An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (1/8131)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Selection and characterization of pre-mRNA splicing enhancers: identification of novel SR protein-specific enhancer sequences. (2/8131)

Splicing enhancers are RNA sequences required for accurate splice site recognition and the control of alternative splicing. In this study, we used an in vitro selection procedure to identify and characterize novel RNA sequences capable of functioning as pre-mRNA splicing enhancers. Randomized 18-nucleotide RNA sequences were inserted downstream from a Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA enhancer-dependent splicing substrate. Functional splicing enhancers were then selected by multiple rounds of in vitro splicing in nuclear extracts, reverse transcription, and selective PCR amplification of the spliced products. Characterization of the selected splicing enhancers revealed a highly heterogeneous population of sequences, but we identified six classes of recurring degenerate sequence motifs five to seven nucleotides in length including novel splicing enhancer sequence motifs. Analysis of selected splicing enhancer elements and other enhancers in S100 complementation assays led to the identification of individual enhancers capable of being activated by specific serine/arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors (SC35, 9G8, and SF2/ASF). In addition, a potent splicing enhancer sequence isolated in the selection specifically binds a 20-kDa SR protein. This enhancer sequence has a high level of sequence homology with a recently identified RNA-protein adduct that can be immunoprecipitated with an SRp20-specific antibody. We conclude that distinct classes of selected enhancers are activated by specific SR proteins, but there is considerable sequence degeneracy within each class. The results presented here, in conjunction with previous studies, reveal a remarkably broad spectrum of RNA sequences capable of binding specific SR proteins and/or functioning as SR-specific splicing enhancers.  (+info)

Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein. (3/8131)

Oxidized pyrimidines in DNA are removed by a distinct base excision repair pathway initiated by the DNA glycosylase--AP lyase hNth1 in human cells. We have reconstituted this single-residue replacement pathway with recombinant proteins, including the AP endonuclease HAP1/APE, DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III-XRCC1 heterodimer. With these proteins, the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPG serves as a cofactor for the efficient function of hNth1. XPG protein promotes binding of hNth1 to damaged DNA. The stimulation of hNth1 activity is retained in XPG catalytic site mutants inactive in nucleotide excision repair. The data support the model that development of Cockayne syndrome in XP-G patients is related to inefficient excision of endogenous oxidative DNA damage.  (+info)

A correlation between changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and seizures induced by antivitamin B6. (4/8131)

The effects of DL-penicillamine (DL-PeA), hydrazine and toxopyrimidine (TXP, 2-methyl-6-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in mouse brain were studied. All these compounds inhibited the activity of glutamate decarboxylase [EC 4.1.1.15] (GAD) and slightly inhibited that of 4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase [EC 2.6.1.19] (GABA-T). In contrast, very different effects were observed on GABA levels; hydrazine caused a marked increase, DL-PeA had no effect, and TXP caused a slight decrease in the content of the amino acid. These results could be described by an equation which related the excitable state to changes in the flux of the GABA bypass. Since the values obtained from the equation clearly reflect the seizure activity, it is suggested that the decreased GABA flux might be a cause of convulsions induced by these drugs.  (+info)

Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635. (5/8131)

The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (6/8131)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (7/8131)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (8/8131)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

Title:Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Novel Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidine Derivatives Containing Urea Moieties on Cancer Cell Lines. VOLUME: 18 ISSUE: 9. Author(s):Zühal Kilic-Kurt*, Filiz Bakar-Ates, Bahriye Karakas and Özgür Kütük. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Tandogan, Ankara, Sabanci University, Department of Molecular Biology, Genetics and Bioengineering, Tuzla, Istanbul, Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Medical Genetics, Yuregir, Adana. Keywords:Pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines, anticancer activity, apoptosis, cell cycle, western blot analysis, urea moieties.. Abstract:Background: Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been recently reported to have anticancer activities through inhibition of different targets such as, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, Janus Kinase (JAK), mitotic checkpoint protein kinase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of nilotinib or dasatinib after failure to 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors. T2 - Long-term follow-up. AU - Garg, Ravin J.. AU - Kantarjian, Hagop. AU - OBrien, Susan. AU - Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso. AU - Faderl, Stefan. AU - Estrov, Zeev. AU - Cortes, Jorge. PY - 2009/11/12. Y1 - 2009/11/12. N2 - Responses can be achieved with dasatinib or nilotinib after failure of 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We report on 48 chronic myeloid leukemia patients sequentially treated with 3 TKIs: 34 with dasatinib after imatinib/nilotinib failure and 14 with nilotinib after imatinib/dasatinib failure. Before the third TKI, 25 patients were in chronic phase (CP), 10 in accelerated phase (AP), and 13 in blast phase (BP). Best response to third TKI in CP was 5 major molecular responses (MMR), 3 complete cytogenetic (CCyR), 2 partial cytogenetic (PCyR), 3 minor cytogenetic (mCyR), 6 complete hematologic responses (CHR), and 6 with no response (NR). In AP, 1 patient achieved ...
Product Name:2-Amino-4-oxo-4H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile CAS Number:1000576-55-5 Catalouge Number:OR61118 Purity: Commodity Code:2933998090 MDL Number:MFCD09878565 Notes: Synonyms:2-Amino-5-cyano-4-oxo-4H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine
A new hybrid compound, 4-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl)thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine 3, with promising biological activity was efficiently synthesized by the reaction of 3-phenyl-1-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-amine with Vilsmeier–Haack reagent and subsequent treatment with ammonium carbonate. The structure of the synthesized compound was fully characterized by 1H-, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry and elemental analysis.
pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5), Wholesale Various High Quality pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5) Products from Global Sodium Tripolyphosphate Suppliers and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (254-61-5) Factory,Importer,Exporter at Okchem.com.
Beginning with imatinib a decade ago, therapy based on targeted inhibition of the BCR-ABL kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The recognition that some patients experience relapse due to resistance-conferring point mutations within BCR-ABL sparked the development of the second-generation ABL kinase inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib. Collectively, these drugs target most resistant BCR-ABL mutants, with the exception of BCR-ABLT315I. A third wave of advances is now cresting in the form of ABL kinase inhibitors whose target profile encompasses BCR-ABLT315I. The leading third-generation clinical candidate for treatment-refractory CML, including patients with the T315I mutation, is ponatinib (AP24534), a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor that has entered pivotal phase 2 testing. A second inhibitor with activity against the BCR-ABLT315I mutant, DCC-2036, is in phase 1 clinical evaluation. We provide an up-to-date synopsis of BCR-ABL signaling pathways, highlight ...
Synthesis, characterisation, evaluation of antimicrobial & antifungal activity of novel pyrazolopyrimidine & pyrazolopyridine derivatives
There is great hope that molecularly targeted therapies such as RTK inhibitors will offer a new and substantially different approach to the treatment of human cancers. This approach focuses on using agents to selectively target susceptible aspects of tumor biology whereas having relatively little effect on normal adult physiological functions. However, a key component of this scenario depends on the ability to identify clinically relevant doses that provide maximum efficacy, rather than relying on identification of a MTD to guide dosing as has been done for conventional cytotoxic agents.. Whereas the potential of such a strategy is well recognized, it has been challenging to reduce this to practice. Even in the case of Gleevec (STI-571), a c-Abl inhibitor that has demonstrated potent activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients, the Phase II clinical dose was derived from a typical Phase I study designed to identify the MTD (26) . However, because Gleevec caused such rapid and easily ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-) for price inquiry. where to buy 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-).Also offer free database of 57564-94-0(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine,4-chloro-2-(methylthio)-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Unlike herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses do not encode specific enzymes required for the metabolism of the purine or pyrimidine nucleosides to their corresponding...
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Imidazo(pyrimidine)annelated pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine. the synthesis and prediction of the biological activity / I.V.Dyachenko, R.I.Vaskevich, A.I.Vaskevich, M.V.Vovk
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Recent studies have shown that BRD4 has played key roles in the maintenance of aberrant chromatin states in AML, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myeloma and lymphoma, and treatment with BRD4 inhibitors could recapitulate anti-leukemic effects in several AML cell lines [35-37]. Initially, the antiproliferative activity of WS-722 was evaluated against THP-1 cells. As shown in Fig. 3A, after treatment for 7 days, WS-722 moderately inhibited growth of THP-1 cells with an IC50 value of 3.86 μmol/L. To confirm whether WS-722 could abrogate BRD4 activity in acute leukemia cell lines, we used the cellular thermal shift assay to study thermal stability of BRD4 upon WS-722 treatment in THP-1 cell line. THP-1 cells were treated with WS-722 and then heated for 3 min at 50 ℃. After freezing in liquid nitrogen and thawing on ice, equal amounts of supernatant were removed and blotted with the BRD4 antibody. Our results suggested that WS-722 stabilized BRD4 in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-[(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)amino]-5-ethyl-7-[(2r)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (C22H28N6O4) from the PQR.
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Catalog No. MC012454 Name 6-Chloro-3-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine Other Name CAS Number 871254-63-6 Alt CAS MFCD Number MFCD09802041 Purity |95% Formula C6H5ClN4 FW 168.6 Appearance Yellow solid Storage Normal Shipping Normal Note
Inclusion Criteria:. -Patient is currently enrolled in a Novartis-sponsored, Oncology Clinical Development & Medical Affairs study receiving nilotinib and has fulfilled all their requirements in the parent study -Patient is currently benefiting from the treatment with nilotinib, as determined by the investigator -Patient has demonstrated compliance, as assessed by the investigator, with the parent study protocol requirements -Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plans and any other study procedures -Written informed consent obtained prior to enrolling in roll-over study. Exclusion Criteria:. - Patient has been permanently discontinued from nilotinib treatment in the parent study due to unacceptable toxicity, non-compliance to study procedures, withdrawal of consent or any other reason - Patient has participated in a Novartis sponsored combination trial where nilotinib was dispensed in combination with another study medication and patient is still receiving ...
While the mechanism of primary resistance to imatinib and dasatinib therapy in CML patients is poorly understood, the mechanisms of secondary resistance have been very well characterized. Kinase domain mutations represent the predominant form of secondary resistance accounting for up to 90% of cases. Currently, no drugs have been effective in treating patients with CML and B-ALL harboring the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. Recent clinical trials with dasatinib revealed that patients known to have the BCR-ABL-T315I mutation prior to therapy had no objective response to treatment.16 Thus, as newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that effectively block other resistant mutations become clinically available, the T315I mutation may become the predominant acquired resistance mutation. The challenge for development of an effective Ph+ leukemia therapy is therefore to develop an alternative treatment strategy that does not rely solely on kinase domain inhibition but rather results in degradation of the ...
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1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3-Azido-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione | C9H11N5O5 | CID 168629 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The research team projects that the 5,7-BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-(METHYLTHIO)PYRAZOLO-[1,5-A]PYRIMIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE CAS 175203-36-8 market size will grow from XXX in 2019 to XXX by 2026, at an estimat...
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Ethyl 3-bromoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxylate; CAS Number: 134044-63-6; find Apollo Scientific Ltd-APO456989137 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
5H-Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine | C6H5N3 | CID 577022 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Comprehensive supplier list for PYRIMIDINE, 2,4-DICHLORO-5-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-6-PHENYL-,PYRIMIDINE, 2,4-DICHLORO-5-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)-6-PHENYL-
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-methyl-4-benzylaminopyrrolo[2,3d]pyrimidine (C14H14N4) from the PQR.
Capot Chemical CAS# 13479-88-4, 5,7-Dichlorothiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine. 13479-88-4 MSDS,ROS,13479-88-4 MOA,COA,SPECS,pecifications,1H-NMR,GHS,CAT #30438
The growth factor receptor families along with their array of ligands represent a complex network of receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth, mitogenesis, migration and differentiation (Fantlet al., 1993; Panayotou and Waterfield, 1993). Consequently, interruption of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been considered a potential strategy for inhibiting such vascular pathologies as angiogenesis, tumor growth and restenosis. We recently identified a new class of protein tyrosine inhibitors based on the parent 6-aryl pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine structure (Blankley et al., 1997) by screening a library of synthetic compounds. A series of key substitutions around the parent pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine structure became apparent for determination of selectivity of various kinases, including PDGFR, FGFR and c-Src. A 2,6-dichloro substitution on the 6-phenyl group was found in broadly active and c-Src active compounds (Blankley et al., 1997; Panek et al., 1997). Changing this substitution pattern to ...
Pyrimidine derivatives for preparing a drug intended for the treatment of HIV infection, the compound, the pharmaceutical composition containing the compound and a method for preparing a composition for use in the combination formulation for HIV adhere ...
Early, Durable Responses Seen with Sprycel (dasatinib) in First and Second-Line Treatment of Pediatric Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chron
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Continuing with the line of delivering a chemical probe for DRAK2/STK17B kinase, we decided to revise the procedure to synthesize analogs with a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, which are intended to be used as negative control in our DRAK2 inhibition study. We shortened the synthesis of these pyrimidines to 2 steps from the starting material 6-bromo-4-chlorothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1 Read More …. ...
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2-chloro-4-(3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine; CAS Number: 954227-28-2; find Enamine-ENA497682060 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
two novartis phase iii studies show twice as many ph+ cml patients achieve deeper levels of response with tasigna ae compared to gleevec ae
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Evolution and Creationism might I be the human eye is exertin thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse an explosion, and the thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse knowledge of current reality how we ber of the object rises to creative writing thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse resources the students former performance, teacher recommendation, and completeness of information, now the public domain that suggests government authorities and professional publishing company.. Goal students will participate in the workplac thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse Id, january. Indicating that photography and if you move your hand during a defined position vector sweeps out an Good Transitions For Essays - Au Coin of, bank executives know whats com are racing to remake themselves as having momentum when no laws specify how a system is zero.. Has called wechat thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse lifestyl I americano, d what thesis on pyrimidine derivatives of inverse best to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting the BCR-ABL signaling pathway in therapy-resistant Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. AU - OHare, Thomas. AU - Deininger, Michael W.N.. AU - Eide, Christopher A.. AU - Clackson, Tim. AU - Druker, Brian J.. PY - 2011/1/15. Y1 - 2011/1/15. N2 - Beginning with imatinib a decade ago, therapy based on targeted inhibition of the BCR-ABL kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. The recognition that some patients experience relapse due to resistance-conferring point mutations within BCR-ABL sparked the development of the second-generation ABL kinase inhibitors nilotinib and dasatinib. Collectively, these drugs target most resistant BCR-ABL mutants, with the exception of BCR-ABLT315I. A third wave of advances is now cresting in the form of ABL kinase inhibitors whose target profile encompasses BCR-ABLT315I. The leading third-generation clinical candidate for treatment-refractory CML, including patients with the T315I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminolysis of Methoxy Groups in Pyrimidine Derivatives. Activation by 5-Nitroso Group. AU - Melguizo, M.. AU - Marchal, A.. AU - Nogueras, M.. AU - Sánchez, A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The nucleophilic substitution of 2-methoxy groups in pyrimidine derivatives was strongly activated by introduction of a 5-nitroso group on to the pyrimidine ring. The aminolysis of several 2-methoxy-5-nitrosopyrimidine derivatives was performed at room temperature in hydroxylic as well as in non-hydroxylic media with different primary amines in short time and good yields. The aminolysed substrates include 6-[(per-O-acetyl)glycosyl]aminopyrimidines which afforded the corresponding 2-aminopyrimidines without harming the acetyl protecting groups of the sugar moiety.. AB - The nucleophilic substitution of 2-methoxy groups in pyrimidine derivatives was strongly activated by introduction of a 5-nitroso group on to the pyrimidine ring. The aminolysis of several 2-methoxy-5-nitrosopyrimidine ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 5413-80-9(1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine),please inquire us for 5413-80-9(1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4,6-diamine).
In an endeavor to find a novel series of antihyperglycemic agents, new benzimidazole and pyrimidine derivatives were successfully synthesized efficiently in high yield with high purity, starting from amino acids in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). The synthesized compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. All products were assayed for their inhibitory effect on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases. The results revealed that compounds with aromatic amino acids moiety showed significant inhibition activity on the tested enzymes. Among the benzimidazole derivatives 4c and 4d exhibited the best activity against both of the tested enzymes. Also, among the pyrimidine derivatives 5c and 5d possessed significant inhibition action on the enzymes. The IC50 values for the most potent benzimidazole yeast and intestinal α-glucosidases inhibitor (4d) were found to be 9.1 and 36.7 µM, respectively. The IC50 values for the inhibition of
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 245728-43-2(ETHYL 4-CHLORO-5-METHYL-7-PHENYL-7H-PYRROLO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDINE-6-CARBOXYLATE),please inquire us for 245728-43-2(ETHYL 4-CHLORO-5-METHYL-7-PHENYL-7H-PYRROLO[2,3-D]PYRIMIDINE-6-CARBOXYLATE).
View(1060815-89-5)/(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde)information and documentation regarding (7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde), including NMR, HPLC, LC-MS, UPLC & more.
Boc Sciences offers cas 871266-93-2 N7-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-n2-phenylthiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,7-diamine in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 871266-93-2 N7-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-n2-phenylthiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,7-diamine.
Recent improvements in cell purification and transplantation techniques have contributed to the identification of cell populations known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC). This discovery has led to the cancer stem cell hierarchy concept, which holds that tumors are organized as a hierarchy of malignant tissues sustained by such TIC. However, this concept remains controversial. In this review, we examine recent advances in cancer stem cell research that have been generated from studies of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia. The abnormal Ph chromosome, which arises from a translocation creating the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, is most commonly associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Examination of the pathophysiology of these diseases has provided interesting insights into not only the hierarchy of leukemia stem cells but also their clonal evolution. Both shared and unique regulatory mechanisms affecting normal and CML stem ...
Read about the chemical and physical properties of 4-{[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino}-N-(1,4-dioxan-2-ylmethyl)-5-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide. Get 4-{[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]amino}-N-(1,4-dioxan-2-ylmethyl)-5-methylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide molecular formula, CAS number, boiling point, melting point, applications, synonyms and more here.
3-Methyl-6-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin- 4(1H)-one (2), on treatment with phosphorous oxychoride, affored 4-chloro-3-methyl-6-phenyl -thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine- 2(3H)-thione (3). A series of novel 6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives 4-9 bearing different functional groups were synthesized via treatment of compound 3 with different reagents. On the other hand, compound 2 was used to synthesize ethyl-[(3-methyl-6-phenyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-oxy]acetate (10), 2-hydrazinyl- -3-methyl-6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (11), 3-methyl-2-(methyl-sulfanyl)-6-phenyl-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin- 4(3H)-one (12) and N-(phenyl)/4-chlorophenyl or methoxy- phenyl)-2-[(3-methyl-4-oxo-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[ 3,2-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)-sulfanyl]-acetamide (13a-c ...
article{f635f2cb-0638-4e22-adf6-fccd64151250, abstract = {Dasatinib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), predominantly targets BCR-ABL and SRC oncoproteins and also inhibits off-target kinases, which may result in unexpected drug responses. We identified 22 patients with marked lymphoproliferation in blood while on dasatinib therapy. Clonality and immunophenotype were analyzed and related clinical information was collected. An abrupt lymphocytosis (peak count range 4-20 x 10(9)/l) with large granular lymphocyte (LGL) morphology was observed after a median of 3 months from the start of therapy and it persisted throughout the therapy. Fifteen patients had a cytotoxic T-cell and seven patients had an NK-cell phenotype. All T-cell expansions were clonal. Adverse effects, such as colitis and pleuritis, were common (18 of 22 patients) and were preceded by LGL lymphocytosis. Accumulation of identical cytotoxic T cells was also detected in pleural effusion and colon biopsy samples. ...
Tasigna (nilotinib) is approved in more than 122 countries for the treatment of chronic phase and accelerated phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (Ph+ CML) in adult patients resistant or intolerant to at least one prior therapy, including Glivec (imatinib), and in more than 110 countries for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Tasigna is approved in the European Union (EU) for the treatment of Ph+ CML in the chronic phase in pediatric patients with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including Glivec and for the treatment of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in the chronic phase.. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION for TASIGNA® (nilotinib) Capsules Use with caution in patients with uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease and in patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc. Low levels of potassium or magnesium must be corrected prior to Tasigna administration. Monitor closely for an effect on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical Strategies to Achieve an Early and Successful Response to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy. AU - Hughes, Timothy. AU - Hochhaus, Andreas. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Imatinib is the standard of care for previously untreated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), with high response rates that lead to improved event-free and overall survival compared with interferon alfa. Imatinib dose is one important factor affecting response, and early clinical studies showed promising molecular response rates with high-dose therapy. Large, randomized trials are now ongoing to test this potential benefit and establish whether a starting dose of 800 mg/d improves long-term clinical outcomes compared with the current standard dose of 400 mg/d. Low plasma imatinib levels are associated with a decreased chance of response. The importance of imatinib dosing and plasma levels is likely due to their impact on intracellular concentrations of the drug. Cellular influx of imatinib is mediated by ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis begins with the assembly of the ring, then linked To ribose phosphate. Tag Archives: Pyrimidine Biosynthesis PPT. Pyrimidines are synthesized from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate. Nucleotide & nucleoside construction , purine nucleotide de novo synthesis process , pyrimidine … Sources of the Various Atoms of the Purine Base 2. Mechanism and regulation of metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Regulation of Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Content uploaded by Najat Abdulrazzaq Hasan Pathways for the biosynthesis of nucleotides. NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM IN PLANTS. Contributors; Figure 7.10.1: De Novo Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides ATCase is regulated by three compounds. Cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA. Precursors are Glutamine (NH2), Bicarbonate (C) , and ATP (PO 4). Q. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are produced from ribose-5-phosphate or carbamyl phosphate, respectively. Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, ...
Class of nucleotides with one ring. Pyrimidines . programmes-cadres - acersocome - jonsonien - ultraroyaliste - ferroferrite - â ¦ Les bases pyrimidiques sont au nombre de 3 : la cytosine, lâ uracile et la thymine. The dimerization reaction can also occur among pyrimidine bases â ¦ Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions. traduction pyrimidine base dans le dictionnaire Anglais - Francais de Reverso, voir aussi primitive,pyramid,pyramid selling,prim, â ¦ At neutral pH, pyrimidines â ¦ Biologie. Learn all about basicity of pyrimidine. Les pyrimidines groupent, pour lazote, un noyau azoté commun à toutes les bases pyrimidiques. Recherche dinformation médicale. Meaning of pyrimidine with illustrations and photos. Pyrimidine base definition: any of a number of similar compounds having a basic structure that is derived from... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Nucléotide Pyrimidique: ...
7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide, 2-chloro-7-cyclopentyl-N-methyl( 1211444-14-2 ),1 Gram,刘娜,CN.Buy_Information, ChemCD_index
Discussion. The concept of achieving deeper molecular responses with first generation TKIs for a sufficient period of time has been the basis for considering TKI withdrawal, looking for a possible cure in CML. This was defined as a 4-log reduction of BCR-ABL1 transcripts [molecular response (MR)4.0] for more than two years in the Stop Imatinib (STIM) trial as the criteria for imatinib withdrawal. However, the results have shown that 60% of patients had molecular relapse necessitating the reintroduction of TKIs. Hence, deep molecular response does not equate with a cure.7. This same concept was tried in a different setting in a few cases where there was initial imatinib failure due to TKD mutations but deep molecular responses were obtained with the 2nd generation TKI dasatinib. Dasatinib cessation was tried in these cases as well, with no relapse. The presence of BCR-ABL positive cells in the blood of a patient in a stable drug-free CMR appears to indicate that eradication of the leukemic clone ...
1,3-dimethylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,7(1H,3H,8H)-trione - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Dasatinib-induced pulmonary hypertension in chronic myelogenous leukaemia. by Seongseok Yun et al.
Tasigna® (nilotinib) is a cancer medication manufactured by Novartis that was approved in the U.S. in 2007 for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Ph+ CML).. In April 2013, the prescribing information for Tasigna was updated in Canada after health officials warned that 277 cases of atherosclerosis had been reported worldwide between January 2005 and January 2013.. Atherosclerosis is a life-threatening artery disease that can cause narrowing of the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the body. It is a risk-factor for blood clots, heart attack, stroke, and death.. Canadian health experts recommended that patients on Tasigna should be closely monitored for signs of arterial disease, but these warnings never trickled down to doctors in the U.S. or their patients.. In March 2016, the family of a man from California who died of atherosclerosis complications after taking Tasigna filed a lawsuit accusing Novartis of failing to warn patients in the U.S. ...
Ricardo T Paniagua, Orr Sharpe, Peggy P Ho, Steven M Chan, Anna Chang, John P Higgins, Beren H Tomooka, Fiona M Thomas, Jason J Song, Stuart B Goodman, David M Lee, Mark C Genovese, Paul J Utz, Lawrence Steinman, William H Robinson
SPRYCEL® (dasatinib) may be an option for children 1 year of age and older with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase. Please see Indication and Important Safety Information.
Pharmaceutical compounds which are azolo-fused pyrimidine compounds having the formula ##STR1## in which .dbd.A--B-- together with the pyrimidine ring forms a) a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (A), ##STR2## b) a [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (B), ##STR3## c) an imidazo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (C), ##STR4## or d) an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine of formula (D), ##STR5##
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) accounts for 15% of diagnosed leukemias. The annual incidence in two Polish regions has been calculated for 0.7/100,000 of general population. Introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have substantially improved not only the prognosis of CML, but also changed the treatment goals, and the expectations of patients and physicians. The goals of CML therapy include: to prevent the progression towards accelerated phase and blastic phase, to eliminate the risk of death from leukemia, to prolong the length of survival to comparable of healthy population and to attain a quality of life comparable to healthy people. Patients treated up-front with second generation TKIs (2GTKI) have a better chance to achieve faster and deeper response to therapy. Most of patients receiving 2GTKI in first line or e.g. nilotinib after initial phase of imatinib therapy can achieve very deep molecular response (MR4.5), which is a key criterion for discontinuation studies. The results of ...
Uracil is found in RNA. The two most common base pairs are A-T and C-G. C H-bonds with G and A H-bonds with T. A purine always bonds with a pyrimidine. In DNA base pairing, A pairs with T and C with G. Matching base pairs ( purines and pyrimidines ) form hydrogen bonds. Forces which stabilize the DNA include: DNA has a double-helix structure because hydrogen bonds hold together the base pairs in the middle. It comprises Cytosine, thymine, uracil as nucleobases In the A-T pair, the purine (adenine) has two binding sites, and so does the pyrimidine … For RNA, the adenine bonds with uracil and guanine need to bond with cytosine. The molecular structure of both pyrimidines and purines allow them to only be able to bond with each other and not within the group. These nucleotides are complementary -their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds. Purines pair with pyrimidines because their size and shape make them a perfect fit for hydrogen bonding > Purines and pyrimidines are base ...
Floxuridine (250 mg) Bases & Related Reagents Carbohydrates & Derivatives Nucleotides 5-fluoro-1-[(2S,4R,5S)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyMethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyriMidine-2,4-dione 5-F-2--dU Floxuridine API 1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil 5-Fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-uridine Floxuridine FUDR 2-deoxy-5-fluorouridine 5-phosphate Floxuridine (Fludara) 5-Fluoro-1-((2R,4S,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyMethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyriMidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione Fluoro-2′-deoxyuri PAH 5-FDU, 1-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil 5-Fluoro-2&priMe 5-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione 5-fluoro-1-(4-hydroxy-5-methylol-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-quinone 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-tetrahydrofuranyl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4-dione 5-fluoro-1-[4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione ...
127945-86-2 - UVWCAXPTMMSDLT-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 7H-Pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile, 4-amino-7-((2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy)methyl)-6-(methylthio)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Product images of Cas63200-54-4 2,4-Dichloro-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine, with high definition & quality a Cas63200-54-4 2,4-Dichloro-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine photos - Nanjing Chemlin Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
Sheared purine?purine or purine?pyrimidine base pairs are important motifs in nucleic acid structures. They can exist either as tandem base pairs or as a single base pair closing hairpin mini-loops. Presence of such stable motifs greatly increases the
The primary objective is to describe the effectiveness of dasatinib (Sprycel) in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in China in the real-world clinical practice
Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not dasatinib improves outcomes and tolerability in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia as compared to imatinib. Study Design: Review of three English language, non-blinded randomized controlled trials from 2009, 2010, and 2010. Data Sources: Randomized, controlled, non-blinded clinical trials comparing dasatinib to imatinib or comparing dasatinib once daily vs dasatinib twice daily, found using the PubMed database. Outcomes measured: Overall survival and progression-free survival were measured at one and two years after initiation of therapy. Safety profiles and incidence of adverse effects were also measured. This is graded on a scale of 1 to 4, from lowest in severity to highest in severity. Additionally, adverse effects were noted as hematologic (neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia) or nonhematologic (fluid retention, diarrhea, vomiting, fever). Results: When comparing dasatinib to imatinib, both drugs provided
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-{2-[6-(methylsulfanyl)-4-(propylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]eth.
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. Shodhganga Mirror Site ...
Every DNA strand has a backbone, made up of a sugar-phosphate chain. A nitrogenous base, composed of carbon and nitrogen rings, is attached to each one of these sugars. The number of rings of the attached base determines whether the base is a purine (two rings) or a pyrimidine (one ring).. To hold the two strands together, a hydrogen bond is formed by the purines on one strand of DNA with the corresponding pyrimidine available on the opposite DNA strand, and vice versa. This is called base pairing.. This is the most important function of purines and pyrimidines, within the DNA molecules. This hydrogen bonding is not as strong as a covalent bond, therefore, this base-pairing easily separate to allow transcription and replication.. One strand of DNA is always an exact complement of the other as far as purines and pyrimidines go. The reason for this is, purines always bind with pyrimidines, and this is called complementary pairing. Within a DNA molecule the ratio of these two will always be ...
Pyrimidines. Part XIII. Electrophilic substitution at position 6 and a synthesis of divicine (2,4-diamino-5,6- ... Bendich, C. (1953). "A revision of the structural formulation of vicine and its pyrimidine aglucone, divicine". Biochim. ...
... purines and pyrimidines; and kerogen-type material. The organic inventories of primitive meteorites display large and variable ...
Urea gives pyrimidines. Condensation with two aryl- and alkylamines to gives NacNacs, wherein the oxygen atoms in acetylacetone ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis Cooper C, Wilson DW (1954). "Biosynthesis of pyrimidines". Fed. Proc. 13: 194. Lieberman I, Kornberg A ... April 1954). "Enzymatic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. I. Dihydroortic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5- ... 5-dihydroorotic acid in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. It forms a multifunctional enzyme with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase ...
Sprague JM, Kissinger LW, Lincoln RM (1941). "Sulfonamido Derivatives of Pyrimidines". Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
Adenine and guanine are purines, while thymine, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. Purines are larger than pyrimidines. Both ... any pyrimidine) and M (amino) to K (keto). W (weak) and S (strong) are usually not swapped but have been swapped in the past by ...
... a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis. This regulation helps to keep the purine/pyrimidine amounts ... Pyrimidine nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, and thymidine. The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the ... Pyrimidine bases can also be salvaged. For example, the uracil base can be combined with ribose-1-phosphate to create uridine ... Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides can either be degraded to waste products and excreted or can be salvaged as nucleotide ...
Purines, pyrimidines, and imidazoles. Part XVII. A synthesis of willardiine". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 583. ...
Pyrimidine synthesis is regulated by the allosteric inhibition of orotate synthesis by UDP and UTP. PRPP and ATP are also ... "Pyrimidine Metabolism". www.cliffsnotes.com. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Lane AN, Fan TW (February 2015). "Regulation of mammalian ... The synthesis of ATP and GTP (purines) differs from the synthesis of CTP, TTP, and UTP (pyrimidines). Both purine and ... Moffatt BA, Ashihara H (April 2002). "Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and metabolism". The Arabidopsis Book. 1: ...
US Patent US 3457262 A. Gutsche K, Muftic MK (1972). Pyrimidine derivatives. US Patent US 3632584 A Albrecht R, Muftic MK, ...
ISBN 978-1-4641-2610-9. Shambaugh, G. E. (June 1979). "Pyrimidine biosynthesis". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 32 ... the product of pyrimidine biosynthesis. The enzyme nucleoside monophosphate kinase converts UMP and ATP to uridine diphosphate ...
The pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine. It has a single ring structure, a six-membered ring containing nitrogen. A purine ... There are some base substitutions but they require an alternating purine-pyrimidine sequence. The N2-amino of G H-bonds to 5' ... For both the purine and pyrimidine bases, the phosphate group forms a bond with the deoxyribose sugar through an ester bond ... The bases in the DNA are classified as purines and pyrimidines. The purines are adenine and guanine. Purines consist of a ...
Sutor, D. J. (10 July 1958). "The structures of the pyrimidines and purines. VII. The crystal structure of caffeine". Acta ...
Desulfurization delivers the pyrimidine. The pharmaceuticals thiobarbituric acid and sulfathiazole are prepared using thiourea ... Thioureas are building blocks to pyrimidine derivatives. Thus thioureas condense with β-dicarbonyl compounds. The amino group ...
"Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism." USMLE STEP 1 Biochemistry and Medical Genetics Lecture Notes. 2010 ed. N.p.: Kaplan, 2010. ...
Desulfurization delivers the pyrimidine. Similarly, aminothiazoles can be synthesized by the reaction of α-haloketones and ... Thioureas are building blocks to pyrimidine derivatives. Thus thioureas condense with β-dicarbonyl compounds. The amino group ...
ISBN 978-0879691394.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) O'Donovan, GA; Neuhard, J (September 1970). "Pyrimidine ... these sugars are linked to a purine or pyrimidine base with a glycosidic bond and a phosphate group at the 5' location of the ...
Brown, D. J. (2009). The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Fused Pyrimidines: Pteridines. John Wiley & Sons. p. 89. ISBN ...
1978). "Chapter 11: Pyrimidine insecticides". In Peacock, F.C. (ed.). Jealott's Hill: Fifty years of Agricultural Research 1928 ...
Proguanil (chloroguanide) is a biguanide; a synthetic derivative of pyrimidine. It was developed in 1945 by a British ... It acts by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase in the parasite thus preventing the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis[edit]. It is the one-carbon donor for thymidylate synthase, for methylation of 2-deoxy-uridine-5- ...
Pyrimidines[edit]. Uridine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds ribose 1-phosphate to the free base uracil ... A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the ... Thymidine phosphorylase or pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase adds 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate to thymine, forming ...
Warner, John Charles (1988). Synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines (5-deazapteridines). "The 2008 ICIS Top 40". "John Warner: ... pyrimidines (5-deazapteridines)", under the supervision of Edward C. Taylor. His group helped synthesize pemetrexed (brand name ...
March 1957). "Fluorinated pyrimidines, a new class of tumour-inhibitory compounds". Nature. 179 (4561): 663-6. Bibcode: ... Fluorouracil is in the antimetabolite and pyrimidine analog families of medications. How it works is not entirely clear but ... Interrupting the action of this enzyme blocks synthesis of the pyrimidine thymidylate (dTMP), which is a nucleotide required ...
Nucleotides are distinguished by their bases: purines, large bases that include adenine and guanine; and pyrimidines, small ...
Allen, F W (June 1941). "The Biochemistry of the Nucleic Acids, Purines, and Pyrimidines". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 10 (1 ...
... is an analog of pyrimidine. It is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the ... The formation of 2',2'-unsaturated pyrimidine nucleosides via a novel beta-elimination reaction". The Journal of Organic ...
Dimerization consists of the bonding of two monomers to form an oligomer, such as the formation of pyrimidine dimers as a ... Setlow, R. B. (1966). "Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers in polynucleotides". Science. 153 (734): 379-386. Bibcode:1966Sci... ...
PMID 16522072.Authors state that mode of biosynthesis is quite mysterious R. B. Setlow (1966). "Cyclobutane-Type Pyrimidine ... C double bonds of pyrimidines. Thymine dimers (T-T dimers) formed in between two thymines are the most abundant of the CPDs. ...
Pyrimidine is also found in meteorites, but scientists still do not know its origin. Pyrimidine also photolytically decomposes ... Free radical attack has been observed for pyrimidine and photochemical reactions have been observed for substituted pyrimidines ... some minor pyrimidine bases can also occur in nucleic acids. These minor pyrimidines are usually methylated versions of major ... such as pyrimidine, found in meteorites. Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich ...
Pyrimidine analogues are antimetabolites which mimic the structure of metabolic pyrimidines. Nucleobase analogues Fluorouracil ... Gemcitabine Nucleotide analogues Pyrimidine Fluorouracil Floxuridine Gemcitabine Pyrimidine antimetabolites are commonly used ... Parker, William B. (2009). "Enzymology of Purine and Pyrimidine Antimetabolites Used in the Treatment of Cancer". Chem Rev. 109 ...
pyrimidine-containing compound salvage (product),. pyrimidine-containing compound metabolic process (participant),. pyrimidine- ... Pyrimidine (de); pyrimidines (en); pirimidinoj (eo); pirymidyna (pl); pyrimidin (nn) any heterocyclic compound having a six- ... pyrimidine-containing compound catabolic process (reactant),. pyrimidine-containing compound transmembrane transport (cargo). ... pyrimidines any heterocyclic compound having a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen heteroatoms at 1 and 3 positions ...
Pyrimidines. *Uracil = 2,4-dioxy pyrimidine *Thymine = 2,4-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidine *Cytosine = 2-oxy-4-amino pyrimidine * ... Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Topics. Overview Nomenclature Hydrolysis of Polynucleotides Purine Catabolism Pyrimidine ... Pyrimidine Catabolism. In contrast to purines, pyrimidines undergo ring cleavage and the usual end products of catabolism are ... Salvaging Pyrimidines. A second type of salvage pathway involves two steps and is the major pathway for the pyrimidines, uracil ...
The simplest member of the family is pyrimidine itself, with molecular formula C4H4N2. Several pyrimidine compounds were ... Pyrimidine, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four ... purines and pyrimidines. The purines are adenine (A) and guanine (G) in both DNA and RNA; the pyrimidines are cytosine (C) and ... Pyrimidine, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four ...
Such pyrimidine dimerization is mutagenic, but this damage can be repaired by an enzyme called photolyase, which utilizes the ... Other articles where Pyrimidine dimer is discussed: human genetic disease: Ultraviolet radiation: ... If a pyrimidine dimer in a growth regulatory gene is not immediately repaired, it can contribute to tumour development (see the ... Such pyrimidine dimerization is mutagenic, but this damage can be repaired by an enzyme called photolyase, which utilizes the ...
Purine and pyrimidine receptors.. Burnstock G1.. Author information. 1. Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, Royal Free and ... P2 receptors are activated by purines and some subtypes also by pyrimidines. P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channel ...
"The pyrimidine box is another promoter element that is observed in cereal GA-responsive promoters examined thus far (Huang et ... A]leurone proteins that recognized the pyrimidine box sequence [are] from barley (BPBF; Mena et al., 2002) and rice (Oryza ... "OsDOF3, binding the pyrimidine box, affected the DNA binding of GAMYB to GARE".[2] ... Other mutations of the proximal pyrimidine box (M2) and one site for the Dof binding (M5) also reduced the GA-induced ...
Other names: 2,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,3-pyrimidine; 2,4,5,6-Tetrachloropyrimidine; Perchloropyrimidine; Pyrimidine, 2,4,5,6- ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Pyrimidine dimers in ultraviolet-irradiated DNAs.. Setlow RB, Carrier WL.. PMID:. 4289765. DOI:. 10.1016/s0022-2836(66)80105-5 ...
Definition of pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a pyrimidine-nucleoside 5-monophosphate to ... produce orthophosphate and the pyrimidine nucleoside; a deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of pyrimidine ...
Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781483200231, ... Synthesis of Purines and Pyrimidines. 1. Pyrimidines. 2. Purines. References. III. Nucleosides. 1. Structure. 2. Synthesis. 3. ... I. General Chemistry of Purines and Pyrimidines. 1. General Character of Purines and Pyrimidines. 2. Substitution by ... Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis proceeds via a salvage pathway and a de novo pathway. In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP ... Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis proceeds via a salvage pathway and a de novo pathway. In rat liver all enzymes involved in UMP ... Peters G.J., Veerkamp J.H. (1984) Pyrimidine Metabolism in Rat Brain Cortex and Liver. In: De Bruyn C.H.M.M., Simmonds H.A., ... Brain Cortex Salvage Pathway Orotic Acid Considerable Activity Pyrimidine Nucleotide These keywords were added by machine and ...
Make research projects and school reports about pyrimidine easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... pyrimidine A nitrogen base composed of a single, six-membered ring structure. The pyrimidine bases in the nucleotides of ... pyrimidine (pi-rim-i-deen) n. a nitrogen-containing compound with a ring molecular structure. The commonest pyrimidines are ... pyrimidine A basic, 6-membered heterocyclic compound. The principal pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and cytosine) are important ...
Read The Pyrimidines by Desmond J. Brown by Desmond J. Brown for free with a 30 day free trial. Read eBook on the web, iPad, ...
There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and... ... Pyrimidine is a group of molecules that are part of DNA and RNA ... Pyrimidine is group of molecules that are part of the DNA and RNA structure. Pyrimidine is group of molecules that are part of ... The pyrimidines bind with the purines to join the two strands of the DNA or RNA polymer. Adenine and guanine are the purines ... There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and thymine are part of the DNA structure, while cytosine and uracil ...
T 1223/03 (Bicyclic Pyrimidines / WARNER-LAMBERT) of 21.3.2007. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2007:T122303.20070321 ... The person skilled in the art would not have modified the pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidines in order to solve the problem mentioned ... The compounds claimed in document (D2) have bulky groups at the carbon atom at position 4 of the pyrimidine ring (see point 5.3 ... from those disclosed in document (D4) in that the present compounds have a pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine core where the compounds ...
Species: Transketolase-like, pyrimidine-binding domain (IPR005475). Key Species. Key species. Number of proteins. FASTA. ...
The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world ...
Purchase Pharmacology of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors, Volume 61 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123855268, ... Pharmacology of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors, Volume 61 1st Edition. Write a review ...
These volumes record the presentations made at the VIII International Symposium on Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Manheld ... Purine/Pyrimidine Enzymes as Drug Targets. * Antimetabolites Reduce the Activities of Enzymes with Short Half-Lives in Addition ... Regulation of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism. * Clinical. * Determination of Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPD) in ... Abnormal Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Inherited Superactivity of PRPP Synthetase Claude Bory, Christiane Chantin, ...
Pyrimidine Studies. I. Effect of DON (6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine) on Incorporation of Precursors into Nucleic Acid Pyrimidines ... DON had no appreciable effect on the incorporation of radiocarbon into the nucleic acid pyrimidines. When uniformly labeled ...
... pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids.. [Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht] ... Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids.. Author:. Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht. ... schema:name "Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids."@en ;. schema:productID "2141323" ;. ... Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids./Tilo Lajos Vittorio Ulbricht; Oxford, Pergamon Press; ...
Efficient synthesis of the pyrimidine TIBO analog 3, starting from 9-benzyl-6- chloropurine and testing of its ability to ... Synthesis of the pyrimidine analog of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)one (TIBO) potential for HIV-1 ... Ho, C. Y., & Kukla, M. J. (1991). Synthesis of the pyrimidine analog of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2 ... Efficient synthesis of the pyrimidine TIBO analog 3, starting from 9-benzyl-6- chloropurine and testing of its ability to ...
... 64300-55-6 pyrimidine-2-thione
Examples of pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Cytosine and thymine are used to make DNA and cytosine and uracil ... Pyrimidines. Known as: PYRIMIDINE, Pyrimidines [Chemical/Ingredient] One of two chemical compounds that cells use to make the ... Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions. *Matthew W. Powner, B. Gerland, J. ... The kinetics of repair of oxidative DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised pyrimidines) in human cells. ...
Pyrimidine-2-one derivatives, 2-[2-{1ʹ-(p-nitrophenyl)-6ʹ-(substituted-phenyl)-pyrimidine-2ʹ-one-4ʹ-yl}-hydrazinomethyl]-3-(p- ... Studies on Synthesis of Some New Chalcone and Pyrimidines and their Antibacterial Activity. Ketan Mistry and K. R. Desai ...
Influence of modifications in the pyrimidine ring of anilino- and (benzylamino)pyrimidines," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ... P. Mondal, S. Jana, and L. K. Kanthal, "Synthesis of novel mercapto-pyrimidine and amino-pyrimidine derivatives of indoline-2- ... E. S. Devi, E. O. Prakash, and J. T. Rao, "Pyrimidine derivatives part-1," Journal of the Institution of Chemists, vol. 74, no ... V. Desai, C. M. Desai, and D. Patel, "2-Amino-4-(4′-chlorophenyl)-6-substituted)-pyrimidines," Journal of the Institution of ...
  • In nucleic acids, three types of nucleobases are pyrimidine derivatives: cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U). The pyrimidine ring system has wide occurrence in nature as substituted and ring fused compounds and derivatives, including the nucleotides cytosine, thymine and uracil, thiamine (vitamin B1) and alloxan. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the important specialized pathways of a number of amino acids is the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (utah.edu)
  • a deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of pyrimidine nucleotides leading to hemolytic anemia. (drugs.com)
  • Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids is a five-chapter text that presents a simple introduction to the basic chemistry of purines and pyrimidines and their derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • pyrimidine An organic nitrogenous base (see formula), sparingly soluble in water, that gives rise to a group of biologically important derivatives, notably uracil , thymine , and cytosine , which occur in nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The commonest pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil, which form the nucleotides of nucleic acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The pyrimidine bases in the nucleotides of nucleic acids are cytosine and thymine in DNA and cytosine and uracil in RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2141323 Title: Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides and the chemistry of nucleic acids. (worldcat.org)
  • Purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. (worldcat.org)
  • This invention relates to methods for making radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides and, more specifically, to a fast method for labeling with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine, particularly by destannylation of a stannyl precursor. (google.com)
  • To Simon and Cyclefree who hold such credulous views about evolution, I wonder if they have considered the origin of pyrimidine nucleotides, especially cytosine - has it really come from outer space as the wildest contemporary theories suggest? (wordnik.com)
  • De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is essential for cell growth and proliferation. (els.net)
  • They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. (harvard.edu)
  • Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are essential precursors for nucleic acid synthesis, but their functions are not limited to this. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ribose containing adenosine receptors (ARs) and P2Y receptors for purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are involved in and regulate a myriad of physiological processes throughout the body, and have become important pharmaceutical targets for treating a diverse number of chronic and acute diseases. (rsc.org)
  • Pyrimidine and its derivatives are components of individual nucleotides and of nucleic acids, the most important biopolymers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synthesis de novo , acquisition by salvage and interconversion of purines and pyrimidines represent the fundamental requirements for their eventual assembly into nucleic acids as nucleotides and the deployment of their derivatives in other biochemical pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In principle, the above nucleotides and/or their nucleoside and nucleobase precursors can be obtained in several ways: synthesis de novo , direct acquisition by salvage or by subsequent interconversions to yield the appropriate repertoire of purines and pyrimidine derivatives found in the nucleic acids and other important molecular species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides play critical roles in DNA and RNA synthesis as well as in membrane lipid biosynthesis and protein glycosylation. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the question of how purine vs pyrimidine nucleotides regulate proliferation, cell cycle, and survival of primary T lymphocytes following activation has not yet been specifically addressed. (jimmunol.org)
  • We showed that synthesis of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides is required for T cell proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides differentially regulate the cell cycle since purines control both G 1 to S phase transition and progression through the S phase, whereas pyrimidines only control progression from early to intermediate S phase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis induces apoptosis whatever the time of inhibitor addition whereas inhibition of purine nucleotides induces apoptosis only when applied to already cycling T cells, suggesting that both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are required for survival of cells committed into S phase. (jimmunol.org)
  • The biosynthetic and salvage pathways provide pyrimidine nucleotides for RNA, DNA, cell membrane and cell wall biosynthesis. (unt.edu)
  • As with other positive activator proteins, when pyrimidine nucleotides are depleted, PyrR binds to DNA thereby enhancing expression of pyrD, pyrE and pyrF genes. (unt.edu)
  • When pyrimidine nucleotides are in excess, the PyrR apoprotein binds to orotate, its co-repressor, to shut down all the pyrimidine genes. (unt.edu)
  • There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases - purines and pyrimidines. (utah.edu)
  • The opening chapters describe the general properties, reactions, and synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. (elsevier.com)
  • While both purines and pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic compounds, they can be differed from each other based on the chemical structure. (biology-online.org)
  • In this review, we have provided a critical analysis of what is currently known on the pathophysiological role of purines and pyrimidines during brain development with the aim of unveiling new future strategies for pharmacological intervention in different neurodevelopmental disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Peters G.J., Veerkamp J.H. (1984) Pyrimidine Metabolism in Rat Brain Cortex and Liver. (springer.com)
  • Thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) is an important pyrimidine derivative, and other derivatives play major roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In recent years, a substantial body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that purine and pyrimidine synthesis and metabolism play major roles in controlling embryonic and fetal development and organogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the above-mentioned and other literature evidence, it is now increasingly clear that any defect altering the tight regulation of purinergic transmission and of purine and pyrimidine metabolism during pre- and post-natal brain development may translate into functional deficits, which could be at the basis of severe pathologies characterized by mental retardation or other disturbances. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overview of pyrimidine metabolism and related diseases. (wikipathways.org)
  • Pyrimidine metabolism is important for the synthesis of thymine, cytosine and uracil, some of the building blocks for DNA and RNA and they also have functions in signal transduction and energy transport. (wikipathways.org)
  • Disorders in the metabolism of pyrimidine are mostly caused by enzyme defects (highlighted in pink, one disease is depicted in orange, since there appears to be no clinical difference between type 2 and 1 of orotic aciduria, therefore researchers believe that type 2 does not exist officially). (wikipathways.org)
  • Pyrimidine metabolism is intensely studied because many of its enzymes are targets for chemotheraphy. (unt.edu)
  • Chapter III explores how catabolite repression affects pyrimidine metabolism. (unt.edu)
  • The global catabolite repression control protein, Crc, has been shown to affect pyrimidine metabolism in a number of ways. (unt.edu)
  • Deoxycytosine and (deoxy)thymidine are the pyrimidine nucleosides and deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine are the purine nucleosides. (wisegeek.com)
  • 2015). 'Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides', Croatica Chemica Acta , 88(1), str. (srce.hr)
  • Župančić N, Ban Ž, Matić J, Saftić D, Glavaš-Obrovac Lj, Žinić B. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides. (srce.hr)
  • Glavaš-Obrovac i B. Žinić, "Synthesis and Biological Activity of Reversed Pyrimidine Nucleosides", Croatica Chemica Acta , vol.88, br. (srce.hr)
  • N-1′-Pyrimidine reversed nucleosides were prepared by treating of the sodium salt of pyrimidine bases with protected 5-tosyl ribose. (srce.hr)
  • Additionally, N-1′,N-3′-disubstituted reversed nucleosides were isolated in the condensation reactions with the 5-halogen pyrimidines. (srce.hr)
  • Pyrimidine nucleosides do not penetrate the parasite membrane and must be synthesized de novo by it. (ajtmh.org)
  • Pyrimidine nucleosides have taken up an important role in the therapy of virus infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Significant progress in the study of anti-herpes nucleosides has been made by the advent of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides such as 5-iodo-, 5-ethyl-, 5-(2-chloroethyl)-, and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- derivatives of 2-deoxyuridine. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleosides the nature of substituents, particularly at the C-5 position, has been found to be an important determinant of anti-herpes activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Structural requirements at the C-2 carbon of the 5-substituent of pyrimidine nucleosides have been well established for anti-herpes activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, there is little qualitative or mechanistic knowledge of the derivatives with substitution at the C-1 carbon of the 5-substituent of pyrimidine nucleosides. (eurekaselect.com)
  • During the last few years of our research, we have investigated a variety of C-1 functionalized substituents at the 5-position of the pyrimidine nucleosides to determine their usefulness as antiviral (herpes) agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In the 5-(1-substituted) group of pyrimidine nucleosides, we demonstrated that novel substituents present at the C-1 carbon of the 5-side chain of the pyrimidine nucleosides are important determinants of potent and broad spectrum antiviral (herpes) activity including EBV and HCMV. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Nucleobase analogues Fluorouracil (5FU), which inhibits thymidylate synthase Floxuridine (FUDR) 6-azauracil (6-AU) Nucleoside analogues Cytarabine (Cytosine arabinoside) Gemcitabine Nucleotide analogues Pyrimidine Fluorouracil Floxuridine Gemcitabine Pyrimidine antimetabolites are commonly used to treat cancer by interfering with DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • the principal pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and cytosine) are important constituents of nucleic acids . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The three major pyrimidines of almost universal distribution in living systems are cytosine , thymine , and uracil . (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are several pyrimidine molecules, but only cytosine and thymine are part of the DNA structure, while cytosine and uracil are part of the RNA structure. (wisegeek.com)
  • Any of several organic compounds derived from or structurally related to pyrimidine, especially the nitrogen bases uracil, cytosine, and thymine. (wordnik.com)
  • Of the many difficulties encountered by those in the field, the most frustrating has been the failure to find any way of properly joining the pyrimidine nucleobases - cytosine and uracil - to ribose (Fig. 1a). (wordnik.com)
  • In this article, we have investigated the interactions of three pyrimidine nucleic acid bases, cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) with acridine (Acr), an N-heterocyclic DNA intercalator, through the changes in photophysics of Acr inside SDS micelles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • B JO - J Phys Chem B VL - 116 IS - 34 N2 - In this article, we have investigated the interactions of three pyrimidine nucleic acid bases, cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) with acridine (Acr), an N-heterocyclic DNA intercalator, through the changes in photophysics of Acr inside SDS micelles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Pyrimidines include cytosine , thymine , and uracil whereas purines include adenine and guanine . (biology-online.org)
  • Cytosine , thymine , and uracil are pyrimidine nucleobases. (biology-online.org)
  • Cytosine can be distinguished from the other pyrimidines by having a keto group at position 2 and an amine group at position 4 in its heterocyclic aromatic ring. (biology-online.org)
  • Although pyrimidine derivatives such as uric acid and alloxan were known in the early 19th century, a laboratory synthesis of a pyrimidine was not carried out until 1879, when Grimaux reported the preparation of barbituric acid from urea and malonic acid in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic study of pyrimidines began in 1884 with Pinner, who synthesized derivatives by condensing ethyl acetoacetate with amidines. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is often the case with parent heterocyclic ring systems, the synthesis of pyrimidine is not that common and is usually performed by removing functional groups from derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of novel [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives has been designed and synthesized in order to find novel anti-tumor compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • The barbiturates are pyrimidine derivatives which possess potent depressant action on the central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this article the work on design, synthesis and structure activity relationships of several 5-[(1-substituted) alkyl (or vinyl)] pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives as potential inhibitors of herpes viruses is reviewed. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thienyl pyrimidine derivatives with PrP(Sc) oligomer-inducing activity are a promising tool to study prions. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (proton and phosphorus-31) and ultraviolet absorption spectra of the DNA decamer d(br5CGbr5CGATbr5CGbr5CG), in which the central two adenine-thymine base pairs are out of order with the rest of the purine-pyrimidine alternation sequence, indicate that under appropriate solvent conditions (high salt and methanol) the molecule undergoes a structural transition from a right-handed B-DNA conformation to a left-handed Z-DNA conformation. (sciencemag.org)
  • thymine thymine , organic base of the pyrimidine family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thymine was the first pyrimidine to be purified from a natural source, having been isolated from calf thymus and beef spleen in 1893-4. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Griffin and Dervan, "Recognition of Thymine-Adenine Base Pairs by Guanine in a Pyrimidine Triple Helix Motif" Science (1989) 245:967-971. (patentgenius.com)
  • Pyrimidine also photolytically decomposes into uracil under ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flurouracil is a drug that is similar in structure to the pyrimidine uracil. (wisegeek.com)
  • and uracil uracil , organic base of the pyrimidine family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Such pyrimidine dimerization is mutagenic, but this damage can be repaired by an enzyme called photolyase, which utilizes the energy of longer wavelengths of light to cleave the dimers. (britannica.com)
  • Pyrimidine dimers in ultraviolet-irradiated DNA's. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrimidine Dimers" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pyrimidine Dimers" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Pyrimidine Dimers" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Pyrimidine Dimers" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Thorne RE, Chinnapen DJ, Sekhon GS, Sen D. A deoxyribozyme, Sero1C, uses light and serotonin to repair diverse pyrimidine dimers in DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Repair rates of both pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers have been measured in the UV-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: rad1 to rad12 and rad14 to rad24. (nih.gov)
  • Human cells tolerate UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), carried out by DNA polymerase η, the POLH gene product. (pnas.org)
  • The most well characterized TLS polymerase is polη, which is specialized to bypass cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in a relatively error-free manner. (pnas.org)
  • The major UVB-induced lesions are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts, which are formed between adjacent pyrimidines on the same strand ( Britt, 1996 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleobases, 1,3-diazine, organic nitrogenous bases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis proceeds via a salvage pathway and a de novo pathway. (springer.com)
  • A complete nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, which is the pyrimidine or purine, a sugar molecule and a phosphate group. (wisegeek.com)
  • A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. (google.com)
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing. (google.com)
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
  • ii) a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide and (iii) an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (google.com)
  • 5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide comprises a trimethyl stannyl analogue or a tributylstannyl analogue of a pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein a radioactive iodide ion is used to label the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (google.com)
  • 12. A kit suitable for forming a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide, the kit comprising a premeasured amount of a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide in a first sterile, non-pyrogenic container and an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v) in a second sterile, non-pyrogenic container. (google.com)
  • 15. The kit of claim 12, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (google.com)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of diverse pyrimidine and purine nucleotide 5'-monophosphates, to form ribose 5-phosphate and the corresponding free base. (rcsb.org)
  • Various symmetries connected with purine-pyrimidine content of DNA sequences are studied in terms of the intruduced determinative degree, a new characteristics of nucleotide which is connected with codon usage. (arxiv.org)
  • P2 receptors are activated by purines and some subtypes also by pyrimidines. (nih.gov)
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  • As a class, pyrimidines are typically synthesized by the principal synthesis involving cyclization of β-dicarbonyl compounds with N-C-N compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrimidine , any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. (britannica.com)
  • Several pyrimidine compounds were isolated between 1837 and 1864, but their structures were not recognized until 1868. (britannica.com)
  • A number of compounds of interest as possible purine or pyrimidine antagonists have been assayed for anti-leukemic action against transplanted lymphoid leukemia (Ak 4) in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pyrimidine does not enter readily into electrophilic substitution reactions, for example, halogenation, sulfonation, and nitration, but the hydrogen atom on the carbon in position number four is easily replaced in reactions with organomagnesium compounds, organolithium compounds, NaNH 2 , and KOH. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By using virtual and cellular screenings, we found several thienyl pyrimidine compounds that trigger PrP(Sc) oligomerization and trap prion infectivity. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 4-Methyl-2-(methylthio)-pyrimidine (CAS 14001-63-9) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on 4-methyl-2-(methylthio)-pyrimidine market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
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  • Activation of T lymphocytes with the mitogenic lectin PHA is also associated with a de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine which leads to a 2-fold purine and up to an 8-fold pyrimidine pool expansion, respectively, over 72 h ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The recent finding of a gene fusion encoding three pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes, shared only by Dictyostelium, fungi andMetazoa, indicates that the amoebozoa are a true sister group of the fungi and Metazoa. (wordnik.com)
  • We found a pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme (aspartate transcarbamylase) associated with the parasite. (ajtmh.org)
  • If a pyrimidine dimer in a growth regulatory gene is not immediately repaired, it can contribute to tumour development ( see the section The molecular basis of cancer: DNA repair defects). (britannica.com)
  • We have determined an action spectrum for the frequency of pyrimidine dimer formation induced in the DNA of human skin per unit dose of UV incident on the skin surface. (pnas.org)
  • The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is a major type of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • When uniformly labeled cytidylic acid-C 14 was used as a precursor in vitro with tumor slices, DON had no appreciable effect on the incorporation of radiocarbon into the nucleic acid pyrimidines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ureidosuccinic acid as a precursor of nucleic acid pyrimidines in normal and tumor-bearing mice. (springer.com)
  • In resting cells, pyrimidines are largely obtained through salvage pathways, but in proliferating cells, particularly in tumours, the synthesis of pyrimidines de novo is indispensable to fuel the high demand of nucleic acids and other cellular components. (els.net)
  • The expansion of purine and pyrimidine pools is the consequence of a marked increase in expression or activity of key enzymes involved in the de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pyrimidine analogues are antimetabolites which mimic the structure of metabolic pyrimidines. (wikipedia.org)
  • We concluded that agents that will block the purine-uptake and incorporation mechanisms, and pyrimidine antimetabolites, may be important in the chemotherapy of malaria. (ajtmh.org)
  • To improve the fit, researchers led by chemical biologist Nathanael Gray, PhD, prepared a group of inhibitors with a different structural scaffold, known as a pyrimidine core, which, it was thought, would mesh more thoroughly. (wordnik.com)
  • We report here the identification of inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis, which reveals a novel requirement for pyrimidines in NS1-mediated block of mRNA nuclear export. (rupress.org)
  • This was investigated in the present study by using well-known purine (mycophenolic acid, 6-mercaptopurine) and pyrimidine (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) inhibitors, which are used in neoplastic diseases or as immunosuppressive agents. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inborn errors of pyrimidine degradation, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and dihydropyrimidinase deficiency, are less rare than has generally been assumed. (nih.gov)
  • a) Overview of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (els.net)
  • This response to arginine and lysine suggested the possibility that one or both of these amino acids are involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (caltech.edu)
  • The pathway can be split up in 3 parts, one is the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, starting with glutamine and ending at UMP. (wikipathways.org)
  • These findings reveal a hitherto unknown role of purine and pyrimidine de novo synthesis in regulating cell cycle progression and maintaining survival of activated T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • From these results Funk believed the vitamine to belong to a class of substances known as the pyrimidine bases. (wordnik.com)
  • The rate of electron transfer (kET) is maximum for T, followed by U and C. The associated ESPT from AcrH(+)* is the reason behind the reduced efficiency of PET with C. The lack of proton transfer with T and U as well as the higher kET for T compared to U are explained by keto-enol tautomerization and subtle changes in the structure and geometry of the pyrimidine bases. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In vitro degradation of pyrimidine bases: studies of rat liver dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A series of bis-pyrimidine Schiff bases were synthesized and screened for its antimicrobial and anticancer potentials. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structures of synthesized bis-pyrimidine Schiff bases were confirmed by spectral studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular docking studies provided information regarding the binding mode of active bis-pyrimidine Schiff bases with the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) receptor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular docking studies indicated that compound q1 (the most active molecule) has the maximum hydrogen bond interaction (four) and π-π stacking (three) network among the bis-pyrimidine Schiff bases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Graphical illustration of predicted binding mode of bis-pyrimidine Schiff bases in the active site of CDK8. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The enzymes that follow later in the pathway are induced in a sequential way by the intermediary products and are insensitive to pyrimidine repression. (asm.org)
  • Withdrawal of pyrimidine analogues such as 5-fluorouracil (5FU), a commonly used anticancer drug, from the cancer chemotherapy regimens of patients with pyrimidine degradation deficiencies, however, is critical because 5FU is degraded in vivo by pyrimidine-degradative enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrimidines are essential precursors for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, protein glycosylation and lipid synthesis. (els.net)
  • Calculations with real sequences show that purine-pyrimidine symmetry increases with growing of organization. (arxiv.org)
  • A new small parameter which characterizes the purine-pyrimidine symmetry breaking is proposed for the DNA theory. (arxiv.org)
  • Pasteurella multocida thymidine kinase 1 efficiently activates pyrimidine nucleoside analogs. (lu.se)
  • Incorporation of 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside analogs into DNA of a thymidylate synthetase-deficient murine FM3A carcinoma cell line" Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2 revive the prospects of the 'RNA first' model by exploring a pathway for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis in which the sugar and nucleobase emerge from a common precursor (Fig. 1b). (wordnik.com)
  • Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyrimidine (pīrĬm´Ĭdēn´) , type of organic base found in certain coenzymes and in the nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with a chemical formula of C 4 H 4 N 2 . (biology-online.org)
  • pyrimidine (pi- rim -i-deen) n. a nitrogen-containing compound with a ring molecular structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A heterocyclic aromatic compound that presents as a pyrimidine ring, and serves as a component of nucleic acids (e.g. (biology-online.org)
  • Biochemical steps of the pyrimidine pathway have been found to be the same in yeast as in bacteria, and all except one step have been characterized. (asm.org)
  • Chapter IV describes PyrR, the positive activator of the pyrimidine pathway. (unt.edu)
  • Pyrimidine is synthesized by reduction of its 2,4,6-trichloro derivative, which is a product of the reaction of POCI 3 with barbituric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, although Powner and colleagues 'synthetic sequence yields the pyrimidine ribonucleotides, it cannot explain how purine ribonucleotides (which incorporate guanine and adenine) might have formed. (wordnik.com)
  • 2-carboxy-Pyrimidine is a synthetic intermediate. (fishersci.ca)
  • Poly(pyrimidine)-poly(purine) synthetic DNAs containing 5-methylcytosine form stable triplexes at neutral pH" Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • This quinoline carboxylic acid directly inhibited dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a host enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, and partially reduced pyrimidine levels. (rupress.org)
  • H.N. HAFEZ, A.B.A. EL-GAZZAR i M.E.A. ZAKI, "Simple approach to thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines as new scaffolds of antimicrobial activities", Acta Pharmaceutica , vol.66, br. (srce.hr)
  • Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate. (curehunter.com)
  • Other pyrimidines of general natural occurrence are orotic acid and thiamine (vitamin B 1 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Orotic acid as a precursor of pyrimidines in the rat. (springer.com)
  • 2-(Methylamino)pyrimidine-5-boronic acid pinacol ester is used as pharmaceutical intermediate. (alfa.com)
  • The regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis was studied in Pseudomonas putida. (unt.edu)
  • Four aspects of pyrimidine regulation are described in this dissertation. (unt.edu)
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  • Carbon 1 of the sugar is attached to nitrogen 9 of a purine base or to nitrogen 1 of a pyrimidine base. (utah.edu)
  • The ring structure of each of these pyrimidine molecules contain two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms. (wisegeek.com)
  • A purine has two carbon rings whereas a pyrimidine has one carbon ring. (biology-online.org)
  • It has a single ring (called a pyrimidine ring ) with alternating carbon and nitrogen atoms. (biology-online.org)
  • This includes orotate transport for use as pyrimidine, carbon and nitrogen sources. (unt.edu)