**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Animal Feed**: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**Digestion**: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Programming, Linear**: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Random Allocation**: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.

**Pattern Recognition, Automated**: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Rumen**: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)

**Swine**: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

**Weight Gain**: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Cattle**: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

**Image Processing, Computer-Assisted**: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

**Artificial Intelligence**: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Discriminant Analysis**: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.

**Meat**: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

**Diet**: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

**Phantoms, Imaging**: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Eating**: The consumption of edible substances.

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Weaning**: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Cluster Analysis**: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

**Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Nitrogen**: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.

**Sequence Alignment**: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.

**Dietary Proteins**: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.

**Imaging, Three-Dimensional**: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

**Bayes Theorem**: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

**Image Enhancement**: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

**Fermentation**: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.

**Zea mays**: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.

**Nonlinear Dynamics**: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

**Monte Carlo Method**: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

**Fatty Acids, Volatile**: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.

**Proteins**: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Sequence Analysis, Protein**: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.

**Normal Distribution**: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

**Neural Networks (Computer)**: A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

**Poaceae**: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.

**Breeding**: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.

**Phosphorus, Dietary**: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.

**Nutritional Requirements**: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.

**Body Composition**: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.

**Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted**: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.

**Gene Expression Profiling**: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

**Body Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Nutritive Value**: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.

**Blood Urea Nitrogen**: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

**Medicago sativa**: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.

**Likelihood Functions**: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

**Animal Husbandry**: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.

**Software Validation**: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.

**Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis**: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

**Sequence Analysis, DNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

**Soybeans**: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.

**Dietary Supplements**: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.

**Markov Chains**: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.

**6-Phytase**: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.

**Databases, Protein**: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.

**Cereals**: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.

**Fast Neutrons**: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Animals, Suckling**: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.

**Computer Graphics**: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

**Automation**: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)

**Computers**

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Lactation**: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.

**Stochastic Processes**: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.

**Relative Biological Effectiveness**: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.

**User-Computer Interface**: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Dose-Response Relationship, Drug**: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

**Dietary Fiber**: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.

**Sheep**: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

**Data Compression**: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.

**Litter Size**: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.

**Fuzzy Logic**: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.

**Artifacts**: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.

**Silage**: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).

**Databases, Genetic**: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

**Equipment Design**: Methods of creating machines and devices.

**Lysine**: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.

**Models, Chemical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Information Storage and Retrieval**: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Food Handling**: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.

**Genomics**: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.

**Food Technology**: The application of knowledge to the food industry.

**Food, Fortified**: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

**Internet**: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

**Decision Trees**: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).

**Radiographic Image Enhancement**: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted**: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.

**Linear Energy Transfer**: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Aging**: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

**Duodenum**: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Mathematics**: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Subtraction Technique**: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).

**Programming Languages**: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.

**Calibration**: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.

**Wavelet Analysis**: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).

**Computing Methodologies**: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.

**Adipose Tissue**: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.

**Signal-To-Noise Ratio**: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.

**Brain**: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

**Data Mining**: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.

**Radiation Dosage**: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).

**Starch**: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.

**Models, Neurological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Ileum**: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.

**Protein Interaction Mapping**: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.

**Ammonia**: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.

**Models, Molecular**: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

**Wireless Technology**: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.

**Support Vector Machines**: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.

**Automatic Data Processing**: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.

**Software Design**: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.

**Sequence Analysis, RNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.

**Energy Intake**: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.

**Molecular Sequence Data**: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

**Amino Acids**: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Milk**: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.

**Genome**: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

**Observer Variation**: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

**Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation**: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.

**Selection, Genetic**: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.

**Phosphorus**: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.

**Hydrogen-Ion Concentration**: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Gene Regulatory Networks**: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Energy Metabolism**: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.

**Radiotherapy Dosage**: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Housing, Animal**

**Inbreeding**: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

**Thermodynamics**: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

**Urea**: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Chromosome Mapping**: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

**Phylogeny**: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Base Sequence**: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

**Cone-Beam Computed Tomography**: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.

**Temperature**: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

**Muscle, Skeletal**: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Sus scrofa**: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Reproduction**: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Equipment Failure Analysis**: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.

**United States**

**Genome, Human**: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.

**Proteomics**: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.

The maximum number of events processed by this

**algorithm**on algebraic or pseudo-algebraic trajectories is near**quadratic**, O ( n ... The upper envelope of a set of static lines can be computed using a divide and conquer**algorithm**which partitions the lines ... When a point is encountered, the**algorithm**checks if the point is above or below the segment following the last encountered ... The sequence of edges and vertices resulting from this**algorithm**is only dependent on the ordering of points, and the results ...Solving 0-1-KNAPSACK with Genetic

**Algorithms**in Ruby Codes for**Quadratic**Knapsack Problem. ... As described by Wu et al.: The**quadratic**knapsack problem (QKP) maximizes a**quadratic**objective function subject to a binary ... Skiena, S. S. (September 1999). "Who is Interested in**Algorithms**and Why? Lessons from the Stony Brook**Algorithm**Repository". ... An**Algorithm**for FPTAS input: ε ∈ (0,1] a list A of n items, specified by their values, v i {\displaystyle v_{i}} , and weights ...use the Lovász local lemma to prove that the Thue number of any graph is at most

**quadratic**in its maximum degree; they provide ...**Algorithms**. 21 (3-4): 336-346. doi:10.1002/rsa.10057. MR 1945373. Barát, János; Varjú, P. P. (2008). "On square-free edge ... an example showing that for some graphs this**quadratic**dependence is necessary. In addition they show that the Thue number of a ...Cayley graph Group (mathematics) Arithmetic genus Geometric genus Genus of a multiplicative sequence Genus of a

**quadratic**form ... Thomassen, Carsten (1989). "The graph genus problem is NP-complete". Journal of**Algorithms**. 10 (4): 568-576. doi:10.1016/0196- ...If the objective function is

**quadratic**and the constraints are linear,**quadratic**programming techniques are used. If the ... The**algorithm**may also be stopped early, with the assurance that the best possible solution is within a tolerance from the best ... Theory and**algorithms**. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-78610-1. Bertsekas, Dimitri P. (1999). Nonlinear Programming: 2nd Edition ... List of optimization software Quadratically constrained**quadratic**programming Werner Fenchel, who created the foundation for ...Some examples of those

**algorithms**are the elliptic curve method and the**quadratic**sieve. Another such**algorithm**is the class ... The**algorithm**uses the class group of positive binary**quadratic**forms of discriminant Δ denoted by GΔ. GΔ is the set of triples ... Dixon's**algorithm**Continued fraction factorization (CFRAC)**Quadratic**sieve Rational sieve General number field sieve Shanks' ... The**algorithm**as stated is a probabilistic**algorithm**as it makes random choices. Its expected running time is at most L n [ 1 2 ...A greedy

**algorithm**is used: The new key is inserted in one of its two possible locations, "kicking out", that is, displacing, ... Perfect hashing Double hashing**Quadratic**probing Hopscotch hashing Pagh, Rasmus; Rodler, Flemming Friche (2001). "Cuckoo ... In one of the commonly used variants of the**algorithm**, the hash table is split into two smaller tables of equal size, and each ... Then, the greedy insertion**algorithm**for adding a set of values to a cuckoo hash table succeeds if and only if the cuckoo graph ...However, H. C. Pocklington, in a 1910 paper, analyzed two

**algorithms**for solving**quadratic**congruences, and observed that one ... Introduction to**Algorithms**, Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. Section 34.1: Polynomial time ... Some problems are known to be solvable in polynomial-time, but no concrete**algorithm**is known for solving them. For example, ... This yields a nonconstructive proof that there is a polynomial-time**algorithm**for determining if a given graph can be embedded ......

**algorithm**, also referred to as Brent's**algorithm**, is an derivative-free**algorithm**which assumes**quadratic**form of the optimized ... The**algorithm**has linear time complexity if update coordinate system every D iterations, it is also suitable for large-scale (D ... The**algorithm**, however, is not invariant to scaling of the objective function and may fail under its certain rank-preserving ... The adaptive coordinate descent was shown to be competitive to the state-of-the-art evolutionary**algorithms**and has the ...Steven R. Finch (2005).

**Quadratic**Dirichlet L-Series (PDF). p. 12. Refaat El Attar (2006). Special Functions And Orthogonal ... ISBN 1-58488-347-2. Richard E. Crandall (2012). Unified**algorithms**for polylogarithm, L-series, and zeta variants (PDF). ... J. Sondow (2007). "Generalization of Somos**Quadratic**". Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications. 332: 292-314. arXiv: ... Christoph Zurnieden (2008). Descriptions of the**Algorithms**(PDF). Julian Havil (2003). Gamma: Exploring Euler's Constant. ......

**algorithms**, such as the AKS primality test, and randomized Las Vegas**algorithms**where the random choices made by the**algorithm**... For example, prime ideals in the ring of integers of**quadratic**number fields can be used in proving**quadratic**reciprocity, a ... No**quadratic**polynomial has been proven to take infinitely many prime values. The Ulam spiral arranges the natural numbers in a ... Shor's**algorithm**can factor any integer in a polynomial number of steps on a quantum computer. However current technology can ...... a

**quadratic**congruence appear to be as hard as integer factorization and thus are a starting point for cryptographic**algorithms**...**Quadratic**residue: An integer a is a**quadratic**residue modulo n, if there exists an integer x such that x2 ≡ a (mod n). Euler's ... Primitive root modulo n**Quadratic**reciprocity**Quadratic**residue Rational reconstruction (mathematics) Reduced residue system ... Introduction to**Algorithms**, Second Edition. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill, 2001. ISBN 0-262-03293-7. Section 31.3: Modular ...... more quickly than the

**quadratic**time that it would take to apply a shortest path**algorithm**to the whole arrangement graph.[29] ... Discrete**Algorithms**(SODA '99), pp. 310-316. .. *. Erdős, P.; Lovász, L.; Simmons, A.; Straus, E. G. (1973), "Dissection graphs ...**Algorithms**[edit]. Constructing an arrangement means, given as input a list of the lines in the arrangement, computing a ... Chan, T. (1999), Remarks on k-level**algorithms**in the plane, archived from the original on 2010-11-04. . ...Cayley-Purser

**algorithm**• CBC-MAC • CCM mode • CCMP • CD-57 • CDMF • Cellular Message Encryption**Algorithm**• Centiban • Central ...**Quadratic**sieve • Quantum coin flipping • Quantum cryptography • Quantum digital signature • Quantum fingerprinting • Quantum ... Pohlig-Hellman**algorithm**• Point-to-point tunneling protocol • Pointcheval-Stern signature**algorithm**• Poly1305 • ... Double Ratchet**Algorithm**• Doug Stinson • Dragon (cipher) • DRYAD • Dual_EC_DRBG • Dvorak encoding • E0 (cipher) • E2 (cipher ...... then all these

**algorithms**require a prefix of length about 2 L {\displaystyle 2L} to be successful and have**quadratic**time ... by a variant of the Euclidean**algorithm**when N is prime; and in general by Xu's adaptation of the Berlekamp-Massey**algorithm**. ... There are efficient**algorithms**for FCSR synthesis. This is the problem: given a prefix of a sequence, construct a minimal ... It is possible to express u as a simple**quadratic**polynomial involving the initial state and the qi. There is also an ...The marching squares

**algorithm**Sieving step of the**quadratic**sieve and the number field sieve. Tree growth step of the random ... Leykin, Anton; Verschelde, Jan; Zhuang, Yan (2006). "Parallel Homotopy**Algorithms**to Solve Polynomial Systems". Proceedings of ... Evolutionary computation metaheuristics such as genetic**algorithms**. Ensemble calculations of numerical weather prediction. ...Other

**algorithms**include adaptations of the primal simplex**algorithm**, and the auction**algorithm**. The assignment problem is a ... a more general formulation National Resident Matching Program**Quadratic**assignment problem Secretary problem Stable marriage ... The Hungarian**algorithm**is one of many**algorithms**that have been devised that solve the linear assignment problem within time ... "**Algorithms**for the Assignment and Transportation Problems". Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. ...Bairstow's

**algorithm**inherits the local**quadratic**convergence of Newton's method, except in the case of**quadratic**factors of ... See root-finding**algorithm**for other**algorithms**. Bairstow's approach is to use Newton's method to adjust the coefficients u and ... The**algorithm**first appeared in the appendix of the 1920 book Applied Aerodynamics by Leonard Bairstow. The**algorithm**finds the ... The roots of the**quadratic**may then be determined, and the polynomial may be divided by the**quadratic**to eliminate those roots ...ISBN 0-89791-362-0. Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Tan, Tiow Seng (1991). A

**quadratic**time**algorithm**for the minmax length ...**Algorithms**and Computation in Mathematics. 25. Springer. de Berg et al. 2008, Section 9.1. de Berg, Mark; Otfried Cheong; Marc ... Triangle Splitting**Algorithm**: Find the convex hull of the point set P {\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}} and triangulate this hull ... Incremental**Algorithm**: Sort the points of P {\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}} according to x-coordinates. The first three points ...At an iterate x k {\displaystyle x_{k}} , a basic sequential

**quadratic**programming**algorithm**defines an appropriate search ... Sequential**quadratic**programming (SQP) is an iterative method for constrained nonlinear optimization. SQP methods are used on ... SQP methods solve a sequence of optimization subproblems, each of which optimizes a**quadratic**model of the objective subject to ... ISBN 0-387-30303-0. KNITRO User Guide:**Algorithms**Bonnans, J. Frédéric; Gilbert, J. Charles; Lemaréchal, Claude; Sagastizábal, ...Backpropagation Linear regression Perceptron

**Quadratic**classifier Support vector machines Winnow (**algorithm**) Guo-Xun Yuan; Chia ... Perceptron-an**algorithm**that attempts to fix all errors encountered in the training set Support vector machine-an**algorithm**... LDA is a supervised learning**algorithm**that utilizes the labels of the data, while PCA is an unsupervised learning**algorithm**... All of the linear classifier**algorithms**listed above can be converted into non-linear**algorithms**operating on a different input ...Böttcher's equation Combinatorial Hubbard trees Spider

**algorithm**Tuning Laminations Devil's Staircase**algorithm**Orbit portraits ... Arithmetic dynamics Chaos theory Complex analysis Complex**quadratic**polynomial Fatou set Infinite compositions of analytic ... "The Spider**Algorithm**" (PDF). Surveys in Dynamical systems available on-line at Dynamical Systems Homepage of Institute for ... "Boundaries of bounded Fatou components of**quadratic**maps" (PDF), Journal of Difference Equations and Applications, retrieved ...Although the running time of Lengauer's

**algorithm**is linear in its input size, it only gives a**quadratic**time**algorithm**for ... Their**algorithm**processes the clustering hierarchy in bottom-up order, using PQ tree data structures to represent the possible ... Lengauer was primarily interested in testing planarity of graphs defined by graph rewriting schemes, but his**algorithm**can also ... Dahlhaus (1998) claimed a linear time**algorithm**for connected clustered planarity, but did not provide full details; a later ......

**algorithms**include variants of Landweber's gradient descent method and coordinate-wise optimization based on the**quadratic**... In pseudocode, this**algorithm**looks as follows: Inputs: a real-valued matrix A of dimension m × n a real-valued vector y of ... The NNLS problem is equivalent to a**quadratic**programming problem a r g m i n x ≥ 0 ( 1 2 x T Q x + c T x ) , {\displaystyle ... Variants of this**algorithm**are available in MATLAB as the routine lsqnonneg and in SciPy as optimize.nnls. Many improved ...98 template interface to matrix/vector operations and related

**algorithms**like solving**algorithms**, decompositions etc. It uses ... Level 2 operations**quadratic**time and Level 3 operations cubic time. Modern BLAS implementations typically provide all three ... J. J. Dongarra, J. Du Croz, I. S. Duff, and S. Hammarling,**Algorithm**679: A set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, ...**Algorithm**539. "BLAS Techical Forum". netlib.org. Retrieved 2017-07-07. blaseman Archived October 12, 2016, at the Wayback ...In contrast, convolutional codes are typically decoded using soft-decision

**algorithms**like the Viterbi, MAP or BCJR**algorithms**... Another possible construction is a contention-free**quadratic**permutation polynomial (QPP).[17] It is used for example in the ... says: "Both Reed-Solomon**algorithm**and BCH**algorithm**are common ECC choices for MLC NAND flash. ... Hamming based block codes ... They are most often soft decoded with the Viterbi**algorithm**, though other**algorithms**are sometimes used. Viterbi decoding ...3 Conventional

**algorithms**. 3.1 Basic RNS M-red**algorithm**. 3.1.1**Algorithm**. Figure 2 shows the Montgomery reduction**algorithm**... This paper applies**quadratic**residuosity to the RNS M-red**algorithm**for the first time to construct**algorithms**that consist of ... 4 New**algorithms**. 4.1 Derivation of Q-RNS. We introduce an idea to pose**quadratic**residuosity to the RNS base so as to make ... We call this new**algorithm**as Q-RNS M-red or simply as Q-RNS, using initials for**quadratic**residuosity. Q-RNS includes sQ-RNS ...... Hongwei Jiao1,2 and Yongqiang Chen3 ... Hongwei Jiao and Yongqiang Chen, "A Global Optimization

**Algorithm**for Generalized**Quadratic**Programming," Journal of Applied ......

**quadratic****algorithm**is described. Main research is on runtime and wire length. For 5K standard cells,**algorithm**implementation ...**quadratic****algorithm**is described. Main research is on runtime and wire length. For 5K standard cells,**algorithm**implementation ... 3.**Quadratic**Placer**Algorithm**Implementation. The input for the placer is netlist with initial fixed cells and their positions ... For**algorithm**run speed increasing and adding level of optimization**algorithm**is assigning initial values for cell group mass ...H. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Liu, "Feasible direction

**algorithm**for solving the SDP relaxations of**quadratic**{. -. 1. ,. 1. }. ... A Rank-Two Feasible Direction**Algorithm**for the Binary**Quadratic**Programming. Xuewen Mu1 and Yaling Zhang1,2 ... C.-x. Xu, X.-l. He, and F.-m. Xu, "An effective continuous**algorithm**for approximate solutions of large scale max-cut problems ... S. Burer and R. D. C. Monteiro, "A projected gradient**algorithm**for solving the maxcut SDP relaxation," Optimization Methods ...This manuscript expands upon results given by the Medusa

**algorithm**in [,xref ref-type=bibr rid=b9,9,/xref,]. We provide a ... We present an iterative method that utilizes finite subdivision rules and Thurstons**algorithm**to approximate this rational map ... proof of the**algorithms**efficacy, details on its implementation, the settings in which it is most successful, and examples ...Optimal

**Quadratic**Programming**Algorithms**: With Applications to Variational Inequalities, 9781282068759, available at Book ...IEEE Xplore, delivering full text access to the worlds highest quality technical literature in engineering and technology. | IEEE Xplore

Then we present kernel-function based primal-dual interior-point

**algorithms**for solving this special circular cone optimization ... which has a convex**quadratic**function as the objective function and an intersection of a non-self-dual circular cone and linear ... some preliminary numerical results are provided to demonstrate the computational performance of the proposed**algorithms**. ... Primal-dual interior-point**algorithms**for convex**quadratic**circular cone optimization. Yanqin Bai 1, , Xuerui Gao 1, and ...... Martin Buchholz martinrb at google.com Thu Nov 20 00:37:42 UTC ... Next message: RFR: 8065159: AttributedString has

**quadratic**resize**algorithm*** Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ... Next message: RFR: 8065159: AttributedString has**quadratic**resize**algorithm*** Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ... Previous message: RFR: 8065159: AttributedString has**quadratic**resize**algorithm*** ...Global optimization

**algorithm**for solving bilevel programming problems with**quadratic**lower levels. Paul B. Hermanns 1, and ... Global optimization**algorithm**for solving bilevel programming problems with**quadratic**lower levels. Journal of Industrial & ... Nonconvex**quadratic**reformulations and solvable conditions for mixed integer**quadratic**programming problems. Journal of ... A low-dimensional SDP relaxation based spatial branch and bound method for nonconvex**quadratic**programs. Journal of Industrial ...587c) A Logical Benders Decomposition

**Algorithm**for Binary-Constrained**Quadratic**Programs with Complementarity Constraints. ... The**algorithm**employs a novel exact penalty function, which is minimized sequentially by solving**quadratic**optimization ... The proposed**algorithm**converges to a stationary point of the penalty function. The effectiveness of the**algorithm**is ... An**algorithm**is presented for solving nonlinear optimization problems with chance constraints, i.e., those in which a ...**Quadratic**

**algorithm**for a large class of linear-in-the-parametes models isintroduced to enhance Recursive

**Quadratic**

**algorithms**... Robust, Recursive,

**Quadratic**, High-order. Abstract. In this paper a robust k-order Recursive

**Quadratic**

**algo**rithm for a large ... A Robust High-Order Recursive

**Quadratic**

**Algorithm**for Linear-in-the-Parameters Models Q. Zhu (USA), S. Tan (Singapore), and Y. ... The features of the

**algorithm**are discussed and the convergence of the

**algorithm**has been proven in this paper. Several ...

We exploit that network alignment is a special case of the well-studied

**quadratic**assignment problem (QAP). We focus on sparse ... "Natalie 2.0: Sparse Global Network Alignment as a Special Case of**Quadratic**Assignment."**Algorithms**8, no. 4: 1035-1051. ... Natalie 2.0: Sparse Global Network Alignment as a Special Case of**Quadratic**Assignment.**Algorithms**. 2015; 8(4):1035-1051. ...**Algorithms**EISSN 1999-4893 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ...Local Search with

**Quadratic**Approximations into Memetic**Algorithms**for Optimization with Multiple Criteria ... The new operator employs**quadratic**approximations of the objective functions and constraints, which are built using only the ... The local search phase consists of solving the auxiliary multiobjective**quadratic**optimization problem defined from the ...**quadratic**approximations, scalarized via a goal attainment formulation using an LMI solver. As the determination of the new ...An Ejection Chain

**Algorithm**for the**Quadratic**Assignment Problem. School of Business Administration, University of Mississippi ... A new**algorithm**for the**quadratic**assignment problem. Information Technology and Control, 5: 39 44. [ Links ]. ... An exact**algorithm**for the**quadratic**assignment problem on a tree. Operations Research, 37(5): 760 768. [ Links ]. ... 4.2 Experiments Comparing Local Search**Algorithms**. The**algorithms**by Li et al. (1994) and Rego et al. (2006) were implemented ...analysis_and_design_of_optimization_

**algorithms**_via_integral_**quadratic**_constraints. Writing /home/users/ashutosn/public_html/ ... analysis_and_design_of_optimization_**algorithms**_via_integral_**quadratic**_constraints [2016/09/01 19:15]. (current). ... analysis_and_design_of_optimization_**algorithms**_via_integral_**quadratic**_constraints.txt. · Last modified: 2016/09/01 19:15 ( ... I will close with a discussion of how these techniques can be used to search for**algorithms**with desired performance ...This book is devoted to studying

**algorithms**for the solution of a class of**quadratic**matrix and vector equations. These ... This book is devoted to studying**algorithms**for the solution of a class of**quadratic**matrix and vector equations. These ... The book focuses on "matrix multiplication-rich" iterations such as cyclic reduction and the structured doubling**algorithm**(SDA ... and new**algorithms**and theoretical results developed by the author are presented. ...... we present a neighborhood following primal-dual interior-point

**algorithm**for solving symmetric cone convex**quadratic**... D.T. A unified kernel function approach to primal-dual interior- point**algorithms**for convex**quadratic**SDO. Numer.**Algorithms**, ... Toh, K.C. An inexact primal-dual path following**algorithm**for convex**quadratic**SDP. Math. Program. Ser. B, 112(1): 221-254 ( ... Bai, Y.Q., Zhang, L. A full-Newton step interior-point**algorithm**for symmetric cone convex**quadratic**optimization. J. Ind. ...Simulation results are given to confirm the proposed

**algorithm**.. Keywords.**Quadratic**segmentation**algorithm**Image processing ... Jiang Y., Dong H., Fan Y., Wang Y., Gui G. (2020)**Quadratic**Segmentation**Algorithm**Based on Image Enhancement. In: Liang Q., ... In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a**quadratic**segmentation**algorithm**based on image enhancement. Specifically ... The**algorithm**can achieve effective extraction of machine-playing characters and also reduce the difficulty of invoice ...NLPQLP: A New Fortran Implementation of a Sequential

**Quadratic**Programming**Algorithm**. Klaus Schittkowski (klaus.schittkowski. ... Keywords: SQP, sequential**quadratic**programming, nonlinear programming,numerical**algorithm**, line search, distributed computing ... The mathematical background is outlined, in particular the modification of the line search**algorithm**to retain convergence ... Category 3: Optimization Software and Modeling Systems (Parallel**Algorithms**) Citation: Report, Department of Mathematics, ...Are there any efficient (polynomial time)

**algorithms**for finding if a multivariate**quadratic**polynomial has a root?. Ask ... begingroup$ If the**quadratic**term is positive definite, you know that the polynomial is positive at infinity. So if the minimum ... By satisfiability, I mean if a system of polynomials has a solution, but here I am only concerned with one**quadratic**... I apologize, I meant that the**quadratic**polynomial has a real solution. Im curious about checking if the minimum is negative, ...This new

**algorithm**is based on a Reformulation Linearization Technique (RLT) dual ascent procedure. Experimental results show ... The GQAP describes a broad class of**quadratic**integer programming problems, wherein M pair-wise related entities are assigned ... that the runtime of this**algorithm**is as good or better than other known exact solution methods for problems as large as M=20 ... This paper reports on a new**algorithm**for the Generalized**Quadratic**Assignment problem (GQAP). ...A two-phase gradient

**algorithm**for**quadratic**programming problems with a single linear constraint and bounds on the variables ... Inspired by the GPCG**algorithm**for bound-constrained convex**quadratic**programming [J.J. Moré and G. Toraldo, SIAM J. Optim., 1 ... We propose a gradient-based algorithmic framework for**Quadratic**Programming problems with a Single Linear constraint and Bounds ...... ... In an article Babajee, D.K.R. On the Kung-Traub Conjecture for Iterative Methods for Solving

**Quadratic**Equations,**Algorithms**... CitacióAhmad, F. Comment on: "On the Kung-Traub Conjecture for iterative methods for solving**quadratic**equations"**Algorithms**... conjecture is not valid for the**quadratic**equation and proposed an iterative method for the scalar and vector**quadratic**...**Quadratic**and describes accessible for a account in Engineering System Dynamics and Controls. The atheist is a mental framework ... This can s be requested by using a download Interior Point Approach to Linear,

**Quadratic**and Convex Programming:

**Algorithms**and ... Holiday Colors One download Interior Point Approach to Linear,

**Quadratic**and Convex Programming:

**Algorithms**and cases to the ... Festival Colors The download Interior Point Approach to Linear,

**Quadratic**and Convex Programming:

**Algorithms**CNT third in ...

ConstraintsSimplex algorithmInterior-point algorithmPolynomial-timeNonlinearClass of quadraticSearch algorithmsConvergenceNonconvex quadraticIndefinite quadComputationalComplexityHeuristicIterationApproachPrimal-dual interior-point algorithmsMinimizationComplementarityFeasibleEvolutionarySemidefiniteData StructuresRecursiveGradient algorithmDiscriminant AnalysisVariational InequalitiesElliptic CurvesStochasticMultiobjectiveNumerical LinearHomogeneousApplied MathematicsOptimalAnalyzeInequalitiesRecent AlgorithmsMethodsExperimental analysisPolynomials

- This paper proposes improved RNS M-red algorithms, Q-RNS M-reds, which by posing quadratic residuosity constraints on the RNS base achieves the least number of multiplications. (springer.com)
- An algorithm is presented for solving nonlinear optimization problems with chance constraints, i.e., those in which a constraint involving an uncertain parameter must be satisfied with at least a minimum probability. (aiche.org)
- The algorithm employs a novel exact penalty function, which is minimized sequentially by solving quadratic optimization subproblems with linear cardinality constraints. (aiche.org)
- The new operator employs quadratic approximations of the objective functions and constraints, which are built using only the function samples already produced by the usual evolutionary algorithm function evaluations. (mit.edu)
- I will present a new method to analyze and design iterative optimization algorithms, built on the framework of Integral Quadratic Constraints (IQC) from robust control theory. (usc.edu)
- Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods have proved highly effective for solving constrained optimization problems with smooth nonlinear functions in the objective and constraints. (psu.edu)
- Its success motivates us to derive a related LCL algorithm that possesses three important properties: it is globally convergent, the subproblem constraints are always feasible, and the subproblems may be solved inexactly. (psu.edu)
- Quadratic programming (QP) is one advanced mathematical technique that allows for the optimization of a quadratic function in several variables in the presence of linear constraints. (pdfchm.net)
- This paper discusses computational experiments with linear optimization problems involving semidefinite, quadratic, and linear cone constraints (SQLPs). (psu.edu)
- Kinodynamic planning algorithms like Rapidly-Exploring Randomized Trees (RRTs) hold the promise of finding feasible trajectories for rich dynamical systems with complex, non-convex constraints. (mit.edu)
- COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING THEORY AND ALGORITHMS, THOROUGHLY REVISED AND EXPANDED Nonlinear Programming: Theory and Algorithms-now in an extensively updated Third Edition-addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function in the presence of equality and inequality constraints. (nii.ac.jp)

- Like the simplex algorithm of George B. Dantzig, the criss-cross algorithm is not a polynomial-time algorithm for linear programming. (wikipedia.org)
- In linear programming, the criss-cross algorithm pivots between a sequence of bases but differs from the simplex algorithm of George Dantzig. (wikipedia.org)
- in "phase two", the simplex algorithm pivots between a sequence of basic feasible solutions so that the objective function is non-decreasing with each pivot, terminating when with an optimal solution (also finally finding a "dual feasible" solution). (wikipedia.org)
- The criss-cross algorithm is simpler than the simplex algorithm, because the criss-cross algorithm only has one phase. (wikipedia.org)
- Roos's paper modifies the Klee-Minty construction of a cube on which the simplex algorithm takes 2D steps. (wikipedia.org)
- Like the simplex algorithm, the criss-cross algorithm visits all 8 corners of the three-dimensional cube in the worst case. (wikipedia.org)
- 1.2.3 Nelder-Mead Downhill Simplex Algorithm. (wiley.com)

- In this paper, we present a neighborhood following primal-dual interior-point algorithm for solving symmetric cone convex quadratic programming problems, where the objective function is a convex quadratic function and the feasible set is the intersection of an affine subspace and a symmetric cone attached to a Euclidean Jordan algebra. (springer.com)
- Bai, Y.Q., Zhang, L. A full-Newton step interior-point algorithm for symmetric cone convex quadratic optimization. (springer.com)

- Li, L., Toh, K.C. A polynomial-time inexact interior-point method for convex quadratic symmetric cone programming. (springer.com)
- Are there any efficient (polynomial time) algorithms for finding if a multivariate quadratic polynomial has a root? (mathoverflow.net)
- 17. R. D. C. MONTEIRO, I. ADLER, M. G. C. RESENDE, A polynomial time primal-dual affine scaling algorithm for linear and convex quadratic programming and its power series extensions, Math. (eudml.org)
- There are examples of algorithms that do not have polynomial-time complexity. (wikipedia.org)
- Several algorithms for linear programming-Khachiyan's ellipsoidal algorithm, Karmarkar's projective algorithm, and central-path algorithms-have polynomial time-complexity (in the worst case and thus on average). (wikipedia.org)

- In particular, the algorithm is designed to solve cardinality-constrained nonlinear optimization problems that arise in sample average approximations of chance-constrained problems. (aiche.org)

- The GQAP describes a broad class of quadratic integer programming problems, wherein M pair-wise related entities are assigned to N destinations constrained by the destinations' ability to accommodate them. (upenn.edu)

- Local search algorithms are popular methods to find approximate solutions to hard optimization problems. (scielo.br)
- Usually, the neighborhood structure depends on the problem under consideration and is a determinant factor for the performance of local search algorithms. (scielo.br)

- The features of the algorithm are discussed and the convergence of the algorithm has been proven in this paper. (actapress.com)
- The mathematical background is outlined, in particular the modification of the line search algorithm to retain convergence under parallel systems. (optimization-online.org)
- This paper analyzes a constrained optimization algorithm that combines an unconstrained minimization scheme like the conjugate gradient method, an augmented Lagrangian, and multiplier updates to obtain global quadratic convergence. (psu.edu)
- Various numerical linear algebra techniques required for the efficient implementation of the algorithm are presented, and convergence behavior is illustrated in a series of numerical experiments. (psu.edu)
- The main contributions of this thesis are three new quadratic programming solvers together with their proof of convergence and properties analysis. (cvut.cz)
- The convergence of the Frank-Wolfe algorithm is sublinear in general: the error in the objective function to the optimum is O ( 1 / k ) {\displaystyle O(1/k)} after k iterations, so long as the gradient is Lipschitz continuous with respect to some norm. (wikipedia.org)
- 11. C. C. GONZAGA, Convergence of the large step primal affine scaling algorithm for primal non-degenerate linear programs, Tech. Report, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (eudml.org)
- 20. J. SUN, A convergence proof of an affine-scaling algorithm for convex quadratic programming without nondegeneracy assumptions, Technical Report, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA, 1990. (eudml.org)
- 23. T. TSUCHIYA, Global convergence of the affine scaling algorithm for the primal degenerate strictly convex quadratic programming problems, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan, Technical report n° 417. (eudml.org)
- 24. T. TSUCHIYA, M. MURATMATSU, Global convergence of a long-step affine scaling algorithm for degenerate linear programming problems, Research Memorandum 423, the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 4-6-7 Minami-Azabou, Minoto-Ku, Tokyo 106, Japan, 1992. (eudml.org)
- Furthermore, convergence characteristics and robustness of the proposed method have been explored through comparison with results obtained with SQP algorithm. (scirp.org)
- Convergence issues are covered in the context of active set methods, global algorithms for pseudomonotone variational inequalities, successive convex relaxation and proximal point algorithms. (springer.com)
- The adjustment algorithm is recursively executed until parameter convergence effects a minimal error measurement, at which time the updated parameters are identified as accurate within the selected parametric model. (google.com)

- A low-dimensional SDP relaxation based spatial branch and bound method for nonconvex quadratic programs. (aimsciences.org)
- Nonconvex quadratic reformulations and solvable conditions for mixed integer quadratic programming problems. (aimsciences.org)

- Suppose I have an indefinite quadratic form over the integers, and I want to compute its orthogonal group. (mathoverflow.net)

- Xu, "An effective continuous algorithm for approximate solutions of large scale max-cut problems," Journal of Computational Mathematics , vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 749-760, 2006. (hindawi.com)
- Finally, some preliminary numerical results are provided to demonstrate the computational performance of the proposed algorithms. (aimsciences.org)
- Computational testing indicates that this algorithm produces results that rival the best QAP algorithms. (igi-global.com)
- The first seven chapters guide readers to the heart of current research in computational algebraic number theory, including recent algorithms for computing class groups and units, as well as elliptic curve computations, while the last three chapters survey factoring and primality testing methods, including a detailed description of the number field sieve algorithm. (booktopia.com.au)

- Liu, C. Study on Complexity of Some Interior-Point Algorithms in Conic Programming. (springer.com)
- preserve various personal download Interior Point Approach to Linear, Quadratic and Convex Programming: Algorithms and Complexity and successful monomers guanine profits, substantiality anything, models, and portfolio to our logic cases. (gridserver.com)
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- The time complexity of an algorithm counts the number of arithmetic operations sufficient for the algorithm to solve the problem. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, a generalization of Gaussian elimination called Buchberger's algorithm has for its complexity an exponential function of the problem data (the degree of the polynomials and the number of variables of the multivariate polynomials). (wikipedia.org)
- Because exponential functions eventually grow much faster than polynomial functions, an exponential complexity implies that an algorithm has slow performance on large problems. (wikipedia.org)
- You will start by learning about the complexity theory, then jump into learning about numerical algorithms, including randomizing arrays, prime factorization, and numerical integration. (oreilly.com)
- therefore, there may be no direct link between algorithm complexity and problem complexity. (wikipedia.org)
- From the complexity analyses, it is shown that none of the algorithms presented in this paper is best for all datasize/ machine-size ratios. (purdue.edu)
- This pdf file uses amortization in estimating the time complexity of a hashing algorithm. (cornell.edu)
- Towards sub-quadratic time and space complexity solutions for the dated tree reconciliation problem. (nih.gov)

- The investigation presented here contributes to a better understanding of the potential of these techniques, which are widely used as intensification tools in more sophisticated heuristic methods, such as evolutionary algorithms. (scielo.br)
- The fields of machine meta-learning and hyper-heuristic optimisation have developed mostly independently of each other, although evolutionary algorithms (particularly genetic programming) have recently played an important role in the development of both fields. (psu.edu)
- Is there an algorithm, or at least a heuristic? (mathoverflow.net)

- To achieve optimal placement of standard cells with standard placement algorithm, in every iterate cells, which need to be moved, will be moved to the most optimal place in that iteration. (scirp.org)
- Then we present kernel-function based primal-dual interior-point algorithms for solving this special circular cone optimization and derive the iteration bounds for large- and small-update methods. (aimsciences.org)
- We present primal-dual interior-point algorithms with polynomial iteration bounds to find approximate solutions of semidefinite programming problems. (psu.edu)
- In each iteration, the Frank-Wolfe algorithm considers a linear approximation of the objective function, and moves towards a minimizer of this linear function (taken over the same domain). (wikipedia.org)
- While competing methods such as gradient descent for constrained optimization require a projection step back to the feasible set in each iteration, the Frank-Wolfe algorithm only needs the solution of a linear problem over the same set in each iteration, and automatically stays in the feasible set. (wikipedia.org)
- 14. M. KOJIMA, S. MIZUNO, A. YOSHISE, AN O (√nL) iteration potential reduction algorithm for linear complementarity problems, Math. (eudml.org)
- At each iteration, NTGP constructs a second-order Taylor expansion to approximate the cost function, and estimates the next iterate as the solution of the constructed quadratic model over sparsity constraint. (techtalks.tv)
- In this method, the function solves a quadratic programming (QP) of sub-problem at each iteration. (igi-global.com)

- Vial, Theory and Algorithms for Linear Optimization: An Interior-Point Approach, , John Wiley & Sons , (1997). (aimsciences.org)
- Faybusovich, L. A Jordan-algebraic approach to potential-reduction algorithms. (springer.com)
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- Credit and liquidity in interbank rates: A quadratic approach ," Journal of Banking & Finance , Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 29-46. (repec.org)
- Credit and Liquidity in Interbank Rates: a Quadratic Approach ," Working papers 446, Banque de France. (repec.org)
- Thus, to achieve scalability (i.e., good performance as the number of processors available in a machine increases), instead of using a single algorithm, the approach proposed is to have a set of algorithms from which the most appropriate algorithm or combination of algorithms is selected based on the ratio calculated from the scaled machine size. (purdue.edu)

- Monteiro, R.D.C., Zhang, Y. A unified analysis for a class of path-following primal-dual interior-point algorithms for semidefinite programming. (springer.com)

- 12. M. D. HEBDEN, An algorithm for minimization using exact second derivatives. (eudml.org)
- We propose an alternating minimization (AM) algorithm for estimating attenuation functions in x-ray transmission tomography using priors that promote sparsity in the pixel/voxel differences domain. (shaobohan.net)

- After presenting duality theory, complementary slackness conditions, and definitions and algebraic characterizations of primal and dual nondegeneracy and strict complementarity we review the logarithmic barrier function for the SOCP problem and survey the path-following interior point algorithms for it. (psu.edu)
- there are criss-cross algorithms for linear-fractional programming problems, quadratic-programming problems, and linear complementarity problems. (wikipedia.org)
- This volume presents state-of-the-art complementarity applications, algorithms, extensions and theory in the form of eighteen papers. (springer.com)

- The iterates of the algorithm can always be represented as a sparse convex combination of the extreme points of the feasible set, which has helped to the popularity of the algorithm for sparse greedy optimization in machine learning and signal processing problems, as well as for example the optimization of minimum-cost flows in transportation networks. (wikipedia.org)

- Local search is also often embedded in evolutionary algorithms to deal with intensification tasks, where the objective is to combine the power of evolutionary operators in determining interesting regions of the search space with the power of local search procedures to conduct a thorough search in a specified region (Grosan & Abraham, 2007). (scielo.br)
- In artificial intelligence , an evolutionary algorithm ( EA ) is a subset of evolutionary computation , a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm . (wikipedia.org)
- Evolutionary algorithms often perform well approximating solutions to all types of problems because they ideally do not make any assumption about the underlying fitness landscape . (wikipedia.org)
- Techniques from evolutionary algorithms applied to the modeling of biological evolution are generally limited to explorations of microevolutionary processes and planning models based upon cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
- of many evolutionary algorithms is their lack of a clear genotype-phenotype distinction . (wikipedia.org)

- The algorithm is based on the broad class of commutative search directions for cone of semidefinite matrices, extended by to arbitrary symmetric cones. (springer.com)

- In this Learning Data Structures and Algorithms video training course, Rod Stephens will teach you how to analyze and implement common algorithms used in data processing. (oreilly.com)
- The main theme of the symposium is the role of experimentation and of algorithm engineering techniques in the design and evaluation of algorithms and data structures. (ebooks.com)

- In this paper a robust k-order Recursive Quadratic algo rithm for a large class of linear-in-the-parametes models is introduced to enhance Recursive Quadratic algorithm's ro bustness. (actapress.com)
- Several examples are included to demonstrate the efﬁciency by comparing the result with the conventional least square algorithm and the effectiveness of the robust Recursive Quadratic algorithm. (actapress.com)
- A full example of Median Sort in action is shown in Figure 4-9 , in which each row corresponds to a recursive invocation of the algorithm. (oreilly.com)
- 4. The method as defined in claim 3 wherein the determining comprises using a recursive convergent least squares estimation algorithm as the prediction algorithm. (google.com)

- Also known as the conditional gradient method, reduced gradient algorithm and the convex combination algorithm, the method was originally proposed by Marguerite Frank and Philip Wolfe in 1956. (wikipedia.org)

- In this example, we use Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) as the classification algorithm. (mathworks.com)

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- A description of 148 algorithms fundamental to number-theoretic computations, in particular for computations related to algebraic number theory, elliptic curves, primality testing and factoring. (booktopia.com.au)
- cremona] J. E. Cremona, Algorithms for Modular Elliptic Curves , Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. (princeton.edu)
- article {dokchitser, MRKEY = {2491537}, AUTHOR = {Dokchitser, Tim and Dokchitser, Vladimir}, TITLE = {Elliptic curves with all quadratic twists of positive rank}, JOURNAL = {Acta Arith. (princeton.edu)

- Quadratic stochastic intensity and prospective mortality tables ," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics , Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 174-184, August. (repec.org)
- Quadratic Stochastic Intensity and Prospective Mortality Tables ," Working Papers 2007-30, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics. (repec.org)

- The local search phase consists of solving the auxiliary multiobjective quadratic optimization problem defined from the quadratic approximations, scalarized via a goal attainment formulation using an LMI solver. (mit.edu)

- This book gathers selected contributions presented at the INdAM Meeting Structured Matrices in Numerical Linear Algebra: Analysis, Algorithms and Applications, held in Cortona, Italy on September 4-8, 2017. (springer.com)

- Analogous algorithms for the homogeneous formulation of the standard SDP problem are also implemented. (psu.edu)

- Hongwei Jiao and Yongqiang Chen, "A Global Optimization Algorithm for Generalized Quadratic Programming," Journal of Applied Mathematics , vol. 2013, Article ID 215312, 9 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)

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- We present a branch and cut algorithm that yields in finite time, a globally epsilon-optimal solution (with respect to feasibility and optimality) of the nonconvex quadratically constrained quadratic programming problem. (rice.edu)

- As the central part of the course, students will implement several algorithms in Python that incorporate these techniques and then use these algorithms to analyze two large real-world data sets. (coursera.org)
- To analyze our algorithms, we're not going to measure them by timing them. (coursera.org)

- I will discuss how to adapt IQC theory to study optimization algorithms, proving new inequalities about convex functions. (usc.edu)
- What are some methods of solving a system of quadratic and linear inequalities? (mathoverflow.net)

- Recent Algorithms and Applications in Swarm Intelligence Research. (igi-global.com)
- In Y. Shi (Ed.), Recent Algorithms and Applications in Swarm Intelligence Research (pp. 52-70). (igi-global.com)

- Different algorithms presented in the literature were implemented and compared to the proposed methods. (scielo.br)
- then, specific numerical methods are presented for the cases most relevant for applications, and new algorithms and theoretical results developed by the author are presented. (springer.com)
- The resulting algorithm has interesting similarities and contrasts with particle swarm optimization methods. (igi-global.com)
- This analysis lays a foundation for developing more effective future QAP algorithms, both for methods based on path relinking and tabu search, and for hybrids of such methods with related processes found in particle swarm optimization. (igi-global.com)
- This is a very good overview of interior point methods and Karmakar's algorithm. (cmu.edu)
- The basis is a quadratic optimization approachcombined with a new quadrisection algorithm.In contrast to most previous quadratic placement methods,no min-cut objective is used at all. (semanticscholar.org)
- Feature selection algorithms can be roughly grouped into two categories: filter methods and wrapper methods. (mathworks.com)
- Filter methods rely on general characteristics of the data to evaluate and to select the feature subsets without involving the chosen learning algorithm (QDA in this example). (mathworks.com)
- Wrapper methods use the performance of the chosen learning algorithm to evaluate each candidate feature subset. (mathworks.com)
- Function with continuous first and second derivatives are suitable for the optimization process because the algorithm uses gradient-based methods. (igi-global.com)

- Experimental Analysis of an Online Dictionary Matching Algorithm for Regular Expressions with Gaps. (ebooks.com)

- however, I'm curious to know what work has been done on special classes of polynomials, and in particular quadratic polynomials of multiple variables. (mathoverflow.net)
- By satisfiability, I mean if a system of polynomials has a solution, but here I am only concerned with one quadratic multivariate polynomial having a solution over the reals. (mathoverflow.net)
- Can you efficiently solve a system of quadratic multivariate polynomials? (mathoverflow.net)
- 3. Algorithms on Polynomials. (booktopia.com.au)