ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a high-energy organic compound, an intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, that plays a crucial role in the transfer of energy during metabolic processes, and serves as a substrate for various biosynthetic reactions.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Pyruvates, in the context of medical and biochemistry definitions, are molecules that result from the final step of glycolysis, containing a carboxylic acid group and an aldehyde group, playing a crucial role in cellular metabolism, including being converted into Acetyl-CoA to enter the Krebs cycle or lactate under anaerobic conditions.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Pyruvate oxidase is an enzyme complex located within the mitochondrial matrix that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, thereby linking glycolysis to the citric acid cycle and playing a crucial role in cellular energy production.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Hexosediphosphates are organic compounds consisting of a hexose sugar molecule, such as glucose, linked to two phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in energy metabolism and signaling pathways in living organisms.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. Common causes include deficiencies in GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE; PYRUVATE KINASE; and GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
(Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Trioses are monosaccharides, specifically simple sugars, that contain three carbon atoms, and can be glyceraldehydes or dihydroxyacetones, which are important intermediates in metabolic pathways such as glycolysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Fructosephosphates are organic compounds resulting from the combination of fructose with a phosphate group, playing crucial roles in various metabolic processes, particularly within carbohydrate metabolism.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Hereditary disorders of pyruvate metabolism. They are difficult to diagnose and describe because pyruvate is a key intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some inherited metabolic disorders may alter pyruvate metabolism indirectly. Disorders in pyruvate metabolism appear to lead to deficiencies in neurotransmitter synthesis and, consequently, to nervous system disorders.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
"Malate" is a term used in biochemistry to refer to a salt or ester of malic acid, a dicarboxylic acid found in many fruits and involved in the citric acid cycle, but it does not have a specific medical definition as such.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.
Hexosephosphates are sugar phosphate molecules, specifically those derived from hexoses (six-carbon sugars), such as glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, which play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the pentose phosphate pathway, catalyzing the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage and maintaining redox balance.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA; SEIZURES; and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
'Glucosephosphates' are organic compounds resulting from the reaction of glucose with phosphoric acid, playing crucial roles in various metabolic processes, such as energy transfer and storage within cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 4.1.1.31.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC 2.7.9.1.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
"Citrates, in a medical context, are compounds containing citric acid, often used in medical solutions for their chelating properties and as a part of certain types of nutritional support."
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) is a physiological modulator of hemoglobin oxygen affinity, reducing its attraction to oxygen in red blood cells, which facilitates the release of oxygen to tissues with lower oxygen concentrations.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 5.4.2.1.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.

Functional studies by site-directed mutagenesis on the role of Sp1 in the expression of the pyruvate kinase M and aldolase A genes. (1/1157)

During the cell cycle of mitogen stimulated rat thymocytes, an 8-10-fold induction of glycolytic enzymes and a corresponding increase in the mRNA levels has been observed. This prompted us to study the transcriptional regulation of the rat aldolase A and pyruvate kinase M genes. cis-Regulatory elements of both promoters were evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis of promoter/luciferase constructs and transient transfections of rat hepatoma FTO2B cells. Furthermore, the binding proteins were identified by mobility shift assays in the presence of specific antibodies. In the aldolase AH1 promoter, five binding sites for Sp1 and Sp3 and a TPA responsive element were identified as essential for transcriptional regulation. Most of the promoter activity can be attributed to these regulatory elements. In the pyruvate kinase M promoter three out of five binding sites of Sp1 and Sp3 (B box and GC boxes 1 and 3) turned out to be functional in the transfection assays whereas the disruption of GC box 2 had no effect, and the disruption of the GC box 4 had only a minor effect on the promoter activity. Both promoters are stimulated by Sp1 as well as Sp3, as judged by cotransfection experiments of Drosophila SL2 cells. Therefore, the Sp1- and Sp3-directed transcription provides a means for common regulatory mechanism of the aldolase A and the pyruvate kinase M genes.  (+info)

Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (2/1157)

Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities.  (+info)

Oval cell numbers in human chronic liver diseases are directly related to disease severity. (3/1157)

The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is significantly increased in patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C infection. The precise mechanisms underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in these conditions are not well understood. Stem cells within the liver, termed oval cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in animal models and may be important in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in human chronic liver diseases. The aims of this study were to determine whether oval cells could be detected in the liver of patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C, and whether there is a relationship between the severity of the liver disease and the number of oval cells. Oval cells were detected using histology and immunohistochemistry in liver biopsies from patients with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. Oval cells were not observed in normal liver controls. Oval cell numbers increased significantly with the progression of disease severity from mild to severe in each of the diseases studied. We conclude that oval cells are frequently found in subjects with genetic hemochromatosis, alcoholic liver disease, or chronic hepatitis C. There is an association between severity of liver disease and increase in the number of oval cells consistent with the hypothesis that oval cell proliferation is associated with increased risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease.  (+info)

Homogeneous pyruvate kinase isolated from yeast by two different methods is indistinguishable from pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract. (4/1157)

In this report, we have compared homogeneous yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) pyruvate kinase to enzyme from cell-free extracts in several different ways: 1) isoelectric focusing of cell-free extracts indicates one peak of pyruvate kinase activity whose isoelectric point is the same as that of the pure enzyme; 2) antibody prepared to the pure enzyme produces a single, fused precipitin line against enzyme in the cell-free extract and pure enzyme; 3) immunoelectrophoresis of cell-free extract produces one precipitin arc which has the same mobility as that of the pure enzyme; and 4) immunoprecipitation of the pure enzyme from cell-free extract with subsequent solubilization in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels produces a single protein band attributable to pyruvate kinase which co-migrates with the purified enzyme. Within the limits of the sensitivity of the methods employed, we conclude that the homogeneous pyruvate kinase prepared from yeast lysed either by Manton-Gaulin homogenization (Aust, A., Yun, S.-L., and Suelter, C. (1975) Methods Enzymol. 42, 176-182) or by toluolysis (Yun, S.-L., Aust, A.E., and Suelter, C.H. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 124-128) is identical with pyruvate kinase in cell-free extract.  (+info)

Effects of vanadium complexes with organic ligands on glucose metabolism: a comparison study in diabetic rats. (5/1157)

1. Vanadium compounds can mimic actions of insulin through alternative signalling pathways. The effects of three organic vanadium compounds were studied in non-ketotic, streptozotocin-diabetic rats: vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAc), vanadyl 3-ethylacetylacetonate (VEt), and bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (VM). A simple inorganic vanadium salt, vanadyl sulphate (VS) was also studied. 2. Oral administration of the three organic vanadium compounds (125 mg vanadium element 1(-1) in drinking fluids) for up to 3 months induced a faster and larger fall in glycemia (VAc being the most potent) than VS. Glucosuria and tolerance to a glucose load were improved accordingly. 3. Activities and mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and L-type pyruvate kinase) which are suppressed in the diabetic liver, were restored by vanadium treatment. The organic forms showed greater efficacy than VS, especially VAc. 4. VAc rats exhibited the highest levels of plasma or tissue vanadium, most likely due to a greater intestinal absorption. However, VAc retained its potency when given as a single i.p. injection to diabetic rats. Moreover, there was no relationship between plasma or tissue vanadium levels and any parameters of glucose homeostasis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Thus, these data suggest that differences in potency between compounds are due to differences in their insulin-like properties. 5. There was no marked toxicity observed on hepatic or renal function. However, diarrhoea occurred in 50% of rats chronically treated with VS, but not in those receiving the organic compounds. 6. In conclusion, organic vanadium compounds, in particular VAc, correct the hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glycolysis of diabetic rats more safely and potently than VS. This is not simply due to improved intestinal absorption, indicating more potent insulin-like properties.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (6/1157)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Studies on the kinetic effects of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate-dependent phosphorylation of purified pig-liver pyruvate kinase type L. (7/1157)

The effect of cyclic-AMP-dependent phosphorylation on the activity of isolated pig liver pyruvate kinase was studied. It was found that the major kinetic effect of the phosphorylation was to reduce the affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate, K0.5 for this substrate increasing from 0.3 to 0.9 mM upon phosphorylation. The cooperative effect with phosphoenolpyruvate was enhanced, the Hill constant nH increasing concomitantly from 1.1 to 1.5. V was unaltered. The change in activity occurred in parallel with the phosphate incorporation, except during the initial part of the reaction, when inactivation was correspondingly slower. The affinity for the second substrate ADP was unchanged, with an apparent Km of 0.3 mM at saturating concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate. Likewise, the requirement for potassium was unaffected, whereas the phosphoenzyme required a higher concentration of magnesium ions for maximal activity, compared with the control enzyme. The inhibitory effect of the phosphorylation was counteracted by positive effectors, fructose 1,6-biphosphate in micromolar concentrations completely activated the phosphoenzyme, resulting in an enzyme with properties similar to the fructose 1,6-biphosphate-activated unphosphorylated enzyme, with K0.5 for phosphoenolpyruvate about 0.025 mM and with a Hill constant of 1.1. Hydrogen ions were also effective in activating the phosphoenzyme. Thus, when pH was lowered from 8 to 6.5 the inhibition due to phosphorylation was abolished. The phosphoenzyme was sensitive to further inhibition by negative effectors such as ATP and alanine. 2 mM ATP increased K0.5 for phosphoenolpyruvate to 1.5 mM and nH to 2.3. The corresponding values with alanine were 1.3 mM and 1.9. Phosphorylation is thought to be an additional mechanism of inhibition of the enzyme under gluconeogenetic conditions.  (+info)

Transgenic inhibitors identify two roles for protein kinase A in Drosophila development. (8/1157)

We have initiated an analysis of protein kinase A (PKA) in Drosophila using transgenic techniques to modulate PKA activity in specific tissues during development. We have constructed GAL4/UAS-regulated transgenes in active and mutant forms that encode PKAc, the catalytic subunit of PKA, and PKI(1-31), a competitive inhibitor of PKAc. We present evidence that the wild-type transgenes are active and summarize the phenotypes produced by a number of GAL4 enhancer-detector strains. We compare the effects of transgenes encoding PKI(1-31) with those encoding PKAr*, a mutant regulatory subunit that constitutively inhibits PKAc because of its inability to bind cyclic AMP. Both inhibitors block larval growth, but only PKAr* alters pattern formation by activating the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Therefore, transgenic PKI(1-31) should provide a tool to investigate the role of PKAc in larval growth regulation without concomitant changes in pattern formation. The different effects of PKI(1-31) and PKAr* suggest two distinct roles, cytoplasmic and nuclear, for PKAc in Hedgehog signal transduction. Alternatively, PKAr* may target proteins other than PKAc, suggesting a role for free PKAr in signal transduction, a role inhibited by PKAc in reversal of the classical relationship of these subunits.  (+info)

Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the final step of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Specifically, pyruvate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in the formation of pyruvate and ATP.

There are several isoforms of pyruvate kinase found in different tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain. The type found in red blood cells is known as PK-RBC or PK-M2. Deficiencies in pyruvate kinase can lead to a genetic disorder called pyruvate kinase deficiency, which can result in hemolytic anemia due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a key intermediate in the glycolysis pathway and other metabolic processes. It is a high-energy molecule that plays a crucial role in the transfer of energy during cellular respiration. Specifically, PEP is formed from the breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and is then converted to pyruvate, releasing energy that is used to generate ATP, a major source of energy for cells.

Medically, abnormal levels of PEP may indicate issues with cellular metabolism or energy production, which can be associated with various medical conditions such as diabetes, mitochondrial disorders, and other metabolic diseases. However, direct measurement of PEP levels in clinical settings is not commonly performed due to technical challenges. Instead, clinicians typically assess overall metabolic function through a variety of other tests and measures.

The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) is a multi-enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism. It is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA. This reaction links the carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis) to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), enabling the continuation of energy production in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.

The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex consists of three main enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). Additionally, two regulatory enzymes are associated with the complex: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP). These regulatory enzymes control the activity of the PDC through reversible phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, allowing the cell to adapt to varying energy demands and substrate availability.

Deficiencies or dysfunctions in the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, which may result in neurological impairments and lactic acidosis due to disrupted energy metabolism.

Pyruvate is a negatively charged ion or group of atoms, called anion, with the chemical formula C3H3O3-. It is formed from the decomposition of glucose and other sugars in the process of cellular respiration. Pyruvate plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathways that generate energy for cells.

In the cytoplasm, pyruvate is produced through glycolysis, where one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, releasing energy and producing ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

In the mitochondria, pyruvate can be further metabolized through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) to produce more ATP. The process involves the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle and undergoes a series of reactions that generate energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide).

Overall, pyruvate is an important intermediate in cellular respiration and plays a central role in the production of energy for cells.

Pyruvic acid, also known as 2-oxopropanoic acid, is a key metabolic intermediate in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. It is a carboxylic acid with a ketone functional group, making it a β-ketoacid. In the cytosol, pyruvate is produced from glucose during glycolysis, where it serves as a crucial link between the anaerobic breakdown of glucose and the aerobic process of cellular respiration in the mitochondria.

During low oxygen availability or high energy demands, pyruvate can be converted into lactate through anaerobic glycolysis, allowing for the continued production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) without oxygen. In the presence of adequate oxygen and functional mitochondria, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl-CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). This reaction also involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the release of CO2. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where it is further oxidized to produce energy in the form of ATP, NADH, FADH2, and GTP (guanosine triphosphate) through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, pyruvic acid is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a significant role in energy production pathways, connecting glycolysis to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Glycolysis is a fundamental metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells, consisting of a series of biochemical reactions. It's the process by which a six-carbon glucose molecule is broken down into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules. This process generates a net gain of two ATP molecules (the main energy currency in cells), two NADH molecules, and two water molecules.

Glycolysis can be divided into two stages: the preparatory phase (or 'energy investment' phase) and the payoff phase (or 'energy generation' phase). During the preparatory phase, glucose is phosphorylated twice to form glucose-6-phosphate and then converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. These reactions consume two ATP molecules but set up the subsequent breakdown of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into triose phosphates in the payoff phase. In this second stage, each triose phosphate is further oxidized and degraded to produce one pyruvate molecule, one NADH molecule, and one ATP molecule through substrate-level phosphorylation.

Glycolysis does not require oxygen to proceed; thus, it can occur under both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvate produced during glycolysis is further metabolized through fermentation pathways such as lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation to regenerate NAD+, which is necessary for glycolysis to continue.

In summary, glycolysis is a crucial process in cellular energy metabolism, allowing cells to convert glucose into ATP and other essential molecules while also serving as a starting point for various other biochemical pathways.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

Pyruvate decarboxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the cellular process of fermentation and gluconeogenesis. In medical and biochemical terms, pyruvate decarboxylase is defined as:

"An enzyme (EC 4.1.1.1) that catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the presence of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) as a cofactor. This reaction occurs during anaerobic metabolism, such as alcohol fermentation in yeast or bacteria, and helps to generate ATP and NADH for the cell's energy needs."

In humans, pyruvate decarboxylase is primarily found in the liver and kidneys, where it participates in gluconeogenesis – the process of generating new glucose molecules from non-carbohydrate precursors. The enzyme's activity is essential for maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting or low-carbohydrate intake.

Deficiencies in pyruvate decarboxylase can lead to metabolic disorders, such as pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency (PDC deficiency), which is characterized by lactic acidosis, developmental delays, and neurological issues. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often involve monitoring enzyme activity and glucose metabolism.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system is a crucial pathway for the transmission and regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. It plays a significant role in several biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress response. The MAPK cascade consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MEKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K or MEK), and MAP kinase (MAPK).

The signaling system is activated by various extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and stress signals. These stimuli initiate a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of MAPKs. The activated MAPKs then translocate into the nucleus and regulate gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

There are four major MAPK families: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5. Each family has distinct functions, substrates, and upstream activators. Dysregulation of the MAPK signaling system can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fructosediphosphates" is not a recognized term in medicine or biochemistry. It's possible there may be a spelling mistake or misunderstanding in the term you're looking for.

If you meant "Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate," that is a key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. It's formed from fructose 6-phosphate in the process of glucose breakdown (glycolysis) and is then used in the generation of energy through the citric acid cycle.

If these terms are not what you were looking for, could you please provide more context or check the spelling? I'm here to help!

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy currency for the cell. PFK-1 plays a crucial role in regulating the rate of glycolysis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using ATP as the phosphate donor.

PFK-1 is allosterically regulated by various metabolites, such as AMP, ADP, and ATP, which act as positive or negative effectors of the enzyme's activity. For example, an increase in the intracellular concentration of AMP or ADP can activate PFK-1, promoting glycolysis and energy production, while an increase in ATP levels can inhibit the enzyme's activity, conserving glucose for use under conditions of low energy demand.

Deficiencies in PFK-1 can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Tarui's disease or glycogen storage disease type VII, which is characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, and myoglobinuria (the presence of myoglobin in the urine due to muscle damage).

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Pyruvate oxidase is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. However, pyruvate oxidase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of glucose in cells. It is involved in the conversion of pyruvate, a product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) to generate energy in the form of ATP.

Pyruvate oxidase is found in the mitochondria of cells and requires molecular oxygen (O2) to function. It catalyzes the following reaction:

pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ + H2O → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH + H+

Deficiencies in pyruvate oxidase have been associated with certain metabolic disorders, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and Leigh syndrome. However, these conditions are typically caused by defects in other enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyruvate rather than pyruvate oxidase itself.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are a group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. They are named after the founding member, SRC, which was first identified as an oncogene in Rous sarcoma virus.

SFKs share a common structure, consisting of an N-terminal unique domain, a SH3 domain, a SH2 domain, a catalytic kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail with a negative regulatory tyrosine residue (Y527 in human SRC). In their inactive state, SFKs are maintained in a closed conformation through intramolecular interactions between the SH3 domain, SH2 domain, and the phosphorylated C-terminal tyrosine.

Upon activation by various signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, or integrin engagement, SFKs are activated through a series of events that involve dephosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue, recruitment to membrane receptors via their SH2 and SH3 domains, and trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop in the kinase domain.

Once activated, SFKs can phosphorylate a wide range of downstream substrates, including other protein kinases, adaptor proteins, and cytoskeletal components, thereby regulating various signaling pathways that control cell behavior. Dysregulation of SFK activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the liver, kidneys, and to a lesser extent in the small intestine. It involves the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. This process becomes particularly important during periods of fasting or starvation when glucose levels in the body begin to drop, and there is limited carbohydrate intake to replenish them.

Gluconeogenesis helps maintain blood glucose homeostasis by providing an alternative source of glucose for use by various tissues, especially the brain, which relies heavily on glucose as its primary energy source. It is a complex process that involves several enzymatic steps, many of which are regulated to ensure an adequate supply of glucose while preventing excessive production, which could lead to hyperglycemia.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Hexose diphosphates refer to a class of organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms) linked to two phosphate groups. The most common examples of hexose diphosphates are glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which play important roles in cellular metabolism.

Glucose 1,6-bisphosphate is involved in the regulation of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. It acts as an allosteric regulator of several enzymes involved in this pathway and helps to maintain the balance between different metabolic processes.

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, on the other hand, is a key intermediate in gluconeogenesis, a process by which cells synthesize glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors. It is also involved in the regulation of glycolysis and helps to control the flow of metabolites through these pathways.

Overall, hexose diphosphates are important regulators of cellular metabolism and play a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis in living organisms.

Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple sugar that is used as an ingredient in many self-tanning products. When applied to the skin, DHA reacts with amino acids in the dead layer of the skin to temporarily darken the skin color. This process is known as the Maillard reaction, which is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a sugar. The effect of DHA is limited to the uppermost layer of the skin and it does not provide any protection against sunburn or UV radiation. The tanning effect produced by DHA usually lasts for about 5-7 days.

It's important to note that while DHA is considered safe for external use, it should not be inhaled or ingested, as it can cause irritation and other adverse effects. Additionally, some people may experience skin irritation or allergic reactions to products containing DHA, so it's always a good idea to do a patch test before using a new self-tanning product.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Hemolytic anemia, congenital is a type of anemia that is present at birth and characterized by the abnormal breakdown (hemolysis) of red blood cells. This can occur due to various genetic defects that affect the structure or function of the red blood cells, making them more susceptible to damage and destruction.

There are several types of congenital hemolytic anemias, including:

1. Congenital spherocytosis: A condition caused by mutations in genes that affect the shape and stability of red blood cells, leading to the formation of abnormally shaped and fragile cells that are prone to hemolysis.
2. G6PD deficiency: A genetic disorder that affects the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which is essential for protecting red blood cells from damage. People with this condition have low levels of G6PD, making their red blood cells more susceptible to hemolysis when exposed to certain triggers such as infections or certain medications.
3. Hereditary elliptocytosis: A condition caused by mutations in genes that affect the structure and flexibility of red blood cells, leading to the formation of abnormally shaped and fragile cells that are prone to hemolysis.
4. Pyruvate kinase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder that affects an enzyme called pyruvate kinase, which is essential for the production of energy in red blood cells. People with this condition have low levels of pyruvate kinase, leading to the formation of fragile and abnormally shaped red blood cells that are prone to hemolysis.

Symptoms of congenital hemolytic anemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, jaundice, dark urine, and an enlarged spleen. Treatment may involve blood transfusions, medications to manage symptoms, and in some cases, surgery to remove the spleen.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Lactates, also known as lactic acid, are compounds that are produced by muscles during intense exercise or other conditions of low oxygen supply. They are formed from the breakdown of glucose in the absence of adequate oxygen to complete the full process of cellular respiration. This results in the production of lactate and a hydrogen ion, which can lead to a decrease in pH and muscle fatigue.

In a medical context, lactates may be measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and metabolic status. Elevated levels of lactate in the blood, known as lactic acidosis, can indicate poor tissue perfusion or hypoxia, and may be seen in conditions such as sepsis, cardiac arrest, and severe shock. It is important to note that lactates are not the primary cause of acidemia (low pH) in lactic acidosis, but rather a marker of the underlying process.

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (p38 MAPKs) are a family of conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, immune response, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. They are activated by diverse stimuli such as cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, osmotic stress, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Once activated, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate and regulate several downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases. This regulation leads to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, p38 MAPKs are considered promising targets for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Hemolytic anemia, congenital nonspherocytic is a rare type of inherited anemia characterized by the premature destruction (hemolysis) of red blood cells. This condition is caused by defects in enzymes or proteins that help maintain the structural integrity and function of red blood cells.

In this form of hemolytic anemia, the red blood cells are not spherical in shape like spherocytes; instead, they may be oval or elongated. The most common types of congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia are caused by deficiencies in enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and pyruvate kinase.

Symptoms of this condition may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, jaundice, dark urine, and an enlarged spleen. Treatment may involve blood transfusions, medications to manage symptoms, and avoidance of certain triggers that can exacerbate the hemolysis. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be considered as a curative treatment option.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a muscle enzyme that is normally present in small amounts in the blood. It is primarily found in tissues that require a lot of energy, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. When these tissues are damaged or injured, CK is released into the bloodstream, causing the levels to rise.

Creatine kinase exists in several forms, known as isoenzymes, which can be measured in the blood to help identify the location of tissue damage. The three main isoenzymes are:

1. CK-MM: Found primarily in skeletal muscle
2. CK-MB: Found primarily in heart muscle
3. CK-BB: Found primarily in the brain

Elevated levels of creatine kinase, particularly CK-MB, can indicate damage to the heart muscle, such as occurs with a heart attack. Similarly, elevated levels of CK-BB may suggest brain injury or disease. Overall, measuring creatine kinase levels is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing tissue damage and determining the severity of injuries or illnesses.

Hexokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the initial step of glucose metabolism, which is the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate. This reaction is the first step in most glucose catabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen synthesis.

Hexokinase has a high affinity for glucose, meaning it can bind and phosphorylate glucose even at low concentrations. This property makes hexokinase an important regulator of glucose metabolism in cells. There are four isoforms of hexokinase (I-IV) found in different tissues, with hexokinase IV (also known as glucokinase) being primarily expressed in the liver and pancreas.

In summary, hexokinase is a vital enzyme involved in glucose metabolism, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, and playing a crucial role in regulating cellular energy homeostasis.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1), also known as Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2), is a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is a member of the MAPK family, which regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress response.

MAPK1 is activated by a cascade of phosphorylation events initiated by upstream activators like MAPKK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase) in response to various extracellular signals such as growth factors, hormones, and mitogens. Once activated, MAPK1 phosphorylates downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases, thereby modulating their activities and ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses.

MAPK1 is widely expressed in various tissues and cells, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of MAPK1 signaling pathways has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase is a crucial enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is a metabolic process that breaks down glucose to produce energy. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two triose sugars: dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

There are two main types of aldolase isoenzymes in humans, classified as aldolase A (or muscle type) and aldolase B (or liver type). Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase refers specifically to aldolase A, which is primarily found in the muscles, brain, and red blood cells. Aldolase B, on the other hand, is predominantly found in the liver, kidney, and small intestine.

Deficiency or dysfunction of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase can lead to metabolic disorders, such as hereditary fructose intolerance, which results from a deficiency in another enzyme called aldolase B. However, it is essential to note that the term "fructose-bisphosphate aldolase" typically refers to aldolase A and not aldolase B.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Lactic acid, also known as 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in various biological processes. In the context of medicine and biochemistry, lactic acid is primarily discussed in relation to muscle metabolism and cellular energy production. Here's a medical definition for lactic acid:

Lactic acid (LA): A carboxylic acid with the molecular formula C3H6O3 that plays a crucial role in anaerobic respiration, particularly during strenuous exercise or conditions of reduced oxygen availability. It is formed through the conversion of pyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), when there is insufficient oxygen to complete the final step of cellular respiration in the Krebs cycle. The accumulation of lactic acid can lead to acidosis and muscle fatigue. Additionally, lactic acid serves as a vital intermediary in various metabolic pathways and is involved in the production of glucose through gluconeogenesis in the liver.

P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility, and gene transcription. They are activated by binding to small GTPases of the Rho family, such as Cdc42 and Rac, which become active upon stimulation of various extracellular signals. Once activated, PAKs phosphorylate a range of downstream targets, leading to changes in cell behavior and function. Aberrant regulation of PAKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Phosphoglycerate Kinase (PGK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the glycolytic pathway, which is a series of reactions that convert glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy-rich compounds. PGK catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), concomitantly transferring a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP. This reaction is the fourth step in the glycolytic pathway and is reversible under certain conditions.

In humans, there are two isoforms of PGK: PGK1 and PGK2. PGK1 is widely expressed in various tissues, while PGK2 is primarily found in sperm cells. Deficiencies or mutations in the PGK1 gene can lead to a rare metabolic disorder called Phosphoglycerate Kinase Deficiency (PGKD), which can present with hemolytic anemia and neurological symptoms.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases (MAP2K or MEK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. They are so named because they are activated by mitogens, which are substances that stimulate cell division, and other extracellular signals.

MAP2Ks are positioned upstream of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in a three-tiered kinase cascade. Once activated, MAP2Ks phosphorylate and activate MAPKs, which then go on to regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.

There are several subfamilies of MAP2Ks, including MEK1/2, MEK3/6 (also known as MKK3/6), MEK4/7 (also known as MKK4/7), and MEK5. Each MAP2K is specific to activating a particular MAPK, and they are activated by different MAP3Ks (MAP kinase kinase kinases) in response to various extracellular signals.

Dysregulation of the MAPK/MAP2K signaling pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, targeting these pathways with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for treating various diseases.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (MAPK3), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, hormones, and stress.

MAPK3 is activated through a phosphorylation cascade that involves the activation of upstream MAPK kinases (MKK or MEK). Once activated, MAPK3 can phosphorylate and activate various downstream targets, including transcription factors, to regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of MAPK3 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Oxaloacetates are organic compounds that are integral to the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, in biological energy production. Specifically, oxaloacetate is an important intermediate compound within this metabolic pathway, found in the mitochondria of cells.

In the context of a medical definition, oxaloacetates are not typically referred to directly. Instead, the term "oxaloacetic acid" might be used, which is the conjugate acid of the oxaloacetate ion. Oxaloacetic acid has the chemical formula C4H4O5 and appears in various biochemical reactions as a crucial component of cellular respiration.

The Krebs cycle involves several stages where oxaloacetic acid plays a significant role:

1. In the first step, oxaloacetic acid combines with an acetyl group (derived from acetyl-CoA) to form citric acid, releasing coenzyme A in the process. This reaction is catalyzed by citrate synthase.
2. Throughout subsequent steps of the cycle, citric acid undergoes a series of reactions that generate energy in the form of NADH and FADH2 (reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, respectively), as well as GTP (guanosine triphosphate).
3. At the end of the cycle, oxaloacetic acid is regenerated to continue the process anew. This allows for continuous energy production within cells.

In summary, while "oxaloacetates" isn't a standard term in medical definitions, it does refer to an essential component (oxaloacetic acid) of the Krebs cycle that plays a critical role in cellular respiration and energy production.

Trioses are simple sugars that contain three carbon atoms and a functional group called a ketone or aldehyde. They are the simplest type of sugar molecule, after monosaccharides such as glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone.

Triose sugars can exist in two structural forms:

* Dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which is a ketotriose with the formula CH2OH-CO-CH2OH, and
* Glyceraldehyde (GA), which is an aldotriose with the formula HO-CHOH-CHO.

Trioses play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. In particular, DHA and GA are intermediates in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate during glycolysis, and they are also produced from pyruvate during gluconeogenesis.

Trioses can be synthesized chemically or biochemically through various methods, such as enzymatic reactions or microbial fermentation. They have potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, as they can serve as building blocks for more complex carbohydrates or as precursors for other organic compounds.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (also known as fructose 1,6-diphosphate or Fru-1,6-BP) is the chemical compound that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration and glucose metabolism. It is not accurate to refer to "fructosephosphates" as a medical term, but fructose-1-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important fructose phosphates with specific functions in the body.

Fructose-1-phosphate is an intermediate metabolite formed during the breakdown of fructose in the liver, while fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is a key regulator of glycolysis, the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate allosterically regulates the enzyme phosphofructokinase, which is the rate-limiting step in glycolysis, and its levels are tightly controlled to maintain proper glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of fructose metabolism has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

CDC2 protein kinase, also known as cell division cycle 2 or CDK1, is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by binding to regulatory subunits called cyclins. CDC2 protein kinase is primarily associated with the regulation of the G2 phase and the entry into mitosis, the stage of the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occur.

CDC2 protein kinase functions by phosphorylating various target proteins, which alters their activity and contributes to the coordination of the different events that occur during the cell cycle. The activity of CDC2 protein kinase is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as the binding and destruction of cyclin subunits.

Dysregulation of CDC2 protein kinase has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, where uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC2 protein kinase is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

The Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a crucial metabolic pathway in the cell's powerhouse, the mitochondria. It plays a central role in the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into carbon dioxide and high-energy electrons. This process generates energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), reducing equivalents (NADH and FADH2), and water.

The cycle begins with the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate, forming citrate. Through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate, releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide, one GTP (guanosine triphosphate), three NADH, one FADH2, and regenerating oxaloacetate to continue the cycle. The reduced coenzymes (NADH and FADH2) then donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, driving ATP synthesis through chemiosmosis. Overall, the Citric Acid Cycle is a vital part of cellular respiration, connecting various catabolic pathways and generating energy for the cell's metabolic needs.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

MAP (Mitogen-Activated Protein) Kinase Kinase Kinases (MAP3K or MAPKKK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, which regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. They are called "kinases" because they catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues on their target proteins.

MAP3Ks function upstream of MAP Kinase Kinases (MKKs or MAP2K) and MAP Kinases (MPKs or MAPK) in the MAP kinase cascade. Upon activation by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, stress, and hormones, MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which subsequently phosphorylate and activate MPKs. Activated MPKs then regulate the activity of downstream transcription factors and other target proteins to elicit appropriate cellular responses.

There are several subfamilies of MAP3Ks, including ASK, DLK, TAK, MEKK, MLK, and ZAK, among others. Each subfamily has distinct structural features and functions in different signaling pathways. Dysregulation of MAP kinase cascades, including MAP3Ks, has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Inborn errors of pyruvate metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to properly metabolize pyruvate, a key intermediate in glucose metabolism. Pyruvate is produced in the cells during the breakdown of glucose for energy production. Normally, pyruvate can be converted into acetyl-CoA and enter the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) for further energy production. However, in individuals with inborn errors of pyruvate metabolism, this conversion process is impaired due to defects in enzymes or transport proteins involved in pyruvate metabolism.

There are several types of inborn errors of pyruvate metabolism, including:

1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: This is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. PDH deficiency can lead to lactic acidosis, neurological problems, and developmental delay.
2. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme that converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which can then be used to synthesize glucose. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency can cause lactic acidosis, seizures, and developmental delay.
3. Mitochondrial disorders: Some mitochondrial disorders can affect pyruvate metabolism by impairing the function of the electron transport chain, which is necessary for energy production in the cells. These disorders can lead to lactic acidosis, muscle weakness, and neurological problems.
4. Other inborn errors: There are several other rare genetic disorders that can affect pyruvate metabolism, including defects in the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier protein, which transports pyruvate into the mitochondria, and deficiencies in enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle.

Treatment for these disorders typically involves managing symptoms, such as controlling lactic acidosis and providing supportive care for neurological problems. In some cases, dietary modifications or supplements may be recommended to help improve pyruvate metabolism.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

eIF-2 kinase is a type of protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) at serine 51. This phosphorylation event inhibits the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF-2B, thereby preventing the recycling of eIF-2 and reducing global protein synthesis.

There are four main subtypes of eIF-2 kinases:

1. HRI (heme-regulated inhibitor) - responds to heme deficiency and oxidative stress
2. PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) - activated by ER stress and misfolded proteins in the ER
3. GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2) - responds to amino acid starvation
4. PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase) - activated by double-stranded RNA during viral infections

These eIF-2 kinases play crucial roles in regulating cellular responses to various stress conditions, such as the integrated stress response (ISR), which helps maintain cellular homeostasis and promote survival under adverse conditions.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Casein Kinase II (CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. It is a heterotetrameric enzyme, consisting of two catalytic subunits (alpha and alpha') and two regulatory subunits (beta).

CK2 phosphorylates a wide range of substrates, including transcription factors, signaling proteins, and other kinases. It is known to play roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and protein stability, among others. CK2 activity is often found to be elevated in various types of cancer, making it a potential target for cancer therapy.

Casein kinases are a family of protein kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage repair. These enzymes phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on their target proteins by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chain of these amino acids.

There are several isoforms of casein kinases, including Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) and Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), which differ in their structure, substrate specificity, and cellular functions. CK1 is involved in various signaling pathways, such as the Wnt signaling pathway, and regulates processes such as gene transcription, DNA repair, and circadian rhythm. CK2, on the other hand, is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in many cellular processes, including cell division, apoptosis, and transcriptional regulation.

Dysregulation of casein kinases has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases (RSKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. They are so named because they phosphorylate and regulate the function of the ribosomal protein S6, which is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit involved in protein synthesis.

RSKs are activated by various signals, including growth factors, hormones, and mitogens, through a cascade of phosphorylation events involving several upstream kinases such as MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Once activated, RSKs phosphorylate a wide range of downstream targets, including transcription factors, regulators of translation, and cytoskeletal proteins, thereby modulating their activities and functions.

There are four isoforms of RSKs in humans, namely RSK1, RSK2, RSK3, and RSK4, which share a common structural organization and functional domains, including an N-terminal kinase domain, a C-terminal kinase domain, and a linker region that contains several regulatory motifs. Dysregulation of RSKs has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and diabetes, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Allosteric regulation is a process that describes the way in which the binding of a molecule (known as a ligand) to an enzyme or protein at one site affects the ability of another molecule to bind to a different site on the same enzyme or protein. This interaction can either enhance (positive allosteric regulation) or inhibit (negative allosteric regulation) the activity of the enzyme or protein, depending on the nature of the ligand and its effect on the shape and/or conformation of the enzyme or protein.

In an allosteric regulatory system, the binding of the first molecule to the enzyme or protein causes a conformational change in the protein structure that alters the affinity of the second site for its ligand. This can result in changes in the activity of the enzyme or protein, allowing for fine-tuning of biochemical pathways and regulatory processes within cells.

Allosteric regulation is a fundamental mechanism in many biological systems, including metabolic pathways, signal transduction cascades, and gene expression networks. Understanding allosteric regulation can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying various physiological and pathological processes, and can inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia that occurs when red blood cells are destroyed (hemolysis) faster than they can be produced. Red blood cells are essential for carrying oxygen throughout the body. When they are destroyed, hemoglobin and other cellular components are released into the bloodstream, which can lead to complications such as kidney damage and gallstones.

Hemolytic anemia can be inherited or acquired. Inherited forms of the condition may result from genetic defects that affect the structure or function of red blood cells. Acquired forms of hemolytic anemia can be caused by various factors, including infections, medications, autoimmune disorders, and certain medical conditions such as cancer or blood disorders.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a rapid heartbeat. Treatment for hemolytic anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or surgery.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

MAPKKK1 or Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. It plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, particularly in the MAPK/ERK cascade, which is involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

MAPKKK1 activates MAPKKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases) through phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues. In turn, activated MAPKKs phosphorylate and activate MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases), which then regulate the activity of various transcription factors and other downstream targets to elicit appropriate cellular responses.

Mutations in MAPKKK1 have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. Therefore, understanding its function and regulation is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glycolysis, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy. PFK catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, using a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a source of energy. This reaction is a key regulatory step in glycolysis and is subject to allosteric regulation by various metabolites, such as ATP, ADP, and citrate, that signal the cell's energy status.

There are several isoforms of PFK found in different tissues, including PFK-1 (or muscle PFK) and PFK-2 (or liver PFK), which exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression and regulation. Mutations in the genes encoding PFK can result in various inherited metabolic disorders, such as Tarui's disease, characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramps, and myoglobinuria.

Extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERKs or Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) are a subfamily of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival in response to extracellular signals.

ERKs are activated by a cascade of phosphorylation events initiated by the binding of growth factors, hormones, or other extracellular molecules to their respective receptors. This activation results in the formation of a complex signaling pathway that involves the sequential activation of several protein kinases, including Ras, Raf, MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase), and ERK.

Once activated, ERKs translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate and activate various transcription factors, leading to changes in gene expression that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response. Dysregulation of the ERK signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

MAP Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP2K4 or MKK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. These cascades are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis in response to extracellular stimuli like cytokines, growth factors, and stress signals.

MAP2K4 specifically activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway by phosphorylating and activating JNK proteins. The activation of JNK leads to the phosphorylation and regulation of various transcription factors, ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAP2K4 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Fructose-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gluconeogenesis, which is the process of generating new glucose molecules from non-carbohydrate sources in the body. Specifically, FBPase is involved in the fourth step of gluconeogenesis, where it catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and its conversion to fructose-6-phosphate represents an important regulatory point in these pathways. FBPase is inhibited by high levels of energy charge (i.e., when the cell has plenty of ATP and low levels of ADP), as well as by certain metabolites such as citrate, which signals that there is abundant energy available from other sources.

There are two main isoforms of FBPase in humans: a cytoplasmic form found primarily in the liver and kidney, and a mitochondrial form found in various tissues including muscle and brain. Mutations in the gene that encodes the cytoplasmic form of FBPase can lead to a rare inherited metabolic disorder known as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, which is characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis and hypoglycemia.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, while simultaneously reducing NAD+ to NADH. This reaction is essential for energy production in the form of ATP and NADH within the cell.

There are two main types of Malate Dehydrogenase:

1. NAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH1): Found primarily in the cytoplasm, this isoform plays a role in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which helps transfer reducing equivalents between the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
2. FAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH2): Located within the mitochondrial matrix, this isoform is involved in the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Abnormal levels of Malate Dehydrogenase enzyme can be indicative of certain medical conditions or diseases, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscle damage, or various types of cancer. Therefore, MDH enzyme activity is often assessed in diagnostic tests to help identify and monitor these health issues.

Starvation is a severe form of malnutrition, characterized by insufficient intake of calories and nutrients to meet the body's energy requirements. This leads to a catabolic state where the body begins to break down its own tissues for energy, resulting in significant weight loss, muscle wasting, and weakness. Prolonged starvation can also lead to serious medical complications such as organ failure, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. It is typically caused by a lack of access to food due to poverty, famine, or other social or economic factors, but can also be a result of severe eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.

1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase (PI4K) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of kinases, which are enzymes that transfer phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules to specific target proteins or lipids in the cell. PI4K specifically phosphorylates the 4th position on the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PI), a type of phospholipid found in the cell membrane, converting it to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P).

PI4K has several isoforms, including PI4K alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, which are located in different cellular compartments and play distinct roles. For example, PI4K alpha and beta are primarily involved in vesicle trafficking and Golgi function, while PI4K gamma and delta are associated with the plasma membrane and regulate ion channels and other signaling pathways.

PI4P, the product of PI4K activity, is an important signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, and protein sorting. Dysregulation of PI4K and its downstream pathways has been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and viral infection.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

CDC2 and CDC28 are members of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, which play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle. These kinases were originally identified in yeast (CDC28) and humans (CDC2), but they are highly conserved across eukaryotes.

CDC2-CDC28 Kinases function as a part of larger complexes, often associated with cyclins, to control different phases of the cell cycle by phosphorylating specific substrates at key regulatory points. The activity of CDC2-CDC28 Kinases is tightly regulated through various mechanisms, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and protein binding interactions.

During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are inactivated by phosphorylation at specific residues (Tyr15 and Thr14). As the cell approaches mitosis, a family of phosphatases called Cdc25 removes these inhibitory phosphates, leading to activation of the kinase. Activated CDC2-CDC28 Kinases then initiate mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown.

In summary, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are essential regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle, controlling various aspects of cell division through phosphorylation of specific substrates. Their activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper progression through the cell cycle and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to diseases such as cancer.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

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Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

I-kappa B kinase (IKK) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the activation of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation.

The IKK complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, and a regulatory subunit, IKKγ (also known as NEMO). Upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, pathogens, or stress, the IKK complex becomes activated and phosphorylates I-kappa B (IkB), an inhibitor protein that keeps NF-kB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm.

Once IkB is phosphorylated by the IKK complex, it undergoes ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the release and nuclear translocation of NF-kB, where it can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of IKK activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway of glycolysis. Its primary function is to convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (a triose sugar phosphate) into D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has also been implicated in various non-metabolic processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription regulation, due to its ability to interact with different proteins and nucleic acids.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in the regulation of cell division. There are three members of the Aurora kinase family, designated as Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C. These kinases are involved in the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various types of cancer.

Aurora A is primarily located at the centrosomes and spindle poles during cell division, where it regulates centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and chromosome segregation. Aurora B, on the other hand, is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that localizes to the centromeres during prophase and moves to the spindle midzone during anaphase. It plays essential roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment, and cytokinesis. Aurora C is most similar to Aurora B and appears to have overlapping functions with it, although its specific roles are less well understood.

Dysregulation of Aurora kinases has been associated with various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Overexpression or amplification of Aurora A is observed in many cancers, leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Inhibition of Aurora kinases has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, with several small molecule inhibitors currently under investigation in clinical trials.

Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell migration, and gene expression. They are named after their association with the small GTPase RhoA, which activates them upon binding.

ROCKs exist as two isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, which share a high degree of sequence homology and have similar functions. They contain several functional domains, including a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region that mediates protein-protein interactions, and a Rho-binding domain (RBD) that binds to active RhoA.

Once activated by RhoA, ROCKs phosphorylate a variety of downstream targets, including myosin light chain (MLC), LIM kinase (LIMK), and moesin, leading to the regulation of actomyosin contractility, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion turnover. Dysregulation of ROCK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and fibrosis. Therefore, ROCKs have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Protein Kinase C-delta (PKC-δ) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. PKC-δ is involved in several cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility. It is activated by second messengers like diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), and its activation leads to the phosphorylation of specific target proteins, thereby modulating their functions. Aberrant regulation of PKC-δ has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Hexose phosphates are organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms, such as glucose or fructose) that has been phosphorylated, meaning that a phosphate group has been added to it. This process is typically facilitated by enzymes called kinases, which transfer a phosphate group from a donor molecule (usually ATP) to the sugar molecule.

Hexose phosphates play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. For example, glucose-6-phosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, while fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important intermediates in glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the production of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, begins with the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Overall, hexose phosphates are important metabolic intermediates that help regulate energy production and utilization in cells.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), also known as Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the glycolytic pathway. It catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has been widely used as a housekeeping gene in molecular biology research due to its consistent expression across various tissues and cells, although recent studies have shown that its expression can vary under certain conditions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Protein Kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. PKC-α is activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+). It is involved in signal transduction pathways related to cell growth, differentiation, and oncogenic transformation. Mutations or dysregulation of PKC-alpha have been implicated in several diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Glucokinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism. It is primarily found in the liver, pancreas, and brain. In the pancreas, glucokinase helps to trigger the release of insulin in response to rising blood glucose levels. In the liver, it plays a key role in controlling glucose storage and production.

Glucokinase has a unique property among hexokinases (enzymes that phosphorylate six-carbon sugars) in that it is not inhibited by its product, glucose-6-phosphate. This allows it to continue functioning even when glucose levels are high, making it an important regulator of glucose metabolism.

Defects in the gene that codes for glucokinase can lead to several types of inherited diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is the active form of thiamine (vitamin B1) that plays a crucial role as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism. TPP is essential for the functioning of three key enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. These enzymes are involved in critical processes such as the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway, which is important for generating reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis. A deficiency in thiamine or TPP can lead to severe neurological disorders, including beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which are often observed in alcoholics due to poor nutrition and impaired thiamine absorption.

Fructose is a simple monosaccharide, also known as "fruit sugar." It is a naturally occurring carbohydrate that is found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Fructose has the chemical formula C6H12O6 and is a hexose, or six-carbon sugar.

Fructose is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion and is metabolized primarily in the liver. It is sweeter than other sugars such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), which makes it a popular sweetener in many processed foods and beverages. However, consuming large amounts of fructose can have negative health effects, including increasing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDH) Deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to convert certain food molecules into energy. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a group of enzymes that converts pyruvate, a byproduct of glucose metabolism in the cell's cytoplasm, into acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) in the mitochondria to produce energy in the form of ATP.

PDH deficiency results from mutations in one or more genes encoding the subunits of the PDH complex or its activators, leading to reduced enzymatic activity. This impairs the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and causes an accumulation of pyruvate in body tissues and fluids, particularly during periods of metabolic stress such as illness, infection, or fasting.

The severity of PDH deficiency can vary widely, from mild to severe forms, depending on the extent of enzyme dysfunction. Symptoms may include developmental delay, hypotonia (low muscle tone), seizures, poor feeding, and metabolic acidosis. In severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, lactic acidosis, and early death if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

PDH deficiency is typically diagnosed through biochemical tests that measure the activity of the PDH complex in cultured skin fibroblasts or muscle tissue. Genetic testing may also be used to identify specific gene mutations causing the disorder. Treatment usually involves a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet and supplementation with thiamine (vitamin B1), which is an essential cofactor for PDH complex activity. In some cases, dialysis or other supportive measures may be necessary to manage metabolic acidosis and other complications.

Serine is an amino acid, which is a building block of proteins. More specifically, it is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, and it does not need to be obtained through diet. Serine plays important roles in the body, such as contributing to the formation of the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath), helping to synthesize another amino acid called tryptophan, and taking part in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is also involved in the production of muscle tissues, the immune system, and the forming of cell structures. Serine can be found in various foods such as soy, eggs, cheese, meat, peanuts, lentils, and many others.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK) are a group of heterotrimeric enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular energy homeostasis. They are composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). AMPK is activated under conditions of low energy charge, such as ATP depletion, hypoxia, or exercise, through an increase in the AMP:ATP ratio.

Once activated, AMPK phosphorylates and regulates various downstream targets involved in metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and protein synthesis. This results in the inhibition of energy-consuming processes and the promotion of energy-producing processes, ultimately helping to restore cellular energy balance.

AMPK has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism, autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and inflammation. Dysregulation of AMPK activity has been linked to several diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, AMPK is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in these conditions.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a chemical compound with the formula CCl2CO2H. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis and as a laboratory research tool. DCA is also a byproduct of water chlorination and has been found to occur in low levels in some chlorinated drinking waters.

In the medical field, DCA has been studied for its potential anticancer effects. Preclinical studies have suggested that DCA may be able to selectively kill cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell metabolism. However, more research is needed to determine whether DCA is safe and effective as a cancer treatment in humans.

It is important to note that DCA is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a cancer treatment. It should only be used in clinical trials or under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that plays a role in regulating cell signaling pathways. It catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG), a lipid second messenger, to phosphatidic acid (PA). This reaction helps to terminate DAG-mediated signals and initiate PA-mediated signals, which are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. There are several isoforms of DGK that differ in their regulation, subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. Inhibition or genetic deletion of DGK has been shown to affect a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, immunity, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the cellular process of energy production, specifically in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle). This enzyme is responsible for transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to a specific residue on another protein called dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase.

The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme can be summarized as follows:
Acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3-DHLA) -> CoA + acetylated-dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3-DHLAA)

The acetylation of the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase protein is a necessary step in the citric acid cycle, which helps generate energy in the form of ATP through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions. Defects or mutations in this enzyme can lead to various metabolic disorders and diseases.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It plays an essential role in cellular metabolism, particularly in redox reactions, where it acts as an electron carrier. NAD exists in two forms: NAD+, which accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH. This pairing of NAD+/NADH is involved in many fundamental biological processes such as generating energy in the form of ATP during cellular respiration, and serving as a critical cofactor for various enzymes that regulate cellular functions like DNA repair, gene expression, and cell death.

Maintaining optimal levels of NAD+/NADH is crucial for overall health and longevity, as it declines with age and in certain disease states. Therefore, strategies to boost NAD+ levels are being actively researched for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions such as aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Protein-kinase B, also known as AKT, is a group of intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration. The AKT family includes three isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, which are encoded by the genes PKBalpha, PKBbeta, and PKBgamma, respectively.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT refer to the normal, non-mutated forms of these proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, when these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Activation of c-AKT occurs through a signaling cascade that begins with the binding of extracellular ligands such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to their respective receptors on the cell surface. This triggers a series of phosphorylation events that ultimately lead to the activation of c-AKT, which then phosphorylates downstream targets involved in various cellular processes.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT are normal intracellular proteins that play essential roles in regulating cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, their dysregulation can contribute to cancer development and progression.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular levels of nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. These nucleotides are essential for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and energy metabolism.

NDK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (most commonly ATP or GTP) to a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), converting it into a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). The reaction can be summarized as follows:

NTP + NDP ↔ NDP + NTP

The enzyme has several isoforms, which are differentially expressed in various tissues and cellular compartments. In humans, there are nine known isoforms of NDK, classified into three subfamilies: NM23-H (NME1), NM23-H2 (NME2), and NME4-8. These isoforms share a conserved catalytic core but differ in their regulatory domains and cellular localization.

NDK has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NDK activity has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 (FAK1), also known as Protein Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PTK2), is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and survival. It is recruited to focal adhesions, which are specialized structures that form at the sites of integrin-mediated attachment of the cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM).

FAK1 becomes activated through autophosphorylation upon integrin clustering and ECM binding. Once activated, FAK1 can phosphorylate various downstream substrates, leading to the activation of several signaling pathways that regulate cell behavior. These pathways include the Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and JNK signaling cascades, which are involved in cell proliferation, survival, and motility.

FAK1 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of FAK1 signaling has been associated with several diseases, such as cancer, fibrosis, and neurological disorders. Therefore, FAK1 is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Glucose phosphates are organic compounds that result from the reaction of glucose (a simple sugar) with phosphate groups. These compounds play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in energy metabolism within cells. The addition of phosphate groups to glucose makes it more reactive and enables it to undergo further reactions that lead to the formation of important molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a primary source of energy for cellular functions.

One notable example of a glucose phosphate is glucose 1-phosphate, which is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including glycogenesis (the process of forming glycogen, a storage form of glucose) and glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose to release energy). Another example is glucose 6-phosphate, which is a key regulator of carbohydrate metabolism and serves as an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway, a metabolic route that generates reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis.

In summary, glucose phosphates are essential compounds in cellular metabolism, facilitating energy production, storage, and utilization.

Phosphorylase Kinase (PhK) is a key enzyme in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, primarily involved in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate. It is a serine/threonine protein kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase b, an isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, converting it into its active form, glycogen phosphorylase a.

PhK is composed of four different subunits: α, β, γ, and δ. The γ subunit contains the catalytic site, while the other subunits play regulatory roles. PhK itself can be activated by calcium ions (Ca2+) and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation.

Phosphorylase Kinase is primarily located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, where it plays a crucial role in regulating energy production during muscle contraction and relaxation. Dysregulation or mutations in PhK have been implicated in several genetic disorders, such as Debré-akaki syndrome, which is characterized by muscle weakness and cardiac abnormalities.

Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a vital intermediate compound in the metabolism of glucose, which is a simple sugar that serves as a primary source of energy for living organisms. G6P plays a critical role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, contributing to the regulation of blood glucose levels and energy production within cells.

In biochemistry, glucose-6-phosphate is defined as:

A hexose sugar phosphate ester formed by the phosphorylation of glucose at the 6th carbon atom by ATP in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase or glucokinase. This reaction is the first step in both glycolysis and glucose storage (glycogen synthesis) processes, ensuring that glucose can be effectively utilized for energy production or stored for later use.

G6P serves as a crucial metabolic branch point, leading to various pathways such as:

1. Glycolysis: In the presence of sufficient ATP and NAD+ levels, G6P is further metabolized through glycolysis to generate pyruvate, which enters the citric acid cycle for additional energy production in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2.
2. Gluconeogenesis: During periods of low blood glucose levels, G6P can be synthesized back into glucose through the gluconeogenesis pathway, primarily occurring in the liver and kidneys. This process helps maintain stable blood glucose concentrations and provides energy to cells when dietary intake is insufficient.
3. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP): A portion of G6P can be shunted into the PPP, an alternative metabolic route that generates NADPH, ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, and erythrose-4-phosphate for aromatic amino acid production. The PPP is essential in maintaining redox balance within cells and supporting biosynthetic processes.

Overall, glucose-6-phosphate plays a critical role as a central metabolic intermediate, connecting various pathways to regulate energy homeostasis, redox balance, and biosynthesis in response to cellular demands and environmental cues.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase (MLCK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. It phosphorylates the regulatory light chains of myosin, a protein involved in muscle contraction, leading to the activation of myosin and the initiation of the contractile process. MLCK is activated by calcium ions and calmodulin, and its activity is essential for various cellular processes, including cytokinesis, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape. In addition to its role in muscle contraction, MLCK has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Oxaloacetic acid is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle. It is a key metabolic intermediate in both glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Oxaloacetic acid is a four-carbon carboxylic acid that has two carboxyl groups and one ketone group.

In the Krebs cycle, oxaloacetic acid reacts with acetyl-CoA (an activated form of acetic acid) to form citric acid, releasing CoA and initiating the cycle. Throughout the cycle, oxaloacetic acid is continuously regenerated from malate, another intermediate in the cycle.

Additionally, oxaloacetic acid plays a role in amino acid metabolism as it can accept an amino group (NH3) to form aspartic acid, which is an essential component of several biochemical processes, including protein synthesis and the urea cycle.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Tyrosine is an non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. Its name is derived from the Greek word "tyros," which means cheese, as it was first isolated from casein, a protein found in cheese.

Tyrosine plays a crucial role in the production of several important substances in the body, including neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which are involved in various physiological processes, including mood regulation, stress response, and cognitive functions. It also serves as a precursor to melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.

In addition, tyrosine is involved in the structure of proteins and is essential for normal growth and development. Some individuals may require tyrosine supplementation if they have a genetic disorder that affects tyrosine metabolism or if they are phenylketonurics (PKU), who cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which can lead to elevated tyrosine levels in the blood. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplementation regimen.

Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a tyrosine kinase enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. It is named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, as JAK2 has two similar phosphate-transferring domains. JAK2 is involved in various cytokine receptor-mediated signaling pathways and contributes to hematopoiesis, immune function, and cell growth.

Mutations in the JAK2 gene have been associated with several myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. The most common mutation is JAK2 V617F, which results in a constitutively active enzyme that promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation and survival, contributing to the development of these MPNs.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinases (FAKs) are a group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play crucial roles in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. They are primarily localized at focal adhesions, which are specialized structures formed at the sites of integrin-mediated attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM).

FAKs consist of two major domains: an N-terminal FERM (4.1 protein, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The FERM domain is responsible for the interaction with various proteins, including integrins, growth factor receptors, and cytoskeletal components, while the kinase domain possesses enzymatic activity that phosphorylates tyrosine residues on target proteins.

FAKs are activated in response to various extracellular signals, such as ECM stiffness, growth factors, and integrin engagement. Once activated, FAKs initiate a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately regulate cell behavior. Dysregulation of FAK signaling has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases.

In summary, focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinases are essential regulators of cellular processes that localize to focal adhesions and modulate intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular cues.

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-carboxylase or PEPC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that plays a crucial role in the carbon fixation process of photosynthesis, specifically in the C4 and CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant pathways. It is also found in some bacteria and archaea.

PEP-carboxylase catalyzes the irreversible reaction between phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) to form oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This reaction helps to initiate the carbon fixation process by incorporating atmospheric carbon dioxide into an organic molecule, which can then be used for various metabolic processes.

In C4 plants, PEP-carboxylase is primarily located in the mesophyll cells where it facilitates the initial fixation of CO2 onto PEP, forming oxaloacetate. This oxaloacetate is then reduced to malate, which is subsequently transported to bundle sheath cells for further metabolism and additional carbon fixation by another enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO).

In CAM plants, PEP-carboxylase operates at night to fix CO2 into malate, which is stored in vacuoles. During the day, malate is decarboxylated, releasing CO2 for RuBisCO-mediated carbon fixation while conserving water through reduced stomatal opening.

PEP-carboxylase is also found in some non-photosynthetic bacteria and archaea, where it contributes to various metabolic pathways such as gluconeogenesis, anaplerotic reactions, and the glyoxylate cycle.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa (RSKs) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways linked to cell growth, proliferation, and survival. They are so named because they were initially discovered as protein kinases that phosphorylate the 40S ribosomal protein S6, a component of the ribosome involved in translation regulation.

RSKs consist of four isoforms (RSK1-4) encoded by separate genes but sharing similar structures and functions. They have an N-terminal kinase domain, a C-terminal kinase domain, and a linker region containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. RSKs are activated through the Ras/MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling cascade, where Ras activates Raf, which in turn activates MEK, ultimately leading to the activation of ERK. Activated ERK then phosphorylates and activates RSKs by promoting a conformational change that allows for autophosphorylation and full kinase activity.

Once activated, RSKs can phosphorylate various substrates involved in transcriptional regulation, cytoskeletal reorganization, protein synthesis, and cell cycle progression. Dysregulation of RSK signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where they contribute to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. Therefore, RSKs are considered potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

Pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) is an enzyme found in plants and some bacteria that plays a crucial role in carbohydrate metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, releasing inorganic phosphate (Pi) and generating a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

The reaction catalyzed by PPDK is as follows:

PEP + Pi + ATP ↔ Pyruvate + AMP + PPi (inorganic pyrophosphate)

This enzyme is particularly important in C4 and CAM plants, where it helps to fix carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. In these plant species, PPDK is primarily located in the bundle sheath cells, which are surrounding the vascular bundles of leaves. Here, it facilitates the transfer of fixed carbon from mesophyll cells to bundle sheath cells for further processing and eventual reduction into carbohydrates.

PPDK is subject to complex regulation, with its activity being controlled by various factors such as light, pH, and metabolite concentrations. The enzyme can be reversibly inactivated under low light conditions or during the night through a process called protein phosphorylation, which adds a phosphate group to specific residues on the enzyme. This modification reduces PPDK's catalytic activity and helps conserve energy when it is not needed for carbon fixation. Upon exposure to light, the phosphate group can be removed by a protein phosphatase, reactivating the enzyme and allowing it to participate in carbohydrate metabolism once again.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Protein Kinase C-epsilon (PKCε) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that belongs to the family of Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes. These enzymes play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis.

PKCε is specifically involved in regulating several signaling pathways related to inflammation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. It can be activated by different stimuli such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and phorbol esters, which lead to its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates and modulates the activity of various target proteins.

Abnormal regulation or expression of PKCε has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, PKCε is considered a potential therapeutic target for these conditions, and inhibitors of this enzyme are being developed and tested in preclinical and clinical studies.

Citrates are the salts or esters of citric acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables. In a medical context, citrates are often used as a buffering agent in intravenous fluids to help maintain the pH balance of blood and other bodily fluids. They are also used in various medical tests and treatments, such as in urine alkalinization and as an anticoagulant in kidney dialysis solutions. Additionally, citrate is a component of some dietary supplements and medications.

Phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in regulating the rate of glycolysis, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for the conversion of glucose into energy. PFK-2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and subsequently fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-BP). F-2,6-BP is a potent allosteric activator of another enzyme called phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis.

PFK-2 exists as a complex with another enzyme, fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-2), and together they form a bifunctional enzyme called PFK-2/FBPase-2. This enzyme can reversibly convert F-6-P to F-2,6-BP and vice versa depending on the cellular energy status. When cells have high energy levels, FBPase-2 is activated, which leads to a decrease in F-2,6-BP levels and an inhibition of glycolysis. Conversely, when cells require more energy, PFK-2 is activated, leading to an increase in F-2,6-BP levels and an activation of glycolysis.

Regulation of PFK-2 activity occurs through various mechanisms, including allosteric regulation by metabolites such as AMP, citrate, and phosphate, as well as covalent modification by protein kinases and phosphatases. Dysregulation of PFK-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (also known as the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt or HMP Shunt) is a metabolic pathway that runs parallel to glycolysis. It serves two major functions:

1. Providing reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification processes.
2. Generating ribose-5-phosphate, a pentose sugar used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

This pathway begins with the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to form 6-phosphogluconolactone, catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting NADPH is used in various anabolic reactions and antioxidant defense systems.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway also includes a series of reactions called the non-oxidative branch, which interconverts various sugars to meet cellular needs for different types of monosaccharides. These conversions are facilitated by several enzymes including transketolase and transaldolase.

Enzyme activators, also known as allosteric activators or positive allosteric modulators, are molecules that bind to an enzyme at a site other than the active site, which is the site where the substrate typically binds. This separate binding site is called the allosteric site. When an enzyme activator binds to this site, it changes the shape or conformation of the enzyme, which in turn alters the shape of the active site. As a result, the affinity of the substrate for the active site increases, leading to an increase in the rate of the enzymatic reaction.

Enzyme activators play important roles in regulating various biological processes within the body. They can be used to enhance the activity of enzymes that are involved in the production of certain hormones or neurotransmitters, for example. Additionally, enzyme activators may be useful as therapeutic agents for treating diseases caused by deficiencies in enzyme activity.

It's worth noting that there are also molecules called enzyme inhibitors, which bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity. These can be either competitive or non-competitive, depending on whether they bind to the active site or an allosteric site, respectively. Understanding the mechanisms of both enzyme activators and inhibitors is crucial for developing drugs and therapies that target specific enzymes involved in various diseases and conditions.

MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that belongs to the MAPKKK family. It plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. These cascades are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

MAP3K1 activates MAPKKs (MAP Kinase Kinases) by phosphorylating them on specific serine and threonine residues. In turn, activated MAPKKs phosphorylate and activate MAPKs, which then regulate the activity of various transcription factors and other downstream targets.

Mutations in MAP3K1 have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. For example, gain-of-function mutations in MAP3K1 can lead to aberrant activation of MAPK signaling pathways, promoting tumor growth and progression. On the other hand, loss-of-function mutations in MAP3K1 have been associated with developmental defects such as craniofacial anomalies and skeletal malformations.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 2 (CAMK2) is a type of serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways related to synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. It is composed of four subunits, each with a catalytic domain and a regulatory domain that contains an autoinhibitory region and a calmodulin-binding site.

The activation of CAMK2 requires the binding of calcium ions (Ca^2+^) to calmodulin, which then binds to the regulatory domain of CAMK2, relieving the autoinhibition and allowing the kinase to phosphorylate its substrates. Once activated, CAMK2 can also undergo a process called autophosphorylation, which results in a persistent activation state that can last for hours or even days.

CAMK2 has many downstream targets, including ion channels, transcription factors, and other protein kinases. Dysregulation of CAMK2 signaling has been implicated in various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy.

Diphosphoglycerates (also known as 2,3-diphosphoglycerates or 2,3-DPG) are organic molecules found in red blood cells. They play a crucial role in regulating the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues.

When the concentration of diphosphoglycerates in red blood cells increases, it reduces the ability of hemoglobin to bind with oxygen, which allows more oxygen to be released into the tissues. This is particularly important in conditions where there is low oxygen availability, such as at high altitudes or in diseases that cause poor oxygen delivery to the tissues, like heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

In summary, diphosphoglycerates are essential molecules that help regulate hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen, ensuring optimal oxygen delivery to the body's tissues.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Carboxy-lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the removal of a carboxyl group from a substrate, often releasing carbon dioxide in the process. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, such as the biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, sugars, and other organic compounds.

Carboxy-lyases are classified under EC number 4.2 in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. They can be further divided into several subclasses based on their specific mechanisms and substrates. For example, some carboxy-lyases require a cofactor such as biotin or thiamine pyrophosphate to facilitate the decarboxylation reaction, while others do not.

Examples of carboxy-lyases include:

1. Pyruvate decarboxylase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide during fermentation in yeast and other organisms.
2. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO): This enzyme is essential for photosynthesis in plants and some bacteria, as it catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide into an organic molecule during the Calvin cycle.
3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: Found in plants, algae, and some bacteria, this enzyme plays a role in anaplerotic reactions that replenish intermediates in the citric acid cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate.
4. Aspartate transcarbamylase: This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, a class of nucleotides. It catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from carbamoyl aspartate to carbamoyl phosphate, forming cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and fumarate.
5. Urocanase: Found in animals, this enzyme is involved in histidine catabolism. It catalyzes the conversion of urocanate to formiminoglutamate and ammonia.

Protein Kinase C beta (PKCβ) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that belongs to the family of Protein Kinase C (PKC) enzymes. It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. PKCβ is activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which results in its translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where it phosphorylates downstream target proteins.

There are two isoforms of PKCβ, PKCβI and PKCβII, which differ in their regulatory domains but have similar catalytic domains. PKCβ has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

Ketone oxidoreductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ketones to corresponding alcohols or vice versa, through the process of reduction or oxidation. These enzymes play an essential role in various metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions within living organisms.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, ketone oxidoreductases have gained attention for their potential applications in the development of biosensors to detect and monitor blood ketone levels, particularly in patients with diabetes. Elevated levels of ketones in the blood (known as ketonemia) can indicate a serious complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, which requires prompt medical attention.

One example of a ketone oxidoreductase is the enzyme known as d-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (d-BDH), which catalyzes the conversion of d-beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate. This reaction is part of the metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids for energy production, and it becomes particularly important during periods of low carbohydrate availability or insulin deficiency, as seen in diabetes.

Understanding the function and regulation of ketone oxidoreductases can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders like diabetes and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for their management.

Phosphoglycerate Mutase (PGM) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the glycolytic pathway, which is a metabolic process that converts glucose into pyruvate, producing ATP and NADH as energy currency for the cell.

The enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG), which is the ninth step in glycolysis. Specifically, PGM transfers a phosphate group from the third carbon atom to the second carbon atom of 3-PG, resulting in the formation of 2-PG and inorganic phosphate.

There are two types of Phosphoglycerate Mutase isoenzymes in humans, including:

1. Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1 (PGAM1): This is a cytosolic enzyme that is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, heart, brain, and liver.
2. Phosphoglycerate Mutase 2 (PGAM2): This is a muscle-specific isoenzyme that is primarily found in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

Mutations in the PGAM1 gene have been associated with hemolytic anemia, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other metabolic abnormalities, while mutations in the PGAM2 gene have been linked to myopathies and other muscle-related disorders.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Mammals have two pyruvate kinase genes, PK-LR (which encodes for pyruvate kinase isozymes L and R) and PK-M (which encodes for ... Because the substrate for pyruvate kinase is a simple phospho-sugar, and the product is an ATP, pyruvate kinase is a possible ... Therefore, pyruvate kinase deficiency can cause chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Pyruvate kinase deficiency is ... causing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase and the inhibition of glycolysis. The M2 isozyme of pyruvate kinase can form ...
"Entrez Gene: PKLR pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC". Beutler E, Baronciani L (1996). "Mutations in pyruvate kinase". Hum. Mutat. ... 1991). "Point mutations in the L-type pyruvate kinase gene of two children with hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase ... Pyruvate kinase PKLR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PKLR gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a pyruvate ... Kanno H, Fujii H, Hirono A, Miwa S (1991). "cDNA cloning of human R-type pyruvate kinase and identification of a single amino ...
... (also pyruvate dehydrogenase complex kinase, PDC kinase, or PDK; EC 2.7.11.2) is a kinase enzyme ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase is activated by ATP, NADH and acetyl-CoA. It is inhibited by ADP, NAD+, CoA-SH and pyruvate. Each ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase should not be confused with Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, which is also sometimes known as ... "Site specificity of four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzymes toward the three phosphorylation sites of human pyruvate ...
... is due to a mutation in the PKLR gene. There are four pyruvate kinase isoenzymes, two of which are ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder of the enzyme pyruvate kinase which affects the survival of red ... "Pyruvate kinase deficiency: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-11. "Pyruvate kinase ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency happens worldwide, however northern Europe, and Japan have many cases. The prevalence of pyruvate ...
The enzyme [pyruvate kinase]-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.49) catalyzes the reaction [pyruvate kinase] phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\ ... This enzyme is also called pyruvate kinase phosphatase. Jett MF, Hue L, Hers HG (1981). "Pyruvate kinase phosphatase". FEBS ... pyruvate kinase] + phosphate This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on phosphoric monoester ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is [ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase]-phosphate phosphohydrolase. ...
... (EC 2.7.11.32, PPDK regulatory protein, pyruvate, phosphate dikinase regulatory protein, ... pyruvate,+phosphate+dikinase)+kinase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... Chastain CJ, Xu W, Parsley K, Sarath G, Hibberd JM, Chollet R (March 2008). "The pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory ... Burnell JN, Chastain CJ (June 2006). "Cloning and expression of maize-leaf pyruvate, Pi dikinase regulatory protein gene". ...
... (EC 2.7.11.33, PSRP, PEPS kinase) is an enzyme with systematic name ADP:(pyruvate, water ... pyruvate,+water+dikinase)+kinase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... Burnell JN (January 2010). "Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase--Pi- ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ADP + [pyruvate, water dikinase] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
It codes for an isozyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a part of a mitochondrial ... "Site specificity of four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzymes toward the three phosphorylation sites of human pyruvate ... "Entrez Gene: PDK1 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1". Park J, Li Y, Kim SH, Kong G, Shrestha R, Tran Q, Hong J, Hur GM, ... Hur H, Xuan Y, Kim YB, Lee G, Shim W, Yun J, Ham IH, Han SU (Jan 2013). "Expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 in ...
... also called erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency, is an inherited metabolic disorder of the enzyme pyruvate kinase. In this ... which in a state of pyruvate kinase deficiency rapidly become deficient in ATP and can undergo hemolysis. Therefore, pyruvate ... Ayi K, Min-Oo G, Serghides L, Crockett M, Kirby-Allen M, Quirt I, Gros P, Kain KC (2008). "Pyruvate kinase deficiency and ... a lack of pyruvate kinase slows down the process of glycolysis. This effect is especially devastating in cells that lack ...
Mutations in pyruvate kinase cause deficiency in pyruvate kinase which prevents adequate red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, ... September 2017). "AG-348 enhances pyruvate kinase activity in red blood cells from patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency". ... Mitapivat is a pyruvate kinase activator. The most common side effects include decreases in estrone and estradiol (types of the ... Mitapivat is indicated for the treatment of hemolytic anemia in adults with pyruvate kinase deficiency. Mitapivat binds to and ...
Stuart, David Ian (1979). X-ray studies on pyruvate kinase. exlibrisgroup.com (PhD thesis). University of Bristol. David Stuart ... working on the structure of the enzyme pyruvate kinase in the laboratory of Hilary Muirhead. Stuart moved to Oxford in 1979 and ...
Christofk HR, Vander Heiden MG, Wu N, Asara JM, Cantley LC (March 2008). "Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding ... March 2008). "The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth". Nature. 452 (7184 ... This approach was used to characterize the substrate specificity of a large number of protein kinases. The kinase specificity ... March 2004). "The tumor suppressor LKB1 kinase directly activates AMP-activated kinase and regulates apoptosis in response to ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 (PDK2) also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 2, mitochondrial ... "Structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Novel folding pattern for a serine protein kinase". The Journal of Biological ... "Site specificity of four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzymes toward the three phosphorylation sites of human pyruvate ... protein kinase B)/glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling pathway via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". Journal of Immunology. 163 ( ...
Israelsen; Vander Heiden, M.G. (2015). "Pyruvate kinase: Function, regulation and role in cancer". Seminars in Cell & ... Pyruvate kinase is also found in the nucleoplasm in significant quantities; this enzyme is involved in the final step of ... glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate along with the phosphorylation of adenosine ...
It codes for an isozyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. This gene is a member of the PDK/BCKDK protein kinase family and ... Kwon HS, Huang B, Unterman TG, Harris RA (Apr 2004). "Protein kinase B-alpha inhibits human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 ... "Site specificity of four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzymes toward the three phosphorylation sites of human pyruvate ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrial (PDK4) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDK4 gene ...
Fell did research on the physical biochemistry of yeast pyruvate kinase. He obtained a position at Oxford Polytechnic as a ... "The preparation and properties of pyruvate kinase from yeast". Biochemical Journal. 139 (3): 665-675. doi:10.1042/bj1390665. ...
... leading to dephosphorylation and re-activation of pyruvate kinase. These controls prevent pyruvate kinase from being active at ... The final step of glycolysis is catalysed by pyruvate kinase to form pyruvate and another ATP. It is regulated by a range of ... During fasting (no glucose available), glucagon activates protein kinase A which phosphorylates pyruvate kinase to inhibit it. ... Pyruvate kinase ADP ATP 2 × Pyruvate 2 × The first five steps of Glycolysis are regarded as the preparatory (or investment) ...
2003). "Interaction between HERC1 and M2-type pyruvate kinase". FEBS Lett. 539 (1-3): 78-84. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00205-9 ...
The TIM-barrel in pyruvate kinase is 'discontinuous', meaning that more than one segment of the polypeptide is required to form ... An appropriate example is pyruvate kinase (see first figure), a glycolytic enzyme that plays an important role in regulating ... "The crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii pyruvate kinase 1". PLOS ONE. 5 (9): e12736. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512736B. doi: ... which is itself a tyrosine kinase. See also: SH3 domain. Zinc finger DNA-binding domain (ZnF_GATA): ZnF_GATA domain-containing ...
The reaction is similar to the reaction catalysed by pyruvate kinase, which also converts pyruvate to PEP. However, pyruvate ... pyruvate phosphate dikinase, pyruvate-inorganic phosphate dikinase, pyruvate-phosphate dikinase, pyruvate-phosphate ligase, ... In particular, PPDK is very similar to pyruvate kinase, which also catalyses the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate ... Research has shown that the PPDK binding mechanisms are similar to that of D-Ala-D-Ala ligase and pyruvate kinase. ...
Rose, I.A. (1970). "Stereochemistry of pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and malate enzyme reactions". J. Biol. Chem. 245 ... Rose, I.A. (1968). "State of magnesium in cells as estimated from adenylate kinase equilibrium". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 61 ... Rose, Irwin A. (1955). "Acetate kinase of bacteria (acetokinase)". Methods Enzymol. 1: 591-595. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(55)01102- ... or Mn2+-dependent formation of acetyl-CoA from acetate and ATP catalyzed by acetate kinase, an essential reaction for priming ...
Mazurek, S; Grimm H; Boschek CB; Vaupel P; Eigenbrodt E (2002). "Pyruvate kinase type M2: a crossroad in the tumor metabolome ... Eigenbrodt, E; Kallinowski F; Ott M; Mazurek S; Vaupel P (1998). "Pyruvate kinase and the interaction of amino acid and ... role of pyruvate kinase type M2 and the glycolytic enzyme complex". Biochemical Journal. 356 (Pt 1): 247-256. doi:10.1042/0264- ... pyruvate + NAD(P)H + H+ + CO2 pyruvate + NADH + H+ → lactate + NAD+ The reactions of the glutaminolytic pathway take place ...
"Pyruvate kinase M2 is requisite for Th1 and Th17 differentiation". JCI Insight. 4 (12): e127395. doi:10.1172/jci.insight.127395 ... for the increased production of IL-17 by promoting the activity of glutaminase 1 and suppressing the activity of pyruvate ...
Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), also known as pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM), pyruvate kinase type K, cytosolic ... Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the last step within glycolysis, the dephosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, and is ... intracellular gonococci bind pyruvate kinase via their Opa proteins and require host pyruvate for growth". Molecular ... "Use of a novel method to find substrates of protein kinase C delta identifies M2 pyruvate kinase". The International Journal of ...
Kaura, B; Bagga, R; Patel, FD (2004). "Evaluation of the Pyruvate Kinase isoenzyme tumor (Tu M2-PK) as a tumor marker for ... Wechsel, HW; Petri, E; Bichler, KH; Feil, G (1999). "Marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC): The dimeric form of pyruvate kinase ... Hardt, PD; Ngoumou, BK; Rupp, J; Schnell-Kretschmer, H; Kloer, HU (2000). "Tumor M2-pyruvate kinase: A promising tumor marker ... Kumar, Yogesh; Tapuria, Niteen; Kirmani, Naveed; Davidson, Brian R. (2007). "Tumour M2-pyruvate kinase: A gastrointestinal ...
Ibsen, KH; Schiller, KW; Haas, TA (1971). "Interconvertible kinetic and physical forms of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase". ... 2001). "X-ray structure of HPr kinase: A bacterial protein kinase with a P-loop nucleotide-binding domain". The EMBO Journal. ... "Alanine-mediated reversible inactivation of tumour pyruvate kinase caused by a tetramer-dimer transition". FEBS Letters. 50 (3 ... 2004). "HPr kinase/phosphorylase, a Walker motif A-containing bifunctional sensor enzyme controlling catabolite repression in ...
Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency affects step 7 of glycolysis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency affects the 10th and last step of ... Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency (MPYCD) is a metabolic disorder, in which the transport of pyruvate from the cytosol ... the pyruvate not converted feeds the citric acid cycle (CAC); both via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC, with Acetyl-CoA as ... Note: gluconeogenesis is taking place only in the liver and not in other cells like e.g. muscle cells.) The pyruvate created by ...
cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Feliú JE, Hue L, Hers HG (August 1976). "Hormonal control of pyruvate kinase activity and ... Glucagon stimulation of PKA also inactivates the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates phosphorylase kinase, which then phosphorylates glycogen ... The enzyme protein kinase A that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine ...
This alpha/beta barrel is a domain of pyruvate kinase enzyme. Groft CM, Beckmann R, Sali A, Burley SK (December 2000). "Crystal ... Lee, J. C.; Herman, P. (2011). Structural and functional energetic linkages in allosteric regulation of muscle pyruvate kinase ...
Pyruvate kinase catalyses the ATP-generating step of glycolysis in which phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate. ... HIF1 then would activate the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDKs), which inactivate the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase ... Pyruvate kinase type M2 or PKM2 is present in embryonic, adult stem cells. It is also expressed by many tumor cells. The ... Mazurek S, Boschek CB, Hugo F, Eigenbrodt E (August 2005). "Pyruvate kinase type M2 and its role in tumor growth and spreading ...
Mammals have two pyruvate kinase genes, PK-LR (which encodes for pyruvate kinase isozymes L and R) and PK-M (which encodes for ... Because the substrate for pyruvate kinase is a simple phospho-sugar, and the product is an ATP, pyruvate kinase is a possible ... Therefore, pyruvate kinase deficiency can cause chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Pyruvate kinase deficiency is ... causing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase and the inhibition of glycolysis. The M2 isozyme of pyruvate kinase can form ...
Pyruvate kinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the bodys tissues. ... and in red blood cells, where it provides instructions for making an enzyme called pyruvate kinase. The pyruvate kinase enzyme ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/pyruvate-kinase-deficiency/ Pyruvate kinase deficiency. ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency is caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. The PKLR gene is active in the liver. ...
Pyruvate kinase deficiency is one of the most common enzymatic defects of the erythrocyte. This disorder manifests clinically ... Clinical spectrum of pyruvate kinase deficiency: data from the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Natural History Study. Blood. 2018 ... Erythrocytes in pyruvate kinase deficiency. In pyruvate kinase deficiency, an erythrocyte enzymopathy, a metabolic block is ... encoded search term (Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency) and Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency is a disorder that causes anemia due to the breakdown of red blood cells. ... Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency. Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency is a disorder that causes anemia due to the breakdown of red blood ... Heres what a vet needs to know about Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency. Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency presents as a chronic, ... one copy of the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation can be safely bred with a clear cat with no copies of the Pyruvate Kinase ...
Timeline for Protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from d.122.1.4: alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, C-terminal domain: * ... Protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from d.122.1.4: alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, C-terminal domain first appeared in ... Protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from d.122.1.4: alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, C-terminal domain appears in SCOPe ... Protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from d.122.1.4: alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase, C-terminal domain appears in SCOPe ...
Metabolism of cancer cells with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) at its centre stage has assumed a prime significance in cancer ...
homologueliver pyruvate kinasechemical requirementsrabbit muscle isozymeallosteric impactrMEffector Analogues Detect Varied ... The binding site for allosteric inhibitor (amino acid) is highly conserved between human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK) and the ... Effector Analogues Detect Varied Allosteric Roles for Conserved Protein−Effector Interactions in Pyruvate Kinase Isozymes. ... Allosteric Rolesallosteric inhibitorPyruvate Kinase IsozymesThe binding sitePEPallosteric pathwayseffector bindingacid ...
Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kit provides a simple, direct, and automation-ready procedure for measuring pyruvate kinase activity. ... Pyruvate Kinase assay kits, Pyruvate Kinase determination kits, Pyruvate Kinase measurement kits, Pyruvate Kinase test kits ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency, a genetic disease, is caused by a lack of pyruvate kinase and slows down the process of glycolysis ... EnzyChrom Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kits, EnzyChromTM Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kit, Enzyme Activity, EPRK-100, metabolism, oncology, ...
Supplementary table for Methionine oxidation activates pyruvate kinase M2 to promote pancreatic cancer metastasis. Published: ...
Rare constitutional hemolytic anemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency, Rare constitutional hemolytic anemia due to an enzyme ...
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is known to promote tumourigenesis through dimer formation of p-PKM2Y105. Here, we investigated ... SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 regulates pyruvate kinase M2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. ...
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been verified to correlate with the prognosis of many types of cancer. However, its role in the ... 8. Wong TS, Liu XB, Chung-Wai Ho A, Po-Wing Yuen A, Wai-Man Ng R, Ignace Wei W. Identification of pyruvate kinase type M2 as ... Role of pyruvate kinase M2 in transcriptional regulation leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... 7. Kefas B, Comeau L, Erdle N, Montgomery E, Amos S, Purow B. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a target of the tumor-suppressive microRNA- ...
Pyruvate kinase deficiency. Prior to February 2022, there were no approved disease-modifying therapies for those with pyruvate ... Post category:Pyruvate kinase deficiency. The FDA has recently approved a treatment called Pyrukynd as a therapeutic option for ... Post category:Pyruvate kinase deficiency. Earlier this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved mitapivat ( ... New Data Available on RP-L301 for Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency *Post author:Jessica Lynn ...
MyAgios is committed to helping Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency patients with access support and other treatment-related resources. ... Through your journey with pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency, Patient Support Managers (PSMs) will act as your ally to provide:. ...
Empowering people with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency to live a more satisfied life ... Thrive with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Organization. Empowering people with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency to live a more satisfied ... We are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit in the State of Minnesota focused on connecting the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency community online ...
Order Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kit 01011954560 at Gentaur Pyruvate Kinase Kit ...
Thrive with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Organization. Empowering people with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency to live a more satisfied ... We are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit in the State of Minnesota focused on connecting the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency community online ...
PK Pyruvate kinase converts phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP into ATP and pyruvate, and is one of the main rate limiting enzymes in ... Pyruvate kinase converts phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP into ATP and pyruvate, and is one of the main rate limiting enzymes in the ...
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Synonyms: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, PK. CAS 9001-59-6. Browse Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle and related ... Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle, Type VII, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, 350-600 units/mg protein ... Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle, Type II, ammonium sulfate suspension, 350-600 units/mg protein ... Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle, Type III, lyophilized powder, 350-600 units/mg protein ...
River outflow, Pyruvate kinase, DNA/C index, Bay of Biscay, Anchovy larvae. ... springtime outflow and consequences for zooplankton pyruvate kinase activity and the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae: ... springtime outflow and consequences for zooplankton pyruvate kinase activity and the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae: ... on carbohydrate assimilation rates by zooplankton estimated via pyruvate kinase (PK) activity measurements and (2) on ...
PDH kinase activity, PDHK, PDK, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (phosphorylating) activity, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase ... pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity is_a protein kinase activity (GO:0004672) ... kinase activity. Link to all direct and indirect annotations to pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity. ... Parents of pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity (GO:0004740) subject. relation. object. ...
Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kit (ab83432) 636892108710000000. Product. PKC Kinase Activity Assay Kit (ab139437) 636892107920000000 ...
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKD) - Market Analysis. The Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKD) market outlook of the report helps to ... Market Size of Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKD) in 7MM countries. *Market Size of Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency (PKD) by therapies ... What is the cause of pyruvate kinase deficiency?. Pyruvate kinase deficiency is caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. The PKLR ... Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a genetic blood disorder characterized by low levels of an enzyme called pyruvate kinase, which ...
Pyruvate kinase deficiency. Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is the most common glycolytic defect causing congenital non- ... Effects of AG-348, a pyruvate kinase activator, on anemia and hemolysis in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency: data from ... Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency: 2015 status report. Am J Hematol. 2015; 90(9):825-830. Google Scholar ... Zanella A, Fermo E, Bianchi P, Valentini G. Red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency: molecular and clinical aspects. Br J Haematol. ...
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and our test Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder in which red blood cells ... Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Rhizomelic Chondrodysplasia Punctata Type 1 Salla Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren-Larsson ...
Pyruvate kinase (PK) catalyzes the final step of glycolysis by converting phosphoenolpyruvate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ... Plasma lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase activity changes with body mass and age across birds and mammals. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is important for anaerobic glycolysis by catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate into lactate. In ...
Background In molecular medicine, the manipulation of cells is must to evaluate genes as therapeutic targets or to transfect cells to develop cell therapeutic strategies. cell viability of 93% had been accomplished for siRNA transfection. The evidence for a molecular medical strategy is definitely shown by extremely effective hit down of the oncogene HMGA2 in a quickly proliferating prostate carcinoma model using siRNA. Additionally, research regarding the preliminary perforation system are carried out. Up coming to theoretical simulations, the laser beam caused results are experimentally looked into by spectrometric and tiny evaluation. The total results indicate that near field effects are the initial system of membrane layer permeabilization. Bottom SGX-145 line This systematic strategy SGX-145 mixed with an computerized set up, enables a high throughput concentrating on of many 100,000 cells within secs, offering an exceptional device for applications in molecular medication. NIR fs lasers ...
Background The ventral ectodermal ridge (VER) can be an important signalling centre in the mouse tail-bud following completion of gastrulation. VER cells, this boosts the chance of cell-matrix connections regulating BMP signalling here of caudal morphogenesis. Conclusions Laminin532 could connect to 6-including integrin to 638-94-8 immediate differentiation from the specialised VER cells from surface area ectoderm. tail-bud (Beck et al., 2001) and, as 638-94-8 well as nodal, in function from the zebrafish tail organizer (Agathon et al., 2003; Fauny et al., 2009). The BMP signalling pathway can be well characterised (Attisano and Wrana, 2002), and its own activity could be supervised by examining the appearance of downstream genes such as for example and (Marazzi et al., 1997; Suzuki et al., 1997; Kettunen and Thesleff, 1998). BMP signalling can be governed by extracellular antagonists including chordin, chordin-like 1 (Chrdl1; also known as neuralin1), follistatin and noggin, and by the ...
Pyruvate kinase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 585 aa; Sequence (Fasta) ; 4 identical sequences: Bacillus ...
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body's tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically, pyruvate kinase deficiency is a common cause of a type of inherited hemolytic anemia called hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In people with pyruvate kinase deficiency, hemolytic anemia and associated complications may range from mild to severe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency is the most common inherited cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency is found in all ethnic groups. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency is caused by mutations in the PKLR gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency may also occur as an effect of other blood diseases, such as leukemia . (medlineplus.gov)
  • These cases are called secondary pyruvate kinase deficiency and are not inherited. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Beutler E, Gelbart T. Estimating the prevalence of pyruvate kinase deficiency from the gene frequency in the general white population. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency, one of the most common enzymatic defects of the erythrocyte, manifests clinically as a hemolytic anemia that can range from a mildly compensated anemia to severe anemia of childhood. (medscape.com)
  • An international, multicenter registry that collected clinical data on patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency found that 93% of newborns were treated with phototherapy, and 46% were treated with exchange transfusions. (medscape.com)
  • Peripheral blood smear in a child with splenectomy and pyruvate kinase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The enzyme activity rate in most patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency is 5-25% of normal, with measurement of the intermediates (2,3-diphosphoglycerol and glucose-6-phosphate) proximal to the enzyme defect helping to confirm the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Enzyme assay, as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay or single-strand conformation polymorphism, can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with mild to moderate pyruvate kinase deficiency, care is predominantly supportive. (medscape.com)
  • Mitapivat is the first disease-modifying therapy approved for hemolytic anemia in adults with pyruvate kinase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • It improves hemoglobin values and reduces transfusion burden in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency by targeting the underlying defect. (medscape.com)
  • Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency is a disorder that causes anemia due to the breakdown of red blood cells. (wisdompanel.com)
  • Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency presents as a chronic, intermittent, hemolytic anemia. (wisdompanel.com)
  • A carrier cat with one copy of the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation can be safely bred with a clear cat with no copies of the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation. (wisdompanel.com)
  • About half of the kittens will have one copy (carriers) and half will have no copies of the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation. (wisdompanel.com)
  • Please note: It is possible that disease signs similar to the ones caused by the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation could develop due to a different genetic or clinical cause. (wisdompanel.com)
  • Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats. (wisdompanel.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency, a genetic disease, is caused by a lack of pyruvate kinase and slows down the process of glycolysis. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Earlier this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved mitapivat (PYRUKYND) for the treatment of patients with hemolytic anemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD). (patientworthy.com)
  • The FDA has recently approved a treatment called Pyrukynd as a therapeutic option for hemolytic anemia disorder sparked by pyruvate kinase deficiency. (patientworthy.com)
  • Prior to February 2022, there were no approved disease-modifying therapies for those with pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency. (patientworthy.com)
  • We are a 501(c)(3) nonprofit in the State of Minnesota focused on connecting the Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency community online and beyond. (thrivewithpkd.org)
  • A woman with an intracellular killing defect in the neutrophils had neutrophil pyruvate kinase deficiency. (occupationalasthma.com)
  • Pyruvate-kinase deficiency (a hereditary metabolic disorder affecting red blood cells)-Use with caution. (drugs.com)
  • Subjects in the first group had decreased pyruvate-kinase levels compared with the other groups, and exposed workers had changes suggestive of riboflavin deficiency or impaired riboflavin metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • NICE is unable to make a recommendation on mitapivat (Pyrukynd) for treating pyruvate kinase deficiency in adults because Agios did not provide an evidence submission. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hemolysis and anemia persist after splenectomy, although some improvement may occur, particularly in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is known to promote tumourigenesis through dimer formation of p-PKM2 Y105 . (oncotarget.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been verified to correlate with the prognosis of many types of cancer. (oncotarget.com)
  • To meet this need, cancer cells express higher-than-normal levels of a protein called pyruvate kinase M2, or PKM2. (stanford.edu)
  • Metabolites, such as succinate and citrate, and enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and enolase, have roles outside of metabolism that promote specific events during immune cell activation. (nature.com)
  • Potent (AC 50 = 0.111µM) and selective (over PKM1, PKR and PKL) activator of the tumor cell specific M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2). (enzolifesciences.com)
  • A pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme located in the mitochondria which converts PYRUVATE to ACETYL CoA in the CITRIC ACID CYCLE, phosphorylates SERINE residues on pyruvate dehydrogenase using ATP, and plays a key role in the regulation of GLUCOSE and fatty acid metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pyruvate kinase is the enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-state, characterized by low substrate affinity, serves as the inactivated form of pyruvate kinase, bound and stabilized by ATP and alanine, causing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase and the inhibition of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two steps in the pyruvate kinase reaction in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the substrate for pyruvate kinase is a simple phospho-sugar, and the product is an ATP, pyruvate kinase is a possible foundation enzyme for the evolution of the glycolysis cycle, and may be one of the most ancient enzymes in all earth-based life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase is the final step of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyruvate kinase enzyme is involved in a critical energy-producing process known as glycolysis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PKLR gene mutations result in reduced pyruvate kinase enzyme function, causing a shortage of ATP in red blood cells and increased levels of other molecules produced earlier in the glycolysis process. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyruvate Kinase (PK) is an enzyme involved in glycolysis. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase (PK) is the enzyme involved in the final step of glycolysis, catalysing the dephosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate and generatingan adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule [ 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase (PK) catalyzes the final step of glycolysis by converting phosphoenolpyruvate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into pyruvate and ATP. (figshare.com)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is important for anaerobic glycolysis by catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate into lactate. (figshare.com)
  • In contrast to normal cells, most cancer cells predominantly produce energy by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactate fermentation, even in the presence of oxygen, a less efficient metabolism compared to a low rate of glycolysis followed by mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When oxygen is limited, as in muscles that have undergone prolonged exercise, pyruvate is not consumed in the TCA cycle but is rather converted into lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process termed anaerobic glycolysis. (hindawi.com)
  • By stimulating the expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, HIF-1 promotes glycolysis to generate more pyruvate [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that break down glucose (glycolysis) into pyruvate, creating the energy sources adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). (msdmanuals.com)
  • and in red blood cells, where it provides instructions for making an enzyme called pyruvate kinase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BioAssay Systems' Pyruvate Kinase Assay Kit provides a simple, direct and automation-ready procedure for measuring pyruvate kinase activity. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Identification of pyruvate kinase type M2 as potential oncoprotein in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue through microRNA profiling. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvate is directed into mitochondria to be converted into acetyl CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or into alanine by transamination. (hindawi.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase was inappropriately named (inconsistently with a conventional kinase) before it was recognized that it did not directly catalyze phosphorylation of pyruvate, which does not occur under physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), yielding one molecule of pyruvate and one molecule of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The R-state, characterized by high substrate affinity, serves as the activated form of pyruvate kinase and is stabilized by PEP and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), promoting the glycolytic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast cells, the interaction of yeast pyruvate kinase (YPK) with PEP and its allosteric effector Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP,) was found to be enhanced by the presence of Mg2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The M2 isozyme of pyruvate kinase can form tetramers or dimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, have two isoforms of pyruvate kinase, PykA and PykF, which are 37% identical in E. coli (Uniprot: PykA, PykF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate, which is at the crossroad between lactate production and OXPHOS, constitutes a key metabolic intermediate. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, a major regulator of metabolism is phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K). (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, HIF-1 actively limits the mitochondrial consumption of pyruvate at two levels: (i) through the enzyme PDK (PDH-kinase), which in turn inhibits PDH activity preventing the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA, and thereby limiting mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate [ 6 ] and (ii) through the direct activation of LDH [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase is also involved in gluconeogenesis, a biochemical pathway in which the liver generates glucose from pyruvate and other substrates. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Four isozymes of pyruvate kinase expressed in vertebrates: L (liver), R (erythrocytes), M1 (muscle and brain) and M2 (early fetal tissue and most adult tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the mitochondria, pyruvate is completely oxidized through the TCA cycle, feeding reductive equivalents to the electron transport chain. (hindawi.com)
  • The binding of metal ions to the metal binding sites on pyruvate kinase enhances the rate of this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, Mg2+ was concluded to be an important cofactor in the catalysis of PEP into pyruvate by pyruvate kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) = ADP + pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) phosphate. (planteome.org)
  • In this assay, PEP and ADP are catalyzed by pyruvate kinase to generate pyruvate and ATP. (bioassaysys.com)
  • The color intensity of the reaction product at 570nm or fluorescence intensity at λex/em = 530/590nm is directly proportional to the pyruvate generated by the Pyruvate Kinase in the sample. (bioassaysys.com)
  • The pyruvate is oxidized, resulting in a colorimetric (570 nm) or fluorometric (λ ex = 535/ λ em = 587 nm) product proportional to the amount of 2PG present. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase is present in four distinct, tissue-specific isozymes in animals, each consisting of particular kinetic properties necessary to accommodate the variations in metabolic requirements of diverse tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This final step is highly regulated and deliberately irreversible because pyruvate is a crucial intermediate building block for further metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate kinase is a key regulator of this process. (stanford.edu)
  • In normal cells, the fate of pyruvate depends on many factors, one of which is oxygen availability. (hindawi.com)
  • For quantitative determination of pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and evaluation of drug effects on PK activity. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Two new nutritional indices were used to assess potential effects (1) on carbohydrate assimilation rates by zooplankton estimated via pyruvate kinase (PK) activity measurements and (2) on nutritional condition of the anchovy larvae measured with the DNA/C index. (ifremer.fr)
  • Link to all annotated objects annotated to pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity. (planteome.org)
  • Link to all direct and indirect annotations to pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity. (planteome.org)
  • In this condition, the body is missing an enzyme called pyruvate (PI-ru-vate) kinase. (hoacny.com)