Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.

Synthesis and characterization of stacked and quenched uridine nucleotide fluorophores. (1/218)

Intramolecular aromatic interactions in aqueous solution often lead to stacked conformation for model organic molecules. This designing principle was used to develop stacked and folded uridine nucleotide analogs that showed highly quenched fluoroscence in aqueous solution by attaching the fluorophore 1-aminonaphthalene-5-sulfonate (AmNS) to the terminal phosphate via a phosphoramidate bond. Severalfold enhancement of fluorescence could be observed by destacking the molecules in organic solvents, such as isopropanol and dimethylsulfoxide or by enzymatic cleavage of the pyrophosphate bond. Stacking and destacking were confirmed by 1-H NMR spectroscopy. The extent of quenching of the uridine derivatives correlated very well with the extent of stacking. Taking 5-H as the monitor, temperature-variable NMR studies demonstrated the presence of a rapid interconversionary equilibrium between the stacked and open forms for uridine-5'-diphosphoro-beta-1-(5-sulfonic acid) naphthylamidate (UDPAmNS) in aqueous solution. DeltaH was calculated to be -2.3 Kcal/mol, with 43-50% of the population in stacked conformation. Fluorescence lifetime for UDPAmNS in water was determined to be 2.5 ns as against 11 ns in dimethyl sulfoxide or 15 ns for the pyrophosphate adduct of AmNS in water. Such a greatly reduced lifetime for UDPAmNS in water suggests collisional interaction between the pyrimidine and thefluorophore moieties to be responsible for quenching. The potential usefulness of such stacked and quenched nucleotide fluorophores as probes for protein-ligand interaction studies has been briefly discussed.  (+info)

Histidine 179 mutants of GTP cyclohydrolase I catalyze the formation of 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribofuranosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone triphosphate. (2/218)

GTP cyclohydrolase I catalyzes the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin triphosphate. The replacement of histidine 179 by other amino acids affords mutant enzymes that do not catalyze the formation of dihydroneopterin triphosphate. However, some of these mutant proteins catalyze the conversion of GTP to 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribofuranosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-triphosphate as shown by multinuclear NMR analysis. The equilibrium constant for the reversible conversion of GTP to the ring-opened derivative is approximately 0.1. The wild-type enzyme converts the formylamino pyrimidine derivative to dihydroneopterin triphosphate; the rate is similar to that observed with GTP as substrate. The data support the conclusion that the formylamino pyrimidine derivative is an intermediate in the overall reaction catalyzed by GTP cyclohydrolase I.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of an RNA polymerase binding site from the DNA of bacteriophage fd. (3/218)

The primary structure of a strong RNA polymerase binding site in the replicative form DNA of phage fd has been determined by direct DNA sequencing. It is: (see article). The molecule contains regions with 2-fold symmetry and sequence homologies to promoter regions from other DNAs. The startpoint of transcription is located in the center of the binding site.  (+info)

A search for base analogs to enhance third-strand binding to 'inverted' target base pairs of triplexes in the pyrimidine/parallel motif. (4/218)

Eight base analogs were tested as third strand residues in otherwise homopyrimidine strands opposite each of the 'direct' (A.T and G.C) and 'inverted' (T.A and C.G) Watson-Crick base pairs, using UV melting profiles to assess triplex stability. The target duplexes contained 20 A.T base pairs and a central test base pair X.Y, while the third strand contained 20 T residues and a central Z test base. Z included 5-bromo-uracil, 5-propynyluracil, 5-propynylcytosine, 5-methyl-cytosine, 5-bromocytosine, hypoxanthine, 2-amino-purine and 2,6-diaminopurine. Some of the base analogs enhanced third strand binding to the target duplex with one or other 'inverted' central base pair relative to the binding afforded by any of the canonical bases. Other analogs did the same for the duplexes with the 'direct' target pairs. The increasing order of triplex stabilization by these base analogs is: opposite the 'inverted' base pairs, for T.A, A < C < 5-pC < 5-pU < T < 5-BrC < 5-meC < 5-BrU < 2-AP < 2,6-DAP < Hy < G, for C.G, 2-AP < A < Hy < G < 5-pC < 5-BrC < 5-meC < C < 2,6-DAP < T < 5-BrU < 5-pU; opposite the 'direct' base pairs, for A.T, 2-AP < A < 5-meC < C < G < Hy < 2,6-DAP < 5-pU < T = 5-BrU < 5-BrC < 5-pC, for G.C, G < 2,6-DAP < 2-AP < A < Hy < T < 5-BrU < 5-pU < 5-pC < 5-BrC < C < 5-meC.  (+info)

Growth factor-regulated expression of enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis: a novel mechanism of growth factor action. (5/218)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for epithelial cells, including the keratinocytes of the skin. We investigated the mechanisms of action of KGF by searching for genes which are regulated by this growth factor in cultured human keratinocytes. Using the differential display RT-PCR technology we identified the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase [EC] as a novel KGF-regulated gene. Adenylosuccinate lyase plays an important role in purine de novo synthesis. To gain further insight into the potential role of nucleotide biosynthesis in the mitogenic effect of KGF, we cloned cDNA fragments of the key regulatory enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism (adenylosuccinate synthetase [EC], phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase [EC], amidophosphoribosyl transferase [EC], hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase [EC] and the multifunctional protein CAD which includes the enzymatic activities of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II [EC], aspartate transcarbamylase [EC] and dihydroorotase [EC]). Expression of all of these enzymes was upregulated after treatment with KGF and also with epidermal growth factor (EGF), indicating that these mitogens stimulate nucleotide production by induction of these enzymes. To determine a possible in vivo correlation between the expression of KGF, EGF and the enzymes mentioned above, we analysed the expression of the enzymes during cutaneous wound repair, where high levels of these mitogens are present. Indeed, we found a strong mRNA expression of all of these enzymes in the EGF- and KGF-responsive keratinocytes of the hyperproliferative epithelium at the wound edge, indicating that their expression might also be regulated by growth factors during wound healing.  (+info)

In vitro recycling of alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate for the salvage of purine bases. (6/218)

In this paper, we extend our previous observation on the mobilization of the ribose moiety from a purine nucleoside to a pyrimidine base, with subsequent pyrimidine nucleotides formation (Cappiello et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425 (1998) 273-281). The data show that, at least in vitro, also the reverse process is possible. In rat brain extracts, the activated ribose, stemming from uridine as ribose 1-phosphate, can be used to salvage adenine and hypoxanthine to their respective nucleotides. Since the salvage of purine bases is a 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate-dependent process, catalyzed by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, our results imply that Rib-1P must be transformed into 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate, via the successive action of phosphopentomutase and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate synthetase; and,in fact, no adenosine could be found as an intermediate when rat brain extracts were incubated with adenine, Rib-1P and ATP, showing that adenine salvage does not imply adenine ribosylation, followed by adenosine phosphorylation. Taken together with our previous results on the Rib-1P-dependent salvage of pyrimidine nucleotides, our results give a clear picture of the in vitro Rib-1P recycling, for both purine and pyrimidine salvage.  (+info)

Aliphatic analogues of nucleotides: synthesis and affinity towards nucleases. (7/218)

DL-1-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)thymine was prepared by Hilbert-Johnson reaction of 2,4-dinethoxy-5-methylpyrimidine with allyl bromide followed by the osmium tetroxide catalyzed hydroxylation of the l-allyl-4-methoxy-5-methylpyrimidin-2-one obtained as an intermediate. The D-glycero enantiomer, R-1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)thymine and the corresponding 1-substituted uracil derivative were prepared from 3-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-1, 2-O-isopropylidene-D-glycerine and sodium salt of 4-methoxy-5-methylpyrimidin-2-one or 4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one followed by treatment with hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The phosphorylation of the above 2,3-dihydroxypropyl derivatives with phosphoryl chloride in triethyl phosphate afforded the corresponding 3-phosphates which were transformed into the 2',3'-cyclic phosphates by the condensation with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The latter compounds of the D-glycero configuration are split by some microbial RNases to the 3-phosphates.  (+info)

Cleavage of the glycosidic linkage of pyrimidine ribonucleosides by the bisulfite-oxygen system. (8/218)

When a solution containing 2 mM uridine, 20 mM sodium bisulfite, 0.1 mM MnCl(2), and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 was incubated aerobically at 37 degrees or 0 degrees , partial cleavage of the glycosidic linkage of uridine took place. About 20% of the uridine was converted to uracil by the incubation for 4 hrs. Cytosine was produced from cytidine by similar treatment with bisulfite. These reactions were caused by free radicals generated by Mn(2+)-catalyzed autoxidation of bisulfite. Glycosidic bond cleavage by the bisulfite-oxygen system was not detected for adenosine, AMP, guanosine, GMP, thymidine, TMP, deoxyuridine, dCMP, dAMP, and dGMP. When poly(U) and poly(C) were treated with 20 mM sodium bisulfite in the same manner, chain fission of the polymer occurred as judged by the elution-pattern change in gel filtration through Sephadex columns. No change in the elution pattern was observed for bisulfite-treated poly(A), poly(U). poly(A) or tRNA.  (+info)

In this system, both the salvage precursors [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 14 C]cytidine were incorporated actively into skin DNA and only [ 14 C]cytidine into skin RNA. Uridine monophosphate, or UMP, is used as the example of the pyrimidine nucleotide. APRT is inhibited by AMP. Split-thickness rabbit skins were minced and incubated in vitro with radioactive precursors selected to measure de nova and salvage pathways for pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. (2) Salvage process i.e. Salvage pathway (recycle pathway): used to recover bases and nucleosides formed during the degradation of RNA and DNA A salvage pathway is a pathway in which a biological product is produced from intermediates in the degradative pathway of its own or a similar substance. NUCLEOTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS Bio-synthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines e-mail: [email protected] [email protected] Each category has at least one description. The purine ring is synthesized along with the ...
Abnormal metabolism has been a known feature of cancer for close to a decade, with mitochondrial dysfunction, aerobic glycolysis, and abnormal biosynthetic metabolism present in many cancers. Dysfunctional mitochondria alone have been shown to significantly influence cancer phenotype. Mitochondrial reprogramming has been demonstrated as an essential cancer cell survival response to diverse challenges. Our work has examined the significance of pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 1 (PNC1), an Insulin like Growth Factor 1 (IGF- 1)-inducible mitochondrial Uridine-5-triphosphate (UTP) transporter in cancer. Loss of PNC1 is lethal, while suppression of PNC1 in cancer cells has been demonstrated to induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) driven by mitochondrial dysfunction and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). While PNC1 is ubiquitously expressed, PNC1 is frequently expressed at lower levels in solid tumours than in normal tissue. PNC1 can be suppressed by hypoxia, potentially through antagonism of ...
This chapter discusses the de novo pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Animals do not have a dietary requirement for pyrimidines, and many microorgan
Pyrimidine biosynthesis begins with the assembly of the ring, then linked To ribose phosphate. Tag Archives: Pyrimidine Biosynthesis PPT. Pyrimidines are synthesized from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate. Nucleotide & nucleoside construction , purine nucleotide de novo synthesis process , pyrimidine … Sources of the Various Atoms of the Purine Base 2. Mechanism and regulation of metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Regulation of Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines.pptx Content uploaded by Najat Abdulrazzaq Hasan Pathways for the biosynthesis of nucleotides. NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM IN PLANTS. Contributors; Figure 7.10.1: De Novo Synthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides ATCase is regulated by three compounds. Cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA. Precursors are Glutamine (NH2), Bicarbonate (C) , and ATP (PO 4). Q. Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are produced from ribose-5-phosphate or carbamyl phosphate, respectively. Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, ...
Methods in Enzymology, Volume 51: Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Metabolism. The seriously acclaimed laboratory normal, tools in Enzymology, is likely one of the so much hugely revered guides within the box of biochemistry. when you consider that 1955, each one quantity has been eagerly awaited, usually consulted, and praised via researchers and reviewers alike. The sequence comprises a lot fabric nonetheless appropriate this present day - actually a necessary e-book for researchers in all fields of lifestyles sciences. ...
Address all correspondence and reprint requests to: Keishirou Fujita, MD, Research Institute of Vaccine Therapy for Tumors and Infectious Diseases, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5. Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.. ABSTRACT: Polysaccharides extracted from human tubercle bacilli (supecific substance of Maruyama [SSM]) have been clinically applied with satisfactory results. Thymidylate synthetase (TS) and thymidine kinase (TK) are key enzymes in de novo and salvage pathways for pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. Well- and moderately well differentiated adenocarcinomas induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) are widely distributed throughout the colorectal tract with high TK activity, and the poorly differentiated type is mainly restricted in the proximal colon and the cecum with high TS activity in rats. Subcutaneously injecting the rats with SSM reduced TS activity in colonic nontumorous regions, but in the tumorous regions it reduced TK activity compared with that of the DMH-treated rats ...
Nucleotide Metabolism is an important issue in medical studies and therefore you can learn in this biochemistry article everything about purine & pyrimidines. Nucleotide & nucleoside construction ✓, purine nucleotide de novo synthesis process ✓, pyrimidine nucleotide & bases degradation ✓. Read here!
In pyrimidine synthesis, firstly the pyrimidine ring is formed and then ribose phosphate group is attached. This ribose phosphate group is donated by PRPP (phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate). The major pyrimidine nucleotide involve: TMP, CMP and UMP. Precursors for the De-novo synthesis of […]. ... Nucleotide biosynthesis is the process whereby nucleotides are created or synthesized. This process
Aqueous-phase Heck coupling methodology was developed for direct attachment of butyl acrylate to 5-iodoracil, 5-iodocytosine, 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine, and 7-iodo-7-deazaguanine 2-deoxyribonncleoside 5-O-monophosphates (dNMPs). and 5-O-triphosphates (dNTPs) and compared with the classical approach of phosphorylation of the corresponding modified nucleosides. The 7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleotides (dA(BA)MP, dA(BA)TP, dG(BA)MP, and dG(BA)TP) were prepared by the direct Heck coupling of nucleotides in good yields (35-55%), whereas the pyrimidine nucleotides reacted. poorly and the corresponding BA-Modified dNTPs were prepared by triphosphorylation of the Modified nucleosides. The. acrylate-modified dN(BA)TPs (N = A, C, and U) were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for enzymatic synthesis of acrylate-modified DNA by primer extension, whereas dG(BA)TP was an inhibitor of polymerases. The butyl acrylate group was found to be a useful redox label giving a strong reduction peak at ...
Indeed, by far the most pronounced deviations are for C and U at place 3, indicating the presence of both of those pyrimidine nucleotides at Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries this place is notably deleterious, and that their exclusion is amongst the essential hallmarks of a functional translation initiation internet site. Examining the region downstream of nucleotide position five reveals that relative info values are elevated at positions six, 9, 15, and 18. As discussed previously, a 3 base periodicity is characteristic of open reading through frames. Relative data is elevated at every single of these positions, for the reason that A is depressed, and C and G are elevated. The periodic elevation of relative facts and also the corresponding weights indicate that these positions positively contribute on the translation start relative indi vidual info scores.. Indeed, if TRII scores are calculated making use of positions 20 to forty, the distribution of scores is shifted to the right, as well as ...
While for certain diseases, the use of medications by healthy people has been proven to function as prophylaxis, i.e. malaria, it is still unknown whether PrEP can help prevent HIV infection from exposure during sex or injection-drug use.. To address whether PrEP is safe and effective for use in humans, the traditional sequence of drug development steps should be followed as closely as possible.. TMC278 (rilpivirine) is a new investigational non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) discovered and in development by Tibotec, a division of Johnson & Johnson. Data from clinical development (Phase IIB) suggest that TMC278 has a similar efficacy and better side-effect profile as compared to other, older, NNRTIs, such as efavirenz. Like TMC125 (etravirine), TMC278 is a diarylpyrimidine (DAPY - a class of molecule that resembles the pyrimidine nucleotides found in DNA, and which have shown potency in inhibiting the activity of HIV reverse transcriptase).. Tibotec is currently investigating ...
22. Cheng, C. C. and Roth, B., In Progress in Medicinal Chemistry mineral forms are used in metabolic therapy, especially (eds Ellis, G. P. and West, G. B.), Butterworths, London, 1982, for cardiovascular patients to prevent heart failure in car- diomyopathy. Oroate is needed as a key intermediate in 23. Montgomery, J. A., Johnston, T. P. and Shealy, Y. F., In Burgers Medicinal Chemistry, Part II (ed. Wolf, M. E.), Wiley- biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, which are building blocks for DNA and RNA required for the final protein 24. Kompis, I. and Wick, A., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1977, 60, 3025 ...
Floyd S, Favre C, Lasorsa FM, Leahy M, Trigiante G, Stroebel P, Marx A, Loughran G, OCallaghan K, Marobbio CMT, Slotboom DJ, Kunji ERS, Palmieri F & OConnor R (2007) The insulin-like growth factor-I-mTOR signaling pathway induces the mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier to promote cell growth. Mol Biol Cell 18, 3545-55 ...
We have found that the anaerobic protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is incapable of de novo pyrimidine metabolism, as shown by its inability to incorporate orotate, bicarbonate, and aspartate into the pyrimidine nucleotide pool. Results from high performance liquid chromatography of pyrimidine and pyrimidine nucleoside pulse-labeled nucleotide pools and enzyme assays suggest that the parasite satisfies its pyrimidine nucleotide needs predominantly through salvage of uracil by a cytoplasmic uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Exogenous uridine and cytidine are primarily converted to uracil by the action of uridine hydrolase and cytidine deaminase before incorporation into nucleotide pools. Direct salvage of cytosine occurs to a relatively limited extent via cytosine phosphoribosyltransferase. G. lamblia relies on salvage of exogenous thymidine for ribosylthymine monophosphate (TMP) synthesis, accomplished primarily through the action of a 100,000 g-pelletable thymidine phosphotransferase. ...
In pyrimidine 5-nucleotidase deficiency, erythrocytes contain elevated levels of pyrimidine nucleotides. The composition of this nucleotide pool was examined by ion exchange chromatography on Dowex formate
The pyrimidine synthesis is a similar process than that of Purines(Purines Synthesis). In the de novo synthesis of Pyrimidines, the ring is synthesized first and then it is attached to a ribose-phosphate to for a pyrimidine nucleotide. Pyrimidine rings are assembled from bicarbonate, aspartate and Ammonia. The pyrimidine biosynthesis (de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway) was […] ...
D. THE BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS OF PYRIMIDINE AND PURINE SYNTHESIS AS TARGETS OF COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY WITH NEW ANTICANCER AGENTS. Investigation of the possibilities of blocking simultaneously several biochemical pathways leading to the synthesis of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. Combinations of recently developed compounds, which show remarkable activity against enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides will be used for this purpose. A series of established and primary human cancer cell lines will be used in the in vitro chemosensitivity assays for these combinations. The results are expected to identify new targeting methodologies against cancer, which may then be directly applicable in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer patients.. ...
Author SummaryBacterial growth in the bloodstream is a common manifestation of a number of bacterial infections. When growing in blood, bacteria not only have to evade the hosts immune response, but also adjust their metabolism to suit availability of nutrients. Although the concentrations of various metabolites in human blood are known, it is difficult to predict which nutrients are abundant and which are scarce. To proliferate in human blood, bacteria need to synthesize metabolites that are present in the limiting concentrations. For that, they need to produce specific enzymes that are, thus, critical for the bacterial growth in the bloodstream. We carried out a comprehensive, genome-wide search for Escherichia coli genes that are essential for growth in human serum. We found that inactivation of nucleotide biosynthesis genes leads to a significant growth defect in human serum not only for E. coli but also for two other pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium and Bacillus anthracis. The results of this
Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3 side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single-stranded and double-stranded RNA (By similarity).
Imidazo(pyrimidine)annelated pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine. the synthesis and prediction of the biological activity / I.V.Dyachenko, R.I.Vaskevich, A.I.Vaskevich, M.V.Vovk
Large collection of high quality biology pictures, photos, images, illustrations, diagrams and posters on marine biology, cell biology, microbiology... for educational purposes.. ...
Capot Chemical CAS# 13479-88-4, 5,7-Dichlorothiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine. 13479-88-4 MSDS,ROS,13479-88-4 MOA,COA,SPECS,pecifications,1H-NMR,GHS,CAT #30438
2-chloro-4-(3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine; CAS Number: 954227-28-2; find Enamine-ENA497682060 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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Continuing with the line of delivering a chemical probe for DRAK2/STK17B kinase, we decided to revise the procedure to synthesize analogs with a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine core, which are intended to be used as negative control in our DRAK2 inhibition study. We shortened the synthesis of these pyrimidines to 2 steps from the starting material 6-bromo-4-chlorothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine 1 Read More …. ...
Cytosine is one of the pyrimidine bases present in the composition of nucleic acids. Structure of cytosine Cytosine is a nitrogen base belonging to the pyrimidine family, which has the chemical...
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Tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one S,S-dioxide,CAS#:17396-35-9/4-Chloropyrimidine hydrochloride, CAS#:17180-93-7/Ethyl 3,3-diethoxypropionate,CAS#:10601-80-6
Despite a diet that may be rich in nucleoproteins, dietary purines and pyrimidines are not incorporated directly into tissue nucleic acids. Humans synthesize the nucleic acids and their derivatives ATP, NAD+, coenzyme A, etc, from amphibolic intermediates. However, injected purine or pyrimidine analogs, including potential anticancer drugs, may nevertheless be incorporated into DNA. The biosyntheses of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) and dNTPs are precisely regulated events. Coordinated feedback mechanisms ensure their production in appropriate quantities and at times that match varying physiologic demand (eg, cell division). Human diseases that involve abnormalities in purine metabolism include gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, adenosine deaminase deficiency, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Diseases of pyrimidine biosynthesis are rarer, but include orotic acidurias. Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, the end products of ...
Objective-To evaluate lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Korea, to evaluate in more detail the erythrocyte pyrimidine 5 -nucleotidase P5N test for lead exposure, and to evaluate the abnormal accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides in the battery workers. Methods Activity of PSN and other biological variables were...
Class of nucleotides with one ring. Pyrimidines . programmes-cadres - acersocome - jonsonien - ultraroyaliste - ferroferrite - â ¦ Les bases pyrimidiques sont au nombre de 3 : la cytosine, lâ uracile et la thymine. The dimerization reaction can also occur among pyrimidine bases â ¦ Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions. traduction pyrimidine base dans le dictionnaire Anglais - Francais de Reverso, voir aussi primitive,pyramid,pyramid selling,prim, â ¦ At neutral pH, pyrimidines â ¦ Biologie. Learn all about basicity of pyrimidine. Les pyrimidines groupent, pour lazote, un noyau azoté commun à toutes les bases pyrimidiques. Recherche dinformation médicale. Meaning of pyrimidine with illustrations and photos. Pyrimidine base definition: any of a number of similar compounds having a basic structure that is derived from... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Nucléotide Pyrimidique: ...
These two volumes record the scientific and clinical work presented at the VIIth International and 3rd European joint symposium on purine and pyrimidine metabolism in man held at the Bournemouth Inter
Uracil is found in RNA. The two most common base pairs are A-T and C-G. C H-bonds with G and A H-bonds with T. A purine always bonds with a pyrimidine. In DNA base pairing, A pairs with T and C with G. Matching base pairs ( purines and pyrimidines ) form hydrogen bonds. Forces which stabilize the DNA include: DNA has a double-helix structure because hydrogen bonds hold together the base pairs in the middle. It comprises Cytosine, thymine, uracil as nucleobases In the A-T pair, the purine (adenine) has two binding sites, and so does the pyrimidine … For RNA, the adenine bonds with uracil and guanine need to bond with cytosine. The molecular structure of both pyrimidines and purines allow them to only be able to bond with each other and not within the group. These nucleotides are complementary -their shape allows them to bond together with hydrogen bonds. Purines pair with pyrimidines because their size and shape make them a perfect fit for hydrogen bonding > Purines and pyrimidines are base ...
High Molecular Weight Polymers containing a mixture of purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides chained together by Ribose or deoxyRibose linkages ...
Every DNA strand has a backbone, made up of a sugar-phosphate chain. A nitrogenous base, composed of carbon and nitrogen rings, is attached to each one of these sugars. The number of rings of the attached base determines whether the base is a purine (two rings) or a pyrimidine (one ring).. To hold the two strands together, a hydrogen bond is formed by the purines on one strand of DNA with the corresponding pyrimidine available on the opposite DNA strand, and vice versa. This is called base pairing.. This is the most important function of purines and pyrimidines, within the DNA molecules. This hydrogen bonding is not as strong as a covalent bond, therefore, this base-pairing easily separate to allow transcription and replication.. One strand of DNA is always an exact complement of the other as far as purines and pyrimidines go. The reason for this is, purines always bind with pyrimidines, and this is called complementary pairing. Within a DNA molecule the ratio of these two will always be ...
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Pyrimidine and its derivatives are important objects for chemical synthesis and development of new drugs based on them. There is a practical application of a number of substances with a pyrimidine heterocycle in medical practice. We performed a predicted screening of biological activity, cytotoxicity and toxicity in rats of some synthesized pyrimidine thiosulfonates using appropriate on-line programs. ...
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Evolution of purines and pyrimidines. Arrows show directions of possible hydrogen bonds. (A-D) Structures of the malamide side chain extended with β-alaninam
A subsequent synthesis of pyrimidines shows the synthetic potential of these β-enaminones. E. Gayon, M. Szymczyk, H. Gérard, E. Vrancken, J.-M. Campagne, J. Org. Chem., , 77, A method for the synthesis of 2-substituted pyrimidinecarboxylic esters is described. The sodium salt of 3,3-dimethoxymethoxycarbonylpropenol has.
2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-methyl-4-benzylaminopyrrolo[2,3d]pyrimidine (C14H14N4) from the PQR.
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A nucleotide comprised of either a purine or pyrimidine nitrogenous base bound to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with three phosphate groups. These molecules are essential for DNA synthesis.
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
10 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc. Special Information ...
50 µCi quantities of [Glucose-14C(U)]-Uridine Diphosphate Glucose are available for your research. Application of [14C]Uridine can be found in: pyrimidine salvage and catabolism in mangrove species in plant science research, long-term effect of NaCl on the activity of uridine and uracil salvage for nucleotide synthesis in plant science research, glutathione-induced growth of embryogenic tissue of white spruce correlating with changes in pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in plant science research, etc.. Special Information ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis occurs both in the body and through organic synthesis. The first three enzymes are all coded by the same gene in Metazoa (CAD). In Fungi, a similar protein exists but lacks the dihydroorotase function: another protein catalyzes the second step. In other organisms (Bacteria, Archaea and the other Eukaryota), the first three steps are done by three different enzymes. Pyrimidines are ultimately catabolized (degraded) to CO2, H2O, and urea. Cytosine can be broken down to uracil, which can be further broken down to N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and then to beta-alanine, CO2, and ammonia by beta-ureidopropionase. Thymine is broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid cycle. β-aminoisobutyrate acts as a rough indicator for rate of DNA turnover. Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism pharmacologically has therapeutical uses. Pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors are used in active moderate to severe ...
Mechanism of Action. Leflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug inhibiting mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (an enzyme involved in de novo pyrimidine synthesis) (abbreviation DHODH), which plays a key role in the de novo synthesis of the pyrimidine ribonucleotide uridine monophosphate (rUMP). The inhibition of human DHODH by A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, occurs at levels (approximately 600 nM) that are achieved during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leflunomide prevents the expansion of activated and autoimmune lymphocytes by interfering with their cell cycle progression while nonlymphoid cells are able to use another pathway to make their ribonucleotides by use of salvage pyrimidine pathway, which makes them less dependent on de novo synthesis. Genuine antiproliferative activity has been proven. In addition, several experimental models (both in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. This double action is supposed to slow ...
DOI: 10.1021/jp9630941. The DNA of all the living beings is composed of just four bases i.e. Know more about these DNA bases in this post. The pyrimidine bases found in DNA or RNA are: cytosine, thymine, and uracil adenine and guanine adenine and thymine cytosine and thymine An important functional feature of the structure of organic bases is that their geometry is: Tetrahedral. This study focused on the correlation between relative reactivity, formation of DBPs and combined toxicity in the chlorination of a binary pyrimidine â ¦ Fig. Although the quantum yields for the â ¦ 2014 Jun;90(6):423-32. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2013.877176. Polyhedral. Thymine is only common in DNA. the large enzyme complex involved in synthesizing RNA from a DNA template is which of the following? The purine and pyrimidine bases branch off this backbone. A pyrimidine is an organic ring consisting of six atoms: 4 carbon atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms. Yes, both DNA and RNA contain both pyrimidine bases and purine bases ...
Expression of the pyrC gene, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotase, is negatively regulated by pyrimidine availability in Escherichia coli. To define the mechanism of this regulation, an essential regulatory region between the pyrC promoter and the initial codons of the pyrC structural gene was identified. Mutational analysis of this regulatory region showed that the formation of a hairpin at the 5 end of the pyrC transcript, which overlaps the pyrC ribosome binding site, is required for repression of pyrC expression. Formation of the hairpin appears to be controlled by nucleotide-sensitive selection of the site of pyrC transcriptional initiation. When the CTP level is high, the major pyrC transcript is initiated with this nucleotide at a position seven bases downstream of the pyrC -10 region. This transcript is capable of forming a stable hairpin at its 5 end. When the CTP level is low and the GTP level is high, conditions found in cells limited for pyrimidines, the ...
OMIM® : 57 Deficiency of pyrimidine 5-prime nucleotidase, also called uridine 5-prime monophosphate hydrolase, causes an autosomal recessive hemolytic anemia characterized by marked basophilic stippling and the accumulation of high concentrations of pyrimidine nucleotides within the erythrocyte. The enzyme is implicated in the anemia of lead poisoning and is possibly associated with learning difficulties. Hirono et al. (1988) suggested that this deficiency is the third most common RBC enzymopathy--after G6PD (300908) and pyruvate kinase (see 266200) deficiencies--causing hemolysis (summary by Marinaki et al., 2001). (266120) (Updated 05-Mar-2021) ...
Furthermore, measuring direct changes in the amount of UCP by analysing the amount of the Mr 32 000 protein has had to rely on scans of Polyacrylamide gels (Ricquier and Kader, 1976; Heaton et al., 1978) and cannot produce accurate estimates of the concentration of a particular protein. The purine nucleoside molecule is converted to a monophosphate by viral thymidine kinases. The remainder of the adenine nucleotide, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide, is an intermediate in purine biosynthesis (Fig. Purine metabolism can be divided into three pathways (see Figure 95-1 ): When this occurs, PRPP amidotransferase will be completely inhibited and no purine … [8][9] He synthesized it for the first time in 1898. The reaction rates with the, Signal Transduction by Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins, Proceedings of the 1987 Laurentian Hormone Conference, submicromolar) and specificity (pyrimidine nucleotides and most other, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Biochimica et ...
Pharmaceutical compounds which are azolo-fused pyrimidine compounds having the formula ##STR1## in which .dbd.A--B-- together with the pyrimidine ring forms a) a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (A), ##STR2## b) a [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (B), ##STR3## c) an imidazo[1,5-a]pyrimidine of formula (C), ##STR4## or d) an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine of formula (D), ##STR5##
we sell pharmaceutical intermediates of uridine triphosphate trisodium (CAS 63-39-8). white crystalline powder. Uridine triphosphate trisodium was - Uridine triphosphate trisodium Details.
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Pyrimidine (de); pyrimidines (en); pirimidinoj (eo); pirymidyna (pl); pyrimidin (nn) any heterocyclic compound having a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen heteroatoms at 1 and 3 positions (en); każdy związek heterocykliczny zawierający sześcioczłonowy, aromatyczny pierścień z dwoma heteroatomami azotu w pozycjach 1 i 3 (pl) pyrimidine (en); pyrimidina (nn); pirymidyny (pl ...
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Synthesis of activated nucleotides has been accomplished under prebiotically plausible conditions, but bears little resemblance to the chemistry of life as we know it. Here we argue that life is an indispensable guide to its own origins.
Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage
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Lieberman, I. & Kornberg, A. (1954). „Enzymatic synthesis and breakdown of a pyrimidine, orotic acid. II. Dihydroorotic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, and 5-carboxymethylhydantoin. J. Biol. Chem. 207: 911-924. PMID 13163076 ...
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No data available that match "pyrimidine nucleotides"

  • Purines, Pyrimidines and Nucleotides and the Chemistry of Nucleic Acids is a five-chapter text that presents a simple introduction to the basic chemistry of purines and pyrimidines and their derivatives. (
  • The opening chapters describe the general properties, reactions, and synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. (
  • Even when humans consume a diet rich in nucleoproteins, dietary purines and pyrimidines are not incorporated directly into tissue nucleic acids. (
  • Catabolism ofpurines and pyrimidines occurs in a less useful fashion than did the catabolismof amino acids in that we do not derive any significant amount of energy fromthe catabolism of purines and pyrimidines. (
  • There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases - purines and pyrimidines. (
  • purines and pyrimidines nucleotides - What Is Gout? (
  • Compare and contrast the roles of dietary nucleic acids and of de novo biosynthesis in the production of purines and pyrimidines destined for polynucleotide biosynthesis. (
  • Purines and pyrimidines may be manufactured from smaller molecules, or they can be recycled from the breakdown of DNA and RNA in a series of reactions called the salvage pathway. (
  • Manufacturing purines and pyrimidines uses much more energy and takes more time than recycling them, which makes recycling these molecules more efficient. (
  • The salvage pathway ensures that cells have a plentiful supply of purines and pyrimidines. (
  • PRPP synthetase 1 and PRPP are involved in the manufacture of new purines and pyrimidines, and are also essential for the purine salvage pathway. (
  • Nucleotides can be separated into purines and pyrimidines . (
  • This regulation helps to keep the purine/pyrimidine amounts similar, which is beneficial because equal amounts of purines and pyrimidines are required for DNA synthesis. (
  • In a study, published in Nature Communications and funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the Simons Foundation and the Origins of Life Challenge, researchers from UCL, Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital suggest a single chemical mechanism by which both classes of nucleotides - purines and pyrimidines - could have formed together. (
  • This study is the first to show that both purines and pyrimidines can be formed from a common precursor molecule that existed before life began. (
  • A method of making a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is described. (
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing. (
  • In the method, a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is contacted in an aqueous solution with a radioactive iodide, bromide, chlorine or astatine ion in the presence of an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (
  • ii) a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide and (iii) an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v), whereby a water soluble pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide labeled with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine is formed. (
  • 5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide comprises a trimethyl stannyl analogue or a tributylstannyl analogue of a pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (
  • 6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside comprises the tributylstannyl analogue. (
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein a radioactive iodide ion is used to label the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide. (
  • 12. A kit suitable for forming a radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide, the kit comprising a premeasured amount of a stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide in a first sterile, non-pyrogenic container and an acidic hydrogen peroxide oxidizing solution comprising at least a 3:1 ratio of 30% hydrogen peroxide to 1N acid (v/v) in a second sterile, non-pyrogenic container. (
  • 15. The kit of claim 12, wherein the stannylated pyrimidine nucleoside or nucleotide is immobilized on a solid surface. (
  • Uridine-5'-triphosphate Trisodium Salt, a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate, is used as substrate for the synthesis of RNA during transcription. (
  • We conclude that TK is essential for synthesis of thymine nucleotides regardless of whether the nucleoside precursors originate from the de novo pathway or through salvage. (
  • Is required for optimal growth in glucose minimal medium, possibly because it contributes to nucleoside pool homeostasis by degrading excess nucleotides and feeding back the ribose moiety to catabolism. (
  • A nucleoside is composed of deoxyribose and a nitrogen basis , i.e. contrary to a nucleotide, it doesn't have a phosphate group anymore. (
  • This means that a nucleoside can come from a nucleotide through the removal of a phosphate group. (
  • 2019 ) to avoid a futile cycle of pyrimidine nucleotide dephosphorylation and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage. (
  • Step 1: Nucleotide to nucleoside CMP, UMP, and deoxyIMP are converted into Cytidine, Uridine deoxythymidine. (
  • Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group. (
  • The major function of the pyrimidine nucleoside kinases is to maintain a cellular balance between the level of pyrimidine nucleosides and pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates. (
  • Adding one or more phosphates to the sugar portion of a nucleoside results in a nucleotide . (
  • In at least some tissues, the nucleosides undergo phosphorolysis with nucleoside phosphorylases to yield the base and ribose 1-P (or deoxyribose 1-P). Since R 1-P and R 5-P are in equilibrium, the sugar phosphate can either be reincorporated into nucleotides or metabolized via the Hexose Monophosphate Pathway. (
  • As opposed to a nucleotide, a nucleoside lacks a phosphate group and can be derived from a nucleotide through the removal of the phosphate group. (
  • Each nucleotide can be hydrolysed by the enzyme nucleotidase into a nucleoside and a phosphoric acid. (
  • Each nucleoside can be hydorlysed by the enzyme nucleosidase into a nitrogenous base (pyrimidine or purine) and a pentose sugarpentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose). (
  • A nucleoside is composed of a purine or a pyrimidine base to which a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) is attached. (
  • 2. Flavour modulating substance according to claim 1, wherein the moiety --NRH represents the residue of a purine radical, a pyrimidine radical, a nucleoside or a nucleotide. (
  • The cells were washed, the leukocytes removed by centrifugation (in pyrimidine nucleoside experiments), and the erythrocytes precipitated with 10% trichloracetic acid (TCA). (
  • This family of compounds has grown to include a variety of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives with activity in both solid tumours and malignant disorders of the blood. (
  • Metabolic pathways of purine (red) and pyrimidine (green) nucleotide degradation, via the nucleoside and base to the respective metabolic end products (blue), indicating the enzymes (pink) deficient in genetic disorders affecting these pathways. (
  • These topics are followed by a discussion on the reactions and biosynthesis of nucleotides. (
  • Pyrimidine Salvage Enzymes Are Essential for De Novo Biosynthesis of Deoxypyrimidine Nucleotides in Trypanosoma brucei. (
  • The human pathogenic parasite Trypanosoma brucei possess both de novo and salvage routes for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides play critical roles in DNA and RNA synthesis as well as in membrane lipid biosynthesis and protein glycosylation. (
  • INHIBITION OF PURINE BIOSYNTHESIS nucleotide synthesis 18, was maintained in the minimal medium supplemented with 0.15 mm hypo- xanthine. (
  • Two inherited disorders affecting pyrimidine biosynthesis are theresult of deficiencies in the bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the last two stepsof UMP synthesis, orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and OMP decarboxylase. (
  • State the relevance of coordinated control of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. (
  • Diseases of pyrimidine biosynthesis are rarer, but include orotic acidurias. (
  • This disorder of pyrimidine catabolism, also known as combined uraciluria-thyminuria, is also a disorder of β-amino acid biosynthesis, since the formation of β-alanine and of β-aminoisobutyrate is impaired. (
  • De novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis is activated in proliferating cancer cells in response to an increased demand for synthesis of DNA, RNA, and phospholipids by activation of oncogenic pathways such as Myc, PI3K, PTEN, and mTOR ( 1-5 ). (
  • This quinoline carboxylic acid directly inhibited dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a host enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, and partially reduced pyrimidine levels. (
  • We report here the identification of inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis, which reveals a novel requirement for pyrimidines in NS1-mediated block of mRNA nuclear export. (
  • Biosynthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides from inosinic acid in a soluble enzyme system. (
  • These include biosynthesis, catabolism, salvage pathways, and regulation as well as clinical significance of both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • Connections: When analyzing the mechanism for purine nucleotide biosynthesis, there are many common metabolic features present, which we've discussed throughout the quarter. (
  • Mitochondria serve critical functions in cellular metabolism, pyrimidine biosynthesis, 9 and apoptosis. (
  • a) Overview of the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. (
  • This enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism. (
  • in Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism (Ciba Found.Symp. (
  • This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. (
  • Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Metabolism Volume 51 Purine and Purimidine Nucleotide Metabolism Methods in Enzymology V 51, Nathan P. Kaplan, Nathan P. Colowick, Patricia A. Hoffee, Mary Ellen Jones. (
  • Rodwell V.W. Rodwell, Victor W. Metabolism of Purine & Pyrimidine Nucleotides. (
  • We found that 11 polar metabolites and 93 lipid metabolites were significantly changed and were involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and lipid metabolism. (
  • 16317114 ) Due to the chemical makeup of UDP-GlcNAc, it is well positioned to serve as a glucose sensor in that it is a high-energy compound that requires and/or responds to glucose, amino acid, fatty acid and nucleotide metabolism for synthesis. (
  • Main Focus: This resource provides a very comprehensive overview of multiple aspects of nucleotide metabolism. (
  • Pyrimidines are required for RNA and DNA synthesis, as well as cell wall synthesis and the metabolism of certain carbohydrates. (
  • Recent findings, however, indicate that the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and its intermediates maybe more important for bacterial metabolism than originally thought. (
  • The incorporation of [2- 14 C]orotic acid into uridine components of the free nucleotide pool remains unchanged, whereas incorporation into cytidine components is decreased. (
  • Our work has examined the significance of pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 1 (PNC1), an Insulin like Growth Factor 1 (IGF- 1)-inducible mitochondrial Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) transporter in cancer. (
  • To guide precision cancer treatment, we performed extensive biological characterization of the activity of PTC299 and demonstrated that inhibition of VEGF production and cell proliferation by PTC299 is linked to a decrease in uridine nucleotides by targeting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. (
  • Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (uridine 5'-diphosphate-GlcNAc, or UDP-Glc-NAc) is an acetylated aminosugar nucleotide. (
  • Pyrimidine nucleotides include cytidine , uridine , and thymidine . (
  • The synthesis of any pyrimidine nucleotide begins with the formation of uridine. (
  • Routes of pyrimidine (green) and purine (red) nucleotide degradation showing the structural formula and numbering of the atoms in the respective ring structures of UMP (uridine 5′‐monophosphate) and IMP (inosine 5′‐monophosphate), central intermediates in nucleotide degradation. (
  • Because uridine phosphorylase (URP) is not present in the intestinal mucosa in humans, dietary pyrimidines escaping bacterial degradation are absorbed in the form of uridine and thymidine. (
  • In enzymology, a pyrimidine-5'-nucleotide nucleosidase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine 5'-nucleotide and H2O, whereas its two products are D-ribose 5-phosphate and pyrimidine base. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyrimidine-5'-nucleotide phosphoribo(deoxyribo)hydrolase. (
  • Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides by enzyme systems of Streptomyces. (
  • The enzyme systems associated with the synthesis and degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides in rat liver after the repeated administration of phenobarbital were studied. (
  • One genetic disorder of pyrimidine catabolism, β-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is due to total or partial deficiency of the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. (
  • No other nucleotide was found to affect the enzyme, nor could UMP inhibition be overcome by adding another nucleotide. (
  • We found a pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme (aspartate transcarbamylase) associated with the parasite. (
  • Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (or AIR carboxylase) is an enzyme involved in nucleotide synthesis. (
  • a deficiency of this enzyme results in accumulation of pyrimidine nucleotides leading to hemolytic anemia. (
  • Thymidine kinase (TK) is a crucial enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. (
  • This invention relates to methods for making radiolabeled pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides and, more specifically, to a fast method for labeling with radioactive iodine, bromine, chlorine or astatine, particularly by destannylation of a stannyl precursor. (
  • The metabolic requirements for the nucleotides and their cognate bases can be met by both dietary intake or synthesis de novo from low molecular weight precursors. (
  • In contrast to purine catabolism, however, the pyrimidine bases are most commonly subjected to reduction rather than to oxidation. (
  • The purine andpyrimidine bases of the nucleotide units are not present in the backbonestructure but constitute distinctive side chains, just as the R groups of aminoacid residues are the distinctive side chains of polypeptides. (
  • The purine and pyrimidine bases released are either degraded orsalvaged for reincorporation into nucleotides. (
  • Neither the bases nor the nucleotides are required dietary components. (
  • Pyrimidine bases are formed of heterocyclic rings containing nitrogen , so they are called nitrogenous bases. (
  • These are nitrogenous bases made of 2 fused rings, a pyrimidine and an imidazole ring. (
  • The sugar is present in the β-D configuration and is attached by its carbon No. 1 to N 1 of pyrimidine or N 9 of purine bases through N-glycosidic linkage. (
  • 1. Complexes Involving Pyrimidine Bases and Their Derivatives 2. (
  • Complexes Involving Nucleosides of the Pyrimidine Bases 3. (
  • Complexes Involving Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides of the Pyrimidine Bases 4. (
  • Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleotides (bases attached to ribose 5-phosphate). (
  • The purine nucleotides IMP and GMP are degraded via the corresponding nucleosides to the constituent bases hypoxanthine and guanine, respectively, and recycled at this level. (
  • In addition, dsDNA (double stranded DNA) in the active site has a wider major groove and shallower minor groove that permits the formation of hydrogen bonds with the third nitrogen of purine bases and the second oxygen of pyrimidine bases. (
  • Each primer was designed to include a thymidine (T) nucleotide on the 5′ end to minimize addition of nontemplated adenosine (A) during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (data not shown). (
  • We found that there was a rapid and specific incorporation of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, adenine, and guanosine (all nucleotide precursors) into the nucleic acid of the parasites. (
  • Ureidosuccinic acid as a precursor of nucleic acid pyrimidines in normal and tumor-bearing mice. (
  • The team demonstrated how purines and pyrimidine nucleotides can both be assembled on the same sugar scaffold to form molecules called ribonucleotides which are used to construct RNA. (
  • The team discovered that molecules, called 8-oxo-adenosine and 8-oxo-inosine, which are purine ribonucleotides, can be formed under the same chemical conditions as the natural pyrimidine ribonucleotides. (
  • They also found that one chemical precursor can divergently yield both purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides. (
  • Nuki G., Astrin K., Brenton D., Cruikshank M., Lever J., Seegmiller J.E. (1977) Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Concentrations in Cells with Decreased Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) Activity. (
  • Thus, adenine and guanine constitute the purine category, while cytosine and thymine form the pyrimidine class. (
  • That two purine nucleotide synthase ribozymes share patterns in common with these naturally selected protein and RNA systems suggests that a single optimal strategy to specifically recognize guanine by hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions exists in nature. (
  • Adenine and guanine are the two nucleotides classified as purines. (
  • Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribose-phosphate through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as formate ions transferred from the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate [1] . (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include pyrimidine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity . (
  • CO 2 is released from the pyrimidine nu-cleus representing a major pathway for the catabolism of uracil, cytosine, and thym-ine. (
  • Pyrimidine Catabolism In contrast to purines, pyrimidines undergo ring cleavage and the usual end products of catabolism are beta-amino acids plus ammonia and carbon dioxide. (
  • The end products of pyrimidine catabolism are CO 2 and H 2 O. Pyrimidines are ultimately catabolized (degraded) to CO 2, H 2 O, and urea. (
  • Catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides in the liver of irradiated animals]. (
  • You are here: Home » Biochemistry » Catabolism and Salvage of Pyrimidine Nucleotides. (
  • The catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides, like that of purine nucleotides (Chapter 10), involves dephosphorylation, deamination, and glycosidic bond cleavage. (
  • Since the end products of pyrimidine catabolism are highly water soluble, pyrimidine overproduction results in few clinical signs or symptoms. (
  • Indicate why there are few clinically significant disorders of pyrimidine catabolism. (
  • Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, the end products of pyrimidine catabolism (carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine, and γ-aminoisobutyrate) are highly water soluble. (
  • Further catabolism of nonrecycled degradation products in the liver leads to the formation of β‐alanine and β‐aminoisobutyric acid for pyrimidines, which enter the CAC, and the metabolic end product uric acid for purines (blue). (
  • They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. (
  • Cytidine 5'-Monophosphate Disodium Salt, Hydrate, also known as 5'-cytidylic acid, is a nucleotide used as a monomer in RNA. (
  • Metabolic end products of purine and pyrimidine degradation in humans. (
  • The degradation of purine nucleotides does not result in any energy gain, whereas the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleotides results in only marginal energy generation. (
  • Synthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • These findings reveal a hitherto unknown role of purine and pyrimidine de novo synthesis in regulating cell cycle progression and maintaining survival of activated T lymphocytes. (
  • Activation of T lymphocytes with the mitogenic lectin PHA is also associated with a de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine which leads to a 2-fold purine and up to an 8-fold pyrimidine pool expansion, respectively, over 72 h ( 3 ). (
  • Both the salvage and de novo synthesis pathways of purine and pyrimidine. (
  • De novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is essential for cell growth and proliferation. (
  • The expansion of purine and pyrimidine pools is the consequence of a marked increase in expression or activity of key enzymes involved in the de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis pathways. (
  • One of the important specialized pathways of a number of amino acids is the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • It is not the committed step to purine synthesis because PRPP is also used in pyrimidine synthesis and salvage pathways. (
  • Nucleotide degradation is an integrated process in all human cells that is intimately linked with the pathways of nucleotide synthesis and salvage. (
  • In resting cells, pyrimidines are largely obtained through salvage pathways, but in proliferating cells, particularly in tumours, the synthesis of pyrimidines de novo is indispensable to fuel the high demand of nucleic acids and other cellular components. (
  • This was investigated in the present study by using well-known purine (mycophenolic acid, 6-mercaptopurine) and pyrimidine (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) inhibitors, which are used in neoplastic diseases or as immunosuppressive agents. (
  • In previous studies we showed that 2',3'-(O)-(N-methylanthraniloyl) (MANT)-substituted nucleotides are potent AC inhibitors. (
  • These properties of ACs are indicative for ligand-specific conformational landscapes that extend to the VC1:VC1 homodimer and should facilitate development of non-nucleotide inhibitors. (
  • Inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine synthesis mycophenolate, azathioprine, and leflunomide. (
  • These unexpected results suggested that T. brucei encodes an unidentified 5'-nucleotidase that converts deoxypyrimidine nucleotides to their corresponding nucleosides, leading to their dead-end buildup in TK depleted cells at the expense of dTTP pools. (
  • Distribution of erythrocyte nucleotides in pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency. (
  • The manufacture of pyrimidines is also affected, but not the pyrimidine salvage pathway. (
  • PTC299 has broad and potent activity against hematologic cancer cells in preclinical models, reflecting a reduced pyrimidine nucleotide salvage pathway in leukemia cells. (
  • The salvage pathway recycles nucleotides by converting deoxynucleosides into the corresponding nucleotides by the action of nucleotide kinases. (
  • T . brucei pyrimidine pathway. (
  • Biosynthetic pathway of pyrimidine nucleotides 25. (
  • 1. 1 The reductive pathway for the degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides in Arabidopsis. (
  • Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), located on the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step, the ubiquinone-mediated oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway ( 6 ). (
  • 1994, reported that a P. putida M, pyrimidine auxotroph in the third step of the pathway, dihydroorotase (DHOase), failed to produce the siderophore pyoverdin. (
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidine nucleotide sugars. (
  • Hypoxanthine andxanthine are not incorporated into the nucleic acids as they are beingsynthesized but are important intermediates in the synthesis and degradation ofthe purine nucleotides. (
  • Hypoxanthine and xanthine are not incorporated into the nucleic acids as they are being synthesized but are important intermediates in the synthesis and degradation of the purine nucleotides. (
  • The fumarate produced in step eight can be used to replenish citric acid cycle intermediates, meaning that purine nucleotide synthesis acts as an anaplerotic reaction. (
  • This research demonstrates a potential role for pyrimidine intermediates in the virulence response of P. aeruginosa and may lead to novel targets for chemotherapy against P. aeruginosa infections. (
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of diverse pyrimidine and purine nucleotide 5'-monophosphates, to form ribose 5-phosphate and the corresponding free base. (
  • Thorne RE, Chinnapen DJ, Sekhon GS, Sen D. A deoxyribozyme, Sero1C, uses light and serotonin to repair diverse pyrimidine dimers in DNA. (
  • Whether or not a nucleotide synthase ribozyme had measurable nucleobase binding affinity, all families of nucleotide synthetase ribozymes were extremely sensitive to nucleobase modification and showed surprising parallels to the substrate preferences of highly evolved protein nucleotide synthase enzymes. (
  • The clinical conditions associated with defects of enzymes catalysing nucleotide degradation provide a valuable insight into the importance of this network. (
  • Enzymes defective in inborn errors of nucleotide degradation. (
  • Nucleotides are synthesized from readily available precursors in the cell. (
  • Pyrimidines are essential precursors for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, protein glycosylation and lipid synthesis. (
  • Nucleotides, comprising a deoxyribose (sugar), a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base, constitute the d eoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) backbone. (
  • These are pyrimidine nucleotides bound to a saccharide derivative through the terminal phosphate group. (
  • A lack of folic acids leads to a strongly reduced purine nucleotide synthesis. (
  • A lack of folic acid leads to the reduced synthesis of purine nucleotides. (
  • Glutamine and aspartate belong to the amino acids involved in the purine nucleotide synthesis, where they serve as donors of N atoms and thus become glutamate or fumarate. (
  • In particular, the invention relates to those 1H-1,2,3triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines which are substituted by an alkoxymethyl radical in position 1 and have an amino group in position 5 and are substituted by hydrogen, halogen, hydroxyl, alkoxy, amino, mercapto or alkylthio in position 7. (
  • 23,289 (1986)) and the preparation of individual compounds with an acyclic radical in position 3 of 5-amino-7-hydroxy-3H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine is also described (see L. M. Beauchamp et al. (
  • The command ~nucleotides removes special representations of nucleotide residues to reveal atoms and bonds (equivalent to nuc side atoms ). (
  • Furthermore, inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis induces apoptosis whatever the time of inhibitor addition whereas inhibition of purine nucleotides induces apoptosis only when applied to already cycling T cells, suggesting that both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are required for survival of cells committed into S phase. (
  • Thus, pyrimidines play a necessary role in the inhibition of mRNA nuclear export by virulence factors. (
  • In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component. (
  • We examine here the biosyntheticpathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation, theformation of the deoxynucleotides, and the degradation of purines andpyrimidines to uric acid and urea. (
  • Additionally, parts of the nucleotides or nucleobases can be salvaged to recreate new nucleotides. (
  • Among UV-lesions, the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP) is removed from the genome much faster than the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), owing to the more efficient recognition of 6-4PP by XPC-RAD23B, a key initiator of global-genome nucleotide excision repair (NER). (
  • Dominguez-Brauer C, Chen YJ, Brauer PM, Pimkina J, Raychaudhuri P. ARF stimulates XPC to trigger nucleotide excision repair by regulating the repressor complex of E2F4. (
  • ATP is the most abundant intracellular free nucleotide and is the source of high-energy phosphate for most energy-requiring reactions in the cell . (
  • My current focus is on receptors for purines, encompassing both adenosine receptors and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP, UTP and other extracellular nucleotides. (
  • This first structure of Rad4/XPC bound to a physiological substrate with matched DNA sequence shows that Rad4 flips out both 6-4PP-containing nucleotide pairs, forming an 'open' conformation. (
  • In E. coli, the direction for orisome assembly are built into a short stretch of nucleotide sequence called as origin of replication (oriC) which contains multiple binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA (a highly homologous protein amongst bacterial kingdom). (
  • The prime mark after the numeral is required to differentiate position on the sugar moiety from the numbered position on a purine or pyrimidine base, which would not be followed by the prime mark. (
  • A nucleotide of deoxyadenosine with phosphate moiety attached to the carbon 5 position of the sugar would be designed deoxyadenosine-5-phosphate. (
  • A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. (
  • These are pyrimidine ribobucleotides with triphosphate group linked to the ribose moiety. (
  • The biosyntheses of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) and dNTPs are precisely regulated events. (
  • However, since the overall cellular and plasma concentrations of the pyrimidine nucleosides, as well as those of ribose-1-phosphate, are low, the salvage of pyrimidines by these kinases is relatively inefficient. (
  • If the phosphate is attached to carbon 3 of the ribose, the nucleotide would then be designed adenosine-3-phosphate. (
  • PRPP is involved in making purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • PRPP is involved in producing purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. (
  • However, all nucleotide synthesis requires the use of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) which donates the ribose and phosphate necessary to create a nucleotide. (
  • The nucleotide inhibitor is non-competitive with respect to this substrate. (
  • ATP , a purine nucleotide, is an activator of pyrimidine synthesis, while CTP, a pyrimidine nucleotide, is an inhibitor of pyrimidine synthesis. (
  • Orotic acid as a precursor of pyrimidines in the rat. (
  • To further analyse the redox processes required for HIV-1 entry and infection, toxicity assays were performed using HIV-1 infected monolayer HeLaCD4-LTR/ β-gal cells and suspension H9 T cells treated with several thiolated nucleotide derivatives of UD29. (
  • The present invention relates to derivatives of 1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine which have an alkoxymethyl radical in position 1, to processes for preparing these compounds, and to their use as antiviral agents. (
  • Rhodium-catalyzed reductive modification of pyrimidine nucleosides, nucleotide phosphates, and sugar nucleotides. (
  • Nucleotide synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate , pentose sugar , and a nitrogenous base . (

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