TetrahydrocortisolPurine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC NucleotidesDihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC Nucleosides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Reality Therapy: Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.Orotidine-5'-Phosphate Decarboxylase: Orotidine-5'-phosphate carboxy-lyase. Catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidylic acid to yield uridylic acid in the final step of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. EC Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine 5'-phosphate and cytidine 5'-phosphate, respectively. ATP, dUTP, dGTP, and dATP are effective phosphate donors. EC Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.UracilDihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Cytosine NucleotidesUridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Guanine NucleotidesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Amyloid Neuropathies: Disorders of the peripheral nervous system associated with the deposition of AMYLOID in nerve tissue. Familial, primary (nonfamilial), and secondary forms have been described. Some familial subtypes demonstrate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Clinical manifestations include sensory loss, mild weakness, autonomic dysfunction, and CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1349)Adenine NucleotidesPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.ThymidinePyrimidine Phosphorylases: Pentosyltransferases that catalyze the reaction between a pyrimidine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free pyrimidine and ribose-5-phosphate.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.

Synthesis and characterization of stacked and quenched uridine nucleotide fluorophores. (1/218)

Intramolecular aromatic interactions in aqueous solution often lead to stacked conformation for model organic molecules. This designing principle was used to develop stacked and folded uridine nucleotide analogs that showed highly quenched fluoroscence in aqueous solution by attaching the fluorophore 1-aminonaphthalene-5-sulfonate (AmNS) to the terminal phosphate via a phosphoramidate bond. Severalfold enhancement of fluorescence could be observed by destacking the molecules in organic solvents, such as isopropanol and dimethylsulfoxide or by enzymatic cleavage of the pyrophosphate bond. Stacking and destacking were confirmed by 1-H NMR spectroscopy. The extent of quenching of the uridine derivatives correlated very well with the extent of stacking. Taking 5-H as the monitor, temperature-variable NMR studies demonstrated the presence of a rapid interconversionary equilibrium between the stacked and open forms for uridine-5'-diphosphoro-beta-1-(5-sulfonic acid) naphthylamidate (UDPAmNS) in aqueous solution. DeltaH was calculated to be -2.3 Kcal/mol, with 43-50% of the population in stacked conformation. Fluorescence lifetime for UDPAmNS in water was determined to be 2.5 ns as against 11 ns in dimethyl sulfoxide or 15 ns for the pyrophosphate adduct of AmNS in water. Such a greatly reduced lifetime for UDPAmNS in water suggests collisional interaction between the pyrimidine and thefluorophore moieties to be responsible for quenching. The potential usefulness of such stacked and quenched nucleotide fluorophores as probes for protein-ligand interaction studies has been briefly discussed.  (+info)

Histidine 179 mutants of GTP cyclohydrolase I catalyze the formation of 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribofuranosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone triphosphate. (2/218)

GTP cyclohydrolase I catalyzes the conversion of GTP to dihydroneopterin triphosphate. The replacement of histidine 179 by other amino acids affords mutant enzymes that do not catalyze the formation of dihydroneopterin triphosphate. However, some of these mutant proteins catalyze the conversion of GTP to 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribofuranosylamino-4(3H)-pyrimidinone 5'-triphosphate as shown by multinuclear NMR analysis. The equilibrium constant for the reversible conversion of GTP to the ring-opened derivative is approximately 0.1. The wild-type enzyme converts the formylamino pyrimidine derivative to dihydroneopterin triphosphate; the rate is similar to that observed with GTP as substrate. The data support the conclusion that the formylamino pyrimidine derivative is an intermediate in the overall reaction catalyzed by GTP cyclohydrolase I.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of an RNA polymerase binding site from the DNA of bacteriophage fd. (3/218)

The primary structure of a strong RNA polymerase binding site in the replicative form DNA of phage fd has been determined by direct DNA sequencing. It is: (see article). The molecule contains regions with 2-fold symmetry and sequence homologies to promoter regions from other DNAs. The startpoint of transcription is located in the center of the binding site.  (+info)

A search for base analogs to enhance third-strand binding to 'inverted' target base pairs of triplexes in the pyrimidine/parallel motif. (4/218)

Eight base analogs were tested as third strand residues in otherwise homopyrimidine strands opposite each of the 'direct' (A.T and G.C) and 'inverted' (T.A and C.G) Watson-Crick base pairs, using UV melting profiles to assess triplex stability. The target duplexes contained 20 A.T base pairs and a central test base pair X.Y, while the third strand contained 20 T residues and a central Z test base. Z included 5-bromo-uracil, 5-propynyluracil, 5-propynylcytosine, 5-methyl-cytosine, 5-bromocytosine, hypoxanthine, 2-amino-purine and 2,6-diaminopurine. Some of the base analogs enhanced third strand binding to the target duplex with one or other 'inverted' central base pair relative to the binding afforded by any of the canonical bases. Other analogs did the same for the duplexes with the 'direct' target pairs. The increasing order of triplex stabilization by these base analogs is: opposite the 'inverted' base pairs, for T.A, A < C < 5-pC < 5-pU < T < 5-BrC < 5-meC < 5-BrU < 2-AP < 2,6-DAP < Hy < G, for C.G, 2-AP < A < Hy < G < 5-pC < 5-BrC < 5-meC < C < 2,6-DAP < T < 5-BrU < 5-pU; opposite the 'direct' base pairs, for A.T, 2-AP < A < 5-meC < C < G < Hy < 2,6-DAP < 5-pU < T = 5-BrU < 5-BrC < 5-pC, for G.C, G < 2,6-DAP < 2-AP < A < Hy < T < 5-BrU < 5-pU < 5-pC < 5-BrC < C < 5-meC.  (+info)

Growth factor-regulated expression of enzymes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis: a novel mechanism of growth factor action. (5/218)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a potent and specific mitogen for epithelial cells, including the keratinocytes of the skin. We investigated the mechanisms of action of KGF by searching for genes which are regulated by this growth factor in cultured human keratinocytes. Using the differential display RT-PCR technology we identified the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase [EC] as a novel KGF-regulated gene. Adenylosuccinate lyase plays an important role in purine de novo synthesis. To gain further insight into the potential role of nucleotide biosynthesis in the mitogenic effect of KGF, we cloned cDNA fragments of the key regulatory enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism (adenylosuccinate synthetase [EC], phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase [EC], amidophosphoribosyl transferase [EC], hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase [EC] and the multifunctional protein CAD which includes the enzymatic activities of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II [EC], aspartate transcarbamylase [EC] and dihydroorotase [EC]). Expression of all of these enzymes was upregulated after treatment with KGF and also with epidermal growth factor (EGF), indicating that these mitogens stimulate nucleotide production by induction of these enzymes. To determine a possible in vivo correlation between the expression of KGF, EGF and the enzymes mentioned above, we analysed the expression of the enzymes during cutaneous wound repair, where high levels of these mitogens are present. Indeed, we found a strong mRNA expression of all of these enzymes in the EGF- and KGF-responsive keratinocytes of the hyperproliferative epithelium at the wound edge, indicating that their expression might also be regulated by growth factors during wound healing.  (+info)

In vitro recycling of alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate for the salvage of purine bases. (6/218)

In this paper, we extend our previous observation on the mobilization of the ribose moiety from a purine nucleoside to a pyrimidine base, with subsequent pyrimidine nucleotides formation (Cappiello et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425 (1998) 273-281). The data show that, at least in vitro, also the reverse process is possible. In rat brain extracts, the activated ribose, stemming from uridine as ribose 1-phosphate, can be used to salvage adenine and hypoxanthine to their respective nucleotides. Since the salvage of purine bases is a 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate-dependent process, catalyzed by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, our results imply that Rib-1P must be transformed into 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate, via the successive action of phosphopentomutase and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate synthetase; and,in fact, no adenosine could be found as an intermediate when rat brain extracts were incubated with adenine, Rib-1P and ATP, showing that adenine salvage does not imply adenine ribosylation, followed by adenosine phosphorylation. Taken together with our previous results on the Rib-1P-dependent salvage of pyrimidine nucleotides, our results give a clear picture of the in vitro Rib-1P recycling, for both purine and pyrimidine salvage.  (+info)

Aliphatic analogues of nucleotides: synthesis and affinity towards nucleases. (7/218)

DL-1-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)thymine was prepared by Hilbert-Johnson reaction of 2,4-dinethoxy-5-methylpyrimidine with allyl bromide followed by the osmium tetroxide catalyzed hydroxylation of the l-allyl-4-methoxy-5-methylpyrimidin-2-one obtained as an intermediate. The D-glycero enantiomer, R-1-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)thymine and the corresponding 1-substituted uracil derivative were prepared from 3-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-1, 2-O-isopropylidene-D-glycerine and sodium salt of 4-methoxy-5-methylpyrimidin-2-one or 4-methoxypyrimidin-2-one followed by treatment with hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The phosphorylation of the above 2,3-dihydroxypropyl derivatives with phosphoryl chloride in triethyl phosphate afforded the corresponding 3-phosphates which were transformed into the 2',3'-cyclic phosphates by the condensation with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The latter compounds of the D-glycero configuration are split by some microbial RNases to the 3-phosphates.  (+info)

Cleavage of the glycosidic linkage of pyrimidine ribonucleosides by the bisulfite-oxygen system. (8/218)

When a solution containing 2 mM uridine, 20 mM sodium bisulfite, 0.1 mM MnCl(2), and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 was incubated aerobically at 37 degrees or 0 degrees , partial cleavage of the glycosidic linkage of uridine took place. About 20% of the uridine was converted to uracil by the incubation for 4 hrs. Cytosine was produced from cytidine by similar treatment with bisulfite. These reactions were caused by free radicals generated by Mn(2+)-catalyzed autoxidation of bisulfite. Glycosidic bond cleavage by the bisulfite-oxygen system was not detected for adenosine, AMP, guanosine, GMP, thymidine, TMP, deoxyuridine, dCMP, dAMP, and dGMP. When poly(U) and poly(C) were treated with 20 mM sodium bisulfite in the same manner, chain fission of the polymer occurred as judged by the elution-pattern change in gel filtration through Sephadex columns. No change in the elution pattern was observed for bisulfite-treated poly(A), poly(U). poly(A) or tRNA.  (+info)

  • We found that there was a rapid and specific incorporation of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, adenine, and guanosine (all nucleotide precursors) into the nucleic acid of the parasites. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ureidosuccinic acid as a precursor of nucleic acid pyrimidines in normal and tumor-bearing mice. (springer.com)
  • Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids , with three or more bonding together in order to form a nucleic acid. (bionity.com)
  • 1. A composition comprising a nucleic acid comprising (a) a sequence encoding a rhodopsin kinase promoter, and (b) a sequence encoding a retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator ORF15 isoform (RPGR ORF15 ) and comprising a nucleotide sequence that has at least 80% identity to the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 18. The composition of claim 4, wherein the sequence encoding the RPGR ORF15 comprises a nucleotide sequence that has at least 97% identity to the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Each primer was designed to include a thymidine (T) nucleotide on the 5′ end to minimize addition of nontemplated adenosine (A) during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (data not shown). (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the family A pyrimidine nucleotide synthetase ribozyme was ~10,000 times slower with uracil than with 4-thiouracil and reactivity with 2-thiocytosine, 2-thiopyrimidine, 2-thiopyridine and 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil could not be detected (Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • Unlike the low solubility of uric acid formed by catabolism of purines, the end products of pyrimidine catabolism (carbon dioxide, ammonia, β-alanine, and γ-aminoisobutyrate) are highly water soluble. (mhmedical.com)
  • Results of enzymatic and genetic studies supported the view that accelerated purine nucleotide and uric acid production in this woman resulted from defective allosteric regulation of PRS activity, which is, in turn, a consequence of a mutation in one of the patient's PRPS1 genes: an A-to-T substitution at nucleotide 578, encoding leucine for histidine at amino acid residue 192 of the mature PRS1 isoform. (wiley.com)
  • Thorne RE, Chinnapen DJ, Sekhon GS, Sen D. A deoxyribozyme, Sero1C, uses light and serotonin to repair diverse pyrimidine dimers in DNA. (harvard.edu)
  • Among UV-lesions, the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP) is removed from the genome much faster than the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), owing to the more efficient recognition of 6-4PP by XPC-RAD23B, a key initiator of global-genome nucleotide excision repair (NER). (nyu.edu)
  • Dominguez-Brauer C, Chen YJ, Brauer PM, Pimkina J, Raychaudhuri P. ARF stimulates XPC to trigger nucleotide excision repair by regulating the repressor complex of E2F4. (harvard.edu)
  • My current focus is on receptors for purines, encompassing both adenosine receptors and P2 receptors, which are activated by ATP, UTP and other extracellular nucleotides. (nih.gov)