The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
An enzyme catalyzing the deamination of pyridoxaminephosphate to pyridoxal phosphate. It is a flavoprotein that also oxidizes pyridoxine-5-phosphate and pyridoxine. EC 1.4.3.5.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
Glucosides are glycosides that contain glucose as the sugar component, often forming part of the plant's defense mechanism and can have various pharmacological effects when extracted and used medically.
Xanthurenic acid and its salts, formed as byproducts during the metabolism of tryptophan, are collectively referred to as xanthurenates, which can accumulate in conditions like hyperphenylalaninemia and may contribute to oxidative stress and cellular damage.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.

Update on interconversions of vitamin B-6 with its coenzyme. (1/707)

Biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) depends upon the relatively specific action of two consecutive enzymes, viz. pyridoxal (pyridoxine, pyridoxamine) kinase and pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase. Less specific phosphatases catalyze hydrolyses of the 5'-phosphates of the vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine. From the recognition a generation ago of these processes by which the three forms of vitamin B-6 and their 5'-phosphates are interconverted, more recent studies have provided a fairly sophisticated understanding of the molecular characteristics of the enzymes involved. The evolutionary retention of homologous portions of pyridoxal kinase in humans as well as bacteria and the most recent finding of a highly conserved region of the pyridoxine (pyridoxamine) phosphate oxidase, also from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, emphasize the importance of these catalysts in the formation of a coenzyme that is essential for most organisms. Both kinase and oxidase involved in B-6 metabolism are potential targets for pharmacologic agents.  (+info)

Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. (2/707)

BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for pancreatic cancer have been identified, with age and cigarette smoking being the most consistent. The protective effect associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables-the major dietary sources of folate-is suggestive of a role for factors influencing cellular methylation reactions; however, to our knowledge, no study has investigated this relationship. Whether biochemical indicators of methyl-group availability are associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer risk was the focus of this investigation. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of 29133 male Finnish smokers aged 50-69 years. One hundred twenty-six subjects with incident exocrine pancreatic cancer were matched by date of baseline blood draw (+/-30 days), study center, age (+/-5 years), trial intervention group, and completion of dietary history to 247 control subjects, who were alive and free from cancer at the time the case subjects were diagnosed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined by use of conditional logistic regression. Reported P values are two-tailed. RESULTS: Serum folate and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations showed statistically significant inverse dose-response relationships with pancreatic cancer risk, with the highest serum tertiles having approximately half the risk of the lowest (folate: OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.24-0.82; P for trend = .009, and PLP: OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.88; P for trend = .02). An increased pancreatic cancer risk was also observed with greater exposure to cigarettes (e.g., pack-years [number of packs smoked per day x number of years of smoking], highest versus lowest quartile: OR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.13-3.99; P for trend = .04). CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that maintaining adequate folate and pyridoxine status may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer and confirm the risk previously associated with cigarette smoking.  (+info)

A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. (3/707)

To investigate the incidence of breast cancer and prediagnostic serum levels of folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6), we conducted a nested case-control study using resources from the Washington County (Maryland) serum bank. In 1974, 12,450 serum specimens were donated, and in 1989, 14,625 plasma specimens were donated by female residents of Washington County. One hundred ninety-five incident breast cancer cases and 195 controls were matched by age, race, menopausal status at donation, and cohort participation as well as by date of blood donation. In both cohorts and all menopausal subgroups, median B12 concentrations were lower among cases than controls. Differences reached statistical significance only among women who were postmenopausal at donation (1974 cohort, 413 versus 482 pg/ml, P = 0.03; 1989 cohort, 406 versus 452 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Among women postmenopausal at blood donation, observed associations of B12 suggested a threshold effect with increased risk of breast cancer in the lowest one-fifth compared to the higher four-fifths of the control distribution [lowest versus highest fifth: 1974 cohort, matched odds ratio = 4.00 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-15.20); 1989 cohort, matched odds ratio = 2.25 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-5.91)]. We found no evidence for an association between folate, B6, and homocysteine and breast cancer. Findings suggested a threshold effect for serum B12 with an increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the lowest one-fifth compared to the higher four-fifths of the control distribution. These results should stimulate further investigations of potentially modifiable risk factors, such as these B-vitamins, for prevention of breast cancer.  (+info)

Prevalence and determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. (4/707)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic complications in patients with end-stage renal disease, although the mechanisms remain unclear. The major determinants of plasma homocysteine concentration are usually folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6), and glomerular filtration rate. METHODS: We measured factors, including plasma folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, creatinine, as well as the dose and duration of dialysis, that might affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in 130 patients on hemodialysis (HD) and compared these observations with those in 46 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Independent determinants of total homocysteine were identified using a multiple logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Total homocysteine values averaged 29.8 mumol/liter in HD patients, significantly higher than the mean value of 19.9 mumol/liter observed in patients on PD (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was 90.8% among HD patients, significantly higher than the prevalence of 67.4% among PD patients. Folate values in HD patients averaged 45.5 nmol/liter and were significantly lower than in PD patients (104.2 nmol/liter, P < 0.001). For patients on HD, the only determinant of total homocysteine concentration was plasma folate (r = -0.31, P < 0.001). In contrast, for PD patients, total homocysteine did not correlate with plasma folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperhomocysteinemia is more prevalent and intense in HD patients compared with those on PD. The homocysteine response may become refractory to excess folate supplementation in PD patients.  (+info)

Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. (5/707)

Urinary oxalate is an important determinant of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. High doses of vitamin B6 may decrease oxalate production, whereas vitamin C can be metabolized to oxalate. This study was conducted to examine the association between the intakes of vitamins B6 and C and risk of kidney stone formation in women. The relation between the intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones were prospectively studied in a cohort of 85,557 women with no history of kidney stones. Semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess vitamin consumption from both foods and supplements. A total of 1078 incident cases of kidney stones was documented during the 14-yr follow-up period. A high intake of vitamin B6 was inversely associated with risk of stone formation. After adjusting for other dietary factors, the relative risk of incident stone formation for women in the highest category of B6 intake (> or =40 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<3 mg/d) was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.98). In contrast, vitamin C intake was not associated with risk. The multivariate relative risk for women in the highest category of vitamin C intake (> or =1500 mg/d) compared with the lowest category (<250 mg/d) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.64). Large doses of vitamin B6 may reduce the risk of kidney stone formation in women. Routine restriction of vitamin C to prevent stone formation appears unwarranted.  (+info)

Nausea during pregnancy and congenital heart defects: a population-based case-control study. (6/707)

The authors investigated the possible association between a mother's nausea during pregnancy and her child's risk for a congenital heart defect using data from the population-based Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study conducted in 1982-1983. Case infants (n = 998) had nonsyndromic congenital heart defects and control infants (n = 3,029) had no congenital defects. Nausea during pregnancy (NP) was graded in eight levels of "severity" based on its onset, frequency, and duration. Level 1, the most severe NP, was associated with a lower risk for a congenital heart defect in the child (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.99) compared with no nausea. The lower risk tended to disappear with less severe levels of nausea, and the trend was statistically significant. Overall, early NP (levels 1 to 4 combined) with use of antinausea medication, particularly Bendectin (doxylamine, dicyclomine (dropped from the formulation in 1976), pyridoxine (vitamin B6)), was associated with a lower risk for congenital heart defects compared with: 1) absence of nausea (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.92), and 2) nausea without medication use (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.94). The results suggest that pregnancy hormones and factors or, alternatively, a component of Bendectin (most probably pyridoxine) may be important for normal heart development. These findings outline potential areas for future research on and prevention of congenital heart defects.  (+info)

Vitamin B6 biosynthesis: formation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate from 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate by PdxA and PdxJ protein. (7/707)

In Escherichia coli the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is synthesised de novo by a pathway that is thought to involve the condensation of 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose, catalysed by the enzymes PdxA and PdxJ, to form either pyridoxine (vitamin B6) or pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP). Here we show that incubation of PdxJ with PdxA, 4-(phosphohydroxy)-L-threonine, NAD and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate, but not 1-deoxy-D-xylulose, results in the formation of PNP. The PNP formed was characterised by (i) cochromatography with an authentic standard, (ii) conversion to pyridoxine by alkaline phosphatase treatment, and (iii) UV and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, when [2-(14)C]1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate was used as a substrate, the radioactivity was incorporated into PNP. These results clarify the previously unknown role of PdxJ in the de novo PLP biosynthetic pathway. The sugar used as substrate by PdxJ is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate rather than the previously assumed 1-deoxy-D-xylulose. The first vitamin B6 vitamer synthesised is PNP, and not pyridoxine.  (+info)

Hyperhomocysteinemia but not the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is an independent risk determinant of carotid wall thickening. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment Study (CUDAS) (8/707)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study examined whether a modest elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) was an independent risk factor for increased carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickness (IMT) and focal plaque formation in a large, randomly selected community population. We also examined whether vitamin cofactors and the C677T genetic mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme were major contributors to elevated plasma tHcy and carotid vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1111 subjects (558 men, 553 women) 52+/-13 years old (mean+/-SD; range, 27 to 77 years) recruited from a random electoral roll survey, we measured fasting tHcy and performed bilateral carotid B-mode ultrasound. For the total population, mean tHcy was 12.1+/-4.0 micromol/L. Plasma tHcy levels were correlated with IMT (Spearman rank rs=0.31, P=0.0001). After adjustment for age, sex, and other conventional risk factors, subjects in the highest versus the lowest quartile of tHcy had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI, 1.51 to 4.45) for increased IMT and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10 to 2.82) for plaque. Serum and dietary folate levels and the C677T mutation in MTHFR were independent determinants of tHcy (all P=0.0001). The mutant homozygotes (10% of the population) had higher mean tHcy than heterozygotes or those without the mutation (14.2 versus 12.3 versus 11.6 micromol/L, respectively, P=0.0001). The inverse association of folate levels with tHcy was steeper in the mutant homozygotes. Despite this, the C677T MTHFR mutation was not independently predictive of increased carotid IMT or plaque formation. CONCLUSIONS: Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for increased carotid artery wall thickness and plaque formation in a general population. Lower levels of dietary folate intake and the C677T mutation in MTHFR are important causes of mild hyperhomocysteinemia and may therefore contribute to vascular disease in the community.  (+info)

Pyridoxine is the chemical name for Vitamin B6. According to the medical definition, Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin that is part of the B-vitamin complex and is essential for the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It plays a vital role in the regulation of homocysteine levels in the body, the formation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, and the synthesis of hemoglobin.

Pyridoxine can be found naturally in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, seeds, meat, poultry, and fish. It is also available as a dietary supplement and may be prescribed by healthcare providers to treat or prevent certain medical conditions, such as vitamin B6 deficiency, anemia, seizures, and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Like other water-soluble vitamins, Pyridoxine cannot be stored in the body and must be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation. Excessive intake of Pyridoxine can lead to toxicity symptoms such as nerve damage, skin lesions, and light sensitivity.

Pyridoxamine Phosphate Oxidase (PNPO) is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of the vitamin B6. The protein code for this enzyme is PNPO, and its systematic name is pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate:oxygen oxidoreductase (dephosphorylating).

The primary function of Pyridoxamine Phosphate Oxidase is to convert pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which is an active form of vitamin B6 and a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions in the body, particularly those involved in amino acid metabolism.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Pyridoxamine Phosphate Oxidase can lead to neurological disorders and seizures, as PLP is essential for the synthesis of neurotransmitters and other vital compounds in the brain.

Vitamin B6 deficiency refers to the condition in which there is an insufficient amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) in the body. Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin production, and immune function.

A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to several health issues, such as:

1. Anemia: Vitamin B6 is essential for the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. A deficiency in this nutrient can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
2. Peripheral neuropathy: Vitamin B6 deficiency can cause nerve damage, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
3. Depression and cognitive impairment: Pyridoxine is necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine, which are involved in mood regulation. A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to depression, irritability, and cognitive decline.
4. Seizures: In severe cases, vitamin B6 deficiency can cause seizures due to the impaired synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate brain activity.
5. Skin changes: A deficiency in this nutrient can also lead to skin changes, such as dryness, scaling, and cracks around the mouth.

Vitamin B6 deficiency is relatively uncommon in developed countries but can occur in individuals with certain medical conditions, such as malabsorption syndromes, alcoholism, kidney disease, or those taking medications that interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism. Additionally, older adults, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers may have an increased need for this nutrient, making them more susceptible to deficiency.

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and functions as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions in the human body. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and neurotransmitters. Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in more than 140 different enzyme-catalyzed reactions, making it one of the most versatile cofactors in human biochemistry.

As a cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate helps enzymes carry out their functions by facilitating chemical transformations in substrates (the molecules on which enzymes act). In particular, PLP is essential for transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, and elimination reactions involving amino acids. These processes are vital for the synthesis and degradation of amino acids, neurotransmitters, hemoglobin, and other crucial molecules in the body.

Pyridoxal phosphate is formed from the conversion of pyridoxal (a form of vitamin B6) by the enzyme pyridoxal kinase, using ATP as a phosphate donor. The human body obtains vitamin B6 through dietary sources such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and animal products like poultry, fish, and pork. It is essential to maintain adequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate for optimal enzymatic function and overall health.

Pyridoxal is a form of vitamin B6, specifically the alcohol form of pyridoxine. It is a cofactor for many enzymes involved in protein metabolism and synthesis of neurotransmitters. Pyridoxal can be converted to its active form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which serves as a coenzyme in various biochemical reactions, including transamination, decarboxylation, and racemization/elimination reactions. Deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to neurological disorders and impaired synthesis of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Pyridoxal Kinase (PK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids. The medical definition of Pyridoxal Kinase is as follows:

Pyridoxal Kinase (PK, EC 2.7.1.35) is an enzyme involved in the activation of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine) and its derivatives. Specifically, PK catalyzes the phosphorylation of pyridoxal to form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which is the biologically active cofactor for many enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and other essential physiological processes.

In humans, there are two isoforms of Pyridoxal Kinase: PKL (liver-type) and PKR (rotype). Mutations in the PKL gene can lead to a rare autosomal recessive disorder called Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency (PNPO Deficiency), which is characterized by seizures, developmental delay, and other neurological symptoms. This disorder results from impaired synthesis of the active form of vitamin B6, PLP, due to defective PK enzyme activity.

Pyridoxamine is a form of vitamin B6, which is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role in the body's protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and hemoglobin production. Pyridoxamine is a specific chemical compound that is a derivative of pyridoxine, another form of vitamin B6.

Pyridoxamine functions as a cofactor for various enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. It helps to convert harmful homocysteine into the essential amino acid methionine, which is important for maintaining normal levels of homocysteine and supporting cardiovascular health.

Pyridoxamine has been studied for its potential role in treating or preventing certain medical conditions, such as diabetic nephropathy and neurodegenerative diseases, due to its antioxidant properties and ability to protect against protein glycation, a process that can damage tissues and contribute to aging and disease. However, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for these uses.

Doxylamine is an antihistamine medication that is used to treat symptoms such as allergies, hay fever, and the common cold. It works by blocking the effects of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions. Doxylamine is also used as a sleep aid because it can cause drowsiness. It is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid.

Some common side effects of doxylamine include dry mouth, dizziness, and blurred vision. It is important to use doxylamine with caution, as it can cause drowsiness and may impair your ability to drive or operate machinery. It is also important to follow the dosage instructions carefully, as taking too much doxylamine can lead to serious side effects such as confusion, seizures, and difficulty breathing.

It is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new medication, including doxylamine, to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual health needs.

Vitamin B Complex refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins that play essential roles in cell metabolism, cellular function, and formation of red blood cells. This complex includes 8 distinct vitamins, all of which were originally thought to be the same vitamin when first discovered. They are now known to have individual structures and specific functions.

1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Necessary for energy production and nerve function.
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Involved in energy production and growth.
3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Assists in energy production, DNA repair, and acts as a co-factor for various enzymes.
4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Plays a role in the synthesis of Coenzyme A, which is vital for fatty acid metabolism.
5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Needed for protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and immune function.
6. Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Involved in fatty acid synthesis, glucose metabolism, and nail and hair health.
7. Vitamin B9 (Folate or Folic Acid): Essential for DNA replication, cell division, and the production of red blood cells.
8. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): Necessary for nerve function, DNA synthesis, and the production of red blood cells.

These vitamins are often found together in various foods, and a balanced diet usually provides sufficient amounts of each. Deficiencies can lead to specific health issues related to the functions of each particular vitamin.

Medical Definition of Vitamin B6:

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. It is involved in the process of making serotonin and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. Vitamin B6 is also necessary for the formation of myelin, a protein layer that forms around nerve cells. Additionally, it helps the body to metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, and is involved in the creation of red blood cells.

Vitamin B6 can be found in a wide variety of foods, including poultry, seafood, bananas, potatoes, and fortified cereals. A deficiency in vitamin B6 can lead to anemia, confusion, and a weakened immune system. On the other hand, excessive intake of vitamin B6 can cause nerve damage and skin lesions. It is important to maintain appropriate levels of vitamin B6 through a balanced diet and, if necessary, supplementation under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Pyridoxic acid is the major metabolite of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the human body. It is the end product of vitamin B6 catabolism and is excreted in the urine. Pyridoxic acid is formed in the liver by the oxidation of 4-pyridoxic acid, which is a metabolic intermediate in the conversion of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (the active form of vitamin B6) to 4-pyridoxic acid. Pyridoxic acid has no known coenzyme activity and serves as a marker for vitamin B6 status in the body.

Homocystinuria is a genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites in the body due to a deficiency in the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). This enzyme is responsible for converting homocysteine to cystathionine, which is a critical step in the metabolic pathway that breaks down methionine.

As a result of this deficiency, homocysteine levels in the blood increase and can lead to various health problems, including neurological impairment, ocular abnormalities (such as ectopia lentis or dislocation of the lens), skeletal abnormalities (such as Marfan-like features), and vascular complications.

Homocystinuria can be diagnosed through newborn screening or by measuring homocysteine levels in the blood or urine. Treatment typically involves a low-methionine diet, supplementation with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), betaine, and/or methylcobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) to help reduce homocysteine levels and prevent complications associated with the disorder.

Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions, particularly in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy in the body. It is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, nerves, and digestive system. Thiamine acts as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Deficiency in thiamine can lead to serious health complications, such as beriberi (a disease characterized by peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, and heart failure) and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (a neurological disorder often seen in alcoholics due to chronic thiamine deficiency). Thiamine is found in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, pork, beef, and fortified foods.

Glucosides are chemical compounds that consist of a glycosidic bond between a sugar molecule (typically glucose) and another non-sugar molecule, which can be an alcohol, phenol, or steroid. They occur naturally in various plants and some microorganisms.

Glucosides are not medical terms per se, but they do have significance in pharmacology and toxicology because some of them may release the sugar portion upon hydrolysis, yielding aglycone, which can have physiological effects when ingested or absorbed into the body. Some glucosides are used as medications or dietary supplements due to their therapeutic properties, while others can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "xanthurenates" is not a recognized term in medicine or physiology. It seems that you might be referring to "xanthurenic acid," which is a metabolic byproduct produced during the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan. An accumulation of xanthurenic acid can occur due to certain genetic disorders, such as Hartnup disease or defects in the coenzyme Q10 synthesis pathway. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a precise definition related to your specific question. If you could provide additional information, I would be happy to help further!

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in energy production and cellular function, growth, and development. It is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and it helps to maintain healthy skin, hair, and nails. Riboflavin is involved in the production of energy by acting as a coenzyme in various redox reactions. It also contributes to the maintenance of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and promotes iron absorption.

Riboflavin can be found in a variety of foods, including milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, kidneys, legumes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds. It is sensitive to light and heat, so exposure to these elements can lead to its degradation and loss of vitamin activity.

Deficiency in riboflavin is rare but can occur in individuals with poor dietary intake or malabsorption disorders. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency include inflammation of the mouth and tongue, anemia, skin disorders, and neurological symptoms such as confusion and mood changes. Riboflavin supplements are available for those who have difficulty meeting their daily requirements through diet alone.

"Mesorhizobium" is a genus of bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain leguminous plants. These bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which the plant can then use as a nutrient for growth. This process, known as biological nitrogen fixation, is an important part of the nitrogen cycle and helps to fertilize the soil naturally.

Mesorhizobium species are gram-negative rods that are motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They are able to grow both aerobically and facultatively anaerobically, and are found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and the root nodules of leguminous plants.

Mesorhizobium species are able to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a wide range of legumes, including important crop plants such as soybeans, chickpeas, and lentils. The bacteria infect the roots of the plant and induce the formation of nodules, which provide a protected environment for the bacteria to fix nitrogen. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other nutrients.

Mesorhizobium species are important for agriculture because they help to reduce the need for chemical fertilizers, which can be expensive and harmful to the environment. By forming nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous plants, Mesorhizobium species contribute to sustainable agricultural practices and help to maintain soil fertility.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex sugars, specifically those that contain a beta-glycosidic bond. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and plays a role in the digestion of some carbohydrates, such as cellulose and other plant-based materials.

In the human body, beta-glucosidase is produced by the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that help break down and recycle various biological molecules. Beta-glucosidase is involved in the breakdown of glycolipids and gangliosides, which are complex lipids that contain sugar molecules.

Deficiencies in beta-glucosidase activity can lead to certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease, in which there is an accumulation of glucocerebrosidase, a type of glycolipid, within the lysosomes. This can result in various symptoms, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, and bone pain.

Clioquinol is an antimicrobial drug that contains a combination of clioquinal and hydrocortisone acetate. It is used topically to treat various skin infections and inflammatory conditions. Clioquinol has antibacterial and antifungal properties, while hydrocortisone acetate is a corticosteroid that reduces inflammation and suppresses the immune response.

Clioquinol was first synthesized in the 1930s and was widely used as an antidiarrheal medication until it was banned in many countries due to its association with a neurological disorder called subacute myelooptic neuropathy (SMON). However, topical clioquinol is still available in some countries for the treatment of skin conditions.

It's important to note that topical clioquinol should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause skin irritation and sensitization in some individuals. Additionally, prolonged or excessive use of corticosteroids like hydrocortisone acetate can lead to thinning of the skin, increased susceptibility to infection, and other adverse effects.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Musculoskeletal development is a process that involves the growth and development of the muscles, bones, joints, and related tissues from birth through adulthood. This complex process is regulated by genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is critical for overall health, mobility, and quality of life.

During musculoskeletal development, bones grow in length and diameter, muscle mass increases, and joints become stronger and more stable. The process involves the coordinated growth and maturation of various tissues, including cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. Proper nutrition, physical activity, and injury prevention are essential for optimal musculoskeletal development.

Abnormalities in musculoskeletal development can lead to a range of conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, osteoporosis, scoliosis, and joint injuries. These conditions can have significant impacts on an individual's physical function, mobility, and overall health, making it essential to promote healthy musculoskeletal development throughout the lifespan.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

Transketolase is an enzyme found in most organisms, from bacteria to humans. It plays a crucial role in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is a metabolic pathway that runs alongside glycolysis in the cell cytoplasm. The PPP provides an alternative way of generating energy and also serves to provide building blocks for new cellular components, particularly nucleotides.

Transketolase functions by catalyzing the transfer of a two-carbon ketol group from a ketose (a sugar containing a ketone functional group) to an aldose (a sugar containing an aldehyde functional group). This reaction forms a new ketose and an aldose, effectively converting three-carbon sugars into five-carbon sugars, or vice versa.

In humans, transketolase is essential for the production of NADPH, an important reducing agent in the cell, and for the synthesis of certain amino acids and nucleotides. Deficiencies in this enzyme can lead to metabolic disorders such as pentosuria.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group from a molecule and releases carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result. In the context of medical chemistry, decarboxylation is a crucial process in the activation of certain acidic precursor compounds into their biologically active forms.

For instance, when discussing phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, decarboxylation converts non-psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into psychoactive delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) through the removal of a carboxyl group. This reaction typically occurs when the plant material is exposed to heat, such as during smoking or vaporization, or when it undergoes aging.

In summary, decarboxylation refers to the chemical process that removes a carboxyl group from a molecule and releases CO2, which can activate certain acidic precursor compounds into their biologically active forms in medical chemistry.

Soybean proteins are the proteins derived from soybeans, a legume native to East Asia. Soybeans contain approximately 40% protein by weight, making them a significant source of plant-based protein. The two major types of soy protein are:

1. Soy protein isolate (SPI): This is a highly refined protein that contains at least 90% protein by weight. It is made by removing carbohydrates and fiber from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a protein-rich powder. SPI is often used as an ingredient in various food products, including meat alternatives, energy bars, and beverages.
2. Soy protein concentrate (SPC): This type of soy protein contains approximately 70% protein by weight. It is made by removing some of the carbohydrates from defatted soy flour, leaving behind a higher concentration of proteins. SPC has applications in food and industrial uses, such as in textured vegetable protein (TVP) for meat alternatives, baked goods, and functional foods.

Soy proteins are considered high-quality proteins due to their complete amino acid profile, containing all nine essential amino acids necessary for human nutrition. They also have various health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol levels, improving bone health, and promoting muscle growth and maintenance. However, it is important to note that soy protein consumption should be balanced with other protein sources to ensure a diverse intake of nutrients.

Vegetable proteins, also known as plant-based proteins, are nitrogenous organic compounds derived from plants. These proteins are composed of amino acid chains that are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Vegetable proteins can be found in a wide variety of plant sources such as legumes (e.g., beans, lentils, peas), grains (e.g., rice, wheat, corn), nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

It is important to note that while vegetable proteins are often considered "incomplete" because they may lack one or more of the essential amino acids found in animal-based proteins, consuming a variety of plant-based protein sources throughout the day can provide all the necessary amino acids for a healthy diet. Vegetarian and vegan diets that are well-planned can meet protein needs without the use of animal products.

Isoflavones are a type of plant-derived compounds called phytoestrogens, which have a chemical structure similar to human estrogen. They are found in various plants, particularly in soybeans and soy products. Isoflavones can act as weak estrogens or anti-estrogens in the body, depending on the levels of natural hormones present. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing menopausal symptoms, improving cardiovascular health, and preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety.

Soy foods are food products made from soybeans, which are a rich source of plant-based protein, fiber, and various beneficial compounds like isoflavones. Examples of soy foods include tofu, tempeh, soymilk, edamame (immature soybeans), soy flour, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). Soy products can be used as alternatives to animal-based proteins and can be incorporated into a variety of dishes, such as stir-fries, soups, smoothies, and baked goods. It's important to note that some people may have allergies to soy or sensitivities to its phytoestrogens, which can affect hormone balance in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Caseins are a group of phosphoproteins found in the milk of mammals, including cows and humans. They are the major proteins in milk, making up about 80% of the total protein content. Caseins are characterized by their ability to form micelles, or tiny particles, in milk when it is mixed with calcium. This property allows caseins to help transport calcium and other minerals throughout the body.

Caseins are also known for their nutritional value, as they provide essential amino acids and are easily digestible. They are often used as ingredients in infant formula and other food products. Additionally, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and improving bone health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Soy milk is not a medical term, but it is a common term used to describe a plant-based milk alternative made from soybeans. Here's a brief description:

Soy milk is a beverage produced by soaking and grinding soybeans, then filtering the resulting mixture to remove solid particles. It is often consumed as a dairy substitute by individuals who are lactose intolerant or have milk allergies. Soy milk contains protein, carbohydrates, and fat, similar to cow's milk, but its nutritional profile may vary depending on the manufacturing process. Some brands of soy milk are fortified with calcium, vitamins B12, D, and riboflavin (B2) to resemble the nutritional content of cow's milk.

Please note that while soy milk can be a healthy alternative for many people, it may not be suitable for everyone, especially those with soy allergies or sensitivities. If you have any concerns about incorporating soy milk into your diet, consult a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian.

Media related to Pyridoxine at Wikimedia Commons "Pyridoxine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... "Pyridoxine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020. "Pyridoxine 50mg Tablets - Summary of Product ... As a treatment (oral or injection), it is used to treat or prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine- ... As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, ...
In enzymology, a pyridoxine 5-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pyridoxine + ... pyridoxine 5'-dehydrogenase, and pyridoxine:(acceptor) 5-oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in vitamin B6 metabolism. It ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyridoxine:acceptor 5-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include pyridoxal-5 ... V. The enzymatic formation of pyridoxal and isopyridoxal from pyridoxine". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (10): 2577-84. PMID 5769992. ...
GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Pyridoxine-Dependent Seizures Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Genetics Home Reference. June 17, ... Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intractable seizures in the prenatal and ... Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy - pyridoxine-responsive epilepsy discovered in 2016 and caused by mutations of the ... September 2011). "Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy and antiquitin deficiency: Clinical and molecular characteristics and ...
In enzymology, a pyridoxine 4-oxidase (EC 1.1.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pyridoxine + O2 ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyridoxine:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include pyridoxin 4- ... V. The enzymatic formation of pyridoxal and isopyridoxal from pyridoxine". J. Biol. Chem. 244 (10): 2577-84. PMID 5769992. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pyridoxal + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyridoxine and O2, whereas its ...
In enzymology, a pyridoxine 4-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.65) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pyridoxine + NADP+ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is pyridoxine:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include pyridoxin ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pyridoxal + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are pyridoxine and NADP+, ... dehydrogenase, pyridoxol dehydrogenase, and pyridoxine dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in vitamin B6 metabolism. Holzer ...
... has been highly conserved over time, as there are many similarities between the enzyme as it is ... Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase is an enzyme, encoded by the PNPO gene, that catalyzes several reactions in the vitamin B6 ... Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limited step of the B6 metabolism pathway. Vitamin B6, ... Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase is a member of the enzyme class oxidases, or more specifically, oxidoreductases. These enzymes ...
In enzymology, a pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthase (EC 2.6.99.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1-deoxy-D- ... Pyridoxine-5'-phosphate synthase, or pdxJ, is a TIM barrel protein, although it exhibits some departures from this motif. Most ... Yeh JI, Du S, Pohl E, Cane DE (2002). "Multistate binding in pyridoxine 5′-phosphate synthase: 1.96 Å crystal structure in ... The first state, exhibited when pdxJ has either pyridoxine-5'-phosphate or no substrates bound, is classified as the "open" ...
Other names in common use include UDP-glucose:pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-glucosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoglucose-pyridoxine 5'- ... In enzymology, a pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.160) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase. ... pyridoxine". J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. Tokyo. 28 (4): 359-66. doi:10.3177/jnsv.28.359. PMID 6217302. Portal: Biology v t e (EC ...
Pyridoxine; Riboflavin; Thiamine ""Vad är egentligen ett läkemedel?" - Läkemedelsvärlden - Oberoende om läkemedel". Archived ...
Pyridoxine (1939). The ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation are alternative treatments for epilepsy without the ...
6a 2-pyridoxine; 6b 2-aminopyridine; 6 2-pyridoxine/2-aminopyridine; 7a Adenine; 7b Thymine; 7 Adenine/thymine WC; 8a Methane; ...
In combination with pyridoxine (vitamin B6), it is also used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. Doxylamine is ... In 2013, doxylamine/pyridoxine was reintroduced in the United States under the brand name Diclegis. The combination was not ... Doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) are the ingredients of Diclegis, approved by the FDA in April 2013 becoming ... Slaughter SR, Hearns-Stokes R, van der Vlugt T, Joffe HV (March 2014). "FDA approval of doxylamine-pyridoxine therapy for use ...
... pyridoxine-refractory, autosomal recessive; 205950; GLRX5 Anemia, sideroblastic, pyridoxine-refractory, autosomal recessive; ... pyridoxine-dependent; 266100; ALDH7A1 Epilepsy, severe myoclonic, of infancy; 607208; SCN1A Epilepsy, X-linked, with variable ...
Pyridoxine, present in vitamin supplements, can give positive results to the Ehrlich test, showing a pink colour change. The ... "Pyridoxine Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2021-08-21. Spratley, Trinette (2004). "Analytical Profiles for ...
doi:10.1016/0304-5102(91)85059-B. Nakamoto, Kazuo; Martell, A. E. (1959). "Pyridoxine and Pyridoxal Analogs. IV. Ultraviolet ... Heinert, Dietrich; Martell, Arthur E. (1958). "Studies on pyridoxine and pyridoxal analogs-I". Tetrahedron. 3: 49-61. doi: ...
Retrieved on 2008-02-17 Holman, Paul (July 1995). "Pyridoxine - Vitamin B-6" (PDF). Journal of Australian College of ...
These are pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated derivatives pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, ... the latter of which also catalyzes the conversion of pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP) to PLP. Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase is ... the chemically stable hydrochloride salt of pyridoxine. Pyridoxine is converted in the liver into the metabolically active ... the aminated product of pyridoxine, and pyridoxal, the formyl derivative of pyridoxine. Further studies showed that pyridoxal, ...
... is a vitamin supplement containing a combination of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid ... "Foltx, Generic Name: folacin, cyanocobalamin & pyridoxine". RxList. 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2021-04-07. v t e (Articles with ...
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York ASIN: B00BXTC5BO Mitchell MB (April 1955). "ABERRANT RECOMBINATION OF PYRIDOXINE MUTANTS OF ...
Pyridoxine HCl). It was produced in 1961 by Merck Laboratories by bonding 2 vitamin B6 compounds (pyridoxine) together with a ... Pyritinol also called pyridoxine disulfide or pyrithioxine (European drug names Encephabol, Encefabol, Cerbon 6) is a semi- ... Tanaka M, Niizeki H, Shimizu S, Miyakawa S (October 1996). "Photoallergic drug eruption due to pyridoxine hydrochloride". The ...
Mitchell MB (April 1955). "Aberrant Recombination Of Pyridoxine Mutants of Neurospora". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 41 (4): ...
... pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal → pyridoxal phosphate) • Vitamin B9 (folic acid → tetrahydrofolic acid) • Vitamin C ( ...
Senthilkumaran, S; David, SS; Menezes, RG; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P (2013). "Need for parenteral pyridoxine: A clarion ...
... but are treatable via administration of pyridoxine hydrochloride. These pyridoxine-dependent seizures have been linked to the ... Kluger G, Blank R, Paul K, Paschke E, Jansen E, Jakobs C, Wörle H, Plecko B (Oct 2008). "Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: normal ... Bennett CL, Chen Y, Hahn S, Glass IA, Gospe SM (May 2009). "Prevalence of ALDH7A1 mutations in 18 North American pyridoxine- ... Kaczorowska M, Kmiec T, Jakobs C, Kacinski M, Kroczka S, Salomons GS, Struys EA, Jozwiak S (Dec 2008). "Pyridoxine-dependent ...
If this is not effective pyridoxine is recommended. Phenytoin should generally not be used. There is a lack of evidence for ...
1992). "Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on immunological phenomena". Postgrad Med J. 68 (Suppl 1): S70-7. PMID 1409221. ... pyridoxine kinase and other aspects of metabolism in the rat". J. Nutr. 111 (2): 391-8. doi:10.1093/jn/111.2.391. PMID 6257871 ...
"Phosphorylase and uridinediphosphoglucose-glycogen transferase in pyridoxine deficiency". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 42: ...
"Entrez Gene: PDXK pyridoxal (pyridoxine, vitamin B6) kinase". Chern CJ, Beutler E (1976). "Biochemical and electrophoretic ... studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 28 (1): 9-17. PMC 1684914. PMID 2009 ...
Looking at other key enzymes within the L-lysine degradation pathway, ALDH7A1 is deficient in children with pyridoxine- ... "Mutations in antiquitin in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent seizures". Nature Medicine. 12 (3): 307-9. doi:10.1038/nm1366 ...
Kozich V, de Franchis R, Kraus JP (1993). "Molecular defect in a patient with pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria". Hum. Mol. ... 1995). "A missense mutation (I278T) in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene prevalent in pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria ... 1994). "Molecular basis of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in pyridoxine responsive and nonresponsive homocystinuria". ...
Media related to Pyridoxine at Wikimedia Commons "Pyridoxine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... "Pyridoxine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020. "Pyridoxine 50mg Tablets - Summary of Product ... As a treatment (oral or injection), it is used to treat or prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine- ... As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, ...
Pyridoxine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking pyridoxine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to pyridoxine or any other drugs. ... Take pyridoxine exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. ... Pyridoxine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *upset stomach ...
Pyridoxine deficiency causes blood, skin, and nerve changes. ... Pyridoxine 5-phosphate, vitamin B-6, is an essential cofactor ... Excessive maternal pyridoxine supplementation can induce pyridoxine turnover, resulting in a higher requirement. Pyridoxine- ... Interestingly, pyridoxine-dependent seizures are not caused by a pyridoxine deficiency per se but rather due to an increased ... 10, 11] Inherited pyridoxine-dependent seizure is a rare autosomal-recessive condition. [12, 13, 14, 9] Pyridoxine-responsive ...
... also called Pyridoxine, is an important nutrient with useful benefits and significants effects if you have a deficiency or ... Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine. B6, or Pyridoxine, helps the body to absorb and metabolize amino acids, to use fats, and to form red ... Some studies have suggested that pyridoxine can increase the vividness of dreams as well as a persons ability to recall dreams ...
TB401 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride - 50mg - Film-coated tablet - S Kant Healthcare Ltd - INDIA ...
1.1.99.9: pyridoxine 5-dehydrogenase. This is an abbreviated version!. For detailed information about pyridoxine 5- ... dehydrogenase, pyridoxol 5-, pyridoxal-5-dehydrogenase, pyridoxin 5-dehydrogenase, pyridoxine 5-dehydrogenase, pyridoxine ...
PURPOSE: Pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) is a rare disorder characterized by seizures that are resistant to common ... Prevalence of ALDH7A1 mutations in 18 North American pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) patients.. Publication , Journal ... "Prevalence of ALDH7A1 mutations in 18 North American pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) patients." Epilepsia 50, no. 5 (May ... "Prevalence of ALDH7A1 mutations in 18 North American pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) patients." Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 5, ...
Pyridoxine exists in the form of pyridoxal phosphate in the cells and functions as a coenzyme for many chemi-cal reactions ... Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Pyridoxine exists in the form of pyridoxal phosphate in the cells and functions as a coenzyme for many ... As a result, pyridoxine plays many key roles in metab-olism, especially protein metabolism. Also, it is believed to act in the ... Pyridoxine exists in the form of pyridoxal phosphate in the cells and functions as a coenzyme for many chemi-cal reactions ...
Pyridoxine 5-phosphate. Added vitamin: Pyridoxine 5-phosphate. IcoFont Icons. ...
Summary of Product Characteristics - Pyridoxine 10mg Tablets. Tor Generics Limited. Accessed via www.medicines.org.uk 16/09/ ...
The pyridoxine HCl powder was produced according to USP quality standard. An actual batch pyridoxine HCl powder meets or is ... Home , Vitamins , Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6). $11.95+ , Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6) Powder 500g ... Pyridoxine HCl as a vitamin B6, it can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It ... Pyridoxine is required for the proper function of sugars, fats, and proteins in the body. It is also required for the proper ...
Pyridoxine deficiency causes blood, skin, and nerve changes. ... Pyridoxine 5-phosphate, vitamin B-6, is an essential cofactor ... encoded search term (Pyridoxine Deficiency) and Pyridoxine Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pyridoxine Deficiency Medication. Updated: Sep 15, 2016 * Author: Richard E Frye, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD ... Pyridoxine-related metabolite concentrations in normal and Down syndrome amniotic fluid. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008. 23(4):254-7. [ ...
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... no evidence supports claims that pyridoxine prevents or alleviates motion sickness. Taking excessive doses of pyridoxine ... Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Although an American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2015 Practice Bulletin Summary recommends ... pyridoxine (vitamin B6) alone or in combination with doxylamine (an antihistamine) as a safe and effective treatment for nausea ...
Buy high quality Methylcobalamin Niacinamide And Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Injection online at the best price offered by KAPS ... Pyridoxine hydrochloride (a shape of nutrition b6) facilitates the aid of the nervous system and the manufacturing of purple ... Methylcobalamin Alpha Lipoic Acid Pyridoxine HCl And Folic Acid Capsules. *Methylcobalamin Alpha Lipoic Acid Vitamin D3 ... Q: How do methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection work? A: Methylcobalamin (a form of vitamin b12) ...
Pyridoxine Hcl, and Nicotinamide combination is a nutritional supplement. It is used to treat vitamins and other nutritional ... Can Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide interact with other medications?. *Yes, Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + ... Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide should not be consumed if you are allergic to Methylcobalamin, Pyridoxine Hcl, ... How to manage the side effects of Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide?. *To manage the side effects of ...
Pyridoxine HCL Vitamin B6 Powder factories, producing high quality Vitamin B6 Powder CAS 65-23-6 products. ... Pyridoxine HCL Vitamin B6 Powder CAS 65-23-6 from China, Chinas leading Food Grade 98% Vitamin B6 Powder product, with strict ... Vitamin B6 (Vitamin B6), also known as pyridoxine, includes pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. It exists in the form of ... Food Grade 98% Pyridoxine HCL Vitamin B6 Powder CAS 65-23-6. Place of Origin. China. ...
... doxylamine/pyridoxine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... AUC: 3721 ng•hr/mL (doxylamine); 64.5 ng•hr/mL (pyridoxine). Distribution. Protein bound: Pyridoxine is highly protein bound ( ... Pyridoxine hydrochloride is excreted into breast milk; adverse events in infants presumably exposed to pyridoxine hydrochloride ... encoded search term (doxylamine/pyridoxine (Diclegis%2C Bonjesta)) and doxylamine/pyridoxine (Diclegis, Bonjesta) What to Read ...
184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride. § 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). § ...
Find Whole Foods Market Paleo Friendly Grilled Salmon at Whole Foods Market. Get nutrition, ingredient, allergen, pricing and weekly sale information!
... pyridoxine hydrochloride 20 mg. It is supplied by Duchesnay USA, Inc. ... doxylamine/pyridoxine. Imprint. D Logo. Strength. doxylamine succinate 20 mg / pyridoxine hydrochloride 20 mg. Color. Pink. ... Generic Name: doxylamine/pyridoxine. Pill with imprint D Logo is Pink, Round and has been identified as Bonjesta doxylamine ... Bonjesta doxylamine succinate 20 mg / pyridoxine hydrochloride 20 mg is not a controlled substance under the Controlled ...
Vitamin B-6: pyridoxine hydrochloride, vitamin B6 hydrochloride *Vitamin B-12/Cobalamin: cyanocobalamin ...
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of vitamin B6 supplementation in treating PMS ... In another study, premenstrual acne flare-up was reduced in 72% of 106 affected young women taking 50mg of pyridoxine daily for ... Pyridoxine acts as a mild diuretic, reducing the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. ...
UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Robust regression, Caffeine, Pyridoxine HCl Abstract. The determination of caffeine and pyridoxine ... Robust Regression Analysis of Full Overlapping Caffeine and Pyridoxine HCl UV-Vis Spectra in Pharmaceutical Tablet Authors. * ... Qu, W., Wu, K., and Hu, S. (2004). Voltammetric determination of pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) by use of a chemically-modified glassy ... The mixture of caffeine and pyridoxine solution produces UV-Vis with full overlapping spectra. The full overlapping spectra can ...
Drugs (glucocorticoids, dopamine and agonists, levodopa, pyridoxine). *See discussion on excessive T4 or T3.. Discussion. ...
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Vitamin C 0%. Vitamin K Zinc 4%. Vitamin A mcg6%. ...
Pyridoxine), Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin), Choline (Choline Chloride), Biotin, Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), Vitamin ...
Vitamin B-6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride). 5mg. Folate (200 mcg Folic Acid). 333mcg DFE. ...
The effect of pyridoxine administration on melatonin secretion in normal men.. Luboshitzky R, Ophir U, Nave R, Epstein R, Shen- ... OBJECTIVES: To determine pineal response to pyridoxine in normal men.. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy men wer..... ... Luboshitzky R, Ophir U, Nave R, Epstein R, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P. The effect of pyridoxine administration on melatonin secretion ... Pyridoxine:administration & dosage, Sleep:drug effects,. Citation ...
  • Q: What are methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection used for? (kaps3.in)
  • A: Methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection is a multivitamin injection used to deal with or prevent nutrition deficiencies and to guide the worried system. (kaps3.in)
  • Q: How do methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection work? (kaps3.in)
  • Pyridoxine hydrochloride (a shape of nutrition b6) facilitates the aid of the nervous system and the manufacturing of purple blood cells. (kaps3.in)
  • Q: How must methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection be taken? (kaps3.in)
  • A: Methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injections ought to be administered via a healthcare professional, generally as an intramuscular injection. (kaps3.in)
  • Q: What are the possible facet results of methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection? (kaps3.in)
  • A: Commonplace side results of methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection encompass ache, swelling, and redness on the injection website online. (kaps3.in)
  • Q: What precautions need to be taken while the use of methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection? (kaps3.in)
  • A: Methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection must be used with warning in patients with liver or kidney ailment, and in people who are pregnant or breastfeeding. (kaps3.in)
  • Sufferers must also tell their healthcare issuer of all medications they may be taking, which includes over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements, as methylcobalamin niacinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride injection may also engage with other medicines. (kaps3.in)
  • Pill with imprint D Logo is Pink, Round and has been identified as Bonjesta doxylamine succinate 20 mg / pyridoxine hydrochloride 20 mg. (drugs.com)
  • Bonjesta doxylamine succinate 20 mg / pyridoxine hydrochloride 20 mg is not a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). (drugs.com)
  • Determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations by calixarene based potentiometric sensor. (utm.my)
  • Polyneuropathy is not always associated with pellagra and may be related to accompanying thiamine or pyridoxine deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • A comparison of matrix resolution method, ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC method for the determination of thiamine HCl and pyridoxine HCl in pharmaceutical preparation. (utm.my)
  • A modified rotarod technique is used to determine if dietary deficiencies in pyridoxine (65236) or thiamine (59438), bilateral adrenalectomy or cortisol (50237) treatment and pretreatment with microsomal enzyme inducers (DDT (50293) or phenobarbital (57307)) would modify the course of onset and recovery from functional acrylamide neuropathy in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Neither pyridoxine nor thiamine deficiency nor daily injections of cortisol is found to have any measurable effect on the cumulative dose of acrylamide required to produce functional impairment. (cdc.gov)
  • As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, side effects or complications of isoniazid use, and certain types of mushroom poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, in children, pyridoxine deficiency has been known to cause seizures, dermatitis, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. (brainkart.com)
  • Pyridoxine-dependent seizures caused by alpha amino adipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: the first polish case with confirmed biochemical and molecular pathology. (medscape.com)
  • PNPO deficiency: an under diagnosed inborn error of pyridoxine metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy and antiquitin deficiency: clinical and molecular characteristics and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • METHYLCOBALAMIN+PYRIDOXINE+NICOTINAMIDE Injections belong to the division of multivitamins that are usually used to treat nutritional deficiencies. (eridanushealth.com)
  • METHYLCOBALAMIN+PYRIDOXINE+NICOTINAMIDE Injections consist of three main components that are methylcobalamin, pyridoxine, and nicotinamide. (eridanushealth.com)
  • Do not self-administer the dose of METHYLCOBALAMIN+PYRIDOXINE+NICOTINAMIDE Injections. (eridanushealth.com)
  • components that are methylcobalamin, pyridoxine, and nicotinamide. (eridanushealth.com)
  • There can be some side effects after you take METHYLCOBALAMIN+PYRIDOXINE+NICOTINAMIDE Injections. (eridanushealth.com)
  • While you are on medication for METHYLCOBALAMIN+PYRIDOXINE+NICOTINAMIDE Injections avoid taking some drugs with these tablets as they can have adverse side effects on your health. (eridanushealth.com)
  • Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide belongs to the medication class known as a nutritional supplement. (mrmed.in)
  • Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide treats and prevents vitamins and other nutritional deficiencies. (mrmed.in)
  • Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide will be administered to you by a healthcare professional in a hospital setting. (mrmed.in)
  • Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide should not be consumed if you are allergic to Methylcobalamin, Pyridoxine Hcl, Nicotinamide, or any of its ingredients in the medication. (mrmed.in)
  • Before taking Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide, inform your doctor if you have or have had any kidney conditions. (mrmed.in)
  • Patients with kidney disorders should take Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide cautiously and inform their doctor about all the underlying medical conditions. (mrmed.in)
  • How to manage the side effects of Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide? (mrmed.in)
  • To manage the side effects of Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide, follow the prescribed dosage, and report side effects promptly. (mrmed.in)
  • Can Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide interact with other medications? (mrmed.in)
  • Yes, Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide can interact with other medications and can cause undesirable side effects. (mrmed.in)
  • What are the side effects of Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide? (mrmed.in)
  • Can Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding? (mrmed.in)
  • Information regarding using Methylcobalamin + Pyridoxine Hcl + Nicotinamide during pregnancy and breastfeeding is unknown. (mrmed.in)
  • If you are looking for the generic alternative to Cerefolin, please see: L-methylfolate/Methylcobalamin/Riboflavin/Pyridoxine. (doctorsolve.com)
  • The information above for Cerefolin (L-methylfolate/Methylcobalamin/Riboflavin/Pyridoxine) was provided to DoctorSolve.com by third parties. (doctorsolve.com)
  • Pyridoxine comes in regular and extended-release (long-acting) tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The determination of caffeine and pyridoxine HCl in medicinal tablets has been successfully carried out. (utm.my)
  • PURPOSE: Pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) is a rare disorder characterized by seizures that are resistant to common anticonvulsants, and that are ultimately controlled by daily pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). (duke.edu)
  • Two novel ALDH7A1 (antiquitin) splicing mutations associated with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Pyridoxine in combination with doxylamine is used as a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridoxine is available both as a generic medication and over the counter product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridoxine, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as a dietary supplement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary lack of pyridoxine in lower animals can cause dermatitis, decreased rate of growth, development of fatty liver, anemia, and evidence of mental deteriora-tion. (brainkart.com)
  • Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridoxine exists in the form of pyridoxal phosphate in the cells and functions as a coenzyme for many chemi-cal reactions related to amino acid and protein metab-olism. (brainkart.com)
  • pyridoxine , pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For detailed information about pyridoxine 5-dehydrogenase, go to the full flat file . (brenda-enzymes.info)
  • B6, or Pyridoxine, helps the body to absorb and metabolize amino acids, to use fats, and to form red blood cells. (vitamindeals.info)
  • Pyridoxine is responsible for the formation of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and red blood cells. (eridanushealth.com)
  • Pyridoxine HCl is involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates and the formation of red blood cells and neurotransmitters. (mrmed.in)
  • Pyridoxine overdose can cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by poor coordination, numbness, and decreased sensation to touch, temperature, and vibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to pyridoxine or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Prevalence of ALDH7A1 mutations in 18 North American pyridoxine-dependent seizure (PDS) patients. (duke.edu)
  • In two patients with infantile spasms responsive to pyridoxine treatment and with good clinical outcomes, no mutations were found and PA levels were normal. (duke.edu)
  • Pyridoxine is recommended in HIV patients on isoniazid as it is benign intervention which prevents peripheral neuropathy and other isoniazid toxicities. (unicef.org)
  • As a result, pyridoxine plays many key roles in metab-olism, especially protein metabolism. (brainkart.com)
  • Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare infant epilepsy that does not improve with typical anti-seizure medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysine restricted diet for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: First evidence and future trials. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism and the regulation of hormonal activity, as well as helping to reduce tiredness and fatigue. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Pyridoxine is also involved in the synthesis of GABA within the CNS. (medscape.com)
  • Healthy human blood levels of pyridoxine are 2.1 - 21.7 ng/mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with low plasma pyridoxine levels in children with sickle cell disease. (medscape.com)
  • One week after the removal of vitamin B 6 from the diet, levels of xanthurenic acid increase and levels of pyridoxine decrease in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • Pyridoxine, vitamin B 6 , is required by your body for utilization of energy in the foods you eat, production of red blood cells, and proper functioning of nerves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pyridoxine-related metabolite concentrations in normal and Down syndrome amniotic fluid. (medscape.com)
  • Some studies have suggested that pyridoxine can increase the vividness of dreams as well as a person's ability to recall dreams. (vitamindeals.info)