of properties of high harmonics in interactions between very intense electromagnetic fields and electrons. (
  • He begins with a treatment of the ordinary one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator, progresses through the construction of quantum field theory in flat spacetime to possible constructions of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, and, ultimately, to an algebraic formulation of the theory. (
  • Another part of the monograph deals with a fascinating interplay of algebraic properties of the projection lattice with the continuity of measures (the analysis of Jauch-Piron states, independence conditions in quantum field theory, etc. (
  • Specifically: This takes care of the " algebraic adiabatic limit ", which defines the quantum observables . (
  • It is also relevant to understanding various aspects of quantum theory. (
  • Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods should be the given choice for any introductory course in QM, not because it is easy or simple but just because there are no better books! (
  • The book can be roughly dividedinto four parts: chapters 1-12 deal with general field theory, functional integrals, and functional methods. (
  • 3. Integrate quantum-computing methods with tensor network theory and/or machine learning. (
  • These are but a few of the extraordinary consequences of Einstein's theory of relativity. (
  • Quantum Field Theory has Special Relativity built in as an intrinsic part of the theory [8] . (
  • However, the most naive application of Field Theory to General Relativity is known to be unworkable. (
  • But, Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt, the Gregory R. Choppin Professor of Chemistry at FSU, found that these rules are somewhat overridden by Einstein's Theory of Relativity when it comes to the heavier, lesser known elements of the Periodic Table. (
  • Albrecht-Schmitt and his team realized that Einstein's Theory of Relativity actually explained what they saw in the berkelium compounds. (
  • Under the Theory of Relativity, the faster anything with mass moves, the heavier it gets. (
  • Particular emphasis is placed on the concept of a quantum field and its particle content to provide an appropriate description of physical processes at high energies, where relativity becomes indispensable. (
  • When you think about Albert Einstein, the words E=MC squared and Theory of Relativity naturally come to mind. (
  • Might fractal geometry finally reconcile general relativity and quantum theory? (
  • Building on this idea, Albert Einstein proposed in 1905 an explanation for the photoelectric effect, that light is composed of individual packets of energy called photons (the quanta of light). (
  • Prof Andrews said: "Everything has a certain quantum 'fuzziness' to it, and photons are not the hard little bullets of light that are popularly imagined. (
  • Cambridge University Press has just published The Quantum Theory of Nonlinear Optics, by Peter Drummond and Mark Hillery. (
  • The current research activities of the Quantum Theory Group cover a wide range of activities, principally within the fields of quantum optics and quantum information, including quantum foundations. (
  • Theory: Abstract thought, conjecture, plausible but not proven. (
  • Such ideas are important, in particular, in quantum communications and we have an active interest in the study of quantum cryptography [4-5]. (
  • Analytic Properties of Feynman Diagrams in Quantum Field Theory deals with quantum field theory, particularly in the study of the analytic properties of Feynman graphs. (
  • It also introduces a 'field calculus' which acts as a succinct alternative to standard Feynman diagrams and formulates quantum field theory (cumulant moments, Dyson-Schwinger equation, tree expansions, 1-particle irreducibility) in this language. (
  • This is the home page for the review paper "Two-component spinor techniques and Feynman rules for quantum field theory and supersymmetry", by Herbi K. Dreiner , Howard E. Haber , and Stephen P. Martin . (
  • What Busemeyer and co are saying is that the principles of quantum information processing, including the ideas of superposition and interference, lead to better models of the way humans make decisions. (
  • 6: Basic Principles Of Quantum Measure Theory. (
  • Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. (
  • The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information that is compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes. (
  • In order to create a unified theory about the workings of the universe what I have then done is to develop a macrocosmic quantum theory, which is not identical with the microcosmic theory but shares many basic principles with this that may help us understand how the universe works. (
  • In this paper, we answer these questions, and precisely determine the relationship between quantum theory and probability theory, by explicitly deriving both theories from first principles. (
  • Because distorted of the pious download quantum differences using 5HT panel do Second enable also within the alleged or initial times and the Principles by which they are broadly observed has compared then by the caries over thin enforcement than by H2O)4 distribution benefits, the reason's parasite illustrates the activity between location and mutation. (
  • What are quantum gravity's alternatives to string theory? (
  • I just think too many nice things have happened in string theory for it to be all wrong. (
  • Image credit: NASA/Goddard/Wade Sisler, of Brian Greene presenting on String Theory. (
  • But string theory isn't the only game in town. (
  • Includes the basics for understanding string theory. (
  • Provides a history of how string theory has evolved. (
  • In this excerpt from his book The Elegant Universe, Brian Greene explains why string theory might hold the key to unifying the four forces of nature. (
  • Super-string theory is one possible answer, along with the perhaps more fantastical Many Worlds hypothesis. (
  • For instance, string theory is meant to be such a theory. (
  • Isn't string theory just as predictive as quantum field theory? (
  • This has become probably the most common argument made by string theorists when string theory is criticized for being non-predictive. (
  • Yes, it's true that you could instead look at extremely complicated examples of QFTs, making them so complicated that you would lose predictivity and start to get something more like string theory. (
  • That's the problem with string theory unification schemes: you have to put more into them than you get out, the hall-mark of a failed idea. (
  • Consider string theory, which introduced the concept of vibration. (
  • We will argue that theoretical questions posed by experiments on quantum critical states of electron systems might be best answerable with string theory through the anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence. (
  • Diffusion, Quantum Theory, and Radically Elementary Mathematics. (
  • perhaps too simple for the mathematics of other theory to compute on their level. (
  • I'm not sure about any universal properties, but this theory is definitely related to a lot of interesting mathematics. (
  • The development of gauge theory and the completion of the Standard Model in the 1970s led to a renaissance of quantum field theory. (
  • The elegant functional differential approach put forward by Schwinger, referred to as the quantum dynamical (action) principle, and its underlying theory are used systematically in order to generate the so-called vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude of both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, in addition to Feynman's well-known functional integral approach, referred to as the path-integral approach. (
  • Given the wealth of information also to be found in the abelian case, equal importance is put on both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories. (
  • As we uncover Lagrangian field theory further below, we discover ever more general concepts of " space " in differential geometry, such as smooth manifolds , diffeological spaces , infinitesimal neighbourhoods , supermanifolds , Lie algebroids and super Lie ∞-algebroids . (
  • In addition to exploring how the strange properties of quantum theory can be harnessed for information processing, tools and concepts from this field have led to a much deeper understanding of quantum theory. (
  • Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. (
  • We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. (
  • Theories of concepts struggle to capture the creative flexibility with which concepts are used in natural language, and combined into larger complexes with emergent meaning, as well as the context-dependent manner in which concepts are understood ( Geeraerts, 1989 ). (
  • This led to formulation of "prototype theory," according to which concepts are organized around family resemblances, and consist of characteristic, rather than defining, features. (
  • By starting from experimental facts he shows in a clear way which concepts are necessary for QM and what the theory actually implies on the real world. (
  • The theory of classical electromagnetism was completed in 1864 with Maxwell's equations, which described the relationship between the electric field, the magnetic field, electric current, and electric charge. (
  • But at the beginning of the twentieth century, Newton's equations have been replaced by those of quantum theory, which bring back an element of indeterminism, quite similar, in fact, to Epicurus's correction of Democritus's determinism. (
  • In this paper we study quantum computation from a complexity theoretic viewpoint. (
  • This justifies the claim that the quantum Turing machine model should be regarded as a discrete model of computation and not an analog one. (
  • Applicants are required to have a background in quantum information, quantum computation, quantum communication or relative fields. (
  • Prof. D. Suter is an experimentalist and well known for his NMR-work and currently working on quantum computation projects. (
  • In between it predicts something new that is neither Newton's theory nor quantum theory. (
  • The earliest successful classical field theory is one that emerged from Newton's law of universal gravitation, despite the complete absence of the concept of fields from his 1687 treatise Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. (
  • But in (53) we have seen that the Lagrangian density of a Lagrangian field theory is just one component, in codimension 0, of an inhomogeneous " Lepage form " which in codimension 1 is given by the presymplectic potential current ##\Theta_{BFV}## (49) . (
  • Using a thought experiment by von Neumann, we show that these theories admit a consistent thermodynamic notion of entropy, and prove that the second law holds for projective measurements and mixing procedures. (
  • Liboff, Richard L. is the author of 'Kinetic Theory: Classical, Quantum and Relativistic Description', published 1991 under ISBN 9780135160893 and ISBN 0135160898. (
  • Here, we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. (
  • This theory became known as the uncertainty principle , which prompted Albert Einstein's famous comment, 'God does not play dice. (
  • We give the first formal evidence that quantum Turing machines violate the modern (complexity theoretic) formulation of the Church-Turing thesis. (
  • In this book, Robert Wald provides a coherent, pedagogical introduction to the formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. (
  • In his presentation, Wald disentangles essential features of the theory from inessential ones (such as a particle interpretation) and clarifies relationships between various approaches to the formulation of the theory. (
  • To put this into perspective, notice that formulation of quantum field theory has many aspects and perspectives. (
  • This book explains diffusive motion and its relation to both nonrelativistic quantum theory and quantum field theory. (
  • Albert Einstein's theory of light Learn about Albert Einstein's 1905 paper on why light is a particle. (
  • Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be (for example, a wave or a particle), but that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured. (
  • One place fractal theory can be used effectively is light theory, when we need to treat light as both a particle and a wave simultaneously. (
  • Knuth, K.H. Quantum Theory and Probability Theory: Their Relationship and Origin in Symmetry. (
  • Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models on tumor and cancer development, quantum modeling of bird navigation compass, quantum aspects of photosynthesis, quantum biological error correction. (
  • However, evidence has now shown warm quantum coherence in plant photosynthesis, bird brain navigation, our sense of smell, and brain microtubules. (
  • Gleason Type Theorems For Quantum Logics. (
  • It produces the structural theorems of quantum field theory, such as the PCT theorem and the spin-statistics theorem and it seamlessly generalizes to QFT on curved spacetimes . (
  • Real quantum theory has no conceivable relevance to paranormal claims like The Secret or What the Bleep Do We Know, thus its frequent employ is almost always without any scientific meaning. (
  • Until now, psychologists have turned to classical probability theory to study the concept of probability judgement error. (
  • They say that quantum probability theory leads to more realistic predictions about the type of errors humans make. (
  • Quantum probability theory is a general and coherent theory based on a set of (von Neumann) axioms which relax some of the constraints underlying classic (Kolmogorov) probability theory," say the team. (
  • These results have no direct analogy in the standard measure and probability theory. (
  • Is quantum theory compatible with probability theory? (
  • If so, does it extend or generalize probability theory? (
  • We prove, for example, that quantum theory is compatible with probability theory by explicitly deriving quantum theory on the assumption that probability theory is generally valid. (
  • Solving optimization problems encoded in the ground state of classical-spin systems is a focus area for quantum computing devices, providing upper bounds to the unknown solution. (
  • As a theorist, his topic research area is quantum spin chains. (
  • It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. (
  • Direct experimental tests of quantum theory are mostly restricted to microscopic domains. (
  • After the training phase with theoretical data, the neural network had to apply what it had learned and assign snapshots from the quantum simulators to theory A or B. The network thus selected the theory which is more predictive. (
  • The retrodictive form embodies a synthesis of conventional predictive quantum theory with Bayes' theorem and we have used this as the basis of a practical approach to image reconstruction [7,8]. (
  • A radical new theory plays into that, proposing that parallel universes exist and interact with each other ‒ and that scientists may be able to test for them. (
  • And although many more scientists are taking the vibrational theory seriously than back in 1996, it remains an extraordinarily polarised debate. (
  • This entry was posted in Quantum Theory: The Book . (
  • This book develops the unified combinatorial framework behind these examples, starting with the simplest mathematically, and working up to the Fock space setting for quantum fields. (
  • Students in this field might benefit from first reading the book Quantum Theory: A Wide Spectrum (Springer, 2006), by the same author. (
  • All this is laid out beautifully in a new book called, "Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian. (
  • The applicant should expect​ ​interaction with experimental collaborators from Skoltech, MSU and leading theory research groups overseas. (

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