Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Great BritainHealth Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.BrazilEfficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)EnglandHolistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.EuropeFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.

A performance-based lottery to improve residential care and training by institutional staff. (1/5276)

Two experiments were conducted on four units of a residential facility for the multiply-handicapped retarded in an attempt to improve daily care and training services. Experiment I compared the effects of two procedures in maintaining the work performance of attendants, using an A-B design on two units. One procedure consisted of implementing specific staff-resident assignments, the other consisted of allowing attendants who had met performance criteria to be eligible for a weekly lottery in which they could win the opportunity to rearrange their days off for the following week. Results showed that the lottery was a more effective procedure as measured by the per cent of time attendants engaged in predefined target behaviors, and by their frequency of task completion in several areas of resident care. Experiment II replicated and extended these results to the area of work quality on two additional units, using a multiple-baseline design. The performance lottery was found to be an effective econimical procedure that could be implemented by supervisory staff on a large scale.  (+info)

A decade of caring for drug users entirely within general practice. (2/5276)

BACKGROUND: The government encourages general practitioners (GPs) to become involved in caring for drug users. However, in some areas of the country, including Bedford, secondary care support is inadequate. GPs in these areas have to decide how to cope with such patients entirely within general practice. AIM: To assess the characteristics and quality of care given without secondary care support to drug users by one practice in Bedford over a decade. METHOD: A search was made of the practice computer for all patients with a problem title of 'addiction drug' between 1986 and 1995. The age, sex, social characteristics, and drug history were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two patients were found, of which 155 took part in the practice programme; i.e. they consulted more than three times. Forty-three patients (37%) who took part and were prescribed Methadone were prescribed this drug as ampoules. Sixty-three patients (40.6%) who took part in the programme stopped using drugs. Thirty-two (33.6%) of the Methadone users became abstinent. A higher proportion of women (13-48%) than men (19-27.7%) stopped using Methadone (P = 0.019). Among patients who had a stable lifestyle, a higher proportion had been prescribed ampoules than mixture (22 out of 28: 78.6%; P = 0.001). Similarly, of those who had a job, eight out of 11 (72%; P = 0.037) had been prescribed methadone ampoules. Two-thirds of all patients prescribed amphetamines stopped using drugs. CONCLUSION: Long-term care of drug users entirely within general practice is feasible. Among those prescribed methadone ampoules, a higher than average proportion had stable lifestyles and had a stable job.  (+info)

Women patients' preferences for female or male GPs. (3/5276)

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate general preferences to see a male or female GP either some or all of the time, and specific preferences to see a female primary health care (PHC) worker for individual health issues; to compare these preferences with reported consultation behaviour; and to explore women's evaluations of the quality of PHC services in relation to their preferences and consultation behaviour. METHOD: Results are reported on 881 women aged 16-65 years who had consulted their GP in the previous 6 months. Logistical regression analysis was undertaken to evaluate whether a general preference to see another woman is more important than specific women's health issues in determining why some women regularly choose to consult a female GP. RESULTS: General preference was 2.6 times more important than specific health issues in predicting choice of a female GP in a mixed-sex practice. Nearly a half (49.1 %) of women attending male-only practices stated that they wanted to see a female GP in at least some circumstances, compared with 63.8% of women in mixed-sex practices. In total, 65.5% of the sample stated that there was at least one specific health issue for which they would only want to be seen by a woman PHC worker. The most positive evaluations of the quality of GP services were made by women normally seeing a male GP in mixed-sex practices and the least positive evaluations were given by women in male-only GP practices CONCLUSIONS: In order to meet women's expressed preferences, every GP practice should have at least one female GP available at least some of the time and every GP practice should employ a female PHC worker.  (+info)

Physician management in primary care. (4/5276)

Minimal explicit consensus criteria in the management of patients with four indicator conditions were established by an ad hoc committee of primary care physicians practicing in different locations. These criteria were then applied to the practices of primary care physicians located in a single community by abstracting medical records and obtaining questionnaire data about patients with the indicator conditions. A standardized management score for each physician was used as the dependent variable in stepwise regression analysis with physician/practice and patient/disease characteristics as the candidate independent variables. For all physicians combined, the mean management scores were high, ranging from .78 to .93 for the four conditions. For two of the conditions, care of the normal infant and pregnant woman, the management scores were better for pediatricians and obstetricians respectively than for family physicians. For the other two conditions, adult onset diabetes and congestive heart failure, there were no differences between the management scores of family physicians and internists. Patient/disease characteristics did not contribute significantly to explaining the variation in the standardized management scores.  (+info)

Raising the bar: the use of performance guarantees by the Pacific Business Group on Health. (5/5276)

In 1996 the Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH) negotiated more than two dozen performance guarantees with thirteen of California's largest health maintenance organizations (HMOs) on behalf the seventeen large employers in its Negotiating Alliance. The negotiations put more than $8 million at risk for meeting performance targets with the goal of improving the performance of all health plans. Nearly $2 million, or 23 percent of the premium at risk, was refunded to the PBGH by the HMOs for missed targets. The majority of plans met their targets for satisfaction with the health plan and physicians, as well as cesarean section, mammography, Pap smear, and prenatal care rates. However, eight of the thirteen plans missed their targets for childhood immunizations, refunding 86 percent of the premium at risk.  (+info)

Is health insurance in Greece in need of reform? (6/5276)

This paper aims to assess the relationship between insurance contributions and health benefits in Greece by using information from sickness funds' accounts. The paper argues that the fragmentation of social health insurance, and the particular ways in which sickness funds' financial services are organized, are a major source of inequity and are grossly inefficient. The survival of these systems in the 1990s cannot be explained except on grounds of inertia and corporate resistance.  (+info)

Use of laboratory testing for genital chlamydial infection in Norway. (7/5276)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of laboratory tests for genital chlamydial infection in Norway. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey of general practitioners' practice in chlamydial testing, retrospective survey of laboratory records, 1986-91, and prospective study of testing in one laboratory during four weeks. SETTING: All 18 microbiological laboratories in Norway (4.2 million population), including one serving all doctors in Vestfold county (0.2 million population). SUBJECTS: 302 general practitioners. MAIN MEASURES: GPs' routine practice, methods used for testing, 1986-91, and sex specific and age group specific testing in 1991. RESULTS: 201(69%) GPs replied to the questionnaire: 101(51%) would test all women younger than 25 years at routine pelvic examination, 107(54%) all girls at first pelvic examination, 131(66%) all pregnant women, and 106(54%) all men whose female partner had urogenital complaints. Nationwide in 1986, 122,000 tests were performed (2.9 per 100 population); 10% were positive and 51% were cell culture tests. In 1991, 341,000 tests were performed (8.0 per 100 population); 4.5% were positive and 15% were cell culture tests. 13,184 tests were performed in Vestfold in 1991 (6.6 per 100 population). The age group specific rates (per 100 population) among women were: age 15-19 years, 22.0(95% confidence interval 18.2 to 25.8); 20-24 years, 47.2(42.1 to 52.3); 25-29 years, 42.3(37.1 to 47.5); 30-34 years, 29.8(25.4 to 34.2); and 35-39 years, 12.5(9.5 to 15.5). CONCLUSIONS: GPs use liberal indications for testing. The dramatic increase in testing, especially by enzyme immunoassays, in populations with a low prevalence of infection results in low cost effectiveness and low predictive value of positive tests, which in women over 29 years is estimated as 17-36%. IMPLICATIONS: Doctors should be educated about the limitations of enzyme immunoassays in screening low prevalence populations, and laboratories should apply a confirmatory test to specimens testing positive with such assays.  (+info)

Clinical guidelines: proliferation and medicolegal significance. (8/5276)

Guidelines seeking to influence and regulate clinical activity are currently gaining a new cultural ascendancy on both sides of the Atlantic. Statutory agencies may be charged with developing clinical guidelines, and civil courts, in deciding actions in negligence, could be influenced by standards of care expressed in guideline statements. Clinical guidelines are not accorded unchallengeable status: they have been subject to careful scrutiny by British and American courts to establish their authenticity and relevance. In the United States, compliance with clinical guidelines cannot be used as a defence against liability if a physician's conduct is held to have been negligent, and third party organisations can be held liable if their clinical guidelines are found to be a contributory cause of patient harm. Guidelines have not usurped the role of the expert witness in court. The importance the law attaches to customary practice means that atypical or bizarre guidelines are unlikely to be accepted as embodying a legally required standard of clinical care.  (+info)

  • If you function in the health care subject then probabilities are excellent that you want to get heaps of medical uniforms to wear to work. (timewarsuniverse.com)
  • A better and a lot more value powerful answer is to purchase greater good quality medical uniforms even even though they may well be more expensive up entrance simply because a higher quality uniform will stand up considerably far better to use and tear and washing then a cheap uniform would. (timewarsuniverse.com)
  • The main product lines include computer gaming graphics cards, workstation graphics cards, AI software and hardware solutions, AI cloud supercomputing workstations, desktop virtualization Zero Client/Thin Client, GPS (Global Positioning System), smart medical/health care, school research and big data solutions. (leadtek.com)
  • In the application of smart medical software, Leadtek combines artificial intelligence and Internet of Things technology (AIoT+Medical+Health) to prioritize physical and mental health care, lifestyle tracking and health management solutions, aiming at the applications of life stress, heart vitality, ECG and heart sounds, and three-hypers series such as blood pressure, body weight and blood sugar. (leadtek.com)
  • Long term care costs starts with the medical bills accumulated in the hospital. (braininjuryinstitute.org)
  • After the patient has achieved medical stability, he undergoes a rehabilitation process to improve independent function at home or at a health facility and be able to adapt to disabilities. (braininjuryinstitute.org)
  • Recovery starts at the time of admission to the hospital where the patient's condition is stabilized and his wound is treated sometimes through surgery.This is also the time when proper care and support by the family starts. (braininjuryinstitute.org)
  • So, when you get low cost uniforms you are paying significantly less up front then you would be if you acquired uniforms that had been higher high quality but in the long run these less costly scrubs and operate uniforms will be much more very likely to fade from repeated washings, rip, tear, or tumble aside. (timewarsuniverse.com)
  • A lot of family members must disregard past differences and must share their resources to cover the devastating cost of care for a head injury. (braininjuryinstitute.org)
  • The ones who give care and support to their loved ones also need time and space for themselves to 'recharge their batteries' and continue in their demanding role. (bridgeshomecare.co.uk)
  • When Best Buy Uniforms is time to shop for the uniforms that you require for work every day get the optimum high quality healthcare uniforms that you can find the money for at the time and in the lengthy run you are going to be conserving money. (timewarsuniverse.com)
  • Despite having higher rates of certain health conditions, many Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders do not receive the recommended levels of prevention, counseling or care they need. (apiahf.org)
  • The health utility scores provided should facilitate studies of the health burden of diabetes and the cost-utility of alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The National Clinical Care Commission (the Commission or NCCC) is seeking written comments about federal diabetes prevention and treatment programs. (health.gov)
  • What Does Existing Data on Health Quality Show? (oecd.org)
  • The clinical quality, customer experience and resource use data upon which this report is based were voluntarily reported to NCQA by nearly 1,000 health plans. (rwjf.org)
  • In addition, Beth Israel Deaconess works to be transparent regarding its quality performance and, as part of that, posts quality data on its website. (hhnmag.com)
  • Around the globe, healthcare decision-makers struggle daily with tighter budgets, rising costs, worker shortages, an explosion of data-all as technology advances at a breakneck pace and the business and regulatory landscape shifts beneath their feet. (intel.com)
  • We employ a class of non-parametric methods to explore the complex structure of the data and a set of correlated random effects models to identify key determinants of the quality of stroke care. (springer.com)
  • Keep your team focused on improving patient care, not struggling with data. (nuance.com)
  • Prediction models and decision support algorithms based on routine healthcare data, clinical and genetic datasets (precision medicine) are increasingly used to prioritize and tailor medicine in many fields, ranging from acute to chronic care and from public health or primary care to specialized oncology. (lumc.nl)
  • Screening of routine care data reveals care gaps and enables risk adjustment to improve planning of care (panel management). (lumc.nl)
  • Intelligent data capture, automated workflow and document management technologies can minimize the costly creation, routing and retention of paper in all areas of the enterprise - from accounts receivable to human resources to the health information management departments. (himss.org)
  • Data driven analysis of health care trends. (thehealthcareblog.com)
  • The day to day operations of the Healthcare environment adds an abundant amount of data to the software systems in place. (blogarama.com)
  • The survey produces new and actionable data during a crucial period of Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fewer say it's easy to find data that compares a provider's costs and quality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Avant-garde is working to create industry standards around the data, metrics, and methods that are used as part of value-based health care delivery. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Health and medical data need specific attention when legislation on data protection is at stake. (euractiv.com)
  • Nonetheless, the sensitivity of health and medical data does not mean that they should be locked forever with nobody allowed to access it. (euractiv.com)
  • First of all, a distinction in the level of consent requirements needs to be established between primary and secondary use of health data. (euractiv.com)
  • In the context of primary use of health data, it might be difficult to obtain explicit consent from the patient in addition to his agreement to be treated, e. g. when a physician needs to share a patient's data within a defined healthcare team. (euractiv.com)
  • In the context of secondary use of health data, e. g. for research purposes, explicit and informed consent of the patient must be sought. (euractiv.com)
  • The upcoming vote in the European Parliament on the general data protection regulation is the opportunity to ensure strong data protection rules for high quality healthcare in Europe. (euractiv.com)
  • By utilizing innovative approaches to data tracking and technology, Allison Bayer's visit to the SOM was inspirational for future health care leaders as they work on challenges in the industry. (simmons.edu)
  • Researchers measure health care quality to identify problems caused by overuse, underuse, or misuse of health resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of standardized and consistent health utility scores for the array of treatments and the microvascular, neuropathic, and macrovascular health states associated with diabetes has constrained researchers' abilities to conduct cost-utility analyses and to credibly compare their results. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings are important, noted researchers, because costs and quality of care are often the focus of policy-level decisions in health care. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers found complaints were particularly valuable in identifying problems before admission to hospital - such as cancelled medical appointments - or after discharge, such as a lack of follow up care. (lse.ac.uk)
  • To address this, the researchers developed the Healthcare Complaints Analysis Tool (HCAT) to analyse and systemise complaints. (lse.ac.uk)
  • U.K.-trained cardiac surgeon Devi Prasad Shetty, M.D., who served as Mother Teresa's personal physician after operating on her following her heart attack, founded Narayana Health in 2001 in Bangalore. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The first group of statements was prepared in 2001, funded by the departments of health in the UK. (qaa.ac.uk)
  • The fact that many of today's common diseases are caused by poor lifestyle choices, bad eating habits, stress and sleep disorders should make us rethink our health care priorities. (seattlepi.com)
  • The Aims are a central part of the evaluations for the American Hospital Association-McKesson Quest for Quality Prize. (hhnmag.com)
  • Beth Israel Deaconess was a finalist for the Quest for Quality Prize in 2009, when, unsurprisingly, executives for the medical center at the time pointed to transparency and employee engagement as two areas of emphasis. (hhnmag.com)
  • A key element of this is high-quality training in how to deliver evidence-based treatments. (rand.org)
  • But it will take significant efforts to better prepare civilian doctors to deliver high-quality care to veterans. (rand.org)
  • The author examines the issues surrounding the challenges inherent in maintaining a high level of quality in health care while containing costs in public programs and trying to strike the right balance in monitoring and regulating the quality of health care in the private sector. (urban.org)
  • promoting incentives for high-quality, efficient health care. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The study also identifies factors that differ significantly between high- and lower-performing health centers. (kff.org)
  • High-quality, affordable child care can be difficult to find. (npr.org)
  • But high-quality care, whether it comes from a nanny, a sitter, a day care or a preschool, can be difficult to find - and to afford. (npr.org)
  • How can child care be made accessible, high quality and affordable? (npr.org)
  • Some earlier studies suggest that high performing organisations share several features reflecting organisational commitment to improving quality. (bmj.com)
  • The cost is too high and the coverage too thin, the care is not what it should be. (medindia.net)
  • Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. (plos.org)
  • For instance, in industrial applications where quality control methods have a long history, the units sampled are products with a high degree of homogeneity as they are manufactured under largely controlled conditions. (gerad.ca)
  • If policy makers are serious about improving the body of evidence on the quality of care, they need to improve their health information systems. (oecd.org)
  • This Health Policy Snapshot , published online in August 2011, outlines the federal and private programs that are working to improve local efforts at delivering care. (rwjf.org)
  • Read more from RWJF's Health Policy Snapshot series. (rwjf.org)
  • Chair, American College of Surgeons Health Policy and Advocacy Group. (facs.org)
  • Students requesting admission to the program will normally have graduated with a minimum of a second class standing of a B or 70% (GPA 3.0) from an accredited, baccalaureate granting University, with a preferred degree in a healthcare discipline, law, business, engineering, or policy studies. (queensu.ca)
  • We report on news that can make a difference for your health and show how policy shapes our health choices. (npr.org)
  • conducted by Public Agenda's David Schleifer and Carolin Hagelskamp together with Kathryn Phillips of the University of California, San Francisco, was published in the April issue of Health Affairs, a top health policy journal. (publicagenda.org)
  • In recognition of the major role global health issues now play in even the most local stories, the Kaiser Family Foundation has released a 41-page " Reporter's Guide to U.S. Global Health Policy " (PDF). (healthjournalism.org)
  • Although contexts may vary-for example, in whether health policy is made at regional or national level, or in the form and function of healthcare organisations-the lessons have potential relevance to all settings. (bmj.com)
  • With a health insurance policy you and your family can rest assured! (medindia.net)
  • The existing Mediclaim and Health Plus Medical expenses policies have been discontinued and Mediclaim Policy (2007) is introduced. (medindia.net)
  • Consumers agree with health policy experts in principle that public reporting requirements for doctors would improve health care quality. (eurekalert.org)
  • David Naylor, former president of the University of Toronto and a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences, has been appointed chair of the panel, which is composed of individuals with expertise in medicine, public policy and business. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The momentum for UHC, a policy goal now endorsed by the World Bank and the WHO, has driven an interest in expanding access to care, but it is critical that this care should also be safe and effective. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. (lww.com)
  • Contact Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. (lww.com)
  • Health care managers utilize critical pathways as a method to reduce variation in care, decrease resource utilization, and improve quality of care. (wikipedia.org)
  • While monetary incentives and behavioral nudges both have their strengths, neither is enough to reliably change clinician behavior and improve quality of care. (rand.org)
  • Expenditure of the funds can be made for any purpose that will directly improve quality of care in nursing facilities and may include funding for the establishment and operation of a demonstration project, a grant award, or relocation of residents in crisis situations. (hhs.gov)
  • 3. Timely - Reducing wait times and potentially harmful delays for both those who receive and give care has a huge impact on quality. (himss.org)
  • We then created regression models to fit the QWB-SA-derived health utility scores to indicator variables for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and each demographic variable, treatment, and complication. (diabetesjournals.org)
Community health centers provide quality, cost-effective health care  | The Bellingham Herald
Community health centers provide quality, cost-effective health care | The Bellingham Herald (bellinghamherald.com)
CDC - National Health Initiatives, Strategies, and Action Plans - STLT Gateway
CDC - National Health Initiatives, Strategies, and Action Plans - STLT Gateway (cdc.gov)
Petition · Untie the Hands That Help: Make Medicare Strong.  Quality Health Care for Australians. · Change.org
Petition · Untie the Hands That Help: Make Medicare Strong. Quality Health Care for Australians. · Change.org (change.org)
Seniors & Health Care Costs, Jul 13 2006 | Video | C-SPAN.org
Seniors & Health Care Costs, Jul 13 2006 | Video | C-SPAN.org (c-span.org)
The Council of Europe
The Council of Europe (coe.int)
Site Map | Bayview Hospital | Quality Private Health Care
Site Map | Bayview Hospital | Quality Private Health Care (bayviewhospital.com.bb)
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Healthcare Data Verification | Experian Health (experian.com)
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Petition: Demand Quality, Affordable Health Care for All (thepetitionsite.com)
Improving Patient Flow - Driving Change and Sharing Best Practice Registration, Tue, 3 Oct 2017 at 09:30 | Eventbrite
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Governor launches Minn. farm water quality program
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Medicine: general interest | Cambridge University Press (cambridge.org)
Shellfish Safety Notification: Rock Crab Health Advisory Lifted in Parts of Humboldt County
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State Medical Licensing Hinders Affordable Quality Health Care | Cato Institute
State Medical Licensing Hinders Affordable Quality Health Care | Cato Institute (cato.org)
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Is It Time To Reconsider California's Initiative System? | Hoover Institution
Is It Time To Reconsider California's Initiative System? | Hoover Institution (hoover.org)
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