A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
A plant species of the genus OCIMUM, family LAMIACEAE. It is a condiment with carminative properties.
Unsaturated androstane derivatives which are substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position in the ring system.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
A plant family of the order Eucommiales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida (some botanists have classified this in the order Hamamelidales or Urticales). Eucomia is an elmlike tree of central and eastern China. Leaves are alternate; deciduous flowers are solitary and unisexual and lack petals and sepals. The male flowers have 6 to 10 stamens and female flowers have one ovary of two carpels, one of which aborts during development so the fruit (a dry, winged structure) contains only one seed. The latex is a source of RUBBER. Tochu tea is an aqueous extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaves and a popular beverage in Japan. (Mutat Res 1997 Jan 15;388(1):7-20).
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
... of indigoid compounds present in archaeological Maya blue by pyrolysis-silylation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal ... of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 105, 355-362. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Potter, D. (1973). MAYA ...
"A pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry study of the actinomyceteStreptomyces longisporoflavus". Biological Mass ... Boston, MA: Springer US. ISBN 1-4757-2085-8. Hopwood, edited by David A. (2009). Complex enzymes in microbial natural product ... Spectrometry. 2 (5): 261-265. doi:10.1002/bms.1200020504. Doddrell, David M.; Laue, Ernest D.; Leeper, Finian J.; Staunton, ...
... of Titan tholin pyrolysis products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry". ... "Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Study of Tholin Samples Using Pyrolysis Inlet and TOF-MS Detection". Pittcon ... As illustrated to the right, tholins are thought to form in nature through a chain of chemical reactions known as pyrolysis and ... Titan's atmosphere is about 97% nitrogen, 2.7±0.1% methane and the remaining trace amounts of other gases. In the case of Titan ...
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) can be used to analyze the paint-binding medium. Similar to AAS and ... Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are used to detect ... strengthening existing intellectual property laws to address the growing problem of art forgeries proliferating in the mass ...
... produces a unique blend of chemicals which can be identified by the use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ... The oldest amber with arthropod inclusions comes from the Late Triassic (late Carnian c. 230 Ma) of Italy, where two ... The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure, ... dating of zircon crystals associated with the deposit have given an estimated depositional age of approximately 99 Ma. Over ...
... and δ-Decalactone fromPrunusFruits by Gas Chromatography Combustion/Pyrolysis Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS)". ... Conventionally, mass spectrometry, such as Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry(GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography -Time Of Flight( ... ratio monitoring gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry of D/H by high temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry". ... Matthews, D. E.; Hayes, J. M. (1978-09-01). "Isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry". Analytical ...
... and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); maturity indicators like vitrinite reflectance; laboratory pyrolysis and ... In our quest to find more oil and gas, we use numerous petroleum geochemical techniques to (1) identify source rocks and ... gas, and kerogen. Kerogen can be thought of as the remaining solid material of the plant. The sediment - usually clay and/or ... Petroleum is generally considered oil and natural gases having various compounds composed of primarily hydrogen and carbon. ...
... and δ-Decalactone fromPrunus Fruits by Gas Chromatography Combustion/Pyrolysis Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS)". ...
For lignins, the structural elements are often determined by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) or ... The dry matter content of sample is calculated as the ratio of mass after to the mass before the drying. The lignin content can ... In addition, the peak molar mass (Mp) is often determined. For kraft lignins, the molar mass distribution can be determined by ... For lignins, weight-average molar mass (Mw) and number-average molar mass (Mn) are often determined. ...
Pyrolysis gas chromatography[edit]. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which ... Gas chromatography[edit]. Further information: Gas chromatography. Gas chromatography (GC), also sometimes known as gas-liquid ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and what would become known as high-performance liquid chromatography. Since then, ...
... produces a unique blend of chemicals which can be identified by the use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.[2] ... The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure, ...
In pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, HMDS is added to the analyte to create silylated diagnostic products during ... "Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of products arising from pyrolysis of amino acids in the presence of ... 4) In gas chromatography, HMDS can be used to silylate OH groups of organic compounds to increase volatility, this way enabling ... Best results are obtained by applying HMDS from the gas phase on heated substrates. In electron microscopy, HMDS can be used as ...
Fourier transform Raman and portable Raman spectroscopy gas chromatography pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... mass spectrometry inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Fourier transform infrared spectrometry Raman spectrometry, ...
... carteggio/otello-bignami Characterisation of varnishes used in violins by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in ... Mass Spectrom. 2008; 22 Classic Violin-making in Piedmonte, Bologna, Florenus 1991 Giuseppe Fiorini in Arte Liutaria, Firenze, ... Renato Meucci, Roberto Regazzi: assistant supervisors and collaborator Uso di pirolisi con gas cromatografia e spettrometria di ...
Other analytical instrumentation in the WA-OIGC laboratories include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with ... a range of sample introduction methods (liquid injection, SPME, gas analysis, on-line pyrolysis devices, thermal desorption ... are analysed by Orbitrap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Grice collaborated with colleagues at UWA (Malcolm ... 30M worth of excellent analytical and mass spectrometry infrastructure. The JDLC provides access to a range of world-class ...
The analytical methods of Carbon NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with flash pyrolysis has greatly ... Spectrographic, optical, destructive, and nondestructive methods are used to analyze samples via mass spectrometry or Raman ... The discovered differences in samples, such as oil-to-gas ratio or viscosity are typically attributed to the rock source of the ... Boston, MA: Springer US. ISBN 9781461528906. Killops, Stephen D.; Killops, Vanessa J. (2013). Introduction to Organic ...
... and from pyrolysis of soil followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of the pyrolysis products, suggested that the ...
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS): Combines gas chromatography and mass spectrometry on a heated sample ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): Combines gas chromatography (which uses gas "to separate complex mixtures of ... Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Combines liquid chromatography (which uses liquid "to separate complex mixtures ... producing smaller molecules to be separated by the gas chromatography and detected by the mass spectrometry. The technical is ...
... pattern recognition techniques on datasets recorded by analytical pyrolysis coupled with chromatography and mass spectrometry ( ... Characterizing odorous emissions using new software for identifying peaks in chemometric models of gas chromatography - mass ... Its focus is to handle native data files from several mass spectrometry systems (e.g. GC/MS, LC/MS, Py-GC/MS, HPLC-MS), vendors ... The aim of OpenChrom is to support a wide range of different mass spectrometry data formats natively. OpenChrom takes care that ...
... spectrometry-mass spectrometry Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Prolate trochoidal mass spectrometer Pyrolysis-gas ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... chromatography-mass spectrometry Sparkman DO, Penton Z, Kitson FG (17 May 2011). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: A ... "Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 4 (5): 367-71. doi:10.1016/ ...
Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS) Raman spectroscopy Refractive index Resonance enhanced multiphoton ... Gas chromatography (GC) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Gas chromatography-IR spectroscopy (GC-IR) Gel permeation ... Liquid chromatography-IR spectroscopy (LC-IR) Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Mass spectrometry (MS) Mössbauer ... Secondary ion mass spectrometry Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Titration ...
"Hyphenation of aqueous liquid chromatography to pyrolysis-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the comprehensive ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which the sample is heated to decomposition ... to produce smaller molecules that are separated by gas chromatography and detected using mass spectrometry. Pyrolysis is the ... Pyrolysis gas chromatography is also used for environmental samples, including fossils. Pyrolysis GC is used in forensic ...
... *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. References[edit]. *^ O. David Sparkman; Zelda Penton; Fulton G. Kitson (17 May ... "Early gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 4 (5): 367-371. doi:10.1016 ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... Weak affinity chromatography[edit]. Weak affinity chromatography[28] (WAC) is an affinity chromatography technique for affinity ... Boronate affinity chromatography[edit]. Boronate affinity chromatography consists of using boronic acid or boronates to elute ... Lectin affinity chromatography is a form of affinity chromatography where lectins are used to separate components within the ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... Size exclusion chromatography. Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) separates ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ... or in chromatography columns. Thin layer chromatography or column chromatography share similarities in that they both act ...
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. *Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... Micellar liquid chromatography. Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ... High performance liquid chromatography. Aqueous Normal Phase Chromatography. Size exclusion chromatography. ... Anion exchange chromatography retains anions using positively charged functional group: R-X. +. A. −. +. M. +. B. −. ⇄. R-X. + ...
Gases in the cabin can be tested using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and infra-red spectrophotometry. Samples of air ... and from the pyrolysis of non-metallic components. Carbon monoxide is a major concern for space crews; this was evident during ... Other gases arise from the breathing gas supply reservoirs and crew members themselves. In emergencies, gases can arise from ... Toxic gases are produced as an off-gassing from the astronauts and non-metallic materials e.g. surface coatings, adhesives, ...
MOMA will combine pyrolysis-derivatization with a less destructive method: LDMS (Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry), which ... while the gas chromatography (GC) is provided by the two French institutes LISA and LATMOS. The UV-Laser is being developed by ... Tandem mass spectrometry can then be used to further characterize these molecules. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System ... The mass spectrometer (MS) and the main electronics of MOMA are provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, ...
"Hyphenation of aqueous liquid chromatography to pyrolysis-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the comprehensive ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which the sample is heated to decomposition ... to produce smaller molecules that are separated by gas chromatography and detected using mass spectrometry. Pyrolysis is the ... Pyrolysis gas chromatography is also used for environmental samples, including fossils. Pyrolysis GC is used in forensic ...
... of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ... of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ... was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. ...
Hyphenation of aqueous liquid chromatography to pyrolysis-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the comprehensive ... Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which the sample is heated to decomposition ... A Manual for CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and JRF/Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry. From ... JRF/Pyrolysis_gas_chromatography_mass_spectrometry&oldid=3646933" ... by gas chromatography and detected using mass spectrometry.[1] ...
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for studying N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate copolymers and their ... of the components in the pyrolysate using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By injecting large volumes ... Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Py-GC-MS were used to measure molecular weights and average chemical compositions, ... The methods are based on pyrolysis (Py) performed in a programmed-temperature vaporization injector with subsequent ...
Here, we present pyrolysis coupled to online gas chromatography and electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) as ... Acrylic and vinyl resins identification by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: a study of cases in modern art ... Identification and hazard prediction of tattoo pigments by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ines ... Differentiation of vehicle top coating paints using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate ...
... we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis ... we employed pyrolysis/gas chromatography (py/gc) and pyrolysis/gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (py/gc/ms). Pyrolysis ... PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT ... PYROLYSIS/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY OF A SERIES OF BURIED WOODS AND COALIFIED LOGS THAT INCREASE IN RANK FROM PEAT ...
High-throughput microanalysis of large lignocellulosic sample sets by pyrolysis-gas chromatographymass spectrometry Physiologia ... The system is based on analytical pyrolysis, coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - a technique particularly suited ... High-throughput microanalysis of large lignocellulosic sample sets by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ... High-throughput microanalysis of large lignocellulosic sample sets by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Skip to ...
High-temperature pyrolysis/gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry : simultaneous measurement of the stable isotopes ... 2012 High-temperature pyrolysis/gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry : simultaneous measurement of the stable ... pyrolysis/gas chromatography (GC)/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) with those produced by combustion GC/IRMS. Although ... The pyrolysis adjustment, proposed here, is based on combusting a stratified sub-sample of the pyrolysis results, across the ...
Abundant pyrolysis products of the fresh skin tissue, including 2,5-diketopiperazines of Pro-Gly, Pro-Ala, Pro-Val, Pro-Pro and ... Instead 4-isopropenylphenol, a characteristic pyrolysis product of Sphagnum moss, was detected in both solvent-extracted and ... The study constitutes the first chemical characterization of the pyrolysis products of modern and ancient collagen. ... Flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) was used to assess the quality and mechanism of protein ...
... the pyrolysis behaviour and evolved gas profiles of HF using thermogravimetry with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods ... simulant faeces and wood biomass by thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Energy Reports, 6. pp. 3230- ... simulant faeces and wood biomass by thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods ... Text (Somorin-etal-ER-2020-Pyrolysis-characteristics-and-kinetics-of-human-faeces) Somorin_etal_ER_2020_Pyrolysis_ ...
... device for trapping the released fractions was designed and coupled with thermo gravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... According to the results of thermogravimetric - differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), the pyrolysis process was divided into ... To investigate the pyrolysis behaviour of lutein in air, an automatic single drop micro extraction (SDME) ... Investigation of pyrolysis behaviour of lutein in air by thermo gravimetry-single drop micro extraction-gas chromatography-mass ...
... of aryl-alicyclic polyimides studied by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ... of aryl-alicyclic polyimides studied by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ... of aryl-alicyclic polyimides studied by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ... of aryl-alicyclic polyimides studied by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. ...
Examples of application of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for identification of different polymeric ... Examples of application of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for identification of different polymeric ... Mohd (Ed.): Advanced Gas Chromatography - Progress in Agricultural, Biomedical and Industrial Applications. ...
Analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is a technique that can be used for the ... Characterisation of lignocellulose components by analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry. , Login ... Characterisation of lignocellulose components by analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Lignoselluloosan ... In pyrolysis, hardwood lignin is degraded to guaiacyl and syringyl type pyrolysis degradation products with similar side chain ...
Introductory Chapter: Analytical Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry of Polymeric Materials. By Peter Kusch ... used both liquid chromatography and gas chromatography attached to mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 336 ... Chromatographic system (gas chromatography or liquid chromatography) attached to mass spectrometry (MS/MS) determination ... gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry).. In recent years, the production and marketing of food have gained topmost ...
An assay procedure utilizing pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) with cold trapping was developed with ... An assay procedure utilizing pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) with cold trapping was developed with ... An assay procedure utilizing pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) with cold trapping was developed with ... An assay procedure utilizing pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) with cold trapping was developed with ...
... gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The starting point was the execution of two delignification series, one ... In this work the focus was on the task of capturing as much information from the pyrolysis fingerprints of the AS/AQ pulps as ... However, in almost all studies only the major or well identified pyrolysis products were taken into account even though some of ... presented work the pulps generated by the aforementioned modified AS/AQ process were studied in detail by means of pyrolysis - ...
Environmental petroleum pollution analysis using ramped pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Organic Geochemistry [ ... Environmental petroleum pollution analysis using ramped pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Citation:. Seeley Evans ... Environmental petroleum pollution analysis using ramped pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Seeley Evans M, Wang Q, ... We explore the analytical capabilities of ramped pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to evaluate ...
Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Dinesh K. Barupal, Tobias Kind, ... Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In: BMC Biotechnology. 2010 ; ... Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. / Barupal, Dinesh K.; Kind, ... title = "Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry", ...
Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyr-GCMS). pyr-GCMS Shimadzu QP2010 Ultra was equipped with an automatic ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. After extraction, the samples were tested by GCMS-QP2010 from Shimadzu. ... The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis indicates that after lignin treatment with LTV-MS more phenolic ... Pyrolysis GCMS data of the alkali lignin before and after treatment with LMT-MS and LTV-MS. Pyrolysis of the solid lignin ...
Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS). Matrix samples (FS003a) and 2.4 mg of powdered tadpole were analysed ... Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (Py-GCMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) indicate that the ... Dworzanski JP, Debowski M (1985) Pyrolysis-gas chromatography of pheomelanins. J Anal Appl Pyrol 8:463-472. doi:10.1016/0165- ... Mass spectrometric detector (MSD) mass range scanned from was m/z 50-650 at one scan s−1. Thermochemolysis of samples was ...
Mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and infrared spectrophotometry were used in qualitative identification. Quantitative ... products generated from the pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in air were detected, identified, and measured. Both ... In a cooperative series of polyfluoroethylene pyrolysis studies, ... gas chromatography, and infrared spectrophotometry were used in ... In a cooperative series of polyfluoroethylene pyrolysis studies, products generated from the pyrolysis of ...
This article describes a newly developed pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PY/GC/MS) method for the determination ... Quantitative analysis of nitrile rubber/chloroprene by pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. *Fuh M ... This article describes a newly developed pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PY/GC/MS) method for the determination ... Quantitative analysis of nitrile rubber/chloroprene by pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, ...
Quantitative pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of chlorolignosulphonic acids. ... Quantitative pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of chlorolignosulphonic acids. TrAC ... pyrolysis-mass spectrometry is illustrated by two environmental applications of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ... Py-GC-MS) and in-source temperature-resolved pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS). Py-GC-MS combined with selected ion ...
A mechanism study of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction by means of pyrolysis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and ...
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) *Chemical Ionization GC-MS *Pyrolysis GC-MS ... Accurate-Mass Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) LC/MS *Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) ...
... creating pyrolysis methods, analysing samples and changing parameters to see the effects. ... This one day course is spent learning the theory behind the different pyrolysis techniques and then puts this knowledge into ... Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS, ICP-MS), Spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-Vis, AA), Mass Spectrometry Imaging, Physical & Structural ... Combine with any of the other hands-on sample preparation for gas chromatography and liquid chromatography courses: *Hands-on ...
pyrolysis products; car tires; two-dimensional gas chromatography; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. ... pyrolysis products was comprehensively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gas chromatography ... Comprehensive Analysis of the Liquid Fraction of Car Tire Pyrolysis Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Russian ... Comprehensive Analysis of the Liquid Fraction of Car Tire Pyrolysis Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Научная ...
Laniewski K, Borén H, Grimvall A, Ekelund M [1998]. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography of chloroorganic compounds in precipitation. J ... 2002]. Rapid screening of aqueous chemical warfare agent degradation products: ambient pressure ion mobility mass spectrometry ... Fire may produce irritating, corrosive, and/or toxic gases.. *The agent may be an oxidizer, and it may ignite combustibles (e.g ... A NIOSH-certified CBRN tight-fitting APR with a canister-type gas mask or CBRN PAPR for air levels greater than AEGL-2. ...
Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep ... Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is a tool for defining organic molecular structure. Because of its ... A molecular-level composition analysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Jongkwan Park1, Mijin Choi1, ... A molecular-level composition analysis using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry Jongkwan Park, Mijin Choi, Jaeweon ...
  • The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis indicates that after lignin treatment with LTV-MS more phenolic products are produced in comparison to LMT-MS, among them 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzaldehyde has the highest relative yield of 34.7 and 23.8 wt% for LTV-MS and LMT-MS systems, respectively. (rsc.org)
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (Py-GCMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) indicate that the organic remains of the tadpole are original and are not the result of external contamination, shown by the different chemical compositions of the fossil and its enclosing matrix. (springer.com)
  • Product analysis is achieved through online chromatography and mass spectrometry and a multitude of offline techniques, like nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, etc. (nrel.gov)
  • Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy and pyrolysis techniques create vast quantities of data. (infometrix.com)
  • We present data on chitin occurrence in 22 species of shell-bearing Mollusca (Conchifera) and Polyplacophora, including the first evidence for scaphopods, based on pyrolysis gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). (mendeley.com)
  • The liquid hydrocarbons collected for use as a fuel were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), two-dimensional gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (2D-GCxGC/TOFMS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (CHNS/O) elemental analysis. (rsc.org)
  • The fast pyrolysis and thermogravimetric analysis result in different product yields. (elsevier.com)
  • The TCPDU can be configured for fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis. (nrel.gov)
  • The Vapor Phase Upgrading Lab houses two reactor systems: a fluidized bed reactor for the fast pyrolysis (500°C, 20-45 psig, 1-2 seconds residence time) of biomass and a Davison circulating riser (DCR) for performing vapor phase upgrading reactions of pyrolysis vapors. (nrel.gov)
  • In principle, the oxygenates resulting from the oxidative deconstruction of lignin can be either deoxygenated to produce hydrocarbons (for example, by (1) hydrodeoxygenation or hydrolysis and (2) fast pyrolysis [ 4 ]) or first subjected to separation to recover high-value chemicals that are present, such as phenols and cresols. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar considerations have been applied to the upgrading of bio-oils obtained from biomass by fast pyrolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, fast pyrolysis of seawater Spirulina, is carried out to evaluate the potential of deriving valuable chemicals and fuel molecules from this seawater algae variety. (usda.gov)
  • Effects of the severity of hydrolysis pretreatment and torrefaction on the chemical composition and yield distribution of the fast pyrolysis products will be evaluated. (aiche.org)
  • This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (sae.org)
  • Harvath, P., Reidy, S., and Byer, J., "Identification of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2274, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2274 . (sae.org)
  • Comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using soft and selective photoionization techniques. (nih.gov)
  • A two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method is described for characterization of the aqueous fraction of bio-crude produced from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae. (jove.com)
  • Determination of polybrominated biphenyls in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ion tandem mass spectrometry or electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a method of chemical analysis in which the sample is heated to decomposition to produce smaller molecules that are separated by gas chromatography and detected using mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrolysis GC chromatograms are typically complex because a wide range of different decomposition products is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyrolysis library presented here is also assumed suitable to predict decomposition patterns of pigments when affected by other degradation scenarios, such as sunlight exposure or laser irradiation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To enhance the understanding of fuel conversion processes and decomposition characteristics, this study investigated the pyrolysis behaviour and evolved gas profiles of HF using thermogravimetry with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. (strath.ac.uk)
  • However, the yield of pyrolysis products of both aromatic and aliphatic origin is substantially affected by the structure of aliphatic segments, showing that the primary decomposition of alicycles plays a key role in the decomposition mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • The mass balance analysis confirms that the 5 wt% LTV-5 wt% MS (LTV-MS (5, 5)) system produces 40 wt% more of the organic compounds than the 5 wt% LMT-5 wt% MS (LMT-MS (5, 5)) system, thus demonstrating higher efficiency of the LTV-MS toward lignin decomposition. (rsc.org)
  • Studies on thermal decomposition mechanism of CL-20 by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). (nih.gov)
  • Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) has been widely used to analyse the thermodynamic behaviour of biomass decomposition under either inert gases or air. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Pyrolysis is generally described as the thermal decomposition of the organic components into liquid products [ 7 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The present study introduces thermogravimetry with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TG-GC-MS) at four different heating rates to investigate the activation energy and thermal degradation behaviour of walnut shell pyrolysis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the gasification configuration, the TCPDU is comprised of a fluid bed reactor for initial volatilization of biomass, a thermal cracker to complete gasification, cyclones for char and ash collection, and a gas scrubbing system. (nrel.gov)
  • Thermal technologies include direct combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis, all of which have the benefit of using lignocellulosic materials. (mdpi.com)
  • Pyrolysis and gasification studies of Indian and Turkish high ash coal samples have been performed using coupled TGA-MS method. (intechopen.com)
  • Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the quantitative analysis of organic analytes generated in gasification/pyrolysis coupled Fischer Tropsch (FT) reactor: syngas clean-up and hydrocarbon production. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Mass Spectrometry of Synthetic Polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterize virtually any organic material, from biomass to synthetic polymers using single- or dual-stage pyrolysis. (shimadzu.com)
  • When waste polymers together with the catalyst are degraded using the pyrolysis-catalytic method, it reduces the reaction temperature, and, increases the quantity and quality of the valuable product. (rsc.org)
  • The Thermal and Catalytic Process Development Unit (TCPDU) is used to test biomass pyrolysis technologies at the pilot scale. (nrel.gov)
  • This project aims at advancing the current state of knowledge of biomass pyrolysis by developing an understanding of the pyrolytic reaction mechanisms of different feedstocks, and to find common grounds between different lignocellulosic biomass and system configurations. (aiche.org)
  • In addition, thermochemolysis, thermal desorption and fractionated pyrolysis were applied in order to provide better understanding of the changes observed in lignin structure and carbohydrate composition in various materials and processes. (aalto.fi)
  • Studies of organic residues from ancient Egyptian mummies using high temperature-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) was used to analyze the compositions of biopolymers (polysaccharides, amino sugars, proteins, polyhydroxy aromatics, lipids and lignin) in DOM according to the molecular size at three sampling points of the water flow: inflow, midflow, and outflow. (eeer.org)
  • This study tested the feasibility of using pyrolysis (Py)-gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain organic chemical species data suitable for source apportionment modeling of soil-derived coarse particulate matter (PM10) dust on ambient filters. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • A chemical analysis to find the level of organic matter was performed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry from various oceanic water masses isolated by coupled reverse osmosis-electrodialysis. (tamug.edu)
  • 2002. Analytical mass spectrometry of artists' acrylic emulsion paints by direct temperature resolved mass spectrometry and laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. (getty.edu)
  • According to the results of thermogravimetric - differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), the pyrolysis process was divided into 16 temperature sections in the range of 155-400 °C. The released fractions from thermo gravimetric analyser were automatically extracted with ethanol by SDME. (coresta.org)
  • To investigate the pyrolysis behaviour of lutein in air, an automatic single drop micro extraction (SDME) device for trapping the released fractions was designed and coupled with thermo gravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (coresta.org)
  • GC-MS was performed to investigate the pyrolysis products from walnut shells at different critical temperature points. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A large number (3074) of tree-ring α-cellulose samples are used to compare the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) produced by high-temperature (1400°C) pyrolysis/gas chromatography (GC)/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) with those produced by combustion GC/IRMS. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The 'pyrolysis adjustment', proposed here, is based on combusting a stratified sub-sample of the pyrolysis results, across the full range of carbon isotope ratios, and using the paired results to define a regression equation that can be used to adjust all the pyrolysis measurements. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • A Thermo Neptune Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for isotope measurements (Li, Mg, Si, Fe, Sr). Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (Varian 720 ES ICP-OES) for concentration measurements. (gfz-potsdam.de)
  • Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. (mdpi.com)
  • Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. (mdpi.com)
  • Waste high-density poly(ethylene) (HD-PE) plastic deformation into liquid hydrocarbon fuel using a pyrolysis-catalytic cracking process with a copper carbonate (CuCO 3 ) catalyst, at a temperature range from 23 °C to 390 °C. The pyrolysis-catalytic deformation process will help in environmental purification. (rsc.org)
  • 9 Pyrolysis-catalytic cracking is a chemical recycling technique whereby by using a suitable catalyst gives the capability to regulate the yield. (rsc.org)
  • To acquire a comprehensive understanding of the waste plastic, pyrolysis-catalytic cracking technique, special analytical techniques were used to analyze the liquid hydrocarbon fuel and the raw plastics. (rsc.org)
  • Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents.Results: In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS). Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. (elsevier.com)
  • Since its first bench-top gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was sold in 1979, Shimadzu has been a leader in design innovations, such as our front access ion source, high efficiency ion optics, 20,000 u/second scan speed, and post-quadrupole focusing lenses. (shimadzu.com)
  • Besides the usage of dedicated pyrolyzers, pyrolysis GC of solid and liquid samples can be performed directly inside programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) injectors that provide quick heating (up to 60 °C/s) and high maximum temperatures of 600-650 °C. This is sufficient for many pyrolysis applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, identification of tattoo pigments is mainly carried out using liquid chromatography (LC) in the case of soluble pigments (Engel et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The liquid fraction of tire pyrolysis products was comprehensively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gas chromatography. (catalysis.ru)
  • Only pyrolysis and liquefaction produce a liquid product, and although recent work on liquefaction has shown promising results [ 14 , 15 , 16 ], it is currently a nascent technology with high capital costs due to the high pressures required. (mdpi.com)
  • The present study was designed to convert Saudi Arabian Sukkari waste date seeds into pyrolysis liquid char oil in a slow pyrolysis reactor and determine the phytoconstituents by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (ijpsonline.com)
  • paper chromatography , gas chromatography , and what would become known as high-performance liquid chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • A chromatograph or aerograph is an instrument that enables a sophisticated separation, e.g. gas chromatographic or liquid chromatographic separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients' serum samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in an untargeted lipidomics approach. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Small portion (1 g) of both methanol and n-hexane fraction was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Abundant pyrolysis products of the fresh skin tissue, including 2,5-diketopiperazines of Pro-Gly, Pro-Ala, Pro-Val, Pro-Pro and Hyp, were readily assigned to specific amino acid or dipeptide moieties. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some of the key pyrolysis products for HF at 370 °C were 4-methoxy-phenol, n-hexadecanoic acid, phenol, 4-methyl- and indole isomer (pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyridine). (strath.ac.uk)
  • The extract effect of SDME was analysed by comparing the mass loss in each temperature section with the total peak area of pyrolysis products. (coresta.org)
  • 2) SDME was excellent in the extraction of volatile components in pyrolysis products. (coresta.org)
  • 4) The main components identified by GC/MS were ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, the major pyrolysis products were ß-damascenone megastigmatrienone and 4-oxoisophorone. (coresta.org)
  • Pyrolysis degradation products provide information concerning the nature and origin of the initial sample. (aalto.fi)
  • In pyrolysis, hardwood lignin is degraded to guaiacyl and syringyl type pyrolysis degradation products with similar side chain structures, whereas carbohydrates form stable anhydrosugars. (aalto.fi)
  • Information on lignin structure and quantity was obtained directly from pulps by Py-GC/MS. Decrease of oxygenated lignin pyrolysis products and increase of short side chain structures were associated with beta-ether bond cleavage. (aalto.fi)
  • However, in almost all studies only the major or well identified pyrolysis products were taken into account even though some of the several hundreds of further minor products contained in the pyrolysis fingerprints may provide valuable information. (uni-hamburg.de)
  • Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. (elsevier.com)
  • The pyrolysis products of nitrile rubber and chlorophrene are identified and a reaction mechanism is proposed. (mendeley.com)
  • In a cooperative series of polyfluoroethylene pyrolysis studies, products generated from the pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in air were detected, identified, and measured. (cdc.gov)
  • The toxic syndrome produced in experimental animals due to inhalation of pyrolysis products of PTFE is compatible with the description of fluoride poisoning in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Findings indicate that using the current CORESTA flow rate (1100 mL/min) to evaluate third-generation ECs underestimates nicotine yield and likely overestimates pyrolysis products. (cdc.gov)
  • An entrained flow reactor is used to generate the pyrolysis vapors, cyclones to collect char and ash, and a spray condensation train to collect the final products. (nrel.gov)
  • The thermal degradation products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (deepdyve.com)
  • By performing pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized lignin-derived deconstruction products from endocarp biomass and compared these with switchgrass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is added to analyte to get silylated diagnostic products during pyrolysis in gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. (fishersci.ca)
  • Understanding the differences on reaction mechanisms for each of the stages is a key element to properly identify and determine the products obtained from pyrolysis. (aiche.org)
  • To separate primary from secondary reactions, a µg scale pyroprobe system combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS) is used to study the chemical composition of volatile products from previously hydrolyzed and torrefied biomass. (aiche.org)
  • Keeping in view the problem of residues of pesticides, the present study was conducted on grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) of Bijapur District for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticides by GC-MS/MS (gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry). (intechopen.com)
  • The potential of quantitative pyrolysis-mass spectrometry is illustrated by two environmental applications of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and in-source temperature-resolved pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS). Py-GC-MS combined with selected ion monitoring (SIM) can give low-ppb detection limits for chlorolignosulphonic acids, which are high-molecular-mass industrial contaminants in river water. (amolf.nl)
  • Quantitative Analysis of Long Chain Fatty Acids Present in a Type I Kerogen Using Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. (tamug.edu)
  • These fragments can then be separated on a gas chromatograph (GC). (wikibooks.org)
  • The 5-day Complete GC & GC-MS course is built from the 3-day Practical Essentials of GC & GC-MS and the 2-day GC & GC-MS Clinic courses to provide a complete training solution enabling you to understand your Gas Chromatograph or GC-MS instrument, develop applications, troubleshoot & maintain it. (rsc.org)
  • Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a high sensible, provide smart performance for chemicals separation, therefore, sometimes utilized in the investigation of the product distribution over numerous catalysts. (rsc.org)
  • The main aim of this thesis was to apply analytical pyrolysis for lignin and carbohydrate characterisation from various lignocellulosic plant materials. (aalto.fi)
  • Pyrolysis is touted to be one of the most promising thermochemical technologies with the potential to convert cheap, local, and abundant lignocellulosic biomass such as grasses and trees into a useful form [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ], and commercial scale plants, such as Kior in Mississippi, have begun construction and operations. (mdpi.com)
  • This course will cover analytical pyrolysis, samples that can be analysed, types of pyrolysis, instrumentation & set up and troubleshooting. (anthias.co.uk)
  • The 22nd International Symposium on Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis will take place in Kyoto, Japan and we wish Pyro2018 team all the best for the organisation of another successful conference. (elsevier.com)
  • Pyrolysis vapor feed rates up to 1 kg/hour (including nitrogen) to the DCR are typically employed to provide short residence times (~1 second) in the DCR. (nrel.gov)
  • The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatography (IC), low-temperature calorimetry, gas-mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography (GC). (gfz-potsdam.de)
  • The system is based on analytical pyrolysis, coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - a technique particularly suited for analysis of lignocellulose. (separationsnow.com)
  • Analytical pyrolysis combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is a technique that can be used for the analysis of lignocellulose materials in situ. (aalto.fi)
  • In relation with different pesticide classes, various methodologies using gas chromatography with numerous detectors, like thermal conductivity detector (TCD), nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), electron capture detector (ECD) and flame photometric detector (FPD), have been implemented [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Simultaneous analysis of abundance and isotopic composition of nitrogen, carbon, and noble gases in lunar basalts: insights into interior and surface processes on the Moon. (open.ac.uk)
  • In particular, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) revealed "nitrogen-, oxygen-, and sulfur-containing heterocyclic and aromatic molecules" (Ref. 2). (icr.org)
  • Adopting a proprietary multi-function ion source, large-capacity turbomolecular pump with heightened exhaust efficiency for all carrier gases, including nitrogen, and Advanced Scanning Speed Protocol, the GCMS-QP2020 NX can assist any laboratory, regardless of its GC-MS application focus, achieve its full potential. (shimadzu.com)
  • Identification of synthetic adhesives by simultaneous pyrolysis methylation gas chromatography]. (nih.gov)
  • Structure determination of alkyd resins by simultaneous pyrolysis methylation gas chromatography-mass spectometry]. (nih.gov)
  • Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Py-GC-MS were used to measure molecular weights and average chemical compositions, respectively. (uva.nl)
  • Online analytical capabilities include molecular beam mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, thermal conductivity detection, and nondispersive infrared. (nrel.gov)
  • The laser-ablatable material is a polymeric material that when heated to 300 C at a rate of 10 C/minute, loses at least 60% of its mass to form at least one predominant low molecular weight product. (google.com.au)
  • Separation mechanism of 2D GC according to molecular mass and polarity was evaluated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Much walnut shell waste, which contains abundant lignocellulose, will be produced in walnut processing, and can be used to produce diverse forms of energy by pyrolysis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The methods are based on pyrolysis (Py) performed in a programmed-temperature vaporization injector with subsequent identification and quantification of the components in the pyrolysate using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By injecting large volumes and applying cryo-focussing at the top of the column, low detection limits could be achieved. (uva.nl)
  • The lab also houses a Xytel attrition testing unit (to determine if novel catalysts are suitable for circulation in the DCR), fixed gas detection, and an overhead crane. (nrel.gov)
  • Partners can use the TCPDU to test catalysts or bring in their own unit operations to attach to the TCPDU to test their pyrolysis technologies. (nrel.gov)
  • Applications of new high resolution evolved gas analysis systems for the characterisation of catalysts using rate-controlled thermal analysis. (springer.com)
  • Pyrolysis is a commonly used thermochemical conversion technology for the preparation of gases, solids and liquids through biomass [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • He held scientific conferences in Swansea University including the International Yeast Lipid Conference (2005), International Symposium on Cytochrome P450 Biodiversity and Biotechnology (2006), British Yeast Group (2016) and 30th Anniversary Conference for the EPSRC UK National Mass Spectrometry Facility (2017). (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography is useful for the identification of involatile compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the past ten years a variety of methods involving mass spectrom- etry have been developed for the analysis of environmentally important compounds. (springer.com)
  • During the devolatilisation stage (350-700°C), the maximum mass loss has observed in which O2, CO2, CO, H2 and small amount of hydrocarbon compounds are released. (intechopen.com)
  • This methodology allows simultaneous measurement of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen using high-temperature pyrolysis, reducing the amount of sample required and the analytical costs of measuring them separately. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Not as well-known is the pyrolysis inside a Programmable Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) injector. (wikibooks.org)
  • Kit includes split/splitless injector with programmable pneumatic control for carrier gas, split vent, heater, sensor, and heater block. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The pyrolysis behaviour of lutein in air provided a reference for analysing the pyrolysis behaviour of tobacco components during smoking. (coresta.org)
  • Experimental investigation and CFD modelling of oxy-coal combustion on PACT facility with real flue gas and vent gas recycling. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of preparative chromatography is to separate the components of a mixture for later use, and is thus a form of purification . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography is also used for environmental samples, including fossils. (wikipedia.org)
  • This one day course is spent learning the theory behind the different pyrolysis techniques and then puts this knowledge into practice in the lab, creating pyrolysis methods, analysing samples and changing parameters to see the effects. (anthias.co.uk)
  • Quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin (Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The Hb samples were collected from trout after 24 h exposure to MX at 10µg/g, and or menhaden oil (control). (environmental-expert.com)
  • For rock deformation experiments we handle different apparatuses, allowing to perform brittle (low temperature) tests on large rock samples (MTS servo-hydraulic press) and high temperature (ductile) experiments on small samples (Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at high confining pressure, uniaxial creep rig at atmospheric pressure). (gfz-potsdam.de)
  • Development of a gas chromatographic method for profiling neutral lipids in marine samples. (mun.ca)
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography is very useful for the identification of synthetic polymeric media, such as acrylics or alkyds, and synthetic varnishes. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2001. The analysis of synthetic paints by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGCMS), Studies in Conservation 46 , 225-241. (getty.edu)