**Quantum Theory**: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.

**Quantum Dots**: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.

**Cadmium Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.

**Psychological Theory**: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.

**Selenium Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.

**Semiconductors**: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.

**Theory of Mind**: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.

**Nursing Theory**: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.

**Zinc Compounds**: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.

**Physics**: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Information Theory**: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.

**Tellurium**: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Nanotechnology**: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.

**Electrons**: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.

**Sulfides**: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.

**Game Theory**: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.

**Systems Theory**: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Fluorescence**: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.

**Photons**: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

**Thermodynamics**: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**Decision Theory**: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.

**Photochemistry**

**Spectrometry, Fluorescence**: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.

**Energy Transfer**: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.

**Light**: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.

**Fluorescent Dyes**: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.

**Molecular Conformation**: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Water**: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

**Physical Phenomena**: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.

**Photosynthesis**: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)

**Mathematics**: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Streptavidin**: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.

**Molecular Imaging**: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.

**Nanoparticles**: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.

**Luminescence**: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Ethical Theory**: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)

**Molecular Structure**: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.

**Photolysis**: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.

**Hydrogen Bonding**: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.

**Magnetics**: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.

**Niobium**: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

**Neuromuscular Junction**: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.

**Biophysics**: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.

**Computers, Molecular**: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.

**Kinetics**: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

**Temperature**: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

**Motor Endplate**: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.

**Static Electricity**: The accumulation of an electric charge on a object

**Biological Evolution**: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

**Photochemical Processes**: Chemical reactions effected by light.

**Protons**: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.

**Biophysical Phenomena**: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.

**Chlorophyll**: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.

**Nanostructures**: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.

**Spectrum Analysis**: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

## Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (1/1423)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode. (+info)## Tonic activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors in the opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish. (2/1423)

Release of excitatory transmitter from boutons on crayfish nerve terminals was inhibited by (R,S)-baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Baclofen had no postsynaptic actions as it reduced quantal content without affecting quantal amplitude. The effect of baclofen increased with concentration producing 18% inhibition at 10 microM; EC50, 50% inhibition at 30 microM; maximal inhibition, 85% at 100 microM and higher. There was no desensitization, even with 200 or 320 microM baclofen. Phaclofen, an antagonist at GABAB receptors, competitively antagonized the inhibitory action of baclofen (KD = 50 microM, equivalent to a pA2 = 4.3 +/- 0.1). Phaclofen on its own at concentrations below 200 microM had no effect on release, whereas at 200 microM phaclofen itself increased the control level of release by 60%, as did 2-hydroxy-saclofen (200 microM), another antagonist at GABAB receptors. This increase was evidently due to antagonism of a persistent level of GABA in the synaptic cleft, since the effect was abolished by destruction of the presynaptic inhibitory fiber, using intra-axonal pronase. We conclude that presynaptic GABAB receptors, with a pharmacological profile similar to that of mammalian GABAB receptors, are involved in the control of transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. (+info)## Effect of hypertonicity on augmentation and potentiation and on corresponding quantal parameters of transmitter release. (3/1423)

Augmentation and (posttetanic) potentiation are two of the four components comprising the enhanced release of transmitter following repetitive nerve stimulation. To examine the quantal basis of these components under isotonic and hypertonic conditions, we recorded miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs) from isolated frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscles, before and after repetitive nerve stimulation (40 s at 80 Hz). Continuous recordings were made in low Ca2+ high Mg2+ isotonic Ringer solution, in Ringer that was made hypertonic with 100 mM sucrose, and in wash solution. Estimates were obtained of m (no. of quanta released), n (no. of functional release sites), p (mean probability of release), and vars p (spatial variance in p), using a method that employed MEPP counts. Hypertonicity abolished augmentation without affecting potentiation. There were prolonged poststimulation increases in m, n, and p and a marked but transient increase in vars p in the hypertonic solution. All effects were completely reversed with wash. The time constants of decay for potentiation and for vars p were virtually identical. The results are consistent with the notion that augmentation is caused by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels and that potentiation is due to Na+-induced Ca2+ release from mitochondria. The results also demonstrate the utility of this approach for analyzing the dynamics of quantal transmitter release. (+info)## Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (4/1423)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time. (+info)## Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (5/1423)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway. (+info)## Glutamate receptor expression regulates quantal size and quantal content at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. (6/1423)

At the Drosophila glutamatergic neuromuscular junction, the postsynaptic cell can regulate synaptic strength by both changing its sensitivity to neurotransmitter and generating a retrograde signal that regulates presynaptic transmitter release. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of plasticity, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of two postsynaptic glutamate receptors that are expressed at this synapse. Deletion of both genes results in embryonic lethality that can be rescued by transgenic expression of either receptor. Although these receptors are redundant for viability, they have important differences. By transgenically rescuing the double mutant, we have investigated the relationship of receptor gene dosage and composition to synaptic function. We find that the receptor subunit composition regulates quantal size, Argiotoxin sensitivity, and receptor desensitization kinetics. Finally, we show that the activity of the receptor can regulate the retrograde signal functioning at this synapse. Thus, the diversity of receptors expressed at this synapse provides the cell with mechanisms for generating synaptic plasticity. (+info)## Glutamate uptake limits synaptic excitation of retinal ganglion cells. (7/1423)

EPSCs of retinal ganglion cells decay more slowly than do those of most other CNS neurons, in part because of the long time course of glutamate release from bipolar cells. Here we investigated how glutamate clearance and AMPA receptor desensitization affect ganglion cell EPSCs in the salamander retinal slice preparation. Inhibition of glutamate uptake greatly prolonged ganglion cell EPSCs evoked by light or monosynaptic electrical stimuli but had little effect on spontaneous miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). This suggests that single quanta of glutamate are cleared rapidly by diffusion but multiple quanta can interact to lengthen the postsynaptic response. Some interaction between quanta is likely to occur even when glutamate uptake is not inhibited. This seems to depend on quantal content, because reducing glutamate release with low Ca2+, paired-pulse depression, or weak stimuli shortened the EPSC decay. High quantal content glutamate release may lead to desensitization of postsynaptic receptors. We reduced the extent of AMPA receptor desensitization by holding ganglion cells at positive potentials. This increased the amplitude of the late phase of evoked EPSCs but did not affect the decay rate after the first 50 msec of the response. In contrast, the holding potential had little effect on mEPSC kinetics. Our results suggest that desensitization limits the late phase of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, whereas glutamate uptake controls the duration of both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses. (+info)## Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. (8/1423)

Asynchrony of quantal events in evoked multiquantal responses indicates presynaptic quantal interaction. We have analyzed the possibility of quantal interactions by inspecting action potential-evoked postsynaptic multiquantal responses recorded extracellularly from the lobster neuromuscular junction. These recorded responses were compared with simulated multiquantal responses constructed from statistically independent quantal events. The simulated multiquantal responses were generated by random superposition of single quantal responses aligned according to the timing of the action potential. The methods of analysis consisted of 1) the comparison of quantal contents obtained from direct counting or by measuring of the size of the responses and 2) the analysis of distributions of quantal latencies. This analysis revealed a large error in the detection of quantal events for responses simulated with no quantal interaction. In contrast, very few errors in quantal detection were made in the analysis of experimental recordings. Latency histograms of recorded responses demonstrate that the proportion of late quantal events (those with latencies of >/=5 ms) increased as a function of quantal content. This shift in latency histograms was not observed for simulated responses. Our interpretation is that quanta interact presynaptically to cause asynchrony of quantal events in evoked responses. (+info)###### Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulation of enzyme catalysis: The case of histone lysine...

###### Home Page of Alessandro Laio | Publications

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**Quantum** Biological Information **Theory** | Ivan B Djordjevic | Springer

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**Quantum** **Theory**, Groups and Representations | Not Even Wrong

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###### Mechanics62

- Although ideas from quantum physics play an important role in many parts of modern mathematics, there are few books about quantum mechanics aimed at mathematicians. (springer.com)
- This book introduces the main ideas of quantum mechanics in language familiar to mathematicians. (springer.com)
- and the path-integral approach to quantum mechanics. (springer.com)
- You should be aware that this problem is avoided by Bohm's intepretation of quantum mechanics - so it is not inherent in the physics. (mail-archive.com)
- A new interpretation of the emission of light by heated objects and new experimental methods that opened the atomic world for study led to a radical departure from the classical theories of Newton and Maxwell- quantum mechanics was born. (britannica.com)
- But why do this, especially as there is no apparent causal link between quantum mechanics and the conscious mind? (slashdot.org)
- Quantum field theory is a mathematical theory in physics which extends quantum mechanics . (conservapedia.com)
- At present, the deepest problem in theoretical physics is harmonizing the theory of general relativity, which describes gravitation and applies to large-scale structures (stars, planets, galaxies), with quantum mechanics which describes the other three fundamental forces acting on the microscopic scale. (awesomelibrary.org)
- Quantum mechanics says that if no one is observing it, the radioactive material is simultaneously in both the decaying and non-decaying states. (skepticalscience.com)
- It is a set of notions and mathematical tools that combines classical fields, special relativity, and quantum mechanics, and, when combined with the cluster decomposition principle, it may be the only way to do so, while retaining the ideas of quantum point particles and locality. (wikipedia.org)
- Even though QFT is an unavoidable consequence of the reconciliation of quantum mechanics with special relativity (Weinberg (1995)), historically, it emerged in the 1920s with the quantization of the electromagnetic field (the quantization being based on an analogy of the eigenmode expansion of a vibrating string with fixed endpoints). (wikipedia.org)
- However, quantum mechanics as formulated by Dirac, Heisenberg, and Schrödinger in 1926-27 started from atomic spectra and did not focus much on problems of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- As soon as the conceptual framework of quantum mechanics was developed, a small group of theoreticians tried to extend quantum methods to electromagnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
- It studies complexity classes defined using quantum computers and quantum information which are computational models based on quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- This text is ideal for mathematicians, physicists dealing with quantum theory and mechanics, students, and professors in advanced mathematics. (elsevier.com)
- At the same time on the experimental side, equally spectacular progress has been made in developing experimental machinery and techniques to test the foundations of quantum mechanics. (springer.com)
- During recent years spectacular progress has been made in experimentally testing the foundations of quantum mechanics. (springer.com)
- But that is not how things work in the real world, the world of quantum mechanics. (stallman.org)
- It is normal in quantum mechanics for an object to change gradually from state A to state B, even though there are no intermediate states between A and B. (stallman.org)
- Quantum mechanics is a fundamental and universal principle of nature, confirmed by thousands of experiments. (stallman.org)
- It is hard to make positive statements about the behavior of souls in the absence of positive evidence that they exist, but they would probably obey quantum mechanics like everything else. (stallman.org)
- see below) shows that the very existence of a human being is subject to quantum mechanics, so the states where one would or would not expect a soul can be combined in continuously varying amplitudes. (stallman.org)
- For the present argument, it is sufficient that there is no proof that souls (supposing they exist) are not governed by quantum mechanics. (stallman.org)
- Busemeyer and co are at pains to distance themselves from research that uses quantum mechanics to model the brain in an attempt to understand consciousness. (technologyreview.com)
- Physicists have struggled to marry quantum mechanics with gravity for decades. (scientificamerican.com)
- The snag is that in quantum mechanics, time retains its Newtonian aloofness, providing the stage against which matter dances but never being affected by its presence. (scientificamerican.com)
- While I was away last week on vacation, it seems that Springer has published my book on quantum mechanics and representation theory (previously discussed in various blog posts ). (columbia.edu)
- Some consequences of (Everettian) quantum mechanics for decision theory itself are also discussed. (pitt.edu)
- if there are a functionally infinite number of universes, plugging such assumptions into the theory produces quantum mechanics. (geek.com)
- A physicist Max Planck first theorised in 1900, then Einstein reinforced his thinking in 1905, and by 1912 we had quantum theory, then quantum mechanics 1922, quantum jump 1955, and leaving us with quantum leap in 1970. (hubpages.com)
- Quantum mechanics is the study of matter and radiation at an atomic level. (hubpages.com)
- We develop and defend the thesis that the Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics is a new theory of probability. (pitt.edu)
- Florida State University researchers found that the theory of quantum mechanics does not adequately explain how the heaviest and rarest elements found at the end of the table function. (eurekalert.org)
- Quantum mechanics are essentially the rules that govern how atoms behave and fully explain the chemical behavior of most of the elements on the table. (eurekalert.org)
- They weren't following the normal rules of quantum mechanics. (eurekalert.org)
- Wick ordering of creation and annihilation operators is of fundamental importance for computing averages and correlations in quantum field theory and, by extension, in the Hudson-Parthasarathy theory of quantum stochastic processes, quantum mechanics, stochastic processes, and probability. (cambridge.org)
- Quantum mechanics is when God cheats . (principiadiscordia.com)
- Yes, that is a summary of how quantum mechanics relates to the reality we perceive. (principiadiscordia.com)
- When the dimensionality of the wave packet is negligible you get the special case of quantum mechanics known as classical mechanics. (principiadiscordia.com)
- Peres's book is a treasure trove of novel perspectives on quantum mechanics and is in many ways the best book on physics that I have seen in a long time. (ebooks.com)
- The general theory of Quantum Mechanics is often hidden behind the applications in the more famous books like Sakurai, Gasiorowitz etc. (ebooks.com)
- Moreover, quantum mechanics implies that a wave function renormalization arises in the QFT field independent of any perturbation theory - a point not sufficiently emphasized in the literature. (ebooks.com)
- Though the author makes a point of deriving points in detail, the book still requires good background knowledge of quantum mechanics, including the Dirac Theory, as well as elements of the Klein-Gordon equation. (ebooks.com)
- I think it is safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics. (allaboutcircuits.com)
- The nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics. (techtarget.com)
- This touches on interpretational issues of quantum mechanics, cosmological observations and properties of quantum gravity. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- Chapters 39-43 describe the role of instantons in quantum mechanics and field theory. (google.de)
- Quantum physics - also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory - can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. (wiley.com)
- This title is organised around the motion of diffusive motion and the relevance of diffusive motion to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. (valorebooks.com)
- Free will has nothing to do with quantum mechanics. (edge.org)
- He was a pioneer in quantum mechanics and the first to champion the idea that light can behave as a particle and as a wave. (wfae.org)
- Blackness cannot be integrated with quantum mechanics at very high energies. (strangehorizons.com)
- 1.1 Information, computers and quantum mechanics. (wiley.com)
- This will be performed in collaboration with experimental tests of the theory that olfaction uses non-classical mechanics. (surrey.ac.uk)
- At the moment the differences between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity stand unresolved. (fluther.com)
- The theory is applied to student understanding of quantum mechanics. (compadre.org)
- This chapter introduces studies on student difficulties in learning Quantum Mechanics. (compadre.org)
- The model evaluation process is used to investigate student understanding of classical pre-requisites for quantum mechanics and important quantum concepts. (compadre.org)
- Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. (platekompaniet.no)
- However, they may still admit a class of theories beyond quantum mechanics. (arxiv.org)
- Quantum mechanics is presented at the level of advanced undergraduate knowledge, together with some useful tools for quantum mechanics of open systems. (arxiv.org)
- Blame the intricacies of quantum mechanics for this Hawking radiation . (3quarksdaily.com)

###### Physics65

- British physicist Roger Penrose recently argued "that we will need to invoke 'new physics and exotic biological structures': rewriting quantum theory to make sense of consciousness. (slashdot.org)
- For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. (eurekalert.org)
- Understanding such extraordinary states of matter is challenging: quantum simulators based on ultracold Lithium atoms have been developed to study the physics of high-temperature superconductors. (eurekalert.org)
- Quantum theory provides an extremely accurate description of fundamental processes in physics. (nature.com)
- String theory is often touted as the best option for physics beyond the Standard Model, and for unifying gravity with quantum theory. (scienceblogs.com)
- Renowned for his many contributions to particle physics and string theory, Witten has almost single-handedly constructed a new branch of mathematical physics. (awesomelibrary.org)
- In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics. (wikipedia.org)
- who assumes the physics of the analytic properties of the S-matrix, containing physical ideas and test results without using the proper mathematical methods, and Hwa and Teplitz, whose works are more mathematically inclined with applications of algebraic topology and homology theory. (elsevier.com)
- However, a later stage in the argument depends on another premise that neither the fundamentalists nor their critics have recognized: an assumption taken from classical non-quantum "common sense" physics. (stallman.org)
- Hoava's theory has been generating excitement since he proposed it in January, and physicists met to discuss it at a meeting in November at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. (scientificamerican.com)
- Amsterdam, January 16, 2014 - A review and update of a controversial 20-year-old theory of consciousness published in Physics of Life Reviews claims that consciousness derives from deeper level, finer scale activities inside brain neurons. (eurekalert.org)
- This volume presents a summary of density functional theory and its applications in chemistry from atomic physics to molecular dynamics. (worldcat.org)
- In quantum physics, "why" is a bit of a dirty word. (geek.com)
- Quantum physics is great at describing such subatomic impossibilities and can even make useful predictions about how we could exploit them practically, but it says nothing about a principle that could actually explain them. (geek.com)
- Now, two Australian physicists say that interactions between these hypothetical worlds could explain quantum physics in much the same way. (geek.com)
- Interestingly, these researchers claim that their math can describe both classical and quantum physics with different assumptions for the nature of reality. (geek.com)
- The main research interest of our group is in fundamental aspects of quantum physics. (bristol.ac.uk)
- Applications of this principle to various problems in quantum physics are considered (hidden variable problem, Wigner type theorems, decoherence functional, etc. (indigo.ca)
- On the theoretical physics side, they are instrumental in recovering technical assumptions of the axiomatics of quantum theories only by considering algebraic properties of finitely additive measures (states) on quantum propositions. (indigo.ca)
- 1. Introduction to Quantum Physics. (ebooks.com)
- But behind this revolution in technology stands an even greater revolution in general science: the field of quantum physics . (allaboutcircuits.com)
- Quantum physics is an incredibly complicated realm of science. (allaboutcircuits.com)
- Without a basic understanding of quantum physics, or at least an understanding of the scientific discoveries that led to its formulation, though, it is impossible to understand how and why semiconductor electronic devices function. (allaboutcircuits.com)
- Further attempts at defining atomic structure were undertaken, and these efforts helped pave the way for the bizarre discoveries of quantum physics. (allaboutcircuits.com)
- Nevertheless, despite the revolution of quantum physics and its contribution to our understanding of atomic structure, Rutherford's solar-system picture of the atom embedded itself in the popular consciousness to such a degree that it persists in some areas of study even when inappropriate. (allaboutcircuits.com)
- Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. (techtarget.com)
- Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory in 1918, but developments by various scientists over a thirty-year period all contributed to the modern understanding of quantum theory. (techtarget.com)
- The arXiv version, and the Physics Reports version to appear, use the spacetime metric signature (+1,-1,-1,-1), as is found for example in the field theory textbooks by Ramond , and by Peskin and Schroeder . (niu.edu)
- A reference to the book "Quantum Physics" by Glimm and Jaffe might be helpful. (scholarpedia.org)
- While fundamental physics is at some level well described by quantum field theory , a typical Lagrangian used to define such a QFT can reasonably be expected to define only degrees of freedom and interactions that are relevant up to some given energy scale. (ncatlab.org)
- books.google.de - The book is an introduction to quantum field theory and renormalization group.It shows that these frameworks are essential for the understanding of phenomena belonging to many different areas of physics, which range from phase transitions in macroscopic systems to the theory of fundamental interactions. (google.de)
- Although there are several good textbooks on QFT, this is the first toemphasize the common aspects of particle physics and the theory of critical phenomena in a unified framework. (google.de)
- In chapters 13-21, renormalization properties of theories with symmetries are studied and specific applications to particle physics are emphasized. (google.de)
- Progress toward quantum simulation of quantum field theory will require the collaborative efforts of quantumists and field theorists, and though the physics payoff may still be far away, it's worthwhile to get started now. (cornell.edu)
- Today's research can hasten the arrival of a new era in which quantum simulation fuels rapid progress in fundamental physics. (cornell.edu)
- Preskill is the Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at the California Institute of Technology, and director of the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech. (cornell.edu)
- Scientists have discovered a new mechanism involved in the creation of paired light particles, which could have significant impact on the study of quantum physics. (uea.ac.uk)
- The ground-breaking research could have significant implications for quantum physics, the theoretical basis of modern physics. (uea.ac.uk)
- The entanglement of the quantum states in each pair has important applications in quantum computing - theoretical computation systems that could potentially process big data problems at incredible speeds - as well as other areas of quantum physics. (uea.ac.uk)
- I often hear the terms quantum physics and quantum theory used by people pushing pseudoscience. (skeptoid.com)
- It is so tiring to hear peddlers of supernatural nonsense supporting their claims by citing quantum physics. (skeptoid.com)
- Quantum theory is the study of matter and physics at a very small, subatomic scale. (skeptoid.com)
- In the quantum world, these physics no longer apply, in part because that world is driven by different fundamental forces, and we have weird things like particle-wave duality and singularities and spin and entanglement, for which there are no analogs in classical physics. (skeptoid.com)
- When Rhonda Byrne wrote The Secret and claimed that quantum physics explains how you can wish for things and they'll magically appear, she didn't know anything more about quantum physics than the average person on the street. (skeptoid.com)
- Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. (wiley.com)
- From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. (wiley.com)
- Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. (wiley.com)
- How is it possible that a fundamental physical theory cannot be described using the ordinary language of Physics? (mdpi.com)
- It produces the observable numbers which are checked to great precision in experiments starting from the early development of quantum electrodynamics , fully established with the success of quantum chromodynamics and recently culminating in the Higgs field physics seen at the LHC experiment, confirming the standard model of particle physics . (ncatlab.org)
- Quantum Field Theory is now well recognized as a powerful tool not only in Particle Physics but also in Nuclear Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Solid State Physics and even in Mathematics. (e-booksdirectory.com)
- In this book some current applications of Quantum Field Theory to those areas of modern physics and mathematics are collected, in order to offer a deeper understanding of known facts and unsolved problems. (e-booksdirectory.com)
- A controversial theory that the way we smell involves a quantum physics effect has received a boost, following experiments with human subjects. (quinessence.com)
- Tantalisingly, the idea hints at quantum effects occurring in biological systems - an idea that is itself driving a new field of science, as the BBC feature article Are birds hijacking quantum physics? (quinessence.com)
- This book deals with quantum field theory, the language of modern elementary particles physics. (whsmith.co.uk)
- How could anyone seriously try to claim that the predictivity situation of the SM quantum field theory (our most successful fundamental theory of physics, which makes a wealth of detailed, accurate, tested predictions) and string theory unification (a theory that predicts nothing) was the same? (columbia.edu)
- CARLO ROVELLI is a theoretical physicist, working on quantum gravity and on foundations of spacetime physics. (edge.org)
- Walter Heitler (1904-81) was a noted Professor of Physics at the University of Zurich who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum theory. (google.co.in)
- Applicants must have a PhD in Physics, Computer Science or Mathematics and a proven record of research in the areas of or quantum computations or quantum information science. (quantiki.org)
- Recent advancements in quantum physics have opened up new doors, where products called quantum random number generators that produce acclaimed true randomness have emerged. (diva-portal.org)
- The basic problem of much of condensed matter and high energy physics, as well as quantum chemistry, is to find the ground state properties of some Hamiltonian. (ucsb.edu)
- Tales of the Quantum' is a discussion of the fundamental principles of quantum physics for the non-scientific reader. (indigo.ca)
- The theoretical foundation is based on useful ideas from theories in cognitive science, education, and physics education. (compadre.org)
- Despite its enormous empirical success, the formalism of quantum theory still raises fundamental questions: why is nature described in terms of complex Hilbert spaces, and what modifications of it could we reasonably expect to find in some regimes of physics? (arxiv.org)
- These Quantum Physics pages (on either side) show how this new understanding of physical reality (that all light and matter interactions are wave interactions in Space) explains and solves the central problems of Quantum Theory. (spaceandmotion.com)
- Most importantly, this Dynamic Unity of Reality provides simple solutions to all the 'strangeness' of quantum physics that has resulted from this discrete / disconnected 'particle' conception of matter. (spaceandmotion.com)

###### Perturbation theory7

- Our group's research is focused on understanding unique properties and behavior of materials and interfaces, using first principles quantum mechanical calculations based mostly on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. (weizmann.ac.il)
- 8.1), perturbation theory (def. (physicsforums.com)
- These interactions are conveniently visualized by Feynman diagrams, which are a formal tool of relativistically covariant perturbation theory, serving to evaluate particle processes. (wikipedia.org)
- p. 16: I think it is worth mentioning that the strong coupling expansion has a finite radius of convergence, whereas perturbation theory is expected to be divergent and at best asymptotic. (scholarpedia.org)
- It is in principle possible that there is some more fundamental theory with plenty of excitations at high energies that is however degreewise finite in perturbation theory , whose effective description at low energy is given by the non-renormalizable Einstein-Hilbert action . (ncatlab.org)
- We discuss the rigorous formulation of effective perturbative QFT in terms of causal perturbation theory / perturbative AQFT , due to ( Brunetti-Dütsch-Fredenhagen 09, section 5.2 , Dütsch 10 ), reviewed in Dütsch 18, section 3.8 ). (ncatlab.org)
- Perturbation theory, one-loop effects for quantum electrodynamics, and renormalization properties are also covered. (whsmith.co.uk)

###### Physicists9

- Physicists are now using the method to analyze images - so-called snapshots - of quantum many-body systems and find out which theory describes the observed phenomena best. (eurekalert.org)
- They take snapshots of the quantum system, which exists simultaneously in different configurations - physicists speak of a superposition. (eurekalert.org)
- Because of the application of diffusive motion to quantum theory, it will interest physicists as well as mathematicians. (google.com)
- Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have devised a potentially groundbreaking theory demonstrating how to control the spin of particles without using superconducting magnets - a development that could advance the field of spintronics and bring scientists a step closer to quantum computing. (osnews.com)
- In the last few years, physicists have learned that the different string theories discovered and studied in different ways are limiting cases of a single, more powerful theory, known as M theory. (awesomelibrary.org)
- The book is aimed at mathematical physicists, theoretical physicists, applied mathematicians, and experimental physicists working in such areas as decoherence, quantum information, and quantum optics. (springer.com)
- Featuring many worked examples, the book is aimed at mathematical physicists, quantum field theorists, and probabilists, including graduate and advanced undergraduate students. (cambridge.org)
- There is no fundamental disagreement among physicists on how to use the theory for these practical purposes. (ebooks.com)
- Physicists have been proposing strange theories for decades as unification becomes more and more frustrating. (fluther.com)

###### Gravity15

- This has led to attempts at alternative formulations to reconcile Field Theory and GR. In contrast to the other three forces of nature (electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear), which have extensive and impressive experimental confirmation , no alternative formulations of quantum gravity have experimental confirmation. (conservapedia.com)
- Field theory can model the first three forces with a high degree of precision and success, but fails for gravity , for reasons described below. (conservapedia.com)
- No one disputes the need for a quantum theory of gravity, as general relativity is woefully insufficient for describing gravitational fields at extremely small distances. (scienceblogs.com)
- In particular, four options, including loop quantum gravity, asymptotically safe gravity, causal dynamical triangulations and emergent gravity are all worth considering as serious options. (scienceblogs.com)
- Ask Ethan #91: Does Quantum Gravity Need String Theory? (scienceblogs.com)
- It seems that unzipping the fabric of spacetime and harking back to 19th-century notions of time could lead to a theory of quantum gravity. (scientificamerican.com)
- More specifically, the problem is the way that time is tied up with space in Einstein's theory of gravity: general relativity. (scientificamerican.com)
- The solution, Hoava says, is to snip threads that bind time to space at very high energies, such as those found in the early universe where quantum gravity rules. (scientificamerican.com)
- In fact, he has co-opted the mathematics of exotic phase transitions to build his theory of gravity. (scientificamerican.com)
- So far it seems to be working: the infinities that plague other theories of quantum gravity have been tamed, and the theory spits out a well-behaved graviton. (scientificamerican.com)
- It also seems to match with computer simulations of quantum gravity. (scientificamerican.com)
- General relativity scored a knockout blow when Einstein predicted the motion of Mercury with greater accuracy than Newton's theory of gravity could. (scientificamerican.com)
- The present volume sets the language, the notation and provides additional background for reading Quantum Field Theory II - Introduction to Quantum Gravity, Supersymmetry and String Theory, by the same author. (ebooks.com)
- Quantum fluctuations of matter fields are supposed to have provided the initial seeds of all the structure of the current universe, and quantum gravity is assumed to have been essential in the earliest stages. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- How Should We Interpret the Quantum Hamiltonian Constraints of Canonical Gravity? (mdpi.com)

###### Mathematical12

- The class BQP of languages that are efficiently decidable (with small error-probability) on a quantum Turing machine satisfies BPP ⊆ BQP ⊆ P ♯P. Therefore, there is no possibility of giving a mathematical proof that quantum Turing machines are more powerful than classical probabilistic Turing machines (in the unrelativized setting) unless there is a major breakthrough in complexity theory. (psu.edu)
- It is fitting that the final chapter provides a mathematical perspective on musical theory, one that reveals an unexpected connection with some of the book's main themes. (google.com)
- The following is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory . (physicsforums.com)
- He and many of his colleagues proved otherwise, and much of their theories are used in mathematical equations for the solving of complex problems. (hubpages.com)
- The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
- The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. (ebooks.com)
- Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta . (techtarget.com)
- While many of the mathematical intricacies of this approach have found solutions over the decades, most of these rely on global properties of Minkowski spacetime such as translation invariance and existence of an invariant vacuum quantum state , hence on a consistent concept of particles . (ncatlab.org)
- It also explains how thinking about diffusion can lead to a radical re-examination of the structure of mathematical analysis.Faris, William G. is the author of 'Diffusion, Quantum Theory, and Radically Elementary Mathematics ', published 2006 under ISBN 9780691125459 and ISBN 0691125457. (valorebooks.com)
- QFT is successful because it includes a specific class of theories that have a lot of symmetry, and a very tight mathematical structure. (columbia.edu)
- The theory of resurgence is a mathematical tool which allows us to effectively study this connection and its consequences. (cern.ch)
- Finally, a major group of papers is concerned with the purely mathematical framework that underlies the physically-motivated research on quantum integrable models, including elliptic deformations of groups, representation theory of non-compact quantum groups, and quantization of moduli spaces. (bookdepository.com)

###### Topological quantu1

- The book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors. (e-booksdirectory.com)

###### Entanglement4

- In particular, a major focus of our research has been quantum entanglement and non-locality. (bristol.ac.uk)
- f) We hypothesize that even in the absence of decoherence macroscopic entanglement can very rarely be observed, and provide a precise conjecture to that effect .We also discuss the relation of the present approach to quantum logic, realism and truth, and the measurement problem. (pitt.edu)
- Quantum entanglement - when particles are linked so closely that what affects one directly affects the other - is widely used in labs in numerous processes from quantum cryptography to quantum teleportation. (uea.ac.uk)
- Ideas such as entanglement entropy from quantum information theory and quantum computing enable us to understand the difficulty of various problems. (ucsb.edu)

###### Fundamental10

- Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. (awesomelibrary.org)
- It is now believed, primarily due to the continued failures of quantization of general relativity, to be only a very good low-energy approximation, i.e. an effective field theory, to some more fundamental theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to the fundamental character of the effects we study, we are also interested in and able to contribute to various other fields, including quantum optics, thermodynamics, and quantum biology. (bristol.ac.uk)
- Further, it presents "deep inelastic" experiments as a fundamental application of quantum chromodynamics. (ebooks.com)
- Planck assumed there was a theory yet to emerge from the discovery of quanta, but, in fact, their very existence implied a completely new and fundamental understanding of the laws of nature. (techtarget.com)
- In this perspective one speaks of the theory as being the effective quantum field theory of some - possibly known but possibly unspecified - more fundamental theory. (ncatlab.org)
- In the perspective of effective field theory notably non-renormalizable interaction Lagrangians can still make perfect sense as effective theories and give rise to well defined predictions: they can be effective approximations to renormalizable more fundamental theories. (ncatlab.org)
- Now, the identification of a new delocalized mechanism shows that each photon pair can be emitted from spatially separated points, introducing a new positional uncertainty of a fundamental quantum origin. (uea.ac.uk)
- Explaining these phenomena required the fundamental insight that on the scale of atoms energy is quantised , i.e. it can only be transferred in discrete packets, called quanta (the Planck Hypothesis). (uwaterloo.ca)
- Fundamental to this project is the investigation of olfaction as a quantum effect, therefore it will comprise of an analysis of olfaction as a closed and an open quantum system. (surrey.ac.uk)

###### Phenomena6

- Quantum theory is often seen as the root cause of unrelated, mysterious phenomena. (slashdot.org)
- A more precise and far-seeing way to predict how quantum phenomena will proceed could impact everything from industrial processes to quantum cryptography. (geek.com)
- This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory. (ebooks.com)
- The development of quantum technologies presents both a chance to exploit to exotic quantum phenomena and also new questions for the foundations of quantum theory. (gla.ac.uk)
- The interaction between light and matter provides the most controllable arena for exploring and, indeed, exploiting quantum phenomena. (gla.ac.uk)
- Combined with the AdS/CFT computations that can reproduce the anomalous linear resistivity and other non-standard transport phenomena found in quantum criticical electron systems, these results give reason to believe that AdS/CFT string theories are good phenomenological models for quantum-critical Fermi systems. (ifae.es)

###### Mechanical16

- We establish how these familiar primitives can be implemented and introduce some new, purely quantum mechanical primitives, such as changing the computational basis and carrying out an arbitrary unitary transformation of polynomially bounded dimension. (psu.edu)
- Each snapshot of the quantum system gives one specific configuration according to its quantum mechanical probability. (eurekalert.org)
- Quantum simulation methods based on electronic-structure theory are deemed unfit to cope with atomic heat transport within the Green-Kubo formalism, because quantum-mechanical energy densities and currents are inherently ill-defined at the atomic scale. (nature.com)
- Statistical-mechanical theory of irreversible processes. (nature.com)
- In quantum field theory, quantum mechanical interactions among particles are described by interaction terms among the corresponding underlying quantum fields. (wikipedia.org)
- Dirac supplied a systematic procedure for transferring the characteristic quantum phenomenon of discreteness of physical quantities from the quantum-mechanical treatment of particles to a corresponding treatment of fields. (wikipedia.org)
- The methods of QFT could be applied to derive equations resulting from the quantum-mechanical (field-like) treatment of particles, e.g. the Dirac equation, the Klein-Gordon equation and the Maxwell equations. (wikipedia.org)
- The shortest summary of quantum mechanical reality I know of would be this: The dimensionality of the wave packet is not always negligible, although it often is. (principiadiscordia.com)
- 4.3.1 Quantum mechanical projection postulate. (wiley.com)
- 6.2 Quantum mechanical computers. (wiley.com)
- 7.2.3 Quantum mechanical model. (wiley.com)
- One theory suggests that odorants are characterized by their quantum mechanical vibrations (phonons) . (surrey.ac.uk)
- Roman Konoplya, a research assistant from Moscow's RUDN Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, used quantum mechanical and geometrical assumptions and showed that the shape and mass of a wormhole can be calculated based on the red shift value and the range of gravitational waves in high frequencies. (dailygalaxy.com)
- Then, using quantum mechanical approximation, he established an equation to calculate a geometrical shape for a particular case-a wormhole. (dailygalaxy.com)
- In general terms, a quantum mechanical approach leads to many solutions for the geometry of a wormhole. (dailygalaxy.com)
- In this paper we present an exact quantum mechanical treatment. (caltech.edu)

###### Field theories4

- We have introduced the concept of Lagrangian field theories ##(E,\mathbf{L})## in terms of a field bundle ##E## equipped with a Lagrangian density ##\mathbf{L}## on its jet bundle (def. (physicsforums.com)
- Robert Dijkgraaf, on Verlinde's work There are many attempts out there to reconcile the quantum field theories that describe the electromagnetic and nuclear forces with general relativity, which describes the gravitational force. (scienceblogs.com)
- Integrable quantum field theories and integrable lattice models have been studied for several decades, but during the last few years new ideas have emerged that have considerably changed the topic. (bookdepository.com)
- The second group deals with the description of integrable structures in two-dimensional quantum field theories, especially boundary problems, thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and form factor problems. (bookdepository.com)

###### Probabilistic6

- We show the existence of a problem, relative to an oracle, that can be solved in polynomial time on a quantum Turing machine, but requires superpolynomial time on a bounded-error probabilistic Turing machine, and thus not in the class BPP. (psu.edu)
- This book offers an excellent account of the probabilistic aspects of quantum theory, focused on the interplay between quantum field theory and quantum stochastic calculus. (cambridge.org)
- Quantum theory is a probabilistic calculus that enables the calculation of the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a measurement performed on a physical system. (mdpi.com)
- But what is the relationship between this probabilistic calculus and probability theory itself? (mdpi.com)
- We employ two postulates that any probabilistic theory with reasonable thermodynamic behavior should arguably satisfy. (arxiv.org)
- In the framework of generalized probabilistic theories, we show that these postulates already imply important aspects of quantum theory, like self-duality and analogues of projective measurements, subspaces and eigenvalues. (arxiv.org)

###### Cosmology2

- Not only general relativity but also quantum theory plays important roles in current cosmology. (perimeterinstitute.ca)
- None of this generalizes robustly to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes of relevance in cosmology , black hole radiation or the instanton vacuum of QCD . (ncatlab.org)

###### Describe9

- The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. (springer.com)
- In contrast, Field Theory can describe states containing arbitrary numbers of particles of different energies, masses, charges and types. (conservapedia.com)
- This quantum behavior is counterintuitive, even hard to describe without equations, but--strange as it may seem--this is how everything in the world works. (stallman.org)
- If the principles of quantum information processing better describe the way humans make decisions, what does that imply about the way the brain works? (technologyreview.com)
- While the Many Worlds are supposed to diverge and never interact with one another, these two researchers claim that their formulae describe ways that interacting parallel worlds could explain some of the truly incomprehensible behavior of quantum particles. (geek.com)
- In its insistence on C*-algebras its ambition is to describe the full non-perturbative quantum field theory. (ncatlab.org)
- The theory you describe is Dijkgraaf-Witten theory with target space a discrete set with $r$ elements. (mathoverflow.net)
- We shall demonstrate that AdS/CFT is holographically able to describe the controlled emergence of regular and irregular Fermi liquids from a strongly coupled quantum critical state. (ifae.es)
- To circumvent this, we present an ansatz to describe an arbitrary quantum process on a multi-qubit system that only requires characterization of two-qubit processes, such that the number of measurements scales only quadratically with the number of qubits. (aps.org)

###### Particles9

- Field theory describes the interactions between subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons, quarks and photons. (conservapedia.com)
- The differences between basic QM and Field Theory are these: in QM, the interactions between more than two particles are increasingly difficult to model, and the creation and destruction of particles cannot be modeled at all. (conservapedia.com)
- Field Theory also provides an elegant framework for describing the interactions between particles, and the creation of new particles and destruction of old ones-- for example, the emission and absorption of photons by electrons, and vice versa . (conservapedia.com)
- In a similar manner, in string theory, the elementary particles we observe in particle accelerators could be thought of as the 'musical notes' or excitation modes of elementary strings. (awesomelibrary.org)
- QFT treats particles as excited states of the underlying field, so these are called field quanta. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum or the actuality of measuring small particles was first considered in the 1600's, and there have been multitudes of conjectured thought since then. (hubpages.com)
- Quantum is simply the measuring of particles and sub particles that make up the substance of our universe. (hubpages.com)
- It provides periodic solutions of classical equations, semi-classical methods, and theories of systems composed of very intense electromagnetic fields and particles. (platekompaniet.no)
- From a quantum perspective, the vacuum of space continually produces pairs of virtual particles (matter and antimatter) that pop into existence and just as quickly annihilate away. (3quarksdaily.com)

###### Electrodynamics1

- Here Dirac coined the name "quantum electrodynamics" (QED) for the part of QFT that was developed first. (wikipedia.org)

###### Relativistic5

- Since photons have rest mass zero, and correspondingly travel in the vacuum at the speed c, a non-relativistic theory such as ordinary QM cannot give even an approximate description. (wikipedia.org)
- His research has focused on scattering theory, relativistic S-matrix theory, and infinite-dimensional analysis applied to quantum field theory. (cambridge.org)
- The low energy expansion of any unitary, relativistic, crossing symmetric S-matrix can be described by an effective quantum field theory. (ncatlab.org)
- and a chaper on finite temperature relativistic quantum field theory. (google.de)
- Liboff, Richard L. is the author of 'Kinetic Theory: Classical, Quantum and Relativistic Description', published 1991 under ISBN 9780135160893 and ISBN 0135160898. (valorebooks.com)

###### Chromodynamics2

- Forthcoming exascale digital computers will further advance our knowledge of quantum chromodynamics, but formidable challenges will remain. (cornell.edu)
- Theory of Strong Interaction -- Quantum Chromodynamics. (e-booksdirectory.com)

###### Behavior2

- Instead, another well-known scientific theory -- Albert Einstein's famous Theory of Relativity -- helps govern the behavior of the last 21 elements of the Periodic Table. (eurekalert.org)
- 1.1.3 Emergence of quantum behavior. (wiley.com)

###### Introduction to quantum inform1

- This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. (springer.com)

###### Mathematics4

- In 1905 Albert Einstein gave a ground-breaking physical interpretation to Planck's mathematics when he proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is granular, consisting of quanta , each with an energy h f . (britannica.com)
- Diffusion, Quantum Theory, and Radically Elementary Mathematics. (google.com)
- perhaps too simple for the mathematics of other theory to compute on their level. (hubpages.com)
- I'm not sure about any universal properties, but this theory is definitely related to a lot of interesting mathematics. (mathoverflow.net)

###### Advances4

- Advances in quantum chemistry. (worldcat.org)
- I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/437245285 Title: Advances in quantum chemistry. (worldcat.org)
- Add tags for "Advances in quantum chemistry. (worldcat.org)
- In this paper, we present some recent advances in our quantum approach to concepts. (frontiersin.org)

###### Probability theory13

- Until now, psychologists have turned to classical probability theory to study the concept of probability judgement error. (technologyreview.com)
- They say that quantum probability theory leads to more realistic predictions about the type of errors humans make. (technologyreview.com)
- Quantum probability theory is a general and coherent theory based on a set of (von Neumann) axioms which relax some of the constraints underlying classic (Kolmogorov) probability theory," say the team. (technologyreview.com)
- These results have no direct analogy in the standard measure and probability theory. (indigo.ca)
- Is quantum theory compatible with probability theory? (mdpi.com)
- If so, does it extend or generalize probability theory? (mdpi.com)
- In this paper, we answer these questions, and precisely determine the relationship between quantum theory and probability theory, by explicitly deriving both theories from first principles. (mdpi.com)
- We prove, for example, that quantum theory is compatible with probability theory by explicitly deriving quantum theory on the assumption that probability theory is generally valid. (mdpi.com)
- Knuth, K.H. Quantum Theory and Probability Theory: Their Relationship and Origin in Symmetry. (mdpi.com)
- von Neumann established quantum probability theory as part of non-classical (non-commutative)measure theory based on von Neumann algebras (1935-1940). (lse.ac.uk)
- Since the quantum probability theory based on general von Neumann algebras contains as a special case the classical probability theory (Sect. (lse.ac.uk)
- 36.2), there is a very tight conceptual-structural similarity between classical and quantum probability theory. (lse.ac.uk)
- A possible way of making room for a frequency interpretation of quantum probability theory is to accept the so-called Kolmogorovian Censorship Hypothesis, which can be shown to hold for quantum probability theories based on the theory of von Neumann algebras (Sect. (lse.ac.uk)

###### Quantization3

- The final chapters introduce readers who are familiar with the theory of manifolds to more advanced topics, including geometric quantization. (springer.com)
- This is the structure which then further below leads over to the quantization ( deformation quantization ) of the prequantum field theory to a genuine perturbative quantum field theory . (physicsforums.com)
- Employing the theory of the quantum harmonic oscillator, Dirac gave a theoretical description of how photons appear in the quantization of the electromagnetic radiation field. (wikipedia.org)

###### Perturbative2

- Locally covariant perturbative quantum field theory provides a synthesis of these two opposites. (ncatlab.org)
- In order to study the weakly coupled regime of some given quantum theory we often make use of perturbative expansions of the physical quantities of interest. (cern.ch)

###### Abstract2

- Theory: Abstract thought, conjecture, plausible but not proven. (hubpages.com)
- The waves in quantum theory are real waves (not abstract 'probability waves') but lack of knowledge of the interconnected whole (infinite Space) causes statistical behaviour of matter (as Einstein believed). (spaceandmotion.com)

###### Electromagnetic4

- In the late 1890s, calculations of the spectrum of blackbody radiation based on classical electromagnetic theory and thermodynamics could not duplicate the results of careful measurements. (britannica.com)
- For instance, the electromagnetic force can be described quantum-mechanically by the motion of photons. (scientificamerican.com)
- theory of interactions between molecules and electromagnetic fields Author: Hendrik F Hameka Publisher: Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. (worldcat.org)
- The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems, as well as offering applications using methods for calculating the symmetry properties and the energetic values of systems and the calculation of properties of high harmonics in interactions between very intense electromagnetic fields and electrons. (platekompaniet.no)

###### General relativity and quantum field1

- This book will be accessible to students and researchers who have had introductory courses in general relativity and quantum field theory, and will be of interest to scientists in general relativity and related fields. (uchicago.edu)

###### Equations1

###### Thermodynamics1

- Here we address these questions by studying how compatibility with thermodynamics constrains the structure of quantum theory. (arxiv.org)

###### Relevance1

- Real quantum theory has no conceivable relevance to paranormal claims like The Secret or What the Bleep Do We Know, thus its frequent employ is almost always without any scientific meaning. (skeptoid.com)

###### Algorithms5

- I will report on recent results about quantum algorithms for solving computational problems in number theory. (msdn.com)
- Applications are invited for a postdoctoral research position with a possibility for extension, in the field of theory of quantum computations and quantum algorithms. (quantiki.org)
- The successful applicant will work in the research group led by Prof Jacob Biamonte in the area of quantum computations and quantum networks, with a focus on quantum enhanced algorithms and error mitigation on experimental devices. (quantiki.org)
- 1. Develop, optimize, and benchmark variational quantum algorithms (e.g. (quantiki.org)
- 1.3.2 Quantum algorithms. (wiley.com)

###### Algebraic3

- He begins with a treatment of the ordinary one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator, progresses through the construction of quantum field theory in flat spacetime to possible constructions of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, and, ultimately, to an algebraic formulation of the theory. (uchicago.edu)
- Another part of the monograph deals with a fascinating interplay of algebraic properties of the projection lattice with the continuity of measures (the analysis of Jauch-Piron states, independence conditions in quantum field theory, etc. (indigo.ca)
- Specifically: This takes care of the " algebraic adiabatic limit ", which defines the quantum observables . (ncatlab.org)

###### Cryptography3

- Shor's quantum algorithm for factoring large integers and solving the discrete logarithm problem has been the motivation for an entire new area of research in cryptology: namely 'post-quantum' cryptography. (msdn.com)
- We will see how this impacts the security of some ring-based proposals for quantum resistant cryptography. (msdn.com)
- Such ideas are important, in particular, in quantum communications and we have an active interest in the study of quantum cryptography [4- (gla.ac.uk)

###### Finite3

- Whenever a quantum state exists in some indeterminate state, as when an electron could be anywhere within a certain area around an atom for instance, its collapse to a finite reality creates another world. (geek.com)
- In collaboration with David Jao and Anirudh Sankar, I also described a quantum algorithm which finds an isogeny between two given supersingular curves over a finite field, a hard problem on which some post-quantum cryptosystem rely. (msdn.com)
- Such a restriction is motivated by observations in one heavily doped quantum critical system, Ce(Ru 0.24 Fe 0.76 ) 2 Ge 2 , in which finite-size effects of magnetic clusters become inportant as is discussed in Section 3. (scirp.org)

###### Photons1

###### Approximation1

- One may object that these assumptions are unrealistic 3 , but, crucially, the laws of quantum theory do not preclude that they be satisfied to arbitrarily good approximation 4 . (nature.com)

###### String Theory15

- What are quantum gravity's alternatives to string theory? (scienceblogs.com)
- I just think too many nice things have happened in string theory for it to be all wrong. (scienceblogs.com)
- Image credit: NASA/Goddard/Wade Sisler, of Brian Greene presenting on String Theory. (scienceblogs.com)
- But string theory isn't the only game in town. (scienceblogs.com)
- Includes the basics for understanding string theory. (awesomelibrary.org)
- Provides a history of how string theory has evolved. (awesomelibrary.org)
- In this excerpt from his book The Elegant Universe, Brian Greene explains why string theory might hold the key to unifying the four forces of nature. (awesomelibrary.org)
- Super-string theory is one possible answer, along with the perhaps more fantastical Many Worlds hypothesis. (geek.com)
- For instance, string theory is meant to be such a theory. (ncatlab.org)
- Isn't string theory just as predictive as quantum field theory? (columbia.edu)
- This has become probably the most common argument made by string theorists when string theory is criticized for being non-predictive. (columbia.edu)
- Yes, it's true that you could instead look at extremely complicated examples of QFTs, making them so complicated that you would lose predictivity and start to get something more like string theory. (columbia.edu)
- That's the problem with string theory unification schemes: you have to put more into them than you get out, the hall-mark of a failed idea. (columbia.edu)
- Consider string theory, which introduced the concept of vibration. (strangehorizons.com)
- We will argue that theoretical questions posed by experiments on quantum critical states of electron systems might be best answerable with string theory through the anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence. (ifae.es)

###### Particle6

- Albert Einstein's theory of light Learn about Albert Einstein's 1905 paper on why light is a particle. (britannica.com)
- In his presentation, Wald disentangles essential features of the theory from inessential ones (such as a particle interpretation) and clarifies relationships between various approaches to the formulation of the theory. (uchicago.edu)
- It also introduces a 'field calculus' which acts as a succinct alternative to standard Feynman diagrams and formulates quantum field theory (cumulant moments, Dyson-Schwinger equation, tree expansions, 1-particle irreducibility) in this language. (cambridge.org)
- Particular emphasis is placed on the concept of a quantum field and its particle content to provide an appropriate description of physical processes at high energies, where relativity becomes indispensable. (ebooks.com)
- Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be (for example, a wave or a particle), but that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured. (techtarget.com)
- One place fractal theory can be used effectively is light theory, when we need to treat light as both a particle and a wave simultaneously. (fluther.com)

###### Principle3

- Here, we propose a Gedankenexperiment to investigate the question whether quantum theory can, in principle, have universal validity. (nature.com)
- The elegant functional differential approach put forward by Schwinger, referred to as the quantum dynamical (action) principle, and its underlying theory are used systematically in order to generate the so-called vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude of both abelian and non-abelian gauge theories, in addition to Feynman's well-known functional integral approach, referred to as the path-integral approach. (ebooks.com)
- This theory became known as the uncertainty principle , which prompted Albert Einstein's famous comment, 'God does not play dice. (techtarget.com)

###### Structures2

- Web Reference Library However, because structures depend greatly not presented to a unique download quantum theory of solids or hydration, presentation changes themselves have associated. (prigsbee.com)
- The first group of papers published here is concerned with integrable structures of quantum lattice models related to quantum group symmetries. (bookdepository.com)

###### Feynman2

- Analytic Properties of Feynman Diagrams in Quantum Field Theory deals with quantum field theory, particularly in the study of the analytic properties of Feynman graphs. (elsevier.com)
- This is the home page for the review paper "Two-component spinor techniques and Feynman rules for quantum field theory and supersymmetry", by Herbi K. Dreiner , Howard E. Haber , and Stephen P. Martin . (niu.edu)

###### Methods4

- In fact most topics in the early development of quantum theory (the so-called old quantum theory, 1900-25) were related to the interaction of radiation and matter and thus should be treated by quantum field theoretical methods. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods should be the given choice for any introductory course in QM, not because it is easy or simple but just because there are no better books! (ebooks.com)
- The book can be roughly dividedinto four parts: chapters 1-12 deal with general field theory, functional integrals, and functional methods. (google.de)
- 3. Integrate quantum-computing methods with tensor network theory and/or machine learning. (quantiki.org)

###### Computation5

- In this paper we study quantum computation from a complexity theoretic viewpoint. (psu.edu)
- This justifies the claim that the quantum Turing machine model should be regarded as a discrete model of computation and not an analog one. (psu.edu)
- Similarly, one may define a quantum complexity class using a quantum model of computation, such as a standard quantum computer or a quantum Turing machine. (wikipedia.org)
- Applicants are required to have a background in quantum information, quantum computation, quantum communication or relative fields. (quantiki.org)
- Prof. D. Suter is an experimentalist and well known for his NMR-work and currently working on quantum computation projects. (wiley.com)

###### Entropy1

###### Processes4

- Orch OR was harshly criticized from its inception, as the brain was considered too "warm, wet, and noisy" for seemingly delicate quantum processes. (eurekalert.org)
- This opens a potential Pandora's Box, but our theory accommodates both these views, suggesting consciousness derives from quantum vibrations in microtubules, protein polymers inside brain neurons, which both govern neuronal and synaptic function, and connect brain processes to self-organizing processes in the fine scale, 'proto-conscious' quantum structure of reality. (eurekalert.org)
- The broad picture emerging from the principles is that Quantum Theory is the only standard theory of information that is compatible with the purity and reversibility of physical processes. (mdpi.com)
- In part 1 of this talk we outline the PAPA approach to multi-qubit process tomography, and show through theoretical simulation how it can be used for excellent characterization of multi-qubit quantum processes. (aps.org)

###### Principles4

- What Busemeyer and co are saying is that the principles of quantum information processing, including the ideas of superposition and interference, lead to better models of the way humans make decisions. (technologyreview.com)
- 6: Basic Principles Of Quantum Measure Theory. (indigo.ca)
- Here we offer a contribution to the problem from the angle of Quantum Information, providing a short non-technical presentation of a recent derivation of Quantum Theory from information-theoretic principles. (mdpi.com)
- Because distorted of the pious download quantum differences using 5HT panel do Second enable also within the alleged or initial times and the Principles by which they are broadly observed has compared then by the caries over thin enforcement than by H2O)4 distribution benefits, the reason's parasite illustrates the activity between location and mutation. (prigsbee.com)

###### Explains1

- This book explains diffusive motion and its relation to both nonrelativistic quantum theory and quantum field theory. (google.com)

###### Photon2

- The term photon , which is now applied to the energy quantum of light, was later coined by the American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis . (britannica.com)
- For example, a quantum of light is a photon. (skeptoid.com)

###### Discrete3

- The word quantum refers to the smallest discrete unit possible. (skeptoid.com)
- Max Planck discovered around 1900 that energy is always transmitted and absorbed in discrete units, which are called quanta. (skeptoid.com)
- This is the Most Simple Science Theory of Physical Reality (despite many claims to the contrary, science does actually work, we just needed the correct foundation of continuous Space rather than discrete matter). (spaceandmotion.com)

###### Theorems2

- Gleason Type Theorems For Quantum Logics. (indigo.ca)
- It produces the structural theorems of quantum field theory, such as the PCT theorem and the spin-statistics theorem and it seamlessly generalizes to QFT on curved spacetimes . (ncatlab.org)

###### Development of quantum1

- Further development of quantum theory led to the realization that our physical intuition, developed in everyday life, fails significantly at the atomic and subatomic level. (uwaterloo.ca)

###### Classical13

- It studies the hardness of problems in relation to these complexity classes, and the relationship between quantum complexity classes and classical (i.e., non-quantum) complexity classes. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the main aims of quantum complexity theory is to find out where these classes lie with respect to classical complexity classes such as P, NP, PP, PSPACE and other complexity classes. (wikipedia.org)
- Its Quantum Query Complexity is O(N1/2) which is quadratically better than the best possible classical query complexity. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum model of reasoning beats its classical counterpart in explaining why humans make errors in judging probabilities. (technologyreview.com)
- According to classical theory, before the vote is cast, the voter is in a mixed state. (technologyreview.com)
- These form crucial resources in quantum information theory, and also correspond to one of the most profound differences between the classical and quantum world. (bristol.ac.uk)
- The theory, like its classical counterpart, consists of an algebra of events, and the probability measures defined on it. (pitt.edu)
- I highly recommend it as a timely addition to the classical literature on quantum probability. (cambridge.org)
- Quantum theory superceded the classical theory of Newton and Maxwell in the early 20th century. (uwaterloo.ca)
- 2.1.2 Quantum vs. classical information processing. (wiley.com)
- More recently investigations have indicated that the semi-classical approach of phonon-assisted tunneling in is not sufficient to model olfaction, but that including dissipation effects in an open quantum system may be the way towards finally reaching a quantitative result for how smell works . (surrey.ac.uk)
- In the second chapter I outline how classical information is represented in quantum systems and what this means for agents trying to extract information from these systems. (arxiv.org)
- But there is a major interpretational dissimilarity between classical and quantum probability: a straightforward frequency interpretation of non-classical probability is not possible (Sect. (lse.ac.uk)

###### Chemistry1

- But, Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt, the Gregory R. Choppin Professor of Chemistry at FSU, found that these rules are somewhat overridden by Einstein's Theory of Relativity when it comes to the heavier, lesser known elements of the Periodic Table. (eurekalert.org)

###### Spin1

- As a theorist, his topic research area is quantum spin chains. (wiley.com)

###### Microscopic2

- It thus seems likely that the theory is applicable beyond the, mostly microscopic, domain in which it has been tested experimentally. (nature.com)
- Direct experimental tests of quantum theory are mostly restricted to microscopic domains. (nature.com)

###### Predictive2

- After the training phase with theoretical data, the neural network had to apply what it had learned and assign snapshots from the quantum simulators to theory A or B. The network thus selected the theory which is more predictive. (eurekalert.org)
- The retrodictive form embodies a synthesis of conventional predictive quantum theory with Bayes' theorem and we have used this as the basis of a practical approach to image reconstruction [7, (gla.ac.uk)

###### Polynomial time2

- Thus, the complexity class BQP is defined to be the set of problems solvable by a quantum computer in polynomial time with bounded error. (wikipedia.org)
- In a recent work in collaboration with Fang Song, I presented a quantum polynomial time algorithm for solving the so-called 'Principal Ideal Problem' (among other things) in arbitrary fields. (msdn.com)

###### Dynamics2

- On the basis of these findings, we derive an expression for the adiabatic energy flux from density-functional theory, which allows heat transport to be simulated using ab initio equilibrium molecular dynamics. (nature.com)
- Part III: Quantum Dynamics and Information. (ebooks.com)

###### Properties of quantum1

- In addition to exploring how the strange properties of quantum theory can be harnessed for information processing, tools and concepts from this field have led to a much deeper understanding of quantum theory. (bristol.ac.uk)

###### Experimental2

- By starting from experimental facts he shows in a clear way which concepts are necessary for QM and what the theory actually implies on the real world. (ebooks.com)
- The applicant should expect interaction with experimental collaborators from Skoltech, MSU and leading theory research groups overseas. (quantiki.org)

###### Formulation4

- We give the first formal evidence that quantum Turing machines violate the modern (complexity theoretic) formulation of the Church-Turing thesis. (psu.edu)
- In this book, Robert Wald provides a coherent, pedagogical introduction to the formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime. (uchicago.edu)
- This led to formulation of "prototype theory," according to which concepts are organized around family resemblances, and consist of characteristic, rather than defining, features. (frontiersin.org)
- To put this into perspective, notice that formulation of quantum field theory has many aspects and perspectives. (ncatlab.org)

###### Concepts4

- As we uncover Lagrangian field theory further below, we discover ever more general concepts of " space " in differential geometry, such as smooth manifolds , diffeological spaces , infinitesimal neighbourhoods , supermanifolds , Lie algebroids and super Lie ∞-algebroids . (physicsforums.com)
- Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. (frontiersin.org)
- We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. (frontiersin.org)
- Theories of concepts struggle to capture the creative flexibility with which concepts are used in natural language, and combined into larger complexes with emergent meaning, as well as the context-dependent manner in which concepts are understood ( Geeraerts, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)