Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Unlike other assays, this test provides quantitative measurements of allergen levels in food products in absolute units. ... "The major peanut allergen Ara h 1 and its cleaved-off N-terminal peptide; possible implications for peanut allergen detection ... Commercial assays express peanut components in parts per million (ppm) by comparison with a standard extract. This make the ... Hefle SL, Bush RK, Yunginger JW, Chu FS (1994). "A sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of ...
Evaluation of large scale quantitative proteomic assay development using peptide affinity-based mass spectrometry. 2011 Apr;10( ... peptide), the target peptide can serve as a direct quantitative surrogate for the target protein (assuming the digestion ... SISCAPA assays can be combined into multiplex panels without cross-assay interference. Panels combining 22, 50, and 150 assays ... Developing multiplexed assays for troponin I and interleukin-33 in plasma by peptide immunoaffinity enrichment and targeted ...
This assay isolates the N-terminal peptides by removing the internal tryptic peptides via ultrafiltration leaving the labeled ... Terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS) is a method in quantitative proteomics that identifies the protein ... internal tryptic peptides). TAILS isolates the N-terminal peptides by identifying and removing the internal tryptic peptides. ... TAILS is a 2D or 3D proteomics based assay for the labeling and isolation of N-terminal peptides, developed by a group at the ...
... be expected to occur in the assay as cells growing slowly or not at all during the initial exposure to antimicrobial peptides ... The method of enumeration of surviving cells used by VCC is termed quantitative growth kinetics (QGK). It relates the kinetic ... If all other processes causing increases in Tt are negligible, the VCC assay becomes a bactericidal assay and Tt can be used to ... Peptides. 26 (12): 2377-83. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.06.002. PMID 16009464. Wu Z, Li X, de Leeuw E, Ericksen B, Lu W (2005 ...
... the abundance of the target peptide in the experimental sample is compared to that of the heavy peptide and back-calculated to ... which can be used with a standard curve assay to quantify the presence of Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine. However, ... Protein mass spectrometry Quantitative dot blot Ong SE, Mann M (2005). "Mass spectrometry-based proteomics turns quantitative ... A mathematically rigorous approach that integrates peptide intensities and peptide-measurement agreement into confidence ...
Initially, nonspecific assays were applied to measuring drugs in biological fluids. These were unable to discriminate between ... However, the past twenty years has seen an increase in biopharmaceuticals (e.g. proteins and peptides), which have been ... Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their ... The 1930s also saw the rise of pharmacokinetics, and as such the desire for more specific assays. Modern drugs are more potent ...
... proteomics has moved past rapid protein identification and has developed into a biological assay for quantitative analysis of ... 100 years of peptide synthesis': ligation methods for peptide and protein synthesis with applications to beta-peptide ... These assays include top agar overlay assays where antibiotics generate zones of growth inhibition against test microbes, and ... While chemists have been making peptides for over 100 years, the ability to efficiently and quickly synthesize short peptides ...
The peptides derive from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is cleaved by beta secretase and gamma secretase to yield A ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta. ... "Quantitative Analysis of Amyloid Deposition in Alzheimer Disease Using PET and the Radiotracer ¹¹C-AZD2184". Journal of Nuclear ... The γ secretase, which produces the C-terminal end of the Aβ peptide, cleaves within the transmembrane region of APP and can ...
Another quantitative approach is the Accurate Mass and Time (AMT) tag approach developed by Richard D. Smith and coworkers at ... The clinical plasma proteome: a survey of clinical assays for proteins in plasma and serum. Anderson NL. Clin Chem. 2010 Feb;56 ... These methods offer various advantages, for instance they are often able to determine the sequence of a protein or peptide, ... Quantitative variability of 342 plasma proteins in a human twin population. Liu Y1, Buil A2, Collins BC3, Gillet LC3, Blum LC3 ...
ISBN 978-0-470-47131-9. Gary, Ronald K. "Quantitative assay of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in mammalian cell ... This enzyme can be split in two peptides, LacZα and LacZΩ, neither of which is active by itself but when both are present ... Gary RK, Kindell SM (August 2005). "Quantitative assay of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity in mammalian cell ... Specific quantitative assays were even developed for its detection. However, it is now known that this is due to an ...
In S. scabies the precursor peptide, termed BtmD, is a 44-amino acid peptide. The precursor peptide is termed BmbC in S. ... No biochemical assays directly demonstrating protein function have yet been published. It is likely that in vitro mechanistic ... although quantitative data was not reported. A full rendering of the synthetic scheme may be seen under the collapsed synthetic ... In ribosomal peptide synthesis, the final product results from modifications to a linear peptide starting material translated ...
The CMV pp65 assay is widely used for monitoring CMV infections and its response to antiviral treatment in patients who are ... Both qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for CMV are available as well, allowing physicians to ... Further cytomegalovirus vaccines candidates are the CMV-MVA Triplex vaccine and the CMVpp65-A*0201 peptide vaccine. Both ... The major disadvantage of the pp65 assay is that only limited number of samples can be processed per test batch. CMV should be ...
Commonly, peptides, antibodies, or small ligands, and small protein domains, such as HER-2 affibodies, have been applied to ... Yielding both qualitative and quantitative data, they are usually relatively comfortable for patients. When combined with other ... Apart from genomics and proteomics platforms biomarker assay techniques, metabolomics, lipidomics, glycomics, and secretomics ... These ACPAs, (ACPA stands for Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibody) can be detected in the blood before the first ...
... , or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a high-resolution and a highly ... For example, Li chloride caused a reduction in protein synthesis and hence the level of amyloid-β peptides, however, this ... conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to characterized polyacrylamide substrates for cell mechanotransduction assays". ... High protein yield and purity are the bottleneck of quantitative protein analysis in biological samples. QPNC-PAGE is a unique ...
The assay principle of peptide microarrays is similar to an ELISA protocol. The peptides (up to tens of thousands in several ... This quantitative data is the basis for performing statistical analysis on measured binding events or peptide modifications on ... A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed ... However, peptide synthesis on chip allows the parallel synthesis of tens of thousands of peptides providing larger peptide ...
For many assays, different assay techniques are available. For monitoring it is important that the same assay is used as the ... On the basis of their chemical nature tumor markers can be proteins, conjugated proteins, peptides or carbohydrates. Proteins ... Microscopic visualization in tissue by immunohistochemistry does not give quantitative results and is not considered here. ... Every laboratory should verify the precision and accuracy of the assays with the instruments and personnel used. The high dose ...
"Antimicrobial Peptides for Detection of Bacteria in Biosensor Assays". Analytical Chemistry. 77 (19): 6504-6508. doi:10.1021/ ... "Real time quantitative analysis of lipid disordering by aurein 1.2 during membrane adsorption, destabilisation and lysis". ... including antimicrobial peptides, in a protein sequence PeptideRanker Bioactive peptide, including antimicrobial peptide, ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all ...
The Bombesin peptide has been shown to be overexpressed in BB2 receptors in prostate cancer. CB-TE2A a stable chelation system ... Thus, PET scans utilizing copper isotopes offer quantitative measurements and are suitable for use in regional renal perfusion ... in rat liver was investigated by utilizing a gel electrophoresis assay for the detection of SOD. It was shown that 64Cu did in ... To better understand the in vivo stability of peptide conjugated CB-TE2A and Cu-TETA, cross-bridged monoamides were synthesized ...
Indirect assay based on quantitative response[edit]. - The relationship between the dose and the response is first ascertained. ... "Peptides. 72: 4-15. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.04.012.. *^ a b Bioanalytical chemistry. Manz, A. (Andreas), Dittrich, Petra S ... Indirect assay based on quantal response[edit]. - The assay involves 'all or none' response (ex. life or death).[2] The ... ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)[edit]. - quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from ...
Schmidt recognized there needed to be a quantitative measure with which to score the painfulness of stings. Assays for toxicity ... MCD peptide destroys mast cells. Feeling only slight pain, Schmidt has described the sting of the Anthophorid bee, categorized ... and MCD peptide. Melittin is the main toxin of bee venom, and it damages red blood cells and white blood cells. Apamin is a ... a paralyzing neurotoxic peptide. Schmidt describes the sting of warrior wasp as "Torture. You are chained in the flow of an ...
In the BCA assay, a protein's peptide bonds quantitatively reduce Cu2+ to Cu1+, which produces a light blue color. BCA chelates ... Quantitative TEM results will often be greater than results from other assays as all particles, regardless of infectivity, are ... The focus forming assay (FFA) is a variation of the plaque assay, but instead of relying on cell lysis in order to detect ... Total assay time is 30 minutes to one hour. While this assay is ubiquitous and fast, it lacks specificity since it counts all ...
Debio Peptide Award of the 22nd European Peptide Symposium for the development of novel selective antitumor peptide hormones ( ... ASSAY AND DRUG DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGIES 3: 543-551, 2005) Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces ... Proteomics strategy for quantitative protein interaction profiling in cell extracts (co-author, NATURE METHODS 6: 741-744,2009 ... He was involved in the development of a signal-inhibiting somatostatin peptide compound (TT-232), which reached Phase II ...
In 2016 a synthetic peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO) was found to inhibit the expression of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase, an ... Splice modification can be conveniently assayed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and is seen as a ... Kamachi, Y; Okuda Y; Kondoh H (2008). "Quantitative Assessment of the Knockdown Efficiency of Morpholino Antisense ... Morcos, PA; Li YF; Jiang S (2008). "Vivo-Morpholinos: A non-peptide transporter delivers Morpholinos into a wide array of mouse ...
Olive DM (October 2004). "Quantitative methods for the analysis of protein phosphorylation in drug development". Expert Rev ... However, the analysis of phosphorylated peptides by mass spectrometry is still not as straightforward as for "regular", ... "A cell-based immunocytockemical assay for monitoring kinase signaling pathways and drug efficacy" (PDF). Anal. Biochem. 338 (1 ... Trinidad JC, Thalhammer A, Specht CG, Lynn AJ, Baker PR, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL (April 2008). "Quantitative analysis of ...
Transcription activator assay used to verify sgRNA/Cas9 complex targeting activity, and the proper integrity of the added RNA ... The quantitative yields of intact lncRNA domains are, however, recovered relative to the respective sgRNA. Therefore, construct ... and inability to distinguish lncRNA function from other confounding factors like cryptically encoded peptides or functional DNA ... Transient reporter assays followed by confirmation with RNA Immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-qPCR) showed that all the three ...
"Quantitative determination of human aldose reductase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoassay of human aldose ... cellular response to peptide. • daunorubicin metabolic process. • doxorubicin metabolic process. • maternal process involved in ...
... of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide ... results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide ... RNA isolation and quantitative real time PCR. Total RNA was isolated with NucleoSpin RNA kit (Macherey-Nagel, Düren, Germany) ... The protein content of supernatants was analyzed by utilizing a bio rad protein assay dye reagent based on the Bradford dye ...
Quantitative Peptide Assays to Measure Cancer-Relevant Proteins in Plasma. Susan E. Abbatiello, Birgit Schilling, D. R. Mani, ... Quantitative Peptide Assays to Measure Cancer-Relevant Proteins in Plasma. Susan E. Abbatiello, Birgit Schilling, D. R. Mani, ... Large-Scale Interlaboratory Study to Develop, Analytically Validate and Apply Highly Multiplexed, Quantitative Peptide Assays ... Large-Scale Interlaboratory Study to Develop, Analytically Validate and Apply Highly Multiplexed, Quantitative Peptide Assays ...
The assembly assay contrasts with solid-phase assays in being more discriminating (fewer peptides binding any given class I ... We have applied this assay to H-2Db, Kb and HLA-A2.1 with a panel of 49 overlapping peptides derived from HIV-1 gag protein. We ... find that the effects of peptide on assembly form a continuous distribution. By defining positives as those that increase the ... molecule), and showing less overlap in the patterns of peptides bound by the three class I molecules. ...
Previously, a novel antimicrobial peptide, melectin, consisting of 18 amino acids was isolated from the venom of a bee, Melecta ... Antimicrobial peptides have attracted attention as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. ... Cytotoxicity Assay. The MTT assay was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of the peptide as previously described37. The ... RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Human dermal fibroblasts (5 × 105 cell/mL) were seeded into a 6-well ...
Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ Quantitative Fluorometric Peptide Assay Kit Measure total peptide concentration by a mix-and-read ... Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ Quantitative Colorimetric Peptide Assay Kit Measure total peptide concentration by a colorimetic ... RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools RNAi, Oligos, Assays, Gene Editing & Gene Synthesis Tools Oligos ... Thermo Scientific™ Pierce™ Peptide Retention Time Calibration Mixture. 15 synthetic heavy peptides mixed in equimolar ratio to ...
Peptide pull-down assays. The protocol for the peptide pull-down assay was modified from a previous description (Gong et al., ... Quantitative RT-PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed as previously described (Gong et al., 2015). Primers used in this study ... 2). In addition, it contains peptide pull-down assays as in Fig. 3 A with additional peptides and different conditions. Fig. S3 ... We reproduced these results using peptide pull-down assays of both unmodified and modified H3 peptides, finding in addition ...
... peptide) quantitation, sample preparation, instrument calibration and QC, and plasma protein binding assays. ... or absolute quantitation for targeted applicaitons by using SureQuant Targeted MS assays or Heavypeptide AQUA custom peptides. ... Reagents, kits and devices that enable robust and reproducible protein extraction, enrichment, clean-up, digestion, peptide ... and peptide clean-up. Our calibration solutions, standards and solvents are optimized for instrument calibration and QC. Use ...
The assay is much simpler than existing assays, because it is a single-stage clotting assay performed almost identically to a ... It is also considerably more sensitive than current assays for factor VIIa in plasma. Since the tTF assay is calibrated against ... As a result, the tTF assay for factor VIIa is free from interference from factor VII in the plasma and is therefore specific ... An assay for activated factor VII (factor VIIa) has been developed using truncated tissue factor (tTF), a soluble mutant form ...
Applications of a Bioluminescent Peptide Tag: Simple, Quantitative Protein Detection Down to Endogenous Levels. Cell-Based ... How to Integrate Cellular Metabolism Assays Into Your Research: Considerations and Challenges. Cell-Based Assays. ... reproducible and precise assays, and discuss which assays may be best for your product and development program. ... In this webinar, we will discuss available options for simple and efficient knock-in of a bioluminescent peptide tag to enable ...
... ranges of affinity and specificity of anti-histone antibodies revealed by a quantitative peptide immunoprecipitation assay. ... ranges of affinity and specificity of anti-histone antibodies revealed by a quantitative peptide immunoprecipitation assay, ... ranges of affinity and specificity of anti-histone antibodies revealed by a quantitative peptide immunoprecipitation assay. ... ranges of affinity and specificity of anti-histone antibodies revealed by a quantitative peptide immunoprecipitation assay. / ...
... specificity for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase using a quantitative in vivo assay ... A hydrophobic peptide that is interrupted by an arginine is critical for GPI-T recognition. The dramatic differences observed ... each assay was conducted using 1.0 absorbance unit of cells. In a typical assay, the appropriate volume of cell culture was ... INV assays. Each S. cerevisiae strain, containing a different INV-encoding plasmid, was grown at 30°C in minimal medium (3.35 g ...
Houseman, Benjamin T., et al.; Towards quantitative assays with peptide chips: a surface engineering approach; TRENDS in ... If the CNT-Au-substrate peptide complex where the substrate peptide of a kinase enzyme is bound to the surface of CNTs as shown ... shows a CNT-Au-substrate peptide complex where substrate peptide (SP) of a kinase having thiol functional group is immobilized ... shows a CNT-Au-substrate peptide complex where a kinase substrate peptide having a thiol functional group is immobilized to ...
Develop human PeptideAtlas (from tryptic digests or synthetic peptides). Develop human SRMAtlas (verified quantitative assays) ... Over the next couple of weeks, they develop two different 96-well plate assays; a ligand binding assay and a kinetic assay. The ... its a very straightforward assay. The kinetic assay is a colorimetric acetylcholinesterase assay which uses the Ellman ... The platform is capable of rapidly processing hundreds of crude peptide samples to create multiplexed assays, generating ...
LUC Activity Assays. Relative LUC levels were determined by the ratio of fLUC activity to rLUC activity. The LUC activities ... Quantitative PCR Analysis. Total RNA was isolated from 10-d-old seedlings (var Col-0) subjected to transient transformation. ... Detailed analysis of the SC-peptide suggests that it functions as an attenuator peptide. Results suggest that the SC-peptide ... Suc Repression Depends on Conserved Amino Acids of the SC-Peptide. The amino acid sequence of the peptide encoded by uORF2b is ...
The peptide is derived from a pathogenic agent or a tumour antigen. The adjuvant is capable of increasing the binding of the ... peptide to the cells of the individual to be treated or of increasing the entry of the peptide into the cells and strengthening ... the immunomodulatory activity of the peptide. Preferred adjuvants are basic polyamino acids such as polyarginine or polylysine ... Pharmaceutical composition containing at least one peptide or protein (fragment) with an immunomodulatory activity together ...
A High Throughput MHC II Binding Assay for Quantitative Analysis of Peptide Epitopes, Light-mediated Formation and Patterning ... Simplify and Enhance Peptide Detection for Clinical Mass Spectrometry, Use of Interferon-γ Enzyme-linked Immunospot Assay to ... and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation, Overlapping Peptide Library to Map Qa-1 ... Formation of Ordered Biomolecular Structures by the Self-assembly of Short Peptides, Peptide and Protein Quantification Using ...
Gene regulatory responses of S. epidermidis to the antimicrobial peptide hBD3. (A) Quantitative RT-PCR of selected genes from ... Killing assays of WT, aps deletion, genetically complemented, and respective control strains with the cloning vector are shown. ... corresponding sample without peptide. For most peptides, concentrations were the same as for hBD3 (2 μM, which is ≈10 μg/ml for ... Gram-positive three-component antimicrobial peptide-sensing system. Min Li, Yuping Lai, Amer E. Villaruz, David J. Cha, Daniel ...
We therefore developed an alternate quantitative assay. In HeLa Kb cells stably transfected with ICP47, endogenous peptides are ... Peptide trimming assays. Peptides were synthesized by Sigma-Aldrich and were ,80% by MS analysis. Peptides (100 μM) were ... Time course of peptide digestion (A). XS-L peptides, differing only in their N-terminal residue (X), were incubated with ... Peptide size selection by the major histocompatibility complex-encoded peptide transporter. J. Exp. Med. 179: 1613-1623. ...
RAC-1 (also known as RAC1) gene expression was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. ... H oxidase activation was assayed by lucigenin. Membrane and cytoplasmic levels of the NAD(P)H subunit ras-related C3 botulinum ... C-peptide reduces high-glucose-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells and decreases NAD(P)H-oxidase reactive oxygen species ... C-peptide significantly decreased caspase-3 levels and activity and upregulated production of the anti-apoptotic factor B cell ...
Isoaspartate Detection Kit is intended for quantitative detection of isoaspartic acid residues in proteins and peptides. ... Quantitative Detection of Isoaspartic Acid Residues in Proteins and Peptides. *Monitor Protein Deamidation during Storage and ... charge heterogeneity does not interfere with the assay. The ISOQUANT® Kit can be used on peptides or proteins such as ... Isoaspartate Detection Kit is intended for quantitative detection of isoaspartic acid residues in proteins and peptides, which ...
2015 certified Peptide Synthesis Company. We are offering peptide synthesis, custom peptide synthesis, Free peptide ... peak intensities in MALDI spectra are not necessarily quantitative. For this reason all non-crude peptides are analyzed by ... Binding and functional assay studies. *Epitope mapping Structure, dynamics, and folding of peptides and proteins via NMR ... Peptide sequencing. We offer a variety of peptide synthesis services . From micro to macro high throughput peptide arrays and ...
Our technical advance in plasma native peptide analysis successfully identified a hard-to-detect bioactive peptide, salusin-β, ... In the strictest sense, the discovery of bioactive peptides is not complete until their exact native sequences have been ... and further suggests that conventional immunological measurements of target peptides may not be fully representative. ... Salusin-β is an endogenous parasympathomimetic proatherosclerotic peptide. Salusin-β was initially predicted from bioinformatic ...
Surprisingly, other peptides from closer taxonomic clades have very little or no effect on plant protection. In vitro bioassays ... Surprisingly, other peptides from closer taxonomic clades have very little or no effect on plant protection. In vitro bioassays ... Recently, many of these peptides have been described as defense elicitors, termed phytocytokines, that are released upon pest ... In the present study, exogenous peptides from solanaceous species, Systemins and HypSys, are sensed and induce resistance to ...
In vitro assays.. Spleen and lymph nodes were collected from untreated or treated mice. Total cells were incubated with ... FoxP3 quantitative PCR.. Total RNA was extracted with Eurozol (Euroclone, Lugano, Switzerland), and cDNA was synthesized with a ... Ovalbumin peptide 323-339 (OVA; Primm, Milan, Italy) emulsified in complete Freunds adjuvant (Difco, Detroit, MI) was injected ... Relative levels of mRNA FoxP3 were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in total splenocytes or total renal lymph nodes ...
2006) Quantitative mass spectrometric multiple reaction monitoring assays for major plasma proteins. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 5, ... Characterization of TXP Antibody Epitope Using Positional Scanning Peptide Libraries in Peptide Capture Assay. Peptide arrays ... Peptide Capture Assay. To evaluate capture specificity positional scanning libraries of AMTR and LGYR, peptides were incubated ... All peak areas of the peptides captured from the peptide library were normalized to the peak area of the peptide sequence ...
  • In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses. (peerj.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide ( CAMP ) gene expression. (peerj.com)
  • The uORF2 element encodes a Suc control peptide (SC-peptide) of 28 residues that is sufficient for imposing Suc-induced repression of translation (SIRT) on a heterologous mRNA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • When databases of known presented peptides were analyzed, the residues that were preferred for the trimming of model peptide precursors were found to be overrepresented in N-terminal flanking sequences of epitopes generally. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the groove also interacts with the amino (N) and carboxy (C) terminal groups of the epitope, thus limiting antigenic peptides to a length of 8, 9, or 10 residues, depending on the particular MHC I molecule ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although TAP efficiently translocates peptides between 8 and 16 residues long ( 18 ), it is often more efficient in transporting N-extended precursors than mature epitopes ( 19 , 20 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell binding results indicated that peptide interaction was mediated by a limited number of amino acids that were influenced by locally situated residues. (mit.edu)
  • To address these structure-function issues, multimers of a 12-residue lytic base unit (LBU) peptide composed only of Arg and Val residues aligned to form idealized amphipathic helices were designed. (asm.org)
  • Noncompetitive immunoassays are advantageous over competitive assays for the detection of small molecular weight compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • We recently demonstrated that phage peptide libraries can be an excellent source of immunoreagents that facilitate the development of sandwich-type noncompetitive immunoassays for the detection of small analytes, avoiding the technical challenges of producing anti-immunocomplex antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, we demonstrate that an oligonucleotide-linked, long-wavelength cFRET configuration has energy transfer similar to an analogous peptide-linked configuration, where the oligonucleotide-linked cFRET configuration can be combined with toehold-mediated strand displacement for the multiplexed detection of unlabeled nucleic acid targets as a single vector. (rsc.org)
  • Described are assay methods, modules and kits useful in the detection, treatment and/or prevention of dementia and related conditions, including but not. (patents.com)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection due to their high sensitivity and throughput. (hindawi.com)
  • ADA is then released from the beads and subjected to trypsin digestion followed by LC/MS detection of specific universal peptides for each ADA isotype. (hindawi.com)
  • Traditional multiple SRM experiments suffer from a compromise between high-sensitivity detection and rigorous peptide verification. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Both the assays elucidated a qualitative and quantitative detection of the pure culture pathogens. (scialert.net)
  • In the gene detection assay, Lipopolysaccharide gene of Salmonella , V. cholera and E. coil were hybridized to anti-LPS factor gene found in the biolysate of the marine animals. (scialert.net)
  • This showed that the new assay format provides robust acDrug as well as total antibody concentration to study in vitro stability of the TDC in multiple matrices and in vivo pharmacokinetic models of TDC in rat and mouse. (springer.com)
  • The evidence that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides contribute to innate immunity in vivo is based on their expression pattern and in vitro activity against microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, the data demonstrate that expression of an antimicrobial peptide by gene transfer results in augmentation of the innate immune response, providing support for the hypothesis that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides protect against microorganisms in vivo. (asm.org)
  • In fact, evidence that antimicrobial peptides actually contribute to innate immunity in vivo is largely indirect. (asm.org)
  • 3 ] reported that the anti-cancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), purified from goat spleens that were immunized with human gastric cancer extracts, significantly inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and gastric tumor growth in vivo, indicating that therapeutic peptides may represent a powerful anti-cancer tool. (biomedcentral.com)
  • providing quantitative data that this peptide is suitable for in vivo anti-MOG (35-55) autoantibody study. (hum-molgen.org)
  • The active processed forms of the human AMP dermcidin, DCD-1 and DCD-1L, represent peptides with noticeable alternatives to these strategies aimed at circumventing bacterial resistance, inasmuch as in these peptides, the typical cationic charge of the AMPs is replaced by a negative net charge ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus lentiviral lytic peptide 1 with other host-derived peptides indicates that antimicrobial properties of membrane-active peptides are markedly influenced by their cationic, hydrophobic, and amphipathic properties. (asm.org)
  • As a result, hundreds of different natural cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with widely varying sequences have been described. (asm.org)
  • Diverse assay formats and reagents have been developed that measure specific aspects of cell viability corresponding to particular cellular response pathways and mechanisms of injury. (biotek.com)
  • To date several hundred anti-peptide antibody reagents have been developed for enrichment of tryptic peptides from sample digests, mainly for established clinical biomarkers (,SISCAPA website) and cancer research targets, but these do not yet cover a majority of protein targets of interest in non-cancer research or clinical contexts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Infinite® 200 PRO with Gas Control Module (GCM™) will also be on display, providing an ideal solution for customers interested in cell-based assays, as well as our broad portfolio of Tecan Cavro® brand components for OEM customers. (issuu.com)
  • Automated imaging tools can provide valuable information for improving routine cell culturing techniques and increasing the effectiveness and reproducibility of downstream cell-based assays. (biotek.com)
  • Special focus will be given to the development and validation of potency assays, developing bioassays for multi-domain proteins, and establishing a standard for using cell-based vs. non-cell-based assays. (pegsummit.com)
  • Our technical advance in plasma native peptide analysis successfully identified a hard-to-detect bioactive peptide, salusin-β, together with its formerly unrecognized fragments, and further suggests that conventional immunological measurements of target peptides may not be fully representative. (nature.com)
  • We are in the process of successfully identifying plasma native peptides using LC-MS/MS 24 , 25 , and unveiling a variety of fragments and precursors of many classical bioactive/biomarker peptides in the human peripheral circulation. (nature.com)
  • New tools are available to test for fragments of gluten - Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIPs) in urine and stool. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, efforts to optimize enzymatic pathways for commercial production are limited by the throughput of assays for quantifying metabolic intermediates and end products. (sciencemag.org)
  • We developed a multiplexed method for profiling CoA-dependent pathways that uses a cysteine-terminated peptide to covalently capture CoA-bound metabolites. (sciencemag.org)
  • To test for clustering of BLAST hits within functional annotated pathways, the top 10 hits for each peptide (5,000 hits total) were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peptide disruptors of PKA localization that mimic this helix have been used successfully to assess the involvement of PKA in specific signaling pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The assembly assay contrasts with solid-phase assays in being more discriminating (fewer peptides binding any given class I molecule), and showing less overlap in the patterns of peptides bound by the three class I molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • His recent research has focused on the design and implementation of innovative algorithms to enable proteogenomic data analysis, pattern-based discovery of proteomic biomarker candidates, evaluation of data quality, assessment of variability and reproducibility in mass spectrometry based assays, and data visualization. (broadinstitute.org)
  • COMMENT This new method could enhance efforts to develop informative biomarker assays for AD and related neurodegenerative diseases. (alzforum.org)
  • Microarrays designed for proteomic scale kinase profiling, quantitative measurement of kinase kinetic activities, and drug discovery research built on the flexible and powerful Paraflo microfluidic on-chip synthesis platform. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sarkes DA, Dorsey BL, Finch AS, Stratis-Cullum DN (2015) Method for Discovery of Peptide Reagents Using a Commercial Magnetic Separation Platform and Bacterial Cell Surface Display Technology. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we have developed a methodology for bacterial cell sorting using the semi-automated autoMACS® Pro Separator for the first time, and have produced a complete method for sorting of bacteria displaying 15-mer peptides on their cell surface using this device, including downstream bioinformatic analysis of candidates for binding to a target of interest. (omicsonline.org)
  • Peptide candidates produced with this method contained the previously reported PA consensus WXCFTC, further validating this method and the commercially available autoMACS® platform as the first low cost, semi-automated biopanning approach for bacterial display that is widely accessible and more reliable than the MACS/FACS standard protocol. (omicsonline.org)
  • As compared with yeast and phage display, bacterial display is ideal because of the fast doubling time of bacteria, about 20 minutes for Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) [ 7 ] versus about 2 hours for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( S. cerevisiae ) [ 8 , 9 ], and direct amplification of the bound bacterial cells containing plasmid DNA encoding the displayed peptide responsible for binding, without elution and reinfection. (omicsonline.org)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate whether the overexpression of an antimicrobial peptide results in augmented protection against bacterial infection. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial killing assays and circular dichroism analyses reveal a strong correlation between antibacterial activity, peptide length, and propensity to form a helix in solvent mimicking the environment of a membrane. (asm.org)
  • It is also considerably more sensitive than current assays for factor VIIa in plasma. (google.es)
  • Furthermore, these current assays use either fresh platelets or platelets conserved at low temperature. (haematologica.org)
  • In the strictest sense, the discovery of bioactive peptides is not complete until their exact native sequences have been confirmed in the peripheral circulation. (nature.com)
  • These results were considered positive only when peptides resembled domains in DNA repair proteins that are known to be functionally conserved (according to the Conserved Domain Database) or with protein sequences highly conserved among vertebrates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biopanning a random peptide YSD library and subsequent characterization of the identified binding partners revealed the importance of multiple basic amino acids in the binding event. (mit.edu)
  • Using a colorimetric assay and biochemical partitioning, extracellular presentation of GPI-anchored INV was shown. (portlandpress.com)
  • Biochemical assays demonstrated that PP6c opposed casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of the condensin I subunit NCAP-G, and cellular analysis showed that depletion of PP6c resulted in defects in chromosome condensation and segregation in anaphase, consistent with dysregulation of condensin I function in the absence of PP6 activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a model system we used a polyclonal antibody to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and an anti-immunocomplex phage clone bearing the cyclic peptide CFNGKDWLYC. (cdc.gov)
  • Current diagnostic assays rely on the availability of pools of human platelets that vary according to donors and blood centers. (haematologica.org)
  • We report use of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic assays to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection in a cheetah. (cdc.gov)
  • Aminopeptidases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can cleave antigenic peptides and in so doing either create or destroy MHC class I-presented epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • The ionKey/MS System is an integrated capillary-flow microfluidic system that is designed to operate in the flow range of 1 to 5 µL/min, which can provide a 10- to 20-fold increase in sensitivity for therapeutic peptides when compared to conventional analytical-scale LC-MS platforms. (waters.com)
  • for example, of the five potential H-2K b -binding peptides in OVA, only one (SIINFEKL (S-L)) stimulates a strong immune response ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Testing of peripheral blood leukocytes before and after vaccination revealed a significant peripheral immune response specific for the peptides bound to HSP-96, in 11 of the 12 patients treated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data provide the first evidence in humans of individual patient-specific immune responses against autologous tumor derived peptides bound to HSP-96. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These peptides commonly adopt an amphipathic conformation in which positively charged and hydrophobic groups segregate onto opposing faces of an α-helix, a β-sheet, or some other tertiary structure ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Since the target peptide and SIS are chemically indistinguishable throughout the workflow, but can be measured separately by a mass spectrometer due to the mass difference of the stable isotope label, their ratio provides the desired quantitative estimate of the target peptide amount. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of this specific capture step provides two primary advantages in comparison with a conventional workflow analyzing an unfractionated sample digest: Sensitivity: the antibody can be used to capture the target peptide (and SIS) from a much larger mass of sample than could be analyzed directly by MS, thus allowing lower concentrations to be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salusin-β is a potent bioactive peptide that we originally predicted using in silico analysis of a human cDNA library 1 . (nature.com)
  • A single type of MHC I molecule can bind to a large repertoire of different peptides in the ER. (jimmunol.org)
  • To address this challenge, we used a subtractive combinatorial selection approach to identify a panel of peptide ligands that bind DNA repair complexes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, these peptides were developed as disruptors for the type II regulatory subunit (RII) even though both RI and RII isoforms can bind to AKAPs and have discrete functions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To evaluate the effects of each localized isoform, we designed peptides that specifically bind to either RI or RII. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said composition comprises one or more peptides which are derived from a naturally occurring immunogenic protein or tumor antigen, or a cellular breakdown product thereof. (google.com)
  • This study aims to investigate how knowledge of gluten immunogenic peptide (GIP) levels in stool and urine affects subsequent adherence to a gluten-free diet. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Antimicrobial peptides have attracted attention as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. (nature.com)
  • Conventional methods for evaluating cell culturing techniques and assay design consist of manual inspection of a small subset of the cell population at random locations and time points. (biotek.com)