A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC 4.1.1.23.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ribose from uridine to orthophosphate, forming uracil and ribose 1-phosphate.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC 2.7.1.48.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis thereby preventing formation of cellular nucleic acids. As the triacetate, it is also effective as an antipsoriatic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of deoxycytidylic acid to deoxyuridylic acid and ammonia. It plays an important role in the regulation of the pool of deoxynucleotides in higher organisms. The enzyme also acts on some 5-substituted deoxycytidylic acids. EC 3.5.4.12.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate and dUMP to dihydrofolate and dTMP in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.1.1.45.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic activity.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
An autosomal recessive disorder affecting DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DEHYDROGENASE and causing familial pyrimidinemia. It is characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Even a partial deficiency in the enzyme leaves individuals at risk for developing severe 5-FLUOROURACIL-associated toxicity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A symporter protein that couples the transport of FOLIC ACID with HYDROGEN IONS. The transporter functions most effectively under acidic conditions.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (1/8131)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (2/8131)

Splicing enhancers are RNA sequences required for accurate splice site recognition and the control of alternative splicing. In this study, we used an in vitro selection procedure to identify and characterize novel RNA sequences capable of functioning as pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. Randomized 18-nucleotide RNA sequences were inserted downstream from a Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA enhancer-dependent splicing substrate. Functional splicing enhancers were then selected by multiple rounds of in vitro splicing in nuclear extracts, reverse transcription, and selective PCR amplification of the spliced products. Characterization of the selected splicing enhancers revealed a highly heterogeneous population of sequences, but we identified six classes of recurring degenerate sequence motifs five to seven nucleotides in length including novel splicing enhancer sequence motifs. Analysis of selected splicing enhancer elements and other enhancers in S100 complementation assays led to the identification of individual enhancers capable of being activated by specific serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors (SC35, 9G8, and SF2/ASF). In addition, a potent splicing enhancer sequence isolated in the selection specifically binds a 20-kDa SR protein. This enhancer sequence has a high level of sequence homology with a recently identified RNA-protein adduct that can be immunoprecipitated with an SRp20-specific antibody. We conclude that distinct classes of selected enhancers are activated by specific SR proteins, but there is considerable sequence degeneracy within each class. The results presented here, in conjunction with previous studies, reveal a remarkably broad spectrum of RNA sequences capable of binding specific SR proteins and/or functioning as SR-specific splicing enhancers.  (+info)

Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein. (3/8131)

Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage.  (+info)

A correlation between changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and seizures induced by antivitamin B6. (4/8131)

The effects of DL-penicillamine (DL-PeA), hydrazine and toxopyrimidine (TXP, 2-methyl-6-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in mouse brain were studied. All these compounds inhibited the activity of glutamate decarboxylase [EC 4.1.1.15] (GAD) and slightly inhibited that of 4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase [EC 2.6.1.19] (GABA-T). In contrast, very different effects were observed on GABA levels; hydrazine caused a marked increase, DL-PeA had no effect, and TXP caused a slight decrease in the content of the amino acid. These results could be described by an equation which related the excitable state to changes in the flux of the GABA bypass. Since the values obtained from the equation clearly reflect the seizure activity, it is suggested that the decreased GABA flux might be a cause of convulsions induced by these drugs.  (+info)

Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635. (5/8131)

The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (6/8131)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (7/8131)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (8/8131)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

Title:Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Novel Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidine Derivatives Containing Urea Moieties on Cancer Cell Lines. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 9. Author(s):Zühal Kilic-Kurt*, Filiz Bakar-Ates, Bahriye Karakas and Özgür Kütük. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Sabanci University, Department of Molecular Biology, Genetics and Bioengineering, Tuzla, Istanbul, Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Genetics, Yuregir, Adana. Keywords:Pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines, anticancer activity, apoptosis, cell cycle, western blot analysis, urea moieties.. Abstract:Background: Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been recently reported to have anticancer activities through inhibition of different targets such as, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, Janus Kinase (JAK), mitotic checkpoint protein kinase ...
The present invention relates to a N2-(2-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine derivative, a preparation method thereof, and a pharmaceutical composition for the prevention or treatment of cancer comprising the same as an active ingredient. The N2-(2-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine derivative, the optical isomer thereof, or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof of the present invention is very effective in suppressing anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activity and as a result it can improve the effectiveness of treatment on cancer cells having anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion proteins such as EML4-ALK and NPM-ALK, so that it can be effectively used as a pharmaceutical composition for preventing or treating cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of nilotinib or dasatinib after failure to 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors. T2 - Long-term follow-up. AU - Garg, Ravin J.. AU - Kantarjian, Hagop. AU - OBrien, Susan. AU - Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso. AU - Faderl, Stefan. AU - Estrov, Zeev. AU - Cortes, Jorge. PY - 2009/11/12. Y1 - 2009/11/12. N2 - Responses can be achieved with dasatinib or nilotinib after failure of 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We report on 48 chronic myeloid leukemia patients sequentially treated with 3 TKIs: 34 with dasatinib after imatinib/nilotinib failure and 14 with nilotinib after imatinib/dasatinib failure. Before the third TKI, 25 patients were in chronic phase (CP), 10 in accelerated phase (AP), and 13 in blast phase (BP). Best response to third TKI in CP was 5 major molecular responses (MMR), 3 complete cytogenetic (CCyR), 2 partial cytogenetic (PCyR), 3 minor cytogenetic (mCyR), 6 complete hematologic responses (CHR), and 6 with no response (NR). In AP, 1 patient achieved ...
Product Name:2-Amino-4-oxo-4H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile CAS Number:1000576-55-5 Catalouge Number:OR61118 Purity: Commodity Code:2933998090 MDL Number:MFCD09878565 Notes: Synonyms:2-Amino-5-cyano-4-oxo-4H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine
A new hybrid compound, 4-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl)thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine 3, with promising biological activity was efficiently synthesized by the reaction of 3-phenyl-1-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-amine with Vilsmeier–Haack reagent and subsequent treatment with ammonium carbonate. The structure of the synthesized compound was fully characterized by 1H-, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry and elemental analysis.
pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5), Wholesale Various High Quality pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5) Products from Global Sodium Tripolyphosphate Suppliers and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5) Factory,Importer,Exporter at Okchem.com.
Beginning with imatinib a decade ago, therapy based on targeted inhibition of the BCR-ABL kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The recognition that some patients experience relapse due to resistance-conferring point mutations within BCR-ABL sparked the development of the second-generation ABL kinase inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib. Collectively, these drugs target most resistant BCR-ABL mutants, with the exception of BCR-ABLT315I. A third wave of advances is now cresting in the form of ABL kinase inhibitors whose target profile encompasses BCR-ABLT315I. The leading third-generation clinical candidate for treatment-refractory CML, including patients with the T315I mutation, is ponatinib (AP24534), a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor that has entered pivotal phase 2 testing. A second inhibitor with activity against the BCR-ABLT315I mutant, DCC-2036, is in phase 1 clinical evaluation. We provide an up-to-date synopsis of BCR-ABL signaling pathways, highlight ...
Synthesis, characterisation, evaluation of antimicrobial & antifungal activity of novel pyrazolopyrimidine & pyrazolopyridine derivatives
There is great hope that molecularly targeted therapies such as RTK inhibitors will offer a new and substantially different approach to the treatment of human cancers. This approach focuses on using agents to selectively target susceptible aspects of tumor biology whereas having relatively little effect on normal adult physiological functions. However, a key component of this scenario depends on the ability to identify clinically relevant doses that provide maximum efficacy, rather than relying on identification of a MTD to guide dosing as has been done for conventional cytotoxic agents.. Whereas the potential of such a strategy is well recognized, it has been challenging to reduce this to practice. Even in the case of Gleevec (STI-571), a c-Abl inhibitor that has demonstrated potent activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients, the Phase II clinical dose was derived from a typical Phase I study designed to identify the MTD (26) . However, because Gleevec caused such rapid and easily ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-) for price inquiry. where to buy 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-).Also offer free database of 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 3nzb.1. Structural Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii and Human DHFR Complexes with NADPH and a Series of Potent 5-(omega-carboxyl(alkyloxy)pyrido[2,-d]pyrimidine Derivatives
Unlike herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses do not encode specific enzymes required for the metabolism of the purine or pyrimidine nucleosides to their corresponding...
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Imidazo(pyrimidine)annelated pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine. the synthesis and prediction of the biological activity / I.V.Dyachenko, R.I.Vaskevich, A.I.Vaskevich, M.V.Vovk
Provide the most valuable information resources about 7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-,CAS 3680-69-1,Molecular Formula C6H4ClN3,structure,manufactures etc. ★Find quality 7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro- CAS:3680-69-1 manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, importers, buyers, wholesalers,producers start here!
Recent studies have shown that BRD4 has played key roles in the maintenance of aberrant chromatin states in AML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myeloma and lymphoma, and treatment with BRD4 inhibitors could recapitulate anti-leukemic effects in several AML cell lines [35-37]. Initially, the antiproliferative activity of WS-722 was evaluated against THP-1 cells. As shown in Fig. 3A, after treatment for 7 days, WS-722 moderately inhibited growth of THP-1 cells with an IC50 value of 3.86 μmol/L. To confirm whether WS-722 could abrogate BRD4 activity in acute leukemia cell lines, we used the cellular thermal shift assay to study thermal stability of BRD4 upon WS-722 treatment in THP-1 cell line. THP-1 cells were treated with WS-722 and then heated for 3 min at 50 ℃. After freezing in liquid nitrogen and thawing on ice, equal amounts of supernatant were removed and blotted with the BRD4 antibody. Our results suggested that WS-722 stabilized BRD4 in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-[(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)amino]-5-ethyl-7-[(2r)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (C22H28N6O4) from the PQR.
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Novel 1,4,6-trisubstituted pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are reported with preliminary in vitro activity data indicating that several of them are potent inhibitors (better than the reference compound) of Src phosphorylation of the breast cancer cells 8701-BC, known to overexpress Src. The ability of such compounds to significantly reduce 8701-BC cell proliferation suggests that this scaffold could be a promising lead for the development of antitumoral agents able to block Src phosphorylation of breast cancer cells ...
Catalog No. MC012454 Name 6-Chloro-3-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine Other Name CAS Number 871254-63-6 Alt CAS MFCD Number MFCD09802041 Purity |95% Formula C6H5ClN4 FW 168.6 Appearance Yellow solid Storage Normal Shipping Normal Note
Inclusion Criteria:. -Patient is currently enrolled in a Novartis-sponsored, Oncology Clinical Development & Medical Affairs study receiving nilotinib and has fulfilled all their requirements in the parent study -Patient is currently benefiting from the treatment with nilotinib, as determined by the investigator -Patient has demonstrated compliance, as assessed by the investigator, with the parent study protocol requirements -Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plans and any other study procedures -Written informed consent obtained prior to enrolling in roll-over study. Exclusion Criteria:. - Patient has been permanently discontinued from nilotinib treatment in the parent study due to unacceptable toxicity, non-compliance to study procedures, withdrawal of consent or any other reason - Patient has participated in a Novartis sponsored combination trial where nilotinib was dispensed in combination with another study medication and patient is still receiving ...
While the mechanism of primary resistance to imatinib and dasatinib therapy in CML patients is poorly understood, the mechanisms of secondary resistance have been very well characterized. Kinase domain mutations represent the predominant form of secondary resistance accounting for up to 90% of cases. Currently, no drugs have been effective in treating patients with CML and B-ALL harboring the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. Recent clinical trials with dasatinib revealed that patients known to have the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation prior to therapy had no objective response to treatment.16 Thus, as newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that effectively block other resistant mutations become clinically available, the T315I mutation may become the predominant acquired resistance mutation. The challenge for development of an effective Ph+ leukemia therapy is therefore to develop an alternative treatment strategy that does not rely solely on kinase domain inhibition but rather results in degradation of the ...
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1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3-Azido-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione | C9H11N5O5 | CID 168629 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The research team projects that the 5,7-BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-(METHYLTHIO)PYRAZOLO-[1,5-A]PYRIMIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE CAS 175203-36-8 market size will grow from XXX in 2019 to XXX by 2026, at an estimat...
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Ethyl 3-bromoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxylate; CAS Number: 134044-63-6; find Apollo Scientific Ltd-APO456989137 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
5H-Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine | C6H5N3 | CID 577022 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Creative Peptides offers 7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Comprehensive supplier list for PYRIMIDINE, 2,4-DICHLORO-5-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-6-PHENYL-,PYRIMIDINE, 2,4-DICHLORO-5-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)-6-PHENYL-
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-methyl-4-benzylaminopyrrolo[2,3d]pyrimidine (C14H14N4) from the PQR.
Capot Chemical CAS# 13479-88-4, 5,7-Dichlorothiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine. 13479-88-4 MSDS,ROS,13479-88-4 MOA,COA,SPECS,pecifications,1H-NMR,GHS,CAT #30438
The growth factor receptor families along with their array of ligands represent a complex network of receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth, mitogenesis, migration and differentiation (Fantlet al., 1993; Panayotou and Waterfield, 1993). Consequently, interruption of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been considered a potential strategy for inhibiting such vascular pathologies as angiogenesis, tumor growth and restenosis. We recently identified a new class of protein tyrosine inhibitors based on the parent 6-aryl pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine structure (Blankley et al., 1997) by screening a library of synthetic compounds. A series of key substitutions around the parent pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine structure became apparent for determination of selectivity of various kinases, including PDGFR, FGFR and c-Src. A 2,6-dichloro substitution on the 6-phenyl group was found in broadly active and c-Src active compounds (Blankley et al., 1997; Panek et al., 1997). Changing this substitution pattern to ...
Pyrimidine derivatives for preparing a drug intended for the treatment of HIV infection, the compound, the pharmaceutical composition containing the compound and a method for preparing a composition for use in the combination formulation for HIV adhere ...
Early, Durable Responses Seen with Sprycel (dasatinib) in First and Second-Line Treatment of Pediatric Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chron
Fluorinated Pyrimidines Manufacture, Bulk Supply & Global Distributors. View & Buy from our full range of Fluorinated Pyrimidines | Apollo Scientific
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Continuing with the line of delivering a chemical probe for DRAK2/STK17B kinase, we decided to revise the procedure to synthesize analogs with a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, which are intended to be used as negative control in our DRAK2 inhibition study. We shortened the synthesis of these pyrimidines to 2 steps from the starting material 6-bromo-4-chlorothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1 Read More …. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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2-chloro-4-(3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine; CAS Number: 954227-28-2; find Enamine-ENA497682060 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
two novartis phase iii studies show twice as many ph+ cml patients achieve deeper levels of response with tasigna ae compared to gleevec ae
Cytosine is one of the pyrimidine bases present in the composition of nucleic acids. Structure of cytosine Cytosine is a nitrogen base belonging to the pyrimidine family, which has the chemical...
Tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one S,S-dioxide,CAS#:17396-35-9/4-Chloropyrimidine hydrochloride, CAS#:17180-93-7/Ethyl 3,3-diethoxypropionate,CAS#:10601-80-6
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting the BCR-ABL signaling pathway in therapy-resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. AU - OHare, Thomas. AU - Deininger, Michael W.N.. AU - Eide, Christopher A.. AU - Clackson, Tim. AU - Druker, Brian J.. PY - 2011/1/15. Y1 - 2011/1/15. N2 - Beginning with imatinib a decade ago, therapy based on targeted inhibition of the BCR-ABL kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The recognition that some patients experience relapse due to resistance-conferring point mutations within BCR-ABL sparked the development of the second-generation ABL kinase inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib. Collectively, these drugs target most resistant BCR-ABL mutants, with the exception of BCR-ABLT315I. A third wave of advances is now cresting in the form of ABL kinase inhibitors whose target profile encompasses BCR-ABLT315I. The leading third-generation clinical candidate for treatment-refractory CML, including patients with the T315I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminolysis of Methoxy Groups in Pyrimidine Derivatives. Activation by 5-Nitroso Group. AU - Melguizo, M.. AU - Marchal, A.. AU - Nogueras, M.. AU - Sánchez, A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The nucleophilic substitution of 2-methoxy groups in pyrimidine derivatives was strongly activated by introduction of a 5-nitroso group on to the pyrimidine ring. The aminolysis of several 2-methoxy-5-nitrosopyrimidine derivatives was performed at room temperature in hydroxylic as well as in non-hydroxylic media with different primary amines in short time and good yields. The aminolysed substrates include 6-[(per-O-acetyl)glycosyl]aminopyrimidines which afforded the corresponding 2-aminopyrimidines without harming the acetyl protecting groups of the sugar moiety.. AB - The nucleophilic substitution of 2-methoxy groups in pyrimidine derivatives was strongly activated by introduction of a 5-nitroso group on to the pyrimidine ring. The aminolysis of several 2-methoxy-5-nitrosopyrimidine ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 5413-80-9(1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine),please inquire us for 5413-80-9(1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine).
In an endeavor to find a novel series of antihyperglycemic agents, new benzimidazole and pyrimidine derivatives were successfully synthesized efficiently in high yield with high purity, starting from amino acids in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. All products were assayed for their inhibitory effect on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases. The results revealed that compounds with aromatic amino acids moiety showed significant inhibition activity on the tested enzymes. Among the benzimidazole derivatives 4c and 4d exhibited the best activity against both of the tested enzymes. Also, among the pyrimidine derivatives 5c and 5d possessed significant inhibition action on the enzymes. The IC50 values for the most potent benzimidazole yeast and intestinal α-glucosidases inhibitor (4d) were found to be 9.1 and 36.7 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for the inhibition of
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 245728-43-2(ETHYL 4-CHLORO-5-METHYL-7-PHENYL-7H-PYRROLO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDINE-6-CARBOXYLATE),please inquire us for 245728-43-2(ETHYL 4-CHLORO-5-METHYL-7-PHENYL-7H-PYRROLO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDINE-6-CARBOXYLATE).
View(1060815-89-5)/(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde)information and documentation regarding (7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde), including NMR, HPLC, LC-MS, UPLC & more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic options against BCR-ABL1 T315I-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. AU - Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso. AU - Cortes, Jorge. PY - 2008/7/15. Y1 - 2008/7/15. N2 - Despite the efficacy of imatinib therapy in chronic myelogenous leukemia, the development of resistance continues to challenge the treatment of this disease. Mutations within the kinase domain of BCR-ABL1 constitute the most frequent mechanism of resistance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib or the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib. Of particular concern is the substitution of the threonine residue at the highly conserved gatekeeper residue 315 with a bulkier hydrophobic isoleucine amino acid. This mutation causes steric hindrance precluding the access ATP-competitive inhibitors to the ATP-binding pocket. To expedite the identification of strategies to override the resistance imposed by the T3151 mutation, several strategies have been pursued, ...
Boc Sciences offers cas 871266-93-2 N7-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-n2-phenylthiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,7-diamine in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 871266-93-2 N7-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-n2-phenylthiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,7-diamine.
Recent improvements in cell purification and transplantation techniques have contributed to the identification of cell populations known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC). This discovery has led to the cancer stem cell hierarchy concept, which holds that tumors are organized as a hierarchy of malignant tissues sustained by such TIC. However, this concept remains controversial. In this review, we examine recent advances in cancer stem cell research that have been generated from studies of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia. The abnormal Ph chromosome, which arises from a translocation creating the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, is most commonly associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Examination of the pathophysiology of these diseases has provided interesting insights into not only the hierarchy of leukemia stem cells but also their clonal evolution. Both shared and unique regulatory mechanisms affecting normal and CML stem ...
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 4-{[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino}-N-(1,4-dioxan-2-ylmethyl)-5-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide. Get 4-{[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino}-N-(1,4-dioxan-2-ylmethyl)-5-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
3-Methyl-6-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin- 4(1H)-one (2), on treatment with phosphorous oxychoride, affored 4-chloro-3-methyl-6-phenyl -thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine- 2(3H)-thione (3). A series of novel 6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives 4-9 bearing different functional groups were synthesized via treatment of compound 3 with different reagents. On the other hand, compound 2 was used to synthesize ethyl-[(3-methyl-6-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-oxy]acetate (10), 2-hydrazinyl- -3-methyl-6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (11), 3-methyl-2-(methyl-sulfanyl)-6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin- 4(3H)-one (12) and N-(phenyl)/4-chlorophenyl or methoxy- phenyl)-2-[(3-methyl-4-oxo-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)-sulfanyl]-acetamide (13a-c ...
article{f635f2cb-0638-4e22-adf6-fccd64151250, abstract = {Dasatinib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), predominantly targets BCR-ABL and SRC oncoproteins and also inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses. We identified 22 patients with marked lymphoproliferation in blood while on dasatinib therapy. Clonality and immunophenotype were analyzed and related clinical information was collected. An abrupt lymphocytosis (peak count range 4-20 x 10(9)/l) with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology was observed after a median of 3 months from the start of therapy and it persisted throughout the therapy. Fifteen patients had a cytotoxic T-cell and seven patients had an NK-cell phenotype. All T-cell expansions were clonal. Adverse effects, such as colitis and pleuritis, were common (18 of 22 patients) and were preceded by LGL lymphocytosis. Accumulation of identical cytotoxic T cells was also detected in pleural effusion and colon biopsy samples. ...
Tasigna (nilotinib) is approved in more than 122 countries for the treatment of chronic phase and accelerated phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (Ph+ CML) in adult patients resistant or intolerant to at least one prior therapy, including Glivec (imatinib), and in more than 110 countries for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Tasigna is approved in the European Union (EU) for the treatment of Ph+ CML in the chronic phase in pediatric patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including Glivec and for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in the chronic phase.. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION for TASIGNA® (nilotinib) Capsules Use with caution in patients with uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease and in patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc. Low levels of potassium or magnesium must be corrected prior to Tasigna administration. Monitor closely for an effect on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical Strategies to Achieve an Early and Successful Response to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy. AU - Hughes, Timothy. AU - Hochhaus, Andreas. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Imatinib is the standard of care for previously untreated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), with high response rates that lead to improved event-free and overall survival compared with interferon alfa. Imatinib dose is one important factor affecting response, and early clinical studies showed promising molecular response rates with high-dose therapy. Large, randomized trials are now ongoing to test this potential benefit and establish whether a starting dose of 800 mg/d improves long-term clinical outcomes compared with the current standard dose of 400 mg/d. Low plasma imatinib levels are associated with a decreased chance of response. The importance of imatinib dosing and plasma levels is likely due to their impact on intracellular concentrations of the drug. Cellular influx of imatinib is mediated by ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis begins with the assembly of the ring, then linked To ribose phosphate. Tag Archives: Pyrimidine Biosynthesis PPT. Pyrimidines are synthesized from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate. Nucleotide & nucleoside construction , purine nucleotide de novo synthesis process , pyrimidine … Sources of the Various Atoms of the Purine Base 2. Mechanism and regulation of metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Regulation of Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Content uploaded by Najat Abdulrazzaq Hasan Pathways for the biosynthesis of nucleotides. NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM IN PLANTS. Contributors; Figure 7.10.1: De Novo Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides ATCase is regulated by three compounds. Cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA. Precursors are Glutamine (NH2), Bicarbonate (C) , and ATP (PO 4). Q. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are produced from ribose-5-phosphate or carbamyl phosphate, respectively. Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microwave-assisted and conventional synthesis of benzothieno [3,2-e] [1,3,4] triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. T2 - A comparative study. AU - Gaonkar, Santhosh L.. AU - Ahn, Chuljin. AU - Princia, AU - Shetty, Nitinkumar S.. PY - 2014/8/20. Y1 - 2014/8/20. N2 - Benzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines (2,3,4) and benzothieno[3,2-e][1,3,4] triazolo[4,3-c] pyrimidines (5a-c) were synthesized from the precursor 2-amino-7-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-3-carbonitrile 1 by employing the conventional method as well as the microwave irradiation technique. The precursor 2-amino-3-cyanothiophene analogue 1 was synthesized by employing the well-known Gewald reaction. In the present work it has been found that the microwave supported syntheses are more efficient than the conventional classical heating methods. The structures of all the compounds were ascertained by spectral and analytical data.. AB - Benzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines (2,3,4) and benzothieno[3,2-e][1,3,4] triazolo[4,3-c] pyrimidines ...
Class of nucleotides with one ring. Pyrimidines . programmes-cadres - acersocome - jonsonien - ultraroyaliste - ferroferrite - â ¦ Les bases pyrimidiques sont au nombre de 3 : la cytosine, lâ uracile et la thymine. The dimerization reaction can also occur among pyrimidine bases â ¦ Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions. traduction pyrimidine base dans le dictionnaire Anglais - Francais de Reverso, voir aussi primitive,pyramid,pyramid selling,prim, â ¦ At neutral pH, pyrimidines â ¦ Biologie. Learn all about basicity of pyrimidine. Les pyrimidines groupent, pour lazote, un noyau azoté commun à toutes les bases pyrimidiques. Recherche dinformation médicale. Meaning of pyrimidine with illustrations and photos. Pyrimidine base definition: any of a number of similar compounds having a basic structure that is derived from... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Nucléotide Pyrimidique: ...
7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide, 2-chloro-7-cyclopentyl-N-methyl( 1211444-14-2 ),1 Gram,刘娜,CN.Buy_Information, ChemCD_index
Discussion. The concept of achieving deeper molecular responses with first generation TKIs for a sufficient period of time has been the basis for considering TKI withdrawal, looking for a possible cure in CML. This was defined as a 4-log reduction of BCR-ABL1 transcripts [molecular response (MR)4.0] for more than two years in the Stop Imatinib (STIM) trial as the criteria for imatinib withdrawal. However, the results have shown that 60% of patients had molecular relapse necessitating the reintroduction of TKIs. Hence, deep molecular response does not equate with a cure.7. This same concept was tried in a different setting in a few cases where there was initial imatinib failure due to TKD mutations but deep molecular responses were obtained with the 2nd generation TKI dasatinib. Dasatinib cessation was tried in these cases as well, with no relapse. The presence of BCR-ABL positive cells in the blood of a patient in a stable drug-free CMR appears to indicate that eradication of the leukemic clone ...
1,3-dimethylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,7(1H,3H,8H)-trione - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Dasatinib-induced pulmonary hypertension in chronic myelogenous leukaemia. by Seongseok Yun et al.
Tasigna® (nilotinib) is a cancer medication manufactured by Novartis that was approved in the U.S. in 2007 for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Ph+ CML).. In April 2013, the prescribing information for Tasigna was updated in Canada after health officials warned that 277 cases of atherosclerosis had been reported worldwide between January 2005 and January 2013.. Atherosclerosis is a life-threatening artery disease that can cause narrowing of the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the body. It is a risk-factor for blood clots, heart attack, stroke, and death.. Canadian health experts recommended that patients on Tasigna should be closely monitored for signs of arterial disease, but these warnings never trickled down to doctors in the U.S. or their patients.. In March 2016, the family of a man from California who died of atherosclerosis complications after taking Tasigna filed a lawsuit accusing Novartis of failing to warn patients in the U.S. ...
Ricardo T Paniagua, Orr Sharpe, Peggy P Ho, Steven M Chan, Anna Chang, John P Higgins, Beren H Tomooka, Fiona M Thomas, Jason J Song, Stuart B Goodman, David M Lee, Mark C Genovese, Paul J Utz, Lawrence Steinman, William H Robinson
SPRYCEL® (dasatinib) may be an option for children 1 year of age and older with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase. Please see Indication and Important Safety Information.
Pharmaceutical compounds which are azolo-fused pyrimidine compounds having the formula ##STR1## in which .dbd.A--B-- together with the pyrimidine ring forms a) a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (A), ##STR2## b) a [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (B), ##STR3## c) an imidazo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (C), ##STR4## or d) an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine of formula (D), ##STR5##
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) accounts for 15% of diagnosed leukemias. The annual incidence in two Polish regions has been calculated for 0.7/100,000 of general population. Introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have substantially improved not only the prognosis of CML, but also changed the treatment goals, and the expectations of patients and physicians. The goals of CML therapy include: to prevent the progression towards accelerated phase and blastic phase, to eliminate the risk of death from leukemia, to prolong the length of survival to comparable of healthy population and to attain a quality of life comparable to healthy people. Patients treated up-front with second generation TKIs (2GTKI) have a better chance to achieve faster and deeper response to therapy. Most of patients receiving 2GTKI in first line or e.g. nilotinib after initial phase of imatinib therapy can achieve very deep molecular response (MR4.5), which is a key criterion for discontinuation studies. The results of ...
Uracil is found in RNA. The two most common base pairs are A-T and C-G. C H-bonds with G and A H-bonds with T. A purine always bonds with a pyrimidine. In DNA base pairing, A pairs with T and C with G. Matching base pairs ( purines and pyrimidines ) form hydrogen bonds. Forces which stabilize the DNA include: DNA has a double-helix structure because hydrogen bonds hold together the base pairs in the middle. It comprises Cytosine, thymine, uracil as nucleobases In the A-T pair, the purine (adenine) has two binding sites, and so does the pyrimidine … For RNA, the adenine bonds with uracil and guanine need to bond with cytosine. The molecular structure of both pyrimidines and purines allow them to only be able to bond with each other and not within the group. These nucleotides are complementary -their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds. Purines pair with pyrimidines because their size and shape make them a perfect fit for hydrogen bonding > Purines and pyrimidines are base ...
Floxuridine (250 mg) Bases & Related Reagents Carbohydrates & Derivatives Nucleotides 5-fluoro-1-[(2S,4R,5S)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyMethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyriMidine-2,4-dione 5-F-2--dU Floxuridine API 1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil 5-Fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-uridine Floxuridine FUDR 2-deoxy-5-fluorouridine 5-phosphate Floxuridine (Fludara) 5-Fluoro-1-((2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyMethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyriMidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione Fluoro-2′-deoxyuri PAH 5-FDU, 1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil 5-Fluoro-2&priMe 5-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione 5-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methylol-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-quinone 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydrofuranyl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione ...
127945-86-2 - UVWCAXPTMMSDLT-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 7H-Pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile, 4-amino-7-((2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl)-6-(methylthio)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Product images of Cas63200-54-4 2,4-Dichloro-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine, with high definition & quality a Cas63200-54-4 2,4-Dichloro-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine photos - Nanjing Chemlin Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
Sheared purine?purine or purine?pyrimidine base pairs are important motifs in nucleic acid structures. They can exist either as tandem base pairs or as a single base pair closing hairpin mini-loops. Presence of such stable motifs greatly increases the
The primary objective is to describe the effectiveness of dasatinib (Sprycel) in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in China in the real-world clinical practice
Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not dasatinib improves outcomes and tolerability in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia as compared to imatinib. Study Design: Review of three English language, non-blinded randomized controlled trials from 2009, 2010, and 2010. Data Sources: Randomized, controlled, non-blinded clinical trials comparing dasatinib to imatinib or comparing dasatinib once daily vs dasatinib twice daily, found using the PubMed database. Outcomes measured: Overall survival and progression-free survival were measured at one and two years after initiation of therapy. Safety profiles and incidence of adverse effects were also measured. This is graded on a scale of 1 to 4, from lowest in severity to highest in severity. Additionally, adverse effects were noted as hematologic (neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia) or nonhematologic (fluid retention, diarrhea, vomiting, fever). Results: When comparing dasatinib to imatinib, both drugs provided
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-{2-[6-(methylsulfanyl)-4-(propylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]eth.
Pyrimidine biosynthesis[edit]. It is the one-carbon donor for thymidylate synthase, for methylation of 2-deoxy-uridine-5- ...
Pyrimidines[edit]. Uridine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds ribose 1-phosphate to the free base uracil ... A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the ... Thymidine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate to thymine, forming ...
... a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis. This regulation helps to keep the purine/pyrimidine amounts ... Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Pyrimidine synthesis[edit]. Uridine-triphosphate (UTP), at left, reacts with glutamine and other chemicals to form cytidine- ... Pyrimidine catabolism[edit]. Cytosine and uracil are converted into beta-alanine and later to malonyl-CoA which is needed for ...
Pyrimidines. Part XIII. Electrophilic substitution at position 6 and a synthesis of divicine (2,4-diamino-5,6- ... Bendich, C. (1953). "A revision of the structural formulation of vicine and its pyrimidine aglucone, divicine". Biochim. ...
The complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups, pyrimidines and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines are thymine ... and the pyrimidines, the six-membered rings C and T. A fifth pyrimidine nucleobase, uracil (U), usually takes the place of ... such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich ... For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimers, which are cross-links between pyrimidine bases. On the other ...
... such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich ... Uracil is a common and naturally occurring pyrimidine derivative. The name "uracil" was coined in 1885 by the German chemist ... Brown DJ, Evans RF, Cowden WB, Fenn MD (1994). Taylor EC (ed.). The Pyrimidines. Heterocyclic Compounds. 52. New York, NY: ... NASA scientists reported having reproduced uracil from pyrimidine by exposing it to ultraviolet light under space-like ...
Folkers, K.; Harwood, H. J.; Johnson, T. B. (1932). "Researches on Pyrimidines. Cxxx. Synthesis of 2-Keto-1,2,3,4- ... Folkers, K.; Johnson, T. B. (1933). "Researches on Pyrimidines. CXXXVI. The Mechanism of Formation of Tetrahydropyrimidines by ...
... purines and pyrimidines; and kerogen-type material. The organic inventories of primitive meteorites display large and variable ...
Urea gives pyrimidines. Condensation with two aryl- and alkylamines to gives NacNacs, wherein the oxygen atoms in acetylacetone ...
"Purines and pyrimidines". Retrieved 2008-03-27. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Guanine was first isolated in 1844 by ... With the formula C5H5N5O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis Cooper C, Wilson DW (1954). "Biosynthesis of pyrimidines". Fed. Proc. 13: 194. Lieberman I, Kornberg A ... April 1954). "Enzymatic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. I. Dihydroortic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5- ... 5-dihydroorotic acid in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. It forms a multifunctional enzyme with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ...
Campbell LL (August 1957). "Reductive degradation of pyrimidines. III. Purification and properties of dihydrouracil ... pyrimidine reductase, thymine reductase, uracil reductase, and dihydrouracil dehydrogenase (NAD+). This enzyme participates in ... 3 metabolic pathways: pyrimidine metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, and pantothenate and coa biosynthesis. ...
CAMPBELL LL (1960). "Reductive degradation of pyrimidines. 5. Enzymatic conversion of N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ... Traut TW, Loechel S (1984). "Pyrimidine catabolism: individual characterization of the three sequential enzymes with a new ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pyrimidine metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, and pantothenate and coenzyme ...
Sprague JM, Kissinger LW, Lincoln RM (1941). "Sulfonamido Derivatives of Pyrimidines". Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
Pyrimidines *Pyrantel pamoate. *Pyrantel tartrate. Cyathosyomes (adult small strongyles); adult large strongyles; ascarids ...
Disruption of purine and pyrimidine production may impair energy storage and transport in cells. Impairment of these processes ... Kelley, Roger E.; Andersson, Hans C. (2014-01-01). Disorders of purines and pyrimidines. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 120. ... This enzyme is involved in producing purines and pyrimidines which are the building blocks of DNA, RNA, ATP and other molecules ...
Adenine and guanine are purines, while thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. Purines are larger than pyrimidines. Both ... any pyrimidine) and M (amino) to K (keto). W (weak) and S (strong) are usually not swapped but have been swapped in the past by ...
Ralevic V, Burnstock G (Nov 1998). "Receptors for purines and pyrimidines". Pharmacol Rev. 50 (3): 413-92. PMID 9755289. ...
Ralevic V, Burnstock G (September 1998). "Receptors for purines and pyrimidines". Pharmacological Reviews. 50 (3): 413-92. PMID ...
Purines, pyrimidines, and imidazoles. Part XVII. A synthesis of willardiine". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 583. ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ...
1mvs: Analysis of Two Polymorphic Forms of a Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine N9-C10 Reverse-Bridge Antifolate Binary Complex with Human ... 1mvt: Analysis of Two Polymorphic Forms of a Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine N9-C10 Reverse-Bridge Antifolate Binary Complex with Human ...
pyrimidine metabolism. *Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate ...
Pyrimidine metabolism. Anabolism. *Carbamoyl phosphate. *Carbamoyl aspartic acid. *4,5-Dihydroorotic acid ...
Zamani M, Sharifi Tehrani A, Ali Abadi AA (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. 72 (4): 773-7. PMID 18396809 ...
Other names in common use include pyrimidine phosphorylase, UrdPase, UPH, and UPase. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine ... CANELLAKIS ES (1957). "Pyrimidine metabolism. II. Enzymatic pathways of uracil anabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1): 329-38. PMID ...
pyrimidine-containing compound salvage (product),. pyrimidine-containing compound metabolic process (participant),. pyrimidine- ... Pyrimidine (de); pyrimidines (en); pirimidinoj (eo); pirymidyna (pl); pyrimidin (nn) any heterocyclic compound having a six- ... pyrimidine-containing compound catabolic process (reactant),. pyrimidine-containing compound transmembrane transport (cargo). ... pyrimidines any heterocyclic compound having a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen heteroatoms at 1 and 3 positions ...
A 6-4 photoproduct (6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone or 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidinone) is an alternate dimer consisting of a single ... Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.[1][2] ... A cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) contains a four membered ring arising from the coupling of the two double-bonded carbons ... Two common UV products are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts. These premutagenic lesions alter the ...
Pyrimidines. *Uracil = 2,4-dioxy pyrimidine *Thymine = 2,4-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidine *Cytosine = 2-oxy-4-amino pyrimidine * ... Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Topics. Overview Nomenclature Hydrolysis of Polynucleotides Purine Catabolism Pyrimidine ... Pyrimidine Catabolism. In contrast to purines, pyrimidines undergo ring cleavage and the usual end products of catabolism are ... Salvaging Pyrimidines. A second type of salvage pathway involves two steps and is the major pathway for the pyrimidines, uracil ...
The simplest member of the family is pyrimidine itself, with molecular formula C4H4N2. Several pyrimidine compounds were ... Pyrimidine, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four ... purines and pyrimidines. The purines are adenine (A) and guanine (G) in both DNA and RNA; the pyrimidines are cytosine (C) and ... Pyrimidine, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four ...
Such pyrimidine dimerization is mutagenic, but this damage can be repaired by an enzyme called photolyase, which utilizes the ... Other articles where Pyrimidine dimer is discussed: human genetic disease: Ultraviolet radiation: ... If a pyrimidine dimer in a growth regulatory gene is not immediately repaired, it can contribute to tumour development (see the ... Such pyrimidine dimerization is mutagenic, but this damage can be repaired by an enzyme called photolyase, which utilizes the ...
Pyrimidine is also found in meteorites, but scientists still do not know its origin. Pyrimidine also photolytically decomposes ... Free radical attack has been observed for pyrimidine and photochemical reactions have been observed for substituted pyrimidines ... some minor pyrimidine bases can also occur in nucleic acids. These minor pyrimidines are usually methylated versions of major ... such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich ...
Purine and pyrimidine receptors.. Burnstock G1.. Author information. 1. Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and ... P2 receptors are activated by purines and some subtypes also by pyrimidines. P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channel ...
"The pyrimidine box is another promoter element that is observed in cereal GA-responsive promoters examined thus far (Huang et ... A]leurone proteins that recognized the pyrimidine box sequence [are] from barley (BPBF; Mena et al., 2002) and rice (Oryza ... "OsDOF3, binding the pyrimidine box, affected the DNA binding of GAMYB to GARE".[2] ... Other mutations of the proximal pyrimidine box (M2) and one site for the Dof binding (M5) also reduced the GA-induced ...
Other names: 2,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,3-pyrimidine; 2,4,5,6-Tetrachloropyrimidine; Perchloropyrimidine; Pyrimidine, 2,4,5,6- ...
Pyrimidine oxygenase (EC 1.14.99.46, RutA) is an enzyme with systematic name uracil,FMNH2:oxygen oxidoreductase (uracil ... Kim KS, Pelton JG, Inwood WB, Andersen U, Kustu S, Wemmer DE (August 2010). "The Rut pathway for pyrimidine degradation: novel ... Pyrimidine+oxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
... ,. Laser Chemistry,. vol. 5. ,. Article ID 394186. ,. 12. pages. ,. 1986. .. https ... Pyrimidine, an Intermediate State Molecule?. W. Leo Meerts1 and W. A. Majewski1. ,. 2. 1Fysisch Laboratorium, Katholieke ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Pyrimidine dimers in ultraviolet-irradiated DNAs.. Setlow RB, Carrier WL.. PMID:. 4289765. DOI:. 10.1016/s0022-2836(66)80105-5 ...
Definition of pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a pyrimidine-nucleoside 5-monophosphate to ... produce orthophosphate and the pyrimidine nucleoside; a deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of pyrimidine ...
Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781483200231, ... Synthesis of Purines and Pyrimidines. 1. Pyrimidines. 2. Purines. References. III. Nucleosides. 1. Structure. 2. Synthesis. 3. ... I. General Chemistry of Purines and Pyrimidines. 1. General Character of Purines and Pyrimidines. 2. Substitution by ... Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis proceeds via a salvage pathway and a de novo pathway. In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP ... Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis proceeds via a salvage pathway and a de novo pathway. In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP ... Peters G.J., Veerkamp J.H. (1984) Pyrimidine Metabolism in Rat Brain Cortex and Liver. In: De Bruyn C.H.M.M., Simmonds H.A., ... Brain Cortex Salvage Pathway Orotic Acid Considerable Activity Pyrimidine Nucleotide These keywords were added by machine and ...
Make research projects and school reports about pyrimidine easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... pyrimidine A nitrogen base composed of a single, six-membered ring structure. The pyrimidine bases in the nucleotides of ... pyrimidine (pi-rim-i-deen) n. a nitrogen-containing compound with a ring molecular structure. The commonest pyrimidines are ... pyrimidine A basic, 6-membered heterocyclic compound. The principal pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and cytosine) are important ...
Read The Pyrimidines by Desmond J. Brown by Desmond J. Brown for free with a 30 day free trial. Read eBook on the web, iPad, ...
There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and... ... Pyrimidine is a group of molecules that are part of DNA and RNA ... Pyrimidine is group of molecules that are part of the DNA and RNA structure. Pyrimidine is group of molecules that are part of ... The pyrimidines bind with the purines to join the two strands of the DNA or RNA polymer. Adenine and guanine are the purines ... There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and thymine are part of the DNA structure, while cytosine and uracil ...
T 1223/03 (Bicyclic Pyrimidines / WARNER-LAMBERT) of 21.3.2007. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2007:T122303.20070321 ... The person skilled in the art would not have modified the pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidines in order to solve the problem mentioned ... The compounds claimed in document (D2) have bulky groups at the carbon atom at position 4 of the pyrimidine ring (see point 5.3 ... from those disclosed in document (D4) in that the present compounds have a pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine core where the compounds ...
Species: Transketolase-like, pyrimidine-binding domain (IPR005475). Key Species. Key species. Number of proteins. FASTA. ...
The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world ...
Purchase Pharmacology of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors, Volume 61 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123855268, ... Pharmacology of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors, Volume 61 1st Edition. Write a review ...
These volumes record the presentations made at the VIII International Symposium on Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Manheld ... Purine/Pyrimidine Enzymes as Drug Targets. * Antimetabolites Reduce the Activities of Enzymes with Short Half-Lives in Addition ... Regulation of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism. * Clinical. * Determination of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) in ... Abnormal Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Inherited Superactivity of PRPP Synthetase Claude Bory, Christiane Chantin, ...
Pyrimidine Studies. I. Effect of DON (6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on Incorporation of Precursors into Nucleic Acid Pyrimidines ... DON had no appreciable effect on the incorporation of radiocarbon into the nucleic acid pyrimidines. When uniformly labeled ...
... pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids.. [Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht] ... Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids.. Author:. Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht. ... schema:name "Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids."@en ;. schema:productID "2141323" ;. ... Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids./Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht; Oxford, Pergamon Press; ...
Efficient synthesis of the pyrimidine TIBO analog 3, starting from 9-benzyl-6- chloropurine and testing of its ability to ... Synthesis of the pyrimidine analog of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)one (TIBO) potential for HIV-1 ... Ho, C. Y., & Kukla, M. J. (1991). Synthesis of the pyrimidine analog of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2 ... Efficient synthesis of the pyrimidine TIBO analog 3, starting from 9-benzyl-6- chloropurine and testing of its ability to ...
Inhibition of either the CDA or pyrimidine metabolic pathway diminished survival in MUC1-expressing cancer cells upon ER stress ... Transcriptomic analysis revealed alterations in the pyrimidine metabolic pathway and cytidine deaminase (CDA). ChIP and CDA ... 3: Inhibition of either the CDA enzyme activity or the pyrimidine pathway sensitizes cancer cells to ER stress.. ... 2: Transcriptomic analysis reveals alterations in the pyrimidine salvage pathway and cytidine deaminase (CDA) upon UPR ...
... 64300-55-6 pyrimidine-2-thione
  • Incubation with other sugars and with other compounds, including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, and organic and inorganic salts, was not effective in preserving CO2 output or reducing it. (dtic.mil)
  • Incomplete TCA cycle in cyanobacteria [ 42 , 63 ] provides 2-OG as a carbon skeleton for nitrogen assimilation through GS-GOGAT cycle converting 2-OG to glutamate which is utilized either for the biosynthesis of heme, chlorophyll, and phycobilin or purines and pyrimidines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a component of a number of enzymes, including sulfite oxidase (involved in the metabolism of sulfur amino acids), xanthine oxidase (involved in the oxidation of purines and pyrimidines and the production of uric acid), and aldehyde oxidase (involved in the oxidation of aldehydes). (tjclark.com)
  • We then classified the SARS-CoV-2 mutations based on their type, observing a prevalence of SNP transitions (purine-purine and pyrimidine-pyrimidine) over SNP transversions (purine-pyrimidine and vice versa), an commentary that matches what was noticed for SARS-CoV ( Hu et al. (forwardlanes.net)
  • The purine and pyrimidine bases found in nucleic acids are planar heterocyclic molecules which contain both proton acceptor and proton donor substituents and hydrogen-bonding interactions between them facilitates molecular recognition during biological information processing. (colostate.edu)
  • Previous studies have described control mechanisms in which reiterative transcription during initiation and start site switching act independently or together to regulate the expression of operons involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage. (uab.edu)
  • Escherichia coli CPS (eCPS) provides CP for both arginine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis and is allosterically regulated by metabolites from both pathways, with inhibition by UMP and activation by IMP and ornithine. (elsevier.com)
  • DSM265, a triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), is the first DHODH inhibitor to reach clinical development for treatment of malaria. (unibas.ch)
  • Some of the compounds found in Lion's Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) that are rendered in the fresh tincture include hericenones A-H, cyclic dipeptides, indole alkaloids, pyrimidines, flavones, anthraquinones, amino acid derivatives, and phenolic compounds. (beneficialbotanicals.com)
  • In contrast to previous suggestions in the literature, the replacement of carbonyl oxygens by sulfur atoms does not lead to dramatic changes in tautomeric properties of the pyrimidine derivatives neither in vacuum nor in aqueous solution. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Name Part Number Pack Size RNase A (DNase Free) RP145 50 mg RNase A specifically cleaves at the 3′-side of pyrimidine (uracil or cytosine) phosphate bonds. (swiftanalytical.com)
  • SN1 chemical agents include alkylnitrosourea and N-alkyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine that react with the N7 position of guanine, N3 of adenine, O6 of guanine, O2 or O4 of pyrimidines, and the non-phosphodiester oxygen atoms of the phosphate backbone. (glenresearch.com)
  • DNA repair synthesis was studied in contact-inhibited (non-S-phase) human diploid fibroblasts (WI-38) after damage primarily to pyrimidine bases (ultraviolet radiation, 254 nm) or purine bases (N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene or 7-bromomethylbenz[a]anthracene). (houstonmethodist.org)
  • This partial order is defined based on the physico-chemical properties of the DNA bases: hydrogen bond number and chemical type: of purine {A, G} and pyrimidine {U, C}. This physico-mathematical description permits the study of the genetic information carried by the DNA molecules as a computer binary code of zeros (0) and (1). (genomaths.com)
  • Particular progress has been made in the field of fused pyrimidine compounds with anticancer and anti-parasitic activity, and in the field of minor groove binders for DNA with antibacterial activity. (mgb-biopharma.com)
  • We truly offer our clients an end-to-end partnership for the research, development and manufacture of novel building blocks, pharmaceutical intermediates, and other organic chemicals, especially in substituted halo-benzenes and substituted pyrimidines & pyridines form milligram to kilogram, many of which could reach up to tons. (alichem.com)
  • D-Xylose is the sawdust, straw, corn cobs and other plants rich in hemicellulose hydrolysis by a five-carbon sugars, soluble in hot ethanol and pyrimidine, 67% of the sweetness of sucrose. (fooding.com)
  • A variety of pyrimidine\nC-nucleosides bearing branched-chain sugars have been synthesized starting from adequately substituted (lR*,6S*,7S*,8R*)-7,8-isopropylidenedioxy-3,9-\ndioxabicyclo[4.2.1^1,6]nonan-4-ones in only\nthree steps. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In general, it happens that the methyl group at the "3-position" of the theacrine molecule is thrown out of the ring and transferred to one of the oxygen (2-oxo) in the pyrimidine ring. (arraabella.com)