A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE used in folk medicine as a nervine.
A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE (sometimes classified as Papilionaceae). Members contain LECTINS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci. (1/2205)

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties.  (+info)

Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice. (2/2205)

One approach to understanding common human diseases is to determine the genetic defects responsible for similar diseases in animal models and place those defective genes in their corresponding biochemical pathways. Our laboratory is working with an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis called collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We are particularly interested in determining the location of disease-predisposing loci. To that end, we performed experiments to localize susceptibility loci for CIA in an F2 cross between the highly susceptible mouse strain DBA/1j and the highly resistant mouse strain SWR/j. Specifically, a quantitative trait locus analysis was performed to localize regions of the mouse genome responsible for susceptibility/severity to CIA. One susceptibility locus, Cia1 in the major histocompatibility locus, had been identified previously. Two additional loci were detected in our analysis that contribute to CIA severity (Cia2, Cia3) on chromosomes 2 and 6. A third locus was detected that contributes to the age of onset of the disease. This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Multipoint oligogenic analysis of age-at-onset data with applications to Alzheimer disease pedigrees. (3/2205)

It is usually difficult to localize genes that cause diseases with late ages at onset. These diseases frequently exhibit complex modes of inheritance, and only recent generations are available to be genotyped and phenotyped. In this situation, multipoint analysis using traditional exact linkage analysis methods, with many markers and full pedigree information, is a computationally intractable problem. Fortunately, Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling provides a tool to address this issue. By treating age at onset as a right-censored quantitative trait, we expand the methods used by Heath (1997) and illustrate them using an Alzheimer disease (AD) data set. This approach estimates the number, sizes, allele frequencies, and positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this simultaneous multipoint linkage and segregation analysis method, the QTLs are assumed to be diallelic and to interact additively. In the AD data set, we were able to localize correctly, quickly, and accurately two known genes, despite the existence of substantial genetic heterogeneity, thus demonstrating the great promise of these methods for the dissection of late-onset oligogenic diseases.  (+info)

Genetic and biochemical determinants of abnormal monovalent ion transport in primary hypertension. (4/2205)

Data obtained during the last two decades show that spontaneously hypertensive rats, an acceptable experimental model of primary human hypertension, possess increased activity of both ubiquitous and renal cell-specific isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter. Abnormalities of these ion transporters have been found in patients suffering from essential hypertension. Recent genetic studies demonstrate that genes encoding the beta- and gamma-subunits of ENaC, a renal cell-specific isoform of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, and alpha3-, alpha1-, and beta2-subunits of the Na+-K+ pump are localized within quantitative trait loci (QTL) for elevated blood pressure as well as for enhanced heart-to-body weight ratio, proteinuria, phosphate excretion, and stroke latency. On the basis of the homology of genome maps, several other genes encoding these transporters, as well as the Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, can be predicted in QTL related to the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, despite their location within QTL, analysis of cDNA structure did not reveal any mutation in the coding region of the above-listed transporters in primary hypertension, with the exception of G276L substitution in the alpha1-Na+-K+ pump from Dahl salt-sensitive rats and a higher occurrence of T594M mutation of beta-ENaC in the black population with essential hypertension. These results suggest that, in contrast to Mendelian forms of hypertension, the altered activity of monovalent ion transporters in primary hypertension is caused by abnormalities of systems involved in the regulation of their expression and/or function. Further analysis of QTL in F2 hybrids of normotensive and hypertensive rats and in affected sibling pairs will allow mapping of genes causing abnormalities of these regulatory pathways.  (+info)

A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (5/2205)

Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits.  (+info)

Linkage of type 2 diabetes mellitus and of age at onset to a genetic location on chromosome 10q in Mexican Americans. (6/2205)

Since little is known about chromosomal locations harboring type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes, we conducted a genomewide scan for such genes in a Mexican American population. We used data from 27 low-income extended Mexican American pedigrees consisting of 440 individuals for whom genotypic data are available for 379 markers. We used a variance-components technique to conduct multipoint linkage analyses for two phenotypes: type 2 diabetes (a discrete trait) and age at onset of diabetes (a truncated quantitative trait). For the multipoint analyses, a subset of 295 markers was selected on the basis of optimal spacing and informativeness. We found significant evidence that a susceptibility locus near the marker D10S587 on chromosome 10q influences age at onset of diabetes (LOD score 3.75) and is also linked with type 2 diabetes itself (LOD score 2.88). This susceptibility locus explains 63.8%+/-9.9% (P=. 000016) of the total phenotypic variation in age at onset of diabetes and 65.7%+/-10.9% (P=.000135) of the total variation in liability to type 2 diabetes. Weaker evidence was found for linkage of diabetes and of age at onset to regions on chromosomes 3p, 4q, and 9p. In conclusion, our strongest evidence for linkage to both age at onset of diabetes and type 2 diabetes itself in the Mexican American population was for a region on chromosome 10q.  (+info)

Comparison of linkage-disequilibrium methods for localization of genes influencing quantitative traits in humans. (7/2205)

Linkage disequilibrium has been used to help in the identification of genes predisposing to certain qualitative diseases. Although several linkage-disequilibrium tests have been developed for localization of genes influencing quantitative traits, these tests have not been thoroughly compared with one another. In this report we compare, under a variety of conditions, several different linkage-disequilibrium tests for identification of loci affecting quantitative traits. These tests use either single individuals or parent-child trios. When we compared tests with equal samples, we found that the truncated measured allele (TMA) test was the most powerful. The trait allele frequencies, the stringency of sample ascertainment, the number of marker alleles, and the linked genetic variance affected the power, but the presence of polygenes did not. When there were more than two trait alleles at a locus in the population, power to detect disequilibrium was greatly diminished. The presence of unlinked disequilibrium (D'*) increased the false-positive error rates of disequilibrium tests involving single individuals but did not affect the error rates of tests using family trios. The increase in error rates was affected by the stringency of selection, the trait allele frequency, and the linked genetic variance but not by polygenic factors. In an equilibrium population, the TMA test is most powerful, but, when adjusted for the presence of admixture, Allison test 3 becomes the most powerful whenever D'*>.15.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of hemopoietic cell cycling in mice suggests its involvement in organismal life span. (8/2205)

Normal somatic cells undergo replicative senescence in vitro but the significance of this process in organismic aging remains controversial. We have shown previously that hemopoietic stem cells of common inbred strains of mice vary widely in cycling activity and that this parameter is inversely correlated with strain-dependent mean life span. To assess whether cell cycling and life span are causally related, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contributed to variation of these traits in BXH and BXD recombinant inbred mice. Two QTLs, mapping to exactly the same intervals on chromosomes 7 and 11, were identified that were associated with variation of both cell cycling and life span. The locus on chromosome 11 mapped to the cytokine cluster, a segment that shows synteny with human chromosome 5q, in which deletions are strongly associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. These data indicate that steady-state cell turn-over, here measured in hemopoietic progenitor cells, may have a significant effect on the mean life span of mammals.  (+info)

In all populations, we observed a reduction in the narrow-sense heritability of all evaluated traits when dominance effects were accounted for (e.g., using MAD instead of MA). The smallest decrease in narrow-sense heritability was observed for number of teats (4.2%) and the highest for lifetime daily gain (21.3%), both in the Landrace population (Table 3). The broad-sense heritability (sum of the heritabilities due to all genetic effects used in the model) of all evaluated traits increased in all three populations when dominance and imprinting effects were added to the model. The broad-sense heritability of lifetime daily gain was ,30% greater when using MADI compared to using MA (Table 3, Table 4, and Table 5). A reduction of additive genetic variance and an increase in the broad-sense heritability was previously reported (Su et al. 2012) when nonadditive genetic effects were included in the model to evaluate daily gain in pigs. For height in trees, the narrow-sense heritability was found to ...
R = h2 S. R is the response to selection, S is the selection differential, and h2 is the narrow-sense heritability. This is the workhorse equation for quantitative genetics. The selective differential S, is the difference between the population mean and the mean of the parental population (some subset of the total population). For example,…
Just as there are people who are rare in the world of human beings, there are dogs that stand out in the dog world because of something unusual about them. Basenji Did you know there is a dog who cannot bark? He is called a Basenji. No one knows why he does not bark like other dogs, but this fellow gives sharp little cries that sound like a Swiss yodel. Because he did not bark to frighten the game away, and because be had such a very keen sense of smell that he could scent as far as eighty yards, he was used long ago in Africa to hunt rats, to retrieve, and to drive small wild game into nets.
Treatable traits have been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of airway diseases, particularly complex disease, which aims to apply personalised medicine to each individual to improve outcomes. Moving new treatment approaches from concepts to practice is challenging, but necessary. In an effort to accelerate progress in research and practice relating to the treatable traits approach, the Treatable Traits Down Under International Workshop was convened in Melbourne, Australia in May 2018. Here, we report the key concepts and research questions that emerged in discussions during the meeting. We propose a programme of research that involves gaining international consensus on candidate traits, recognising the prevalence of traits, and identifying a potential hierarchy of traits based on their clinical impact and responsiveness to treatment. We also reflect on research methods and designs that can generate new knowledge related to efficacy of the treatable traits approach and consider ...
In the mainstream press, heritability of a trait is interpreted as percentage of that trait inherited and dictated by genes. To begin with, this is a profound misunderstanding of the scientific meaning of heritability, which applies at the level of population variance only, and is irrelevant to the level of a trait in any particular individual. When combined with the fact that the use of heritability in science is beset with the problems stated above, were left with a public that is ill-informed about overly simplistic scientific applications and interpretations. This is not to suggest that heritability studies are useless. But it does suggest that much communication about them is , at present, a significant hindrance to the popular understanding of genes and their influence on the formation of traits ...
There are multiple opinions about the best way to take a custom shade. After seeing about 10 patients a month for the past decade or so, the author has developed a system that works best for him. Which area of the tooth does he notice first? Initially, he will see the dentin, then the translucency and enamel overlay, and, finally, he will check the mamelon. Memory does not always serve well when recalling a patients special characteristics so the author relies on immediate photographs and custom shade documentation for best results. He has also noticed that beginning work on the patients case the same day as the consultation will produce a better restoration. Why? Every individual trait about the teeth is fresh in his mind at that time, and will be re-created more accurately. Little characteristics become big when they are all put together, and without them, the crown will not match the adjacent teeth. Mamelon is one of those little characteristics that will define a persons shade; if it is ...
Maps traits with correction for kinship among samples using a linear mixed model method, and also allows users to fit multiple covariates such as sex, age, treatment, and genetic markers (PMID: 2453419, and GitHub code). GEMMA incorporates the Leave One Chromosome Out (LOCO) method to ensure that the correction for kinship does not remove useful genetic variance near each marker. Markers can be filtered to include only those with minor allele frequencies (MAF) above a threshold. The default MAF is 0.05 ...
Maps traits with correction for kinship among samples using a linear mixed model method, and also allows users to fit multiple covariates such as sex, age, treatment, and genetic markers (PMID: 2453419, and GitHub code). GEMMA incorporates the Leave One Chromosome Out (LOCO) method to ensure that the correction for kinship does not remove useful genetic variance near each marker. Markers can be filtered to include only those with minor allele frequencies (MAF) above a threshold. The default MAF is 0.05 ...
DNA makes this? Proteins, Proteins, which are made of amino acids. How many amino acids are known? Where is DNA found in your cell? Nucleus Nucleus - inside chromosomes Chromosomes DNA Genes  Traits *Most traits are effected by many genes and most genes are involved in the development of several traits.
Life history traits such as fecundity are important to evolution because they make up components of lifetime fitness. Due to their polygenic architectures, such traits are difficult to investigate with genetic mapping. Therefore, little is known about their molecular basis. One possible way toward finding the underlying genes is to map intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression traits. We set out to map candidate quantitative trait genes for egg fecundity in the chicken by combining quantitative trait locus mapping in an advanced intercross of wild by domestic chickens with expression quantitative trait locus mapping in the same birds. We measured individual egg fecundity in 232 intercross chickens in two consecutive trials, the second one aimed at measuring brooding. We found 12 loci for different aspects of egg fecundity. We then combined the genomic confidence intervals of these loci with expression quantitative trait loci from bone and hypothalamus in the same intercross. ...
REGULARIZATION or shrinkage methods are gaining increasing recognition as a valuable alternative to variable selection techniques in dealing with oversaturated or otherwise ill-defined regression problems in both the classical and Bayesian frameworks (e.g., Ohara and Sillanpää 2009). Many studies (e.g., Xu 2003; Wang et al. 2005; Zhang and Xu 2005; De los Campos et al. 2009; Usai et al. 2009; Wu et al. 2009; Xu et al. 2009) have documented the potential of shrinkage methods for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genomic breeding value (GBV) estimation using genome-wide dense sets of markers. Lee et al. (2008) make a clear connection between phenotype prediction and GBV estimation, suggesting that methods developed for one are also applicable to the other. We thus use the two concepts interchangeably throughout this article.. Regularized regression methods, such as ridge regression (Hoerl and Kennard 1970) or the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) (Tibshirani ...
Author Summary There has been a great amount of debate over the relative importance of additivity and non-additivity in quantitative trait variation. The main argument supporting the importance of additivity is the observation that the additive component of genetic variance is much greater than non-additive variance components, while the main argument supporting the importance of non-additivity is the identification of many non-additive effects in genetic mapping studies. By recapitulating many classical results and introducing new alternative parameterizations of genetic effects, we point out some of the common mistakes and misleading arguments in using variance component analyses to infer genetic architecture, specifically the gene actions of QTLs. Because of the wide applications of variance component analyses, our study has profound implications and clarifies some of the most confusing concepts in quantitative genetics in the genomics era.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-Wide Scans Reveal a Quantitative Trait Locus for Withers Height in Horses Near the ANKRD1 Gene. AU - Al Abri, Mohammed A.. AU - Posbergh, Christian. AU - Palermo, Katelyn. AU - Sutter, Nathan B.. AU - Eberth, John. AU - Hoffman, Gabriel E.. AU - Brooks, Samantha A.. PY - 2016/10/19. Y1 - 2016/10/19. N2 - Withers height is an important economic trait for the American Miniature Horses (AMHs) as the breeders primary objective is to produce small and proportionate animals. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) affecting height in this breed will result in a better understanding of the genetic architecture and biological pathways contributing to skeletal development. In earlier work, we genotyped 48 horses from 16 different breeds that represent extremes in body size, using the Equine SNP50 bead chip (Illumina Inc). In this study, we applied a dominant model Genome-wide association study (GWAS), a genome-wide fixation index (FST) estimation, as well as a ...
PANELS of recombinant inbred (RI) lines, generated by either recurrent sib mating or selfing, constitute a valuable resource for the genetic dissection of quantitative traits and particularly for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) (Bailey 1971; Swank and Bailey 1973; Watson et al. 1977; Plomin et al. 1991b). With RI panels, as with other true-breeding populations such as panels of doubled haploid (DH) lines, marker genotypes need be measured only once and the trait value for a given genotype can be measured in replicated individuals. The same panel can be used by different investigators and at different times, permitting the dissection of multiple correlated traits even when such traits are measured under different environmental conditions (Plomin et al. 1991a).. In a limited number of systems (e.g., maize, Drosophila), replicable mapping populations that contain hundreds of lines exist (Johnson and Wood 1982; Burr et al. 1988; Reiter et al. 1992; Fry et al. 1998). In other systems, ...
Transcript abundance from cRNA hybridizations to Affymetrix microarrays can be used for simultaneous marker development and genome-wide gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of crops. We have previously shown that it is easily possible to use Affymetrix expression arrays to profil …
Genome editing (GE) is a method that enables specific nucleotides in the genome of an individual to be changed. To date, use of GE in livestock has focussed on simple traits that are controlled by a few quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) with large effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of GE to improve quantitative traits that are controlled by many QTN, referred to here as promotion of alleles by genome editing (PAGE). Multiple scenarios were simulated to test alternative PAGE strategies for a quantitative trait. They differed in (i) the number of edits per sire (0 to 100), (ii) the number of edits per generation (0 to 500), and (iii) the extent of use of PAGE (i.e. editing all sires or only a proportion of them). The base line scenario involved selecting individuals on true breeding values (i.e., genomic selection only (GS only)-genomic selection with perfect accuracy) for several generations. Alternative scenarios complemented this base line scenario with PAGE (GS + PAGE).
Genetic architecture of the quantitative traits is an important aspect for understanding the sustained response of selection and also for predicting the disease risk. In regards to the distribution of effect of variants underlying the quantitative traits, Fisher (1918) proposed a simple explanation, termed as the infinitesimal model, where the quantitative traits are composed by…
Type 2 diabetes is a genetically heterogeneous disease involving insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and increased glucose production by the liver. Identification of multiple QTLs suggests that there is a high degree of genetic heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes. To circumvent this limitation, we focused on a single large family, because those individuals likely share the same polymorphisms, thus minimizing genetic heterogeneity. Although environmental factors, such as physical activity and diet, also influence the development of type 2 diabetes and may interact with genetic effects, these measures were not collected, therefore future studies should further examine these effects.. Our results suggest that a gene located near D5S428 is responsible for variability in affection status. As we focused on a single family, the applicability of these findings to the general population is a concern. However, Lindsay et al. (29) identified tentative evidence of linkage (LOD = 1.5) ∼15 cM from our ...
OBJECTIVES: In sib pair studies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification may be adversely affected by non-normality in the phenotypic distribution, particularly when subjects falling in the tails of the distribution bias the trait mean or varian
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Di Nicolantonio, R., Kostka, V., Kwitek, A., Jacob, H., Thomas, W.G. and Harrap, S.B. 2006, Fine mapping of Lvm1: a quantitative trait locus controlling heart size independently of blood pressure, Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 70-73, doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2005.02.010. ...
Michaud, Amy Marie, Identifying quantitative trait loci for hip axis geometry phenotypes in C57BL/6J X CAST/EiJ inbred mice. (2009). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 2279 ...
Additional file 1, Table S1 shows the posterior means (standard deviations) of direct and maternal heritabilities of GL and liabilities to CD and SB for each model. Posterior distributions of direct and maternal heritabilities for the three calving traits were similar across categories of GL and between models (RMM1, RMM2 and RMM3) and were also similar to their counterparts from the SMM. The posterior mean of direct heritability of GL was higher than that for maternal heritability (0.39 vs. 0.08-0.07); corresponding estimates for CD (0.08-0.10 vs. 0.07-0.08) and SB (0.05-0.08 vs. 0.08-0.11) were smaller than those for direct heritability and similar between them. Heritability estimates were within the range of values reported in previous studies [15-17]; estimates for CD and SB were higher than those used in routine genetic evaluations of CD and SB in US Holsteins, except for the direct heritability of CD [18, 19].. Features of the posterior distributions of genetic correlations in the four ...
Medicine) and Michael Nothnagel (University of Cologne).. Application Deadline January 5, 2017. For additional information, the schedule and application form - ...
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Heritability is defined as the degree to which individual genetic variation accounts for phenotypic variation seen in a population. In a scientifically sloppy sense, its somewhat (mis)used to give a sense of what proportion of your risk for a given disease is derived from your genes (as opposed to non-genetic influences, such as your environment, diet, etc). Wikipedia Most heritability estimates have been based on family (and twin) studies. An approach developed more recently ([PMID 25383972]) estimates heritability based on unrelated individuals of mixed ethnic (admixed) backgrounds. This approach appears to indicate lower heritability than is estimated from twin studies; for example, heritability estimates for height and body mass index are 0.55 and 0.23, respectively, compared to the ~0.80 and ~0.50 estimates from twin studies. If heritability is lower than classically thought, the proportion of genetic variance explained by SNP studies is actually significantly higher - relatively common ...
The fourth annual course on Complex Trait Analysis of Next Generation Sequence Data will be held at the MDC in Berlin from June 18-22, 2018. The goal of the course is to teach both the theory and application of methods to analyze next generation sequence (NGS) data for human complex traits. Attendees will learn how to design studies, call variants from NGS data, analysis of population-, trio- and family-based sequence data and evaluation of variant functionality. Analyses will include performing complex trait rare variant association analysis for population and trio data. Exercises will be carried out using a variety of computer programs (GATK, IGV, Polyphen2, PSEQ, SEQPower, SEQSpark and Variant Association Tools (VAT)). TOPICS will be include: sequence alignment, calling variants from NGS data, quality control of NGS data, association testing framework for quantitative and qualitative traits (fixed effects, random effects and mixed models), rare variant association methods, estimating power ...
In recent yers several traits were improved in different animal species. The development was forced by traditional breeding methods based on phenotypic assessment ie production, reproduction and viability. The estimates of such complex phenotypes are the result of a combined action of numerous genes and environmental factors.. ...
Hello,. I have performed a GWAS on a quantitative trait and would like to calculate the genomic inflation factor (lambda). Does anyone have advice on how to do that, or programs they would suggest?. I see that if I run the analysis in plink with the command below I do get an estimation of the genomic inflation factor in the log file, but I would also like to be able to calculate the genomic inflation factor on a separate set of p-values I have from an analysis not completed in plink.. plink --bfile data --pheno data.pheno --linear --adjust --out gwas.data. Thank you!. ...
The comparison of the genetic differentiation of quantitative traits (QST) and molecular markers (FST) can inform on the strength and spatial heterogeneity of selection in natural populations, provided that markers behave neutrally. However, selection may influence the behaviour of markers in selfin …
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors words.
The is objective of the study was to estimate gene effects for quantities and qualitative traits viz., Plant height, no of tillers per plant, no of spiklets per spike, no of grains per spike, grain weight per ear head, grain yield per plant (g), Days to heading, Protein content(%), Sedimentation value (ml), Beta carotene content (ppm) and 1000 seed wt.(g) using six generations of eight crosses was carried out during rabi season at two locations. Analysis of Variance revealed highly significant differences among the wheat genotypes for all the characters. In case of plot basis observations, the characters were mostly governed by dominance gene effects ...
Bretherick, Andrew D; Canela-Xandri, Oriol; Joshi, Peter K; Clark, David W; Rawlik, Konrad; Boutin, Thibaud S; Zeng, Yanni; Amador, Carmen; Navarro, Pau; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F; Tenesa, Albert; Ponting, Chris P; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Haley, Chris ...
Trait is a ubiquitous term in biology, but its precise meaning and theoretical foundations remain opaque. After distinguishing between trait and character, I argue for the value of adopting Theodosius Dobzhanskys 1956 definition and framework for understanding trait, which holds that traits are just semantic devices that artificially impose order on continuous biological phenomena. I elaborate on this definition to distinguish between trait validity (compliance with Dobzhanskys trait definition) and trait utility (usefulness of a trait). As a consequence of this elaboration of the meaning of trait, it becomes clear that considerations of adaptation, function, homogeneity and natural kinds have clouded discussions of the meaning of trait per se. Combining this account with work by David Hull and examples from contemporary biology, I demonstrate that even broad or heterogeneous traits (including multiple sub-traits) can qualify as valid and useful. As a test case for this ...
BREEDING BY PHENOTYPE Many breeders plan matings solely on the appearance (phenotype) of a dog and not on its pedigree or the relatedness of the prospective parents. Matings based on appearance are called assortative matings. There are positive assortative matings (like-to-like) and negative assortative matings (like-to-unlike) for individual traits. Breeders use positive assortative matings when they wish to fix traits, and negative assortative matings when they wish to correct traits or bring in traits the breeding stock may lack. Some individuals may share desirable characteristics, but they inherit them differently. This is especially true of polygenetic traits, such as ear set, bite or length of forearm. Breeding two phenotypically similar but geno-typically unrelated dogs together would not necessarily reproduce these traits. Conversely, each individual with the same pedigree will not necessarily look or breed alike. Therefore, breedings should not be planned solely on the basis of the ...
Novel insights into seed fatty acid synthesis and modification pathways from genetic diversity and quantitative trait Loci analysis of the Brassica C genome ...
Li, K.; Wen, W.; Alseekh, S.; Yang, X.; Guo, H.; Li, W.; Wang, L.; Pan, Q.; Zhan, W.; Liu, J. et al.; Li, Y.; Wu, X.; Brotman, Y.; Willmitzer, L.; Li, J.; Fernie, A. R.; Yan, J.: Large-scale metabolite quantitative trait locus analysis provides new insights for high-quality maize improvement. The Plant Journal 99 (2), S. 216 - 230 (2019 ...
MATCH (page:Page), (page)-[:trait]-,(trait:Trait), (trait)-[:predicate]-,(predicate:Term)-[:parent_term,:synonym_of*0..]-,(tp:Term), (trait)-[:object_term]-,(object_term:Term)-[:parent_term,:synonym_of*0..]-,(to:Term) WHERE (tp.uri = http://eol.org/schema/terms/FossilFirst AND to.uri = http://resource.geosciml.org/classifier/ics/ischart/Rhyacian) WITH DISTINCT page, trait, predicate LIMIT 50 OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:object_term]-,(object_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:units_term]-,(units:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:normal_units_term]-,(normal_units:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:sex_term]-,(sex_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:lifestage_term]-,(lifestage_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:statistical_method_term]-,(statistical_method_term:Term) OPTIONAL MATCH (trait)-[:supplier]-,(resource:Resource) RETURN page.page_id, trait.eol_pk, trait.measurement, trait.object_page_id, trait.sample_size, trait.citation, trait.source, trait.remarks, trait.method, object_term.uri, ...
The joint analysis of multiple traits has recently become popular since it can increase statistical power to detect genetic variants and there is increasing evidence showing that pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex diseases. Currently, most of existing methods use all of the traits for testing the association between multiple traits and a single variant. However, those methods for association studies may lose power in the presence of a large number of noise traits. In this paper, we propose an
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a traits value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
This paper deals with the linear model y = X θ + U ε, E ε = 0, [equation]. It is investigated when a best quadratic unbiased estimator of certain linear parametric functions of the σi2. exists. This...
For structured populations in equilibrium with everybody born equal, ln(R0) is a useful fitness proxy for evolutionarily steady strategy (ESS) and most adaptive dynamics calculations, with R0 the average lifetime number of offspring in the clonal and haploid cases, and half the average lifetime number of offspring fathered or mothered for Mendelian diploids. When individuals have variable birth states, as is, for example, the case in spatial models, R0 is itself an eigenvalue, which usually cannot be expressed explicitly in the trait vectors under consideration. In that case, Q(Y, X):=-det (I-L(Y, X)) can often be used as fitness proxy, with L the next-generation matrix for a potential mutant characterized by the trait vector Y in the (constant) environment engendered by a resident characterized by X. If the trait space is connected, global uninvadability can be determined from it. Moreover, it can be used in all the usual local calculations like the determination of evolutionarily singular ...
There are two novel findings from this study. First, rs12255372 in TCF7L2 was significantly associated with GDM under a dominant genetic model. This is the first evidence that TCF7L2 is associated with forms of pre-diabetes. We did not genotype ancestrally informative markers, so it is possible that population substructure may confound our results. However, given that the identical marker also shows association with type 2 diabetes-related quantitative traits, it is likely that this is a true association with GDM.. Second, rs12255372 was associated with 30′ Δinsulin in an interaction with percentage of body fat. This finding could explain some of the inconsistencies in association between TCF7L2 and quantitative traits among studies. It may also explain the increased OR for association with type 2 diabetes (1.89 vs. 1.69) reported by Cauchi et al. (8) when their analysis was restricted to lean subjects (BMI ,30 kg/m2). The lack of association between this interaction and AIR from the IVGTT is ...
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Despite widespread interest in the genetics of complex traits (including common human diseases), basic principles of complex trait genetics are still poorly understood. We attack the problem from three directions. First, we develop theoretical models of evolution and maintenance of complex trait variation under various allelic architectures. Second, we are involved in a large zebrafish screen aiming at identification of key parameters of allelic architecture of complex traits. Third, we work on statistical methods for the analysis of available genomic data in phenotyped human populations. This includes methods for predicting complex phenotypes from genotypes ...
Despite widespread interest in the genetics of complex traits (including common human diseases), basic principles of complex trait genetics are still poorly understood. We attack the problem from three directions. First, we develop theoretical models of evolution and maintenance of complex trait variation under various allelic architectures. Second, we are involved in a large zebrafish screen aiming at identification of key parameters of allelic architecture of complex traits. Third, we work on statistical methods for the analysis of available genomic data in phenotyped human populations. This includes methods for predicting complex phenotypes from genotypes ...
CD BioSciences variance component and linear models analysis will help you to choose an appropriate statistical strategy for your study.
8/24/20: Redesigned and UPDATED to included DIGITAL GOOGLE CLASSROOM LINKS!Looking for a great way to teach character traits? This unit provides additional practice in identifying character traits and backing them up with evidence from the text. Heres whats included in this unit:-10 passages, feat...
Hello people. I recently decided to design new racials. Like many players, I find the racial traits a bit awkward and outdated. Some people even think they should totally be removed. If I think this solution is too extreme, I wish some change to bring a more fair balancing between races. I am not naive, it would be impossible to have 100% balanced racial traits, but today the balance is in fact non-existent. Today if you want create a horde druid and want to play it in HL PVE, you have the
Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritanceEdit. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a region of DNA which is associated with a particular phenotypic trait, which varies in ... Quantitative traitsEdit. Polygenic inheritance refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is ... Typically, QTLs underlie continuous traits (those traits which vary continuously, e.g. height) as opposed to discrete traits ( ...
Quantitative studies of heritable traits throw light on the question. Developmental genetic analysis examines the effects of ... For a few highly heritable traits, studies have identified loci associated with variance in that trait, for instance in some ... Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptees using behavioral ... The most famous categorical organization of heritable personality traits were defined in the 1970s by two research teams led by ...
Twin studies also suggest that diagnosed ADHD represents the extreme tail of one or more heritable quantitative traits. Tiesler ... Possible positive traits of ADHD are a new avenue of research, and therefore limited. Studies are being done on whether ADHD ... In entrepreneurship, there has been interest in the traits of people with ADHD. This is due in part to a number of high-profile ... It may be viewed as the extreme end of one or more continuous human traits found in all people. Whether someone responds to ...
Quantitative studies of heritable traits throw light on the question. Developmental genetic analysis examines the effects of ... For a few highly heritable traits, studies have identified loci associated with variance in that trait, for instance in some ... Trait B shows a high heritability since correlation of trait rises sharply with the degree of genetic similarity. Trait C shows ... Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptees using behavioral ...
Twin studies also suggest that diagnosed ADHD represents the extreme tail of one or more heritable quantitative traits.. ... Hippokratis, Kiaris (2012). Genes, polymorphisms, and the making of societies : how genetic behavioral traits influence human ... Evolution may have played a role in the high rates of ADHD, particularly hyperactive and impulsive traits in males.[100] Some ... Diagnosis of ADHD using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is an ongoing area of investigation, although the value of ...
... most traits are more complex and are controlled by quantitative trait loci (multiple interacting genes). Recent findings have ... Heritable traits are passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a long ... Evolution in organisms occurs through changes in heritable traits-the inherited characteristics of an organism. In humans, for ... Consequently, organisms with traits that give them an advantage over their competitors are more likely to pass on their traits ...
... quantitative trait, heritable MeSH G13.540.500 - linkage disequilibrium MeSH G13.540.562 - lod score MeSH G13.695.450 - genetic ...
... s are quantitative, trait-like deficits that are typically assessed by laboratory-based methods rather than by ... and that it is heritable. Some distinct genes that could underlie certain endophenotypic traits in schizophrenia include: RELN ... November 2007). "Fabp7 maps to a quantitative trait locus for a schizophrenia endophenotype". PLOS Biology. 5 (11): e297. doi: ... Both of these traits have a clear genetic component and can thus be called endophenotypes. A strong candidate for schizophrenia ...
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of the genome associated with variation in a quantitative, or complex, trait. To ... One group known as the biometricians argued that continuous traits such as height were largely heritable, but could not be ... Complex traits, also known as quantitative traits, are traits that do not behave according to simple Mendelian inheritance laws ... Compared to strictly Mendelian traits, complex traits are far more common, and because they can be hugely polygenic, they are ...
Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritance[edit]. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a locus (section of DNA) that correlates with variation of a quantitative trait in the ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a region of DNA which is associated with a particular phenotypic trait, which varies in ... Quantitative traits[edit]. Polygenic inheritance refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is ...
Kondrashov, A.S.; Kondrashov, F.A. (1999). "Interactions among quantitative traits in the course of sympatric speciation". ... 2005). "Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population". Science. 310 (5746): 304-306. Bibcode:2005Sci ... In a situation where the polymorphic trait is not a magic trait then there has to be some kind of fitness penalty for those ... "magic trait", meaning a trait that is under ecological selection and in turn has a side effect on reproductive behavior. ...
There were 3 quantitative trait loci that explained most of the phenotype variation. Indicators of recent selection were shown ... In contrast, modern dog breeds are particular breed standards, sharing a common set of heritable characteristics, determined by ... Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting, and personality traits such as hypersocial behavior, boldness ... Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting, retrieving, and scent detection. Their personality traits ...
... has been aligned to various behavioural quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and reported in several publications. However, ... are highly heritable, genetically complex psychiatric disorders. However, linkage studies have largely failed at identifying ... Sullivan PF; Kendler KS; Neale MC (2003-12-01). "Schizophrenia as a complex trait: Evidence from a meta-analysis of twin ... "A twin study of heritable and shared environmental contributions to autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 44 ...
... the so-called expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies. The reason is that GWAS studies identify risk-SNPs, but not ... These magnitudes are considered small because they do not explain much of the heritable variation. This heritable variation is ... Any of these may cause alterations in an individual's traits, or phenotype, which can be anything from disease risk to physical ... When applied to human data, GWA studies compare the DNA of participants having varying phenotypes for a particular trait or ...
Traits that confer tolerance are controlled genetically and therefore are heritable traits under selection (Strauss and Agrawal ... Further studies using techniques in quantitative genetics have also provided evidence that tolerance to herbivory is heritable ... photosynthetic for either trait will then also affect the other. If there is a positive correlation between the two traits, ... 2010). If the traits that allow for tolerance affects the plant tissue's quality, quantity or availability, tolerance may also ...
Lampe, Virginie (2009-05-22). "Dissertation: Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for osteochondrosis in Hanoverian ... The goal of this testing is to prevent horses with heritable defects from continuing to pass on their genes. As a result, ... Through a veterinary exam, the colts must be deemed free of osteochondrosis lesions, vices, and other heritable conditions. ... Recent research has tagged certain conformational characteristics and other heritable factors of bone growth and maintenance as ...
Among the aforementioned traits, the correlations in age, race or ethnicity, religion, educational attainment, and intelligence ... quantitative phenotypes like height or body-mass index, skin pigmentation, the level of physical attractiveness, disease risk ( ... between spouses are the most pronounced, while height is one of the most heritable, with mating partners sharing 89% of the ... Despite the common notion of "opposites attract," humans generally prefer mates who share the same or similar traits, such as ...
For a set of traits, the equation that describe the variance among traits is the multivariate breeder's equation Δz = β x G, ... Quantitative genetics is a statistical framework mainly concerned with modeling the evolution of continuous characters. Under ... approach to explain the process behind evolutionary change is natural selection acting upon heritable variation caused by ... phenotype is seen as an integrated system where each trait develops and evolves in concert with the other traits, and thus, a ...
Cardon LR, Smith SD, Fulker DW, Kimberling WJ, Pennington BF, DeFries JC (October 1994). "Quantitative trait locus for reading ... Twin and family studies have shown a substantial genetic component to this disorder, with heritable variation estimated at 50 ... "Quantitative-trait locus for specific language and reading deficits on chromosome 6p". American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 ( ...
Darwin proposed two explanations for the existence of such traits: these traits are useful in male-male combat or they are ... 1982). "Heritable true fitness and bright birds: A role for parasites?" (PDF). Science. 218 (4570): 384-387. Bibcode:1982Sci... ... A quantitative genetic approach" (PDF). Procedia Computer Science. 1 (1): 2003-2011. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2010.04.224. Darwin, C ... Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been suggested to 'deceive' males into ...
... two traits could be both highly heritable but not be genetically correlated or have small heritabilities and be completely ... In multivariate quantitative genetics, a genetic correlation (denoted r g {\displaystyle r_{g}} or r a {\displaystyle r_{a}} ) ... a gene causes trait X and trait X causes trait Y). biases: population stratification such as ancestry or assortative mating ( ... These two traits may individually have a very high heritability (most of the population-level variation in the trait due to ...
Genes in a plant are what determine what type of qualitative or quantitative traits it will have. Plant breeders strive to ... Statistical methods were also developed to analyze gene action and distinguish heritable variation from variation caused by ... Sometimes genetic modification can produce a plant with the desired trait or traits faster than classical breeding because the ... When a desirable trait has been bred into a species, a number of crosses to the favored parent are made to make the new plant ...
"Barbarea vulgaris linkage map and quantitative trait loci for saponins, glucosinolates, hairiness and resistance to the ... van Leur, Hanneke; Raaijmakers, Ciska E.; van Dam, Nicole M. (2006). "A heritable glucosinolate polymorphism within natural ...
Behavioral traits of cattle can be as heritable as some production traits, and often, the two can be related. The heritability ... Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been found for a range of production and behavioral characteristics for both dairy and beef ... In cattle, temperament can affect production traits such as carcass and meat quality or milk yield as well as affecting the ... Five underlying categories of temperament traits have been proposed: shyness-boldness exploration-avoidance activity ...
In particular, if the trait is quantitative and univariate then both higher and lower trait levels are favoured. Disruptive ... If the traits that give these individuals a reproductive advantage are also heritable, that is, passed from parent to offspring ... Natural selection can act on any heritable phenotypic trait,[72] and selective pressure can be produced by any aspect of the ... It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations. Charles ...
... who studied the segregation of heritable traits in pea plants.[14][38] In his experiments studying the trait for flower color, ... Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. Another theory ... Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that ... the idea that individuals inherit a smooth blend of traits from their parents.[10] Mendel's work provided examples where traits ...
Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses" (PDF). Veterinary University ... The goal of this testing is to prevent horses with heritable defects from continuing to pass on their genes. As a result, ... Traits. Distinguishing features. Warmblood horse suitable for dressage, show jumping, eventing, show hunters, and leisure ... Through a veterinary exam, the colts must be deemed free of osteochondrosis lesions, vices, and other heritable conditions. ...
In particular, if the trait is quantitative and univariate then both higher and lower trait levels are favoured. Disruptive ... If the traits that give these individuals a reproductive advantage are also heritable, that is, passed from parent to offspring ... By effect on a trait[edit]. Selection has different effects on traits. Stabilizing selection acts to hold a trait at a stable ... Natural selection can act on any heritable phenotypic trait,[73] and selective pressure can be produced by any aspect of the ...
Fankhauser, D. B. (2 Feb 2006). "Human Heritable Traits". University of Cincinnati Clermont College. Archived from the original ... including analysis of quantitative traits.] GeneticInteractions.org. ... Discrete traits (as opposed to continuously varying traits such as height) with simple Mendelian inheritance patterns are ... Mendelian traits behave according to the model of monogenic or simple gene inheritance in which one gene corresponds to one ...
Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Kondrashov, Alexey S. (1999). "Interactions among quantitative traits in the course of sympatric ... Smith, D. Courtney (1988). "Heritable divergence of Rhagoletis pomonella host races by seasonal asynchrony". Nature. 336 (6194 ... Disruption may also occur in multiple-gene traits. The medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) is showing gene pool divergence in ... Some characteristics (termed magic traits) such as beak morphology may drive speciation because they also affect mating signals ...
The consensus definition now requires a trait to be heritable for it to be considered epigenetic.[4] Misuse of the scientific ... In 2008, a consensus definition of the epigenetic trait, "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome ... A consensus definition of the concept of epigenetic trait as "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome ... Epigenetics is the study of stable heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.[1] The ...
A quantitative description of infanticide by male harem-mating animals when the alpha male is displaced as well as rodent ... Heritability isn't an index of how genetic a trait is. A great deal of time has been wasted in the effort of measuring the ... Moreover, even highly heritable traits can be strongly manipulated by the environment, so heritability has little if anything ... For example, height is on the order of 90% heritable, yet North and South Koreans, who come from the same genetic background, ...
... who studied the segregation of heritable traits in pea plants.[14][39] In his experiments studying the trait for flower color, ... Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. Another theory ... the environment has a bigger influence on the total variation of the trait. For example, human height is a trait with complex ... Often different genes can interact in a way that influences the same trait. In the Blue-eyed Mary (Omphalodes verna), for ...
When faced with a trait that seems maladaptive, some sociobiologists try to determine how the trait actually increases genetic ... The second 1981 book was Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman's Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach.[48] ... and show that evolution was due to differential replication of heritable variation in response to selection. We now know that ... Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ...
Some evidence suggests that some heritable component of bipolar disorder overlaps with heritable components of creativity. ... Chen CH, Suckling J, Lennox BR, Ooi C, Bullmore ET (February 2011). "A quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI studies in bipolar ... suggesting that it is a trait marker.[66] ... indicating possible trait features.[67] Euthymic bipolar people ...
... linked to a trait of interest (e.g. productivity, disease resistance, stress tolerance, and quality), rather than on the trait ... 1997). "Simple sequence repeats as a source of quantitative genetic variation". Trends Genet. 13 (2): 74-78. doi:10.1016/S0168- ... A genome-wide study estimates that microsatellite variation contributes 10-15% of heritable gene expression variation in humans ... They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. ...
Douglas Scott Falconer (1989). Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman, Scientific & Technical. ISBN 978-0-470-21162-5. ... Just as all researched human behavioural phenotypes are influenced by genes (i.e., are heritable), all such phenotypes are also ... using mixed effects models implemented in software such as Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA).[40][41] To do this, ... A simple demonstration of this fact is that measures of 'environmental' influence are heritable.[47] Thus, observing a ...
In particular, if the trait is quantitative and univariate then both higher and lower trait levels are favoured. Disruptive ... Natural selection can act on any heritable phenotypic trait,[72] and selective pressure can be produced by any aspect of the ... When some component of a trait is heritable, selection alters the frequencies of the different alleles, or variants of the gene ... Even if the reproductive advantage is very slight, over many generations any advantageous heritable trait becomes dominant in ...
In the 1940s and early 1950s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units ... Epigenetics - the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes ... theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical ...
Quantitative reasoning (Gq) is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical ... Heritability is defined as the proportion of variance in a trait which is attributable to genotype within a defined population ... that intelligence was heritable, innate, and could be relegated to a single number, the tests were enacted systematically, and ... A high heritability of a trait does not mean environmental effects, such as learning, are not involved. Since heritability ...
Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information.[2 ... If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the ... quantitative) genes was not realised until R. A. Fisher's (1918) paper, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition ... In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: an individual might inherit the "brown-eye trait" from one ...
But the central core of evolution is generally defined as changes in trait or gene frequency in a population of organisms from ... There is such strong quantitative support for the second that scientists regard common descent as being as factual as the ... In biology, the meaning is more specific: heritable changes which accumulate over generations of a population. Individual ... in Gregor Mendel's research on the inheritance of simple trait variations in peas.[5][page needed] Subsequent work into ...
Trait activation theory posits that within a person trait levels predict future behavior, that trait levels differ between ... Judge TA, Bono JE, Ilies R, Gerhardt MW (August 2002). "Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review". The ... Personality research conducted on twin subjects suggests that both heritable and environmental factors contribute to the Big ... In psychological trait theory, the Big Five personality traits, also known as the five-factor model (FFM) and the OCEAN model, ...
Zöllner S. and Pritchard J.K. (2005) Coalescent-Based Association Mapping and Fine Mapping of Complex Trait Loci Genetics 169: ... the difference in correlation between the identical and fraternal twins can be used to work out if a disease is heritable, and ...
... has a heritable component[46] with heritabilities for this trait ranging from 0.07 to 0.56.[47] Lines of hens ... Identification of quantitative trait loci for receiving pecks in young and adult laying hens. Poultry Science, 82: 1661-1667 ... A trait has been identified which combines feather pecking and cannibalism leading to severe injury or death in beak-intact ...
"Heritability and quantitative genetic divergence of serotiny, a fire-persistence plant trait" (PDF). Annals of Botany. 114 (3 ... Serotiny must be heritable[16]. See also[edit]. *Plant perception (physiology). References[edit]. *^ a b c d Lamont, B.; ...
IQ and intelligence (trait) give a modest description of what the tests do and do not measure. The problem with the top ... Measurement is generally conducted through a variety of quantitative psychometric tests.. The research is founded upon several ... IQ heritable, race genetically meaningful, etc.). That's simply not true. A position in R&I research (a wrong one from my POV, ... I previously wrote a section that distinguishes the three: Intelligence_(trait)#Intelligence.2C_IQ.2C_and_g. I've tried on ...
Chan TL, Yuen ST, Kong CK, Chan YW, Chan AS, Ng WF, Tsui WY, Lo MW, Tam WY, Li VS, Leung SY (October 2006). "Heritable germline ... Naturally, the absolute lengths of short, intermediate, and long environmental cycles will depend on the trait, the length of ... Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 75: 211-8. doi:10.1101/sqb.2010.75.010. PMID 21139069. Zhang Z, Shibahara ... Epigenetic inheritance may only affect fitness if it predictably alters a trait under selection. Evidence has been forwarded ...
For a number of reasons, two organisms can possess a trait not present in their last common ancestor: If we naively took the ... Whether it must be directly heritable, or whether indirect inheritance (e.g., learned behaviors) is acceptable, is not entirely ... and Nei's results set the ME criterion free from the Occam's razor principle and confer it a solid theoretical and quantitative ... The only widespread agreement on characters seems to be that variation used for character analysis should reflect heritable ...
By 1911 Castle noted that the results could be explained by Darwinian selection on a heritable variation of a sufficient number ... Ivan Schmalhausen developed the theory of stabilizing selection, the idea that selection can preserve a trait at some value, ... Mayr, E.: Where Are We? Cold Spring Harbor Symposium of Quantitative Biology 24, 1-14, 1959 Stebbins, G.L.: Processes of ... working on heritable variation supplied by mutation. Other major figures in the synthesis included E. B. Ford, Bernhard Rensch ...
... algorithm Haplotype List of gene prediction software List of notable genes Predictive medicine Pseudogene Quantitative trait ... Therefore, a broad, modern working definition of a gene is any discrete locus of heritable, genomic sequence which affect an ... which allele an organism inherits for one trait is unrelated to which allele it inherits for another trait. This is in fact ... Most eukaryotic organisms (such as the pea plants Mendel worked on) have two alleles for each trait, one inherited from each ...
Heritable variation and genetic correlation of quantitative traits within and between ecotypes of Avena barbata. Authors. *. K ... We examined heritable variation for quantitative traits within and between naturally occurring mesic and xeric ecotypes of the ... Shared quantitative trait loci underlying the genetic correlation between continuous traits. Mol. Ecol. 16: 4195-4209. *Wiley ... Although the ecotypes were genetically diverged for most traits, few traits showed significant heritable variation within ...
Impulsivity is a heritable trait in rodents and associated with a novel quantitative trait locus on chromosome 1 View in MDC ... Premature responding was found to be heritable (h(2) = 13-16%), with significant linkage (LOD 5.2) identified on chromosome 1. ... wide sequencing and transcriptome analysis to identify candidate genes associated with the expression of the impulsivity trait ...
Somatic instability of the expanded CTG triplet repeat in myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a heritable quantitative trait and ... 2012) Somatic instability of the expanded CTG triplet repeat in myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a heritable quantitative trait and ... In addition, we show that the level of instability is highly heritable, implying a role for individual-specific trans-acting ...
"Quantitative Trait, Heritable" by people in this website by year, and whether "Quantitative Trait, Heritable" was a major or ... "Quantitative Trait, Heritable" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Quantitative Trait, Heritable*Quantitative Trait, Heritable. *Heritable Quantitative Trait. *Heritable Quantitative Traits ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Quantitative Trait, Heritable" by people in Profiles. ...
Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritance[edit]. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a locus (section of DNA) that correlates with variation of a quantitative trait in the ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a region of DNA which is associated with a particular phenotypic trait, which varies in ... Quantitative traits[edit]. Polygenic inheritance refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is ...
Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritanceEdit. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a region of DNA which is associated with a particular phenotypic trait, which varies in ... Quantitative traitsEdit. Polygenic inheritance refers to inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic (trait) that is ... Typically, QTLs underlie continuous traits (those traits which vary continuously, e.g. height) as opposed to discrete traits ( ...
IS SURVIVAL TIME AFTER HEMORRHAGE A HERITABLE, QUANTITATIVE TRAIT?: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT. Klemcke, Harold G.; Baer, David G.; ...
Heritable quantitative trait (1). Date ​ Choose a date option to show results from those dates only. * Today ...
Quantitative Trait Loci • Quantitative Trait, Heritable • Recombination, Genetic • Reproduction • Reproductive Isolation • ...
... causal loci uncovered by genetic-mapping studies explain only a minority of the heritable contribution to trait variation. ... For many traits, including susceptibility to common diseases in humans, ... cross between two yeast strains to accurately estimate different sources of heritable variation for 46 quantitative traits, and ... We find that the detected loci explain nearly the entire additive contribution to heritable variation for the traits studied. ...
About 60% of known trait-associated loci are in linkage disequilibrium with a cis-eQTL, over half of which were not found in ... We apply integrative approaches to expression quantitative loci (eQTLs) from 44 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression ... Quantitative Trait, Heritable Grant support * UL1 TR000445/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States ... For most traits, tissue-shared eQTLs underlie a greater proportion of trait associations, although tissue-specific eQTLs have a ...
Quantitative Trait Loci • Quantitative Trait, Heritable • Raphe Nuclei • Rats • Receptor, Insulin • Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A ... 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many ... 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many ... Moczek, AP; Nijhout, HF, Trade-offs during the development of primary and secondary sexual traits in a horned beetle., American ...
Quantitative studies of heritable traits throw light on the question. Developmental genetic analysis examines the effects of ... For a few highly heritable traits, studies have identified loci associated with variance in that trait, for instance in some ... Trait B shows a high heritability since correlation of trait rises sharply with the degree of genetic similarity. Trait C shows ... Personality is a frequently cited example of a heritable trait that has been studied in twins and adoptees using behavioral ...
2011) Expression level polymorphisms: Heritable traits shaping natural variation. Trends Plant Sci 16(9):481-488. ... 2006) Quantitative trait loci for root architecture traits correlated with phosphorus acquisition in common bean. Crop Sci 46(1 ... We identified 89 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at 13 clusters among 25 RSA traits. Several clusters correspond to QTLs ... 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture. ...
... genetic methods often had difficulty perceiving traits with more than half dozen significant loci as anything but quantitative ... By heritable I mean the component of variation of the trait controlled by genes. When you remove environmental variation (i.e. ... well, if selection operates strongly on a trait eventually heritable variation can be exhausted. so its theoretically not ... Consider a trait like, say, cholesterol levels. Massive genome-wide association studies have been performed on this trait, ...
... of GENES or other genetic elements that encode or control the expression of a quantitative trait (QUANTITATIVE TRAIT, HERITABLE ... Quantitative Trait, Heritable. A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A ... Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes- ... Home » Topics » Pediatrics » Research » Single-case synthesis tools II: Comparing quantitative outcome measures. ...
Quantitative Trait, Heritable. Rats. Rats, Inbred BN. Rats, Inbred SHR. Renin / biosynthesis*, genetics*. Triglycerides / blood ... a quantitative trait locus affecting lipid metabolism exists on chromosome 13 within the transferred chromosome segment. The ...
... particularly when subjects falling in the tails of the distribution bias the trait mean or varian ... quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification may be adversely affected by non-normality in the phenotypic distribution, ... Quantitative Trait, Heritable*. Statistics as Topic*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: DK26687/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; DK47256/DK/ ... 10375215 - A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and.... 18430945 - Fine mapping ...
Flowering time is considered a quantitative though highly heritable trait. In addition, a dominant gene (Late flowering, Lb), ... Sánchez-Pérez R, Howad D, Dicenta F et al (2007a) Mapping major genes and quantitative trait loci controlling agronomic traits ... Sorkheh K, Shiran B, Khodambashi M et al (2010) Correlations between quantitative tree and fruit almond traits and their ... Dicenta F, García JE (1992) Phenotypical correlations among some traits in almond. J Genet Breed 46:241-246Google Scholar ...
Genetic factors include polygenic effects and heritable maternal or paternal effects. Nongenetic factors include common ... Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Multiple Families of Line Crosses. *Shizhong Xu⇓ ... 1996a Mapping quantitative trait loci using four-way crosses. Genet. Res. Camb. 68: 175-181. ... 1996 Methods for multiple-marker mapping of quantitative trait loci in half-sib populations. Theor. Appl. Genet. 93: 71-80. ...
Quantitative Trait, Heritable*; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.; Statistics, Nonparametric ... Abstract: We address the question of whether one can obtain increased power for finding a quantitative trait locus (QTL) if a ... Title: Should we consider gene x environment interaction in the hunt for quantitative trait loci? ... is based on an extension of the Haseman-Elston method applied to sib pairs to include a regression of the squared trait ...
Quantitative Trait, Heritable. Regression Analysis. Selection, Genetic. SUPPLEMENTARY MESH. GENE SYMBOLS. CHEMICALS. ... Heritability allows a comparison of the relative importance of genes and environment to the variation of traits within and ...
1984 Heritable genetic variation via mutation-selection balance: Lerchs zeta meets the abdominal bristle. Theor. Popul. Biol. ... Used as model quantitative traits for ,40 yr, bristle numbers are typical morphological quantitative traits. They have high ... 1990 Variation maintained in quantitative traits with mutation-selection balance: pleiotropic side-effects on fitness traits. ... or quantitative trait loci (QTL)] affecting the trait, each of which has effects too small to be perceived over the noise of ...
HbF levels and HbF-associated quantitative traits (e.g., F cell levels) are highly heritable. We have previously mapped a major ... HbF levels and HbF-associated quantitative traits (e.g., F cell levels) are highly heritable. We have previously mapped a major ... HbF levels and HbF-associated quantitative traits (e.g., F cell levels) are highly heritable. We have previously mapped a major ... Intergenic variants of HBS1L-MYB are responsible for a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 6q23 influencing fetal ...
Blood pressure (BP) is heritable and finding quantitative trait loci that influence BP is an important step in identifying ... to look for loci related to the quantitative trait, BP. Such quantitative trait loci (QTL) could further the detection of ... The quantitative trait loci (QTL) phenotype in the figure is cardiac mass according to the Penn formula. Left ordinate is the χ ... Quantitative Trait Loci for Blood Pressure Exist Near the IGF-1, the Liddle Syndrome, the Angiotensin II-Receptor Gene and the ...
Because of this, it is a model trait for studying genetic influence on quantitative traits.. ... Adult height is an easily observable and highly heritable complex continuous trait. ... Genetic variations in ADGRG6 influences stature as a quantitative trait (STQTL) [MIM:606255]. ...
Like most heritable quantitative traits (Tanksley, 1993; Lander and Schork, 1994), variation in eye size is undoubtedly ... Eye1 and Eye2: Quantitative trait loci that modulate eye size, lens weight, and retinal area. Guomin Zhou and Robert W. ... quantitative effects on eye size (quantitative trait loci or QTLs) to chromosome (Chr) 5 near the hepatic growth factor gene ( ... We have begun to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control normal variation in the architecture of eye, lens, and ...
Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations ... Exploring the genetic correlations of antisocial behaviour and life history traits * Jorim J. Tielbeek, J.C. Barnes, Arne Popma ...
Exploring the genetic correlations of antisocial behaviour and life history traits - Volume 4 Issue 6 - Jorim J. Tielbeek, J.C ... Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations ... Exploring the genetic correlations of antisocial behaviour and life history traits. * Jorim J. Tielbeek (a1), J.C. Barnes (a2) ... Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nat Genet 2015; 47: 702-9. ...
  • In addition, we show that the level of instability is highly heritable, implying a role for individual-specific trans-acting genetic modifiers. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Flowering time is considered a quantitative though highly heritable trait. (springer.com)
  • We identified several hundred major eQTLs in each tissue and found that cis-acting eQTLs are highly heritable and easier to detect than trans-eQTLs. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • F cell levels) are highly heritable. (lu.se)
  • quantitative though highly heritable trait. (deepdyve.com)
  • To test this idea, and to map genes linked to this variable and highly heritable quantitative trait, we have counted ganglion cells in 38 recombinant inbred strains (BXD and BXH) derived from parental strains that have high and low cell numbers. (jneurosci.org)
  • The reason that fingerprints are highly heritable is that the variation genetically is not much impacted by natural selection. (gnxp.com)
  • Although these traits are highly heritable, few genes influencing bone geometry have been identified. (g3journal.org)
  • Twin studies have shown that the proportion of the breast occupied by density, at a given age, is highly heritable, and inherited factors explain 63% of the variance. (nih.gov)
  • Intelligence is highly heritable and a major determinant of human health and well-being. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Its levels are highly heritable, and its interpersonal variability is modulated in part by 3 quantitative trait loci that affect HbF gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gene expression levels in humans are highly heritable [1] , [2] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Body weight is highly heritable, and numerous quantitative trait loci have been mapped in mice, but "multigenic" is an insufficient term for the thousands of loci that could contribute to this complex trait. (ebscohost.com)
  • We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) harboring naturally occurring allelic variation for Drosophila bristle number. (genetics.org)
  • To identify a gene or genes regulating fracture risk at the femoral neck, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for femoral neck density and structure phenotypes using a 595 F2 progeny derived from the inbred F344 and LEW strains of rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • A quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) is a locus (section of DNA ) that correlates with variation of a quantitative trait in the phenotype of a population of organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Improving the power of sib pair quantitative trait loci detection by phenotype winsorization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In species amenable to inbreeding, the most efficient way to map QTL is to cross two lines that are fixed for alternate alleles at QTL and marker loci and to score individuals from backcross, F 2 , or other segregating generations for their quantitative trait phenotype and marker genotype. (genetics.org)
  • 2 3 4 However, these associations are not independent of other correlated traits, such as triglyceride concentration, which suggests small LDLs are a component of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • LDL size phenotype is heritable 8 and most segregation analyses suggest the existence of a major locus for the trait. (ahajournals.org)
  • But now that we have inexpensive genotyping, we can study heritability of a quantitative trait by looking at unrelated (or only distantly related) individuals, and asking to what extent similarity in genotype is correlated with similarity in phenotype. (blogspot.com)
  • There is recent evidence that there is heritable variation in the environmental variance of a phenotype. (wur.nl)
  • Thus, we hypothesized that carotid IMT is a heritable phenotype, and we sought to test this hypothesis in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. (ahajournals.org)
  • Templeton and colleagues [ 20 , 21 ] found that the expression and association of the name-giving phenotype abnormal abdomen with other phenotypic traits that are affected by the same locus, varies across fly populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 4) The development, genetics and evolution of complex traits. (duke.edu)
  • This school of "biometricians" focused on continuous characteristics and Darwinian gradualism, and are arguably the forerunners of quantitative genetics. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Additional progress thus appears achievable with a more comprehensive understanding of the quantitative and qualitative genetics controlling this trait. (springer.com)
  • Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations may share genetic aetiologies. (cambridge.org)
  • In crop genetics, the formation of dynamic biological traits such as height, size and color are usually governed by multiple temporal and spatial factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fig. 1 Experimental design and quantitative genetics of larval heat tolerance. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a widely used tool to study the genetics of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • My research program studies this process of phenotypic evolution using approaches from evolutionary quantitative genetics, behavioural ecology, and life history theory. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Genomic approaches have accelerated the study of the quantitative genetics that underlie phenotypic variation. (plantcell.org)
  • To this end, I combine ideas and techniques from population, quantitative and molecular genetics, as well as life-history theory, and apply these to large-scale (individual-based) datasets for human and non-human animals. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • We examined heritable variation for quantitative traits within and between naturally occurring mesic and xeric ecotypes of the slender wild oat ( Avena barbata ), and in 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the ecotypes. (wiley.com)
  • Herein we report a linkage study of a six-generational pedigree of adult rats phenotyped for one dimension of impulsivity, namely premature responding on the five-choice serial reaction time task, combined with genome wide sequencing and transcriptome analysis to identify candidate genes associated with the expression of the impulsivity trait. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of longitudinal birth cohorts enable joint investigation of environmental and genetic influences on complex traits. (nih.gov)
  • Locations, on the GENOME, of GENES or other genetic elements that encode or control the expression of a quantitative trait (QUANTITATIVE TRAIT, HERITABLE). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Variation in gene expression is heritable and has been mapped to the genome in humans and model organisms as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Genetic factors that underlie traits such as height 1 and weight 2 are currently under scrutiny using genome wide association methods, yet the detection of genes predisposing to magic has been given relatively short shrift. (bmj.com)
  • Here, mRNA transcript abundance for each gene in the genome is treated as a trait for genetic mapping. (plantcell.org)
  • Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. (pnas.org)
  • The importance of maize within international agriculture motivates our central question: Which portions of the genome contribute to quantitative trait variation? (pnas.org)
  • This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Factor scores and monoamine levels were used in univariate genome linkage scans to identify quantitative trait loci influencing these phenotypes. (asp.org)
  • We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. (blogspot.com)
  • Collectively, our results show that hypomethylation at selected pericentromeric regions is sufficient to provide quantitative disease resistance, which is associated with genome-wide priming of defence-related genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Patterns of plant DNA methylation in the plant genome can remain stable over multiple generations and influence heritable phenotypes ( Quadrana and Colot, 2016 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have begun to systematically identify the genetic variants underlying heritable variation in quantitative traits. (columbia.edu)
  • Genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these quantitative trait loci that are highly associated with HbF but explain only 10% to 12% of the variance of HbF. (ahajournals.org)
  • [1] QTLs are mapped by identifying which molecular markers (such as SNPs or AFLPs ) correlate with an observed trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of QTLs which explain variation in the phenotypic trait indicates the genetic architecture of a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, QTLs underlie continuous traits (those traits which vary continuously, e.g. height) as opposed to discrete traits (traits that have two or several character values, e.g. red hair in humans, a recessive trait, or smooth vs. wrinkled peas used by Mendel in his experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, many QTLs are associated with a single trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another use of QTLs is to identify candidate genes underlying a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • LINE crossing is a common experimental design for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in plants and laboratory animals. (genetics.org)
  • Interval mapping was used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using recombinant inbred strains and F2 intercrosses between strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. (nervenet.org)
  • We have begun to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control normal variation in the architecture of eye, lens, and retina of laboratory mice (Williams et al. (nervenet.org)
  • Advances in phenotyping technology, as well as the development of methods for the analysis of longitudinal data have made possible the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the dynamics of a developmental trait. (frontiersin.org)
  • we suggested that much of the variation in retinal ganglion cell number in mice, and the striking bimodality of strain averages, are caused by one or two quantitative trait loci (QTLs). (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, single quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been shown to account for 20-40% of the variance in the height of corn and the weight of tomatoes ( Tanksley, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Perhaps most importantly, and presumably because of their unique genetic constitution, CSSs, and congenic strains derived from them, the genetic variants underlying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are readily identified and functionally characterized. (deepdyve.com)
  • Metabolic traits were less heritable than the average transcript trait, suggesting that there are differences in the power to detect QTLs between transcript and metabolite traits. (plantcell.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: In sib pair studies, quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification may be adversely affected by non-normality in the phenotypic distribution, particularly when subjects falling in the tails of the distribution bias the trait mean or variance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genes responsive to P supply had large environmental and heritable variance components. (plantphysiol.org)
  • I think the analogy between obesity and height is weakened by likely differences in the effect on the variance of the traits due to environmental changes. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Heritability is the proportion of trait variance within the population explainable by variance of genes. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The number of fingers you have on your hand is not heritable, because there's no real variance within the population of the trait. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The molecular structure and regulation of important genetic traits, identification of heritable genetic variance, including quantitative trai loci, effects on processing and food product quality (flour color, grain texture, etc.), and the means of efficiently measuring quality will be sought in consultation with the ADODR and published literature. (usda.gov)
  • Heritability is the proportion of variance in a host trait, such as height or body mass index (BMI), measured across a population, that is explained by genetic rather than environmental effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • There is recent evidence that the environmental variance of traits is under genetic control meaning that some genotypes have higher or smaller environmental variance, which would enable selection for increased uniformity. (wur.nl)
  • In the recent study of Han Mulder a quantitative genetic framework was developed to study non-linear relationships between traits, caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other trait, e.g. environmental variance of piglet birth weight and piglet survival. (wur.nl)
  • In addition, we developed a method to estimate mean-variance relationships between traits and applied it to piglet birth weight and survival. (wur.nl)
  • This indirect genetic effect is positively correlated with the direct genetic effect expressed in women, such that total heritable variance in this trait is doubled when heritable partner effects are considered. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • We also show that the contribution to heritability of gene-gene interactions varies among traits, from near zero to approximately 50 per cent. (nih.gov)
  • These results substantially advance our understanding of the missing heritability problem and have important implications for future studies of complex and quantitative traits. (nih.gov)
  • The debate between "blank-slate" denial of the influence of heritability, and the view admitting both environmental and heritable traits, has often been cast in terms of nature versus nurture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heritability allows a comparison of the relative importance of genes and environment to the variation of traits within and across populations. (edu.au)
  • Here, we report the influence of heritability and allelic effect of the quantitative trait locus on detection of cis- and trans-acting eQTLs and discuss how these factors operate in a tissue-specific context. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the ecotypes were genetically diverged for most traits, few traits showed significant heritable variation within either ecotype. (wiley.com)
  • Modern animal breeding is able to shape almost any quantitative trait with significant heritable variation in a population. (overcomingbias.com)
  • Castle's was perhaps the first attempt made in the scientific literature to direct evolution by artificial selection of a trait with continuous underlying variation, however the practice had previously been widely employed in the development of agriculture to obtain livestock or plants with favorable features from populations that show quantitative variation in traits like body size or grain yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact classical genetic methods often had difficulty perceiving traits with more than half dozen significant loci as anything but quantitative and continuous (consider pigmentation, which we know through genomic methods to vary across populations mostly due to half a dozen segregating genes or so). (discovermagazine.com)
  • CONTINUOUS phenotypic variation among individuals in natural populations is ubiquitous for most morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life history traits. (genetics.org)
  • These studies offer unique opportunities to elucidate the evolutionary forces that have shaped the patterns of genetic variation in humans, to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits, and to shed light on the mechanisms that lead to diverse phenotypes and disparate disease risks among populations. (stanford.edu)
  • Lipid traits exhibit considerable variation among populations of distinct ancestral origin as well as between individuals within a population. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate striking similarities in genetic architecture (loci influencing the trait, direction and magnitude of genetic effects, and proportions of phenotypic variation explained) of lipid traits across populations. (stanford.edu)
  • Gene expression is a quantitative trait that can be mapped genetically in structured populations to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Natural selection is expected to lead to evolution of fitness-related traits within populations provided that variation is due - at least in part - to genetic differences between individuals. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • To improve this understanding, we conducted expression quantitative trait locus ( eQTL ) mapping in the Tsu-1 (Tsushima, Japan) × Kas-1 (Kashmir, India) recombinant inbred line population of Arabidopsis thaliana across soil drying treatments. (plantcell.org)
  • Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) are genetic regions associated with variation in gene expression among individuals ( Kliebenstein, 2009 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Third, by combining eQTL analysis with trait analysis, putative candidate genes associated with traits can be identified indirectly by correlation analysis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The most significant eQTL tend to be cis-eQTL, which occur when a sequence polymorphism in a gene or promoter maps to quantitative variation in the gene transcript ( Kliebenstein, 2009 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is an approach to study the genetic component of transcriptomic variation between individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present a large-scale genetic association study of intelligence (n = 269,867), identifying 205 associated genomic loci (190 new) and 1,016 genes (939 new) via positional mapping, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, chromatin interaction mapping, and gene-based association analysis. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci ( r 2 = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, we have localized 2 major quantitative trait loci that influence variation in cholesterol concentrations of small LDL particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blood pressure (BP) is heritable and finding quantitative trait loci that influence BP is an important step in identifying genes responsible for BP regulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Breaking it down, if being very smart was much, much, better than being of average smarts, then everyone would become very smart up to the physiological limit and heritable genetic variation would be removed from the population. (gnxp.com)
  • This study was conducted to identify leaf mQTL in tomato and to assess the association of leaf metabolites and physiological traits with the metabolite levels from other tissues. (springer.com)
  • on the other hand, CpG-related mutations in SNPs would relate to genomic 'specificity' in evolution, thus, representing mutations that would associate with phenotypic traits relevant for speciation. (wur.nl)
  • Premature responding was found to be heritable (h(2) = 13-16%), with significant linkage (LOD 5.2) identified on chromosome 1. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • These findings demonstrate that (1) under the environmental circumstances of the current study, the greater blood pressure of SHR versus BN rats cannot be explained by strain differences in the renin gene and (2) a quantitative trait locus affecting lipid metabolism exists on chromosome 13 within the transferred chromosome segment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have previously mapped a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling F cell levels in an extended Asian-Indian kindred with beta thalassemia to a 1.5-Mb interval on chromosome 6q23, but the causative gene(s) are not known. (lu.se)
  • Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified four epigenetic quantitative trait loci (epiQTLs) that provide quantitative resistance without reducing plant growth or resistance to other (a)biotic stresses. (elifesciences.org)
  • The study showed a convincing evidence of genetic factors of epigenetic traits. (thebrf.org)
  • These surveys have revealed considerable phenotypic diversity even among closely related progenitor strains, evidence for strong epistasis and for heritable epigenetic changes. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sixty-six pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twin subjects and their parents were used in a sib-pair analysis to look for linkage of selected candidate genes to the quantitative trait BP. (asnjournals.org)
  • Examples of interest in this FOA are cis- and trans-acting variants in determining expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), tissue specific transcripts, identifying common transcripts in tissue clusters, and identifying allele-specific bias. (nih.gov)
  • The identification of genes whose expression is correlated with specific genetic variants (known as expression quantitative trait loci, or eQTLs) can serve as a tool to functionally characterize a disease-associated SNP and point to the underlying biological pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The same can be said of height, but it likely there are more "natural" constraints in terms of how tall the average population may get before environmental inputs exhibit diminishing returns (in this way height may be more of a threshold trait where a "good enough" environmental background can result in expression of full genetic potential). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. (sciencemag.org)
  • To describe the genetic regulation of variation in the Arabidopsis thaliana metabolome and test our ability to integrate unknown metabolites into biochemical networks, we conducted a replicated metabolomic analysis on 210 lines of an Arabidopsis population that was previously used for targeted metabolite quantitative trait locus (QTL) and global expression QTL analysis. (plantcell.org)
  • Multiple published studies have examined the associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation and microarray gene expression measurements to identify expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs ), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence gene expression [3] - [5] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These loci are called relationship loci, or relationship Quantitative Trait Loci (rQTL), and affect trait correlations by changing the expression of the existing genetic variation through gene interaction. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To date, most studies of natural variation and metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL) in tomato have focused on fruit metabolism, leaving aside the identification of genomic regions involved in the regulation of leaf metabolism. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ) and can therefore be considered as quantitative traits regulated by metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTL). (springer.com)
  • A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (wakehealth.edu)
  • For many traits, including susceptibility to common diseases in humans, causal loci uncovered by genetic-mapping studies explain only a minority of the heritable contribution to trait variation. (nih.gov)
  • The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from "nurture" was termed tabula rasa ("blank slate") by John Locke in 1690. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goals of her research are to better understand the evolutionary forces that have shaped the pattern of genetic variation in humans, as well as to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases in the context of human evolution. (stanford.edu)
  • Specifically, traits that serve different functions tend to be less correlated, as for instance forelimbs and hind limbs in bats and humans, compared with the limbs of quadrupedal mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops. (pnas.org)
  • In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • In crop genetic studies, the mapping of longitudinal data describing the spatio-temporal nature of agronomic traits can elucidate the factors influencing their formation and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • We establish a data-driven approach for understanding complex agronomic traits and accelerate research in plant breeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that genetic variation within open chromatin regions accounts for ∼40% of phenotypic variation in agronomic traits. (pnas.org)
  • A quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) is a region of DNA which is associated with a particular phenotypic trait , which varies in degree and which can be attributed to polygenic effects, i.e., the product of two or more genes , and their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suggested that these quantitative trait loci may be important for the subsequent detection of allelic variants for elevated BP. (asnjournals.org)
  • Such quantitative trait loci (QTL) could further the detection of allelic variants associated with elevated BP and thus be important in subsequent studies of hypertensive families or affected sib-pair analyses in hypertensive patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • The number, frequencies and effect sizes of these variants reflect the selection, and other evolutionary processes, acting on traits. (columbia.edu)
  • A visible trait is the final product of many molecular and biochemical processes. (princeton.edu)
  • The objectives of this cooperative research are to resolve the underlying molecular and genetic basis(es) of wheat grain quality, specifically traits that confer consumer acceptance and greater marketability. (usda.gov)
  • Understanding the molecular and genetic bases of complex traits like disease resistance, growth, and development is a unifying goal in diverse scientific fields. (plantcell.org)
  • However, the molecular bases of many quantitative traits remain unknown despite the long history of QTL identification ( Sax, 1923 ). (plantcell.org)
  • In particular, quantitative intermediate molecular phenotypes offer a powerful alternative to standard disease case-control studies. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The results predict that selection on rQTL leads to higher correlations among traits that are simultaneously under directional selection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • All these data suggest that correlation patterns among traits evolve in a predictable way and influence the evolvability of the affected traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Finally, as there is naturally occurring variation for (almost) all phenotypes, it is possible that quantitative genetic analysis can be used as a gene discovery tool by screening for segregating alleles in nature rather than for mutations. (genetics.org)
  • However, the most useful traits for genetic analysis are present in different forms in different individuals. (princeton.edu)
  • However, resolution of bristle number QTL to the level of genetic loci is not trivial, because the genomic regions containing bristle number QTL often did not contain obvious candidate loci, and results of quantitative complementation tests to mutations at candidate loci affecting adult bristle number were ambiguous. (genetics.org)
  • We used quantitative genetic, functional genomic, and quantitative trait loci analyses to address this question in Acropora millepora corals from thermally divergent locations separated by 5° of latitude: Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) and Orpheus Island (OI, Fig. 1A ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The renin gene itself has been identified as a QTL in the rat ( 5 ), hypertension (as a qualitative trait) has been linked to the angiotensinogen gene ( 6 , 7 ), and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 ) genes have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk ( 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We replicate most previously reported associations for these traits and identify nine new associations, several of which highlight genes with metabolic functions: high-density lipoprotein with NR1H3 (LXRA), low-density lipoprotein with AR and FADS1-FADS2, glucose with MTNR1B, and insulin with PANK1. (nih.gov)
  • From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, CSF was collected to measure metabolites of dopamine (HVA), serotonin (5-HIAA), and norepinephrine (MHPG), which were previously known to be heritable in this population. (asp.org)
  • It was previously thought that only changes to the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule could alter the traits passed on to future generations. (elifesciences.org)
  • Inheritance of quantitative traits such as this had not previously been observed in NKs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Previously, we showed that despite similar body size, Fischer 344 (F344) rats have significantly different skeletal traits compared with Lewis (LEW) rats. (galileo-training.com)
  • Our study thus suggests that much of the heritable variation in women's reproductive timing is mediated via partner effects, and that the evolutionary potential of this trait is far greater than previously appreciated. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The 2 quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3 and 4 are located in regions that contain the genes for apoD and the large subunit of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • [8] In an early summary of the theory of evolution of continuous variation, Sewall Wright , a graduate student who trained under Castle, summarized contemporary thinking about the genetic basis of quantitative natural variation: "As genetic studies continued, ever smaller differences were found to mendelize, and any character, sufficiently investigated, turned out to be affected by many factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common genetic polymorphisms-as opposed to rare mutations-generate almost all heritable differences in the size and structure of the CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Heritable differences in the resistance of chicken lines to Campylobacter colonization have been reported and resistance-associated quantitative trait loci are emerging, although their impact on colonization appears modest. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether heritable differences in colonization of inbred chicken lines by Campylobacter jejuni are associated with differences in cecal microbiota. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest that while heritable differences in avian resistance to Campylobacter colonization exist, these are not explained by significant variation in the cecal microbiota. (asm.org)
  • In the 20th century, this argument was in a way inverted, as some philosophers now argued that the evolutionary origins of human behavioral traits forces us to concede that there is no foundation for ethics ( J. L. Mackie ), while others treat ethics as a field in complete isolation from evolutionary considerations ( Thomas Nagel ). (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this we use ecological and quantitative genetic methods to test evolutionary theory in a wide range of empirical systems both in the lab and in the field. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Statistical model fitting is now commonly used to estimate which kind of evolutionary process best explains patterns of change through time using models like Brownian motion, stabilizing selection (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) and directional selection on traits measured from stratigraphic sequences or on phylogenetic trees. (palass.org)
  • Spatial variation interacts with evolutionary processes in ways that produce patterns of trait change that differ markedly from the expectations of standard statistical evolutionary models like Brownian motion, directional selection and adaptive peak (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) models. (palass.org)
  • Heritable spouse effects increase evolutionary potential of human reproductive timing. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Yet we have little knowledge of the role of male characteristics and their evolutionary impact on reproductive behavioural phenotypes, to the extent that biologists typically consider component traits (e.g. reproductive timing) as female-specific. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • For early geneticists, it was not immediately clear that the smooth variation in traits like body size (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Range expansions and contractions introduce rate variability into drift processes, range expansion under a drift model can drive directional change in trait evolution, and spatial selection gradients can create spatial variation in traits that can produce long‐term directional trends and punctuation events depending on the balance between selection strength, gene flow, extirpation probability and model of speciation. (palass.org)
  • The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. (frontiersin.org)
  • The best source of resistance to FHB is a complex, quantitative trait derived from the wheat cv. (apsnet.org)
  • Bobwhite, confers a heritable, type II resistance to FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum . (apsnet.org)
  • More specifically, the invention includes a method for breeding soybean plants containing quantitative trait loci that are associated with resistance to Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), a fungal disease associated with Phakopsora. (google.com.au)
  • The invention further includes germplasm and the use of germplasm containing quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring disease resistance for introgression into elite germplasm in a breeding program for resistance to ASR. (google.com.au)
  • Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, NAb may be a key trait when evaluating an animal's potential natural disease resistance. (efeedlink.com)
  • Health parameters currently used in dairy cattle breeding programs consider milk quality related traits, including somatic cell count or score (SCC or SCS) and clinical mastitis resistance, as well as claw related health parameters, and metabolic disorders, such as ketosis. (efeedlink.com)
  • 22 ] documented genetic variation in correlation of phenotypic traits in yeast, causing varying degrees of rust coloration being associated with different degrees of drug resistance. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Lack of correlation among these factors represents the release of multivariate trait variation through recombination. (wiley.com)
  • Many discrete genes of moderate to small effect upon a trait can produce a continuous distribution via the central limit theorem . (discovermagazine.com)
  • Continuous variation for such "quantitative" traits results jointly from the simultaneous segregation of multiple genes [or quantitative trait loci (QTL)] affecting the trait, each of which has effects too small to be perceived over the noise of segregation of the remaining QTL, and effects of environmental variation, which further blur the distinction between genotypes ( F alconer and M ackay 1996 ). (genetics.org)
  • In this respect, variation in ganglion cell number is a typical complex trait displaying continuous variation over a wide range. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both the dichotomous and continuous traits studied above are based on LDL particle size distributions rather than concentrations. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is broadly accepted, however, that phenotypic variation is not uniformly distributed among phenotypic traits, some traits tend to covary, while others vary independently, and again others barely vary at all. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Still, it would be almost thirty years until the theoretical framework for evolution of complex traits would be widely formalized. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has several lines of research ongoing in his laboratory that on the surface may look independent from one another, but all share a conceptual interest in understanding how complex traits arise through, and are affected by, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. (duke.edu)
  • Complex traits are those whose variation is affected by many genes and environmental factors and whose inheritance does not follow Mendel's laws. (duke.edu)
  • This work attempts to reconstruct complex traits through mathematical models of the genetic and developmental processes by which they originate, and uses these models to study the effects of mutation and selection. (duke.edu)
  • Genetic variation in complex traits is thought to be generated by large numbers of loci that usually have comparatively small effects on phenotypes ( Lande, 1981 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Genes and regulatory networks underlying complex traits can subsequently be inferred. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Shiroishi, Toshihiko 2012-09-08 00:00:00 Laboratory mice are valuable in biomedical research in part because of the extraordinary diversity of genetic resources that are available for studies of complex genetic traits and as models for human biology and disease. (deepdyve.com)
  • To avoid a loss in statistical power as a result of homozygous individuals being selected as parents of a mapping population, one can use multiple families of line crosses for quantitative trait genetic linkage analysis. (genetics.org)
  • We address the question of whether one can obtain increased power for finding a quantitative trait locus (QTL) if a gene x environment (G x E) interaction is incorporated directly into the linkage analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In multipoint linkage analyses with quantitative trait loci for the 4 fraction sizes, only LDL-3, a fraction containing small LDL particles, gave peak multipoint log 10 odds in favor of linkage (LOD) scores that exceeded 3.0, a nominal criterion for evidence of significant linkage. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 18 The evidence for these linkages has not been strong, with only the linkage of the dichotomous trait QTL to the LDL receptor locus 14 having a log 10 odds in favor of linkage (LOD) score that exceeded 3, a nominal criterion for significant evidence of linkage. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study is the first to show significant linkage associated with heritable temperamental factors or dimensions in baboons. (asp.org)
  • 2015 ). Moreover, several studies suggest that metabolite levels are heritable and might be controlled by multiple genes (Schauer et al. (springer.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 28565232 Heritabilities and evolvabilities for morphological traits were compared between two environments in Drosophila melanogaster using parent-offspring comparisons. (jove.com)
  • The best documented pattern is called morphological integration as identified by Olson & Miller [ 5 ], where functionally related traits tend to be more strongly correlated than functionally less-related traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By reducing aetiological complexity, genetic analyses of breast cancer intermediate phenotypes should have increased power to detect trait associations. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Contrary to the usual neo-Darwinian theory, in this model, new heritable phenotypic variation is produced along the selected dimension in response to directional selection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • On the other hand, traits that are not simultaneously under directional selection are predicted to evolve lower correlations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We report GWAS results for nine quantitative metabolic traits (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), drawn from the most genetically isolated Finnish regions. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of these QTL reveals significant enrichment of iron homeostasis genes, suggesting genetic background mediates the relationship between iron metabolism and metabolic traits (Additional file 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spatial processes such as dispersal, gene flow and geographical range changes can produce patterns of trait evolution that do not fit the expectations of standard models, even when evolution at the local‐population level is governed by drift or a typical OU model of selection. (palass.org)
  • Furthermore, it is well established that patterns of trait variation differ among species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Dicenta F, García JE (1992) Phenotypical correlations among some traits in almond. (springer.com)
  • Recently, a novel class of genetic elements has been identified in mouse gene-mapping studies that modify correlations among quantitative traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Quantitative Trait, Heritable" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)