Pyridinium CompoundsIsonicotinic Acids: Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Tetraoxanes: Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.N-substituted Glycines: AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Dicarboxylic AcidsWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome: A neurological condition that is characterized by uncontrolled rapid irregular movements of the eye (OPSOCLONUS) and the muscle (MYOCLONUS) causing unsteady, trembling gait. It is also known as dancing eyes-dancing feet syndrome and is often associated with neoplasms, viral infections, or autoimmune disorders involving the nervous system.Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.PrintingBiological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (1/1005)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Endogenous platelet-activating factor is critically involved in effector functions of eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 or IgG. (2/1005)

Eosinophil activation and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators are implicated in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Eosinophils are activated by various classes of secretagogues, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-5), lipid mediators (e.g., platelet-activating factor (PAF)), and Ig (e.g., immobilized IgG). However, do these agonists act directly on eosinophils or indirectly through the generation of intermediate active metabolites? We now report that endogenous PAF produced by activated eosinophils plays a critical role in eosinophil functions. Human eosinophils produced superoxide when stimulated with immobilized IgG, soluble IL-5, or PAF. Pretreating eosinophils with pertussis toxin abolished their responses to these stimuli, suggesting involvement of a metabolite(s) that acts on G proteins. Indeed, PAF was detected in supernatants from eosinophils stimulated with IgG or IL-5. Furthermore, structurally distinct PAF antagonists, including CV6209, hexanolamine PAF, and Y-24180 (israpafant), inhibited IgG- or IL-5-induced superoxide production and degranulation. Previous reports indicated that exogenous PAF stimulates eosinophil eicosanoid production through formation of lipid bodies. We found in this study that IgG or IL-5 also induces lipid body formation and subsequent leukotriene C4 production mediated by endogenous PAF. Finally, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2, one of the key enzymes involved in PAF synthesis, attenuated both PAF production and effector functions of eosinophils. These findings suggest that endogenous PAF plays important roles in eosinophil functional responses to various exogenous stimuli, such as cytokines and Igs. Therefore, inhibition of PAF synthesis or action may be beneficial for the treatment of eosinophilic inflammation.  (+info)

Mechanism linking T-wave alternans to the genesis of cardiac fibrillation. (3/1005)

BACKGROUND: Although T-wave alternans has been closely associated with vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias, the cellular processes underlying T-wave alternans and their role, if any, in the mechanism of reentry remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: -T-wave alternans on the surface ECG was elicited in 8 Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts during fixed-rate pacing while action potentials were recorded simultaneously from 128 epicardial sites with voltage-sensitive dyes. Alternans of the repolarization phase of the action potential was observed above a critical threshold heart rate (HR) (209+/-46 bpm) that was significantly lower (by 57+/-36 bpm) than the HR threshold for alternation of action potential depolarization. The magnitude (range, 2.7 to 47.0 mV) and HR threshold (range, 171 to 272 bpm) of repolarization alternans varied substantially between cells across the epicardial surface. T-wave alternans on the surface ECG was explained primarily by beat-to-beat alternation in the time course of cellular repolarization. Above a critical HR, membrane repolarization alternated with the opposite phase between neighboring cells (ie, discordant alternans), creating large spatial gradients of repolarization. In the presence of discordant alternans, a small acceleration of pacing cycle length produced a characteristic sequence of events: (1) unidirectional block of an impulse propagating against steep gradients of repolarization, (2) reentrant propagation, and (3) the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: Repolarization alternans at the level of the single cell accounts for T-wave alternans on the surface ECG. Discordant alternans produces spatial gradients of repolarization of sufficient magnitude to cause unidirectional block and reentrant ventricular fibrillation. These data establish a mechanism linking T-wave alternans of the ECG to the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death.  (+info)

Functional repair of motor endplates after botulinum neurotoxin type A poisoning: biphasic switch of synaptic activity between nerve sprouts and their parent terminals. (4/1005)

Blockade of acetylcholine release by botulinum neurotoxin type A at the neuromuscular junction induces the formation of an extensive network of nerve-terminal sprouts. By repeated in vivo imaging of N-(3-triethyl ammonium propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide uptake into identified nerve endings of the mouse sternomastoid muscle after a single intramuscular injection of the toxin, inhibition of stimulated uptake of the dye at the terminals was detected within a few days, together with an increase in staining of the newly formed sprouts. After 28 days, when nerve stimulation again elicited muscle contraction, regulated vesicle recycling occurred only in the sprouts [shown to contain certain soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (SNAREs) and to abut acetylcholine receptors] and not at the parent terminals. Therefore, only these sprouts could be responsible for nerve-muscle transmission at this time. However, a second, distinct phase of the rehabilitation process followed with a return of vesicle turnover to the original terminals, accompanied by an elimination of the by then superfluous sprouts. This extension and later removal of "functional" sprouts indicate their fundamental importance in the repair of paralyzed endplates, a finding with ramifications for the vital process of nerve regeneration.  (+info)

A vital stain for studying membrane dynamics in bacteria: a novel mechanism controlling septation during Bacillus subtilis sporulation. (5/1005)

At the onset of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, two potential division sites are assembled at each pole, one of which will be used to synthesize the asymmetrically positioned sporulation septum. Using the vital stain FM 4-64 to label the plasma membrane of living cells, we examined the fate of these potential division sites in wild-type cells and found that, immediately after the formation of the sporulation septum, a partial septum was frequently synthesized within the mother cell at the second potential division site. Using time-lapse deconvolution microscopy, we were able to watch these partial septa first appear and then disappear during sporulation. Septal dissolution was dependent on sigma E activity and was partially inhibited in mutants lacking the sigma E-controlled proteins SpoIID, SpoIIM and SpoIIP, which may play a role in mediating the degradation of septal peptidoglycan. Our results support a model in which sigma E inhibits division at the second potential division site by two distinct mechanisms: inhibition of septal biogenesis and the degradation of partial septa formed before sigma E activation.  (+info)

High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: II. Fast quantitative measurements with voltage-sensitive dyes. (6/1005)

An improved method for making fast quantitative determinations of membrane potential with voltage-sensitive dyes is presented. This method incorporates a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning scheme (Bullen et al., 1997. Biophys. J. 73:477-491) with simultaneous detection at two emission wavelengths. The basis of this ratiometric approach is the voltage-dependent shift in the emission spectrum of the voltage-sensitive dye di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS). Optical measurements are made at two emission wavelengths, using secondary dichroic beamsplitting and dual photodetectors (<570 nm and >570 nm). Calibration of the ratiometric measurements between signals at these wavelengths was achieved using simultaneous optical and patch-clamp measurements from adjacent points. Data demonstrating the linearity, precision, and accuracy of this technique are presented. Records obtained with this method exhibited a voltage resolution of approximately 5 mV, without any need for temporal or spatial averaging. Ratiometric recordings of action potentials from isolated hippocampal neurons are used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. This method is unique in that it is the first to allow quantitative determination of dynamic membrane potential changes in a manner optimized for both high spatiotemporal resolution (2 micrometers and <0.5 ms) and voltage discrimination.  (+info)

Analysis of multiquantal transmitter release from single cultured cortical neuron terminals. (7/1005)

Application of single synapse recording methods indicates that the amplitude of postsynaptic responses of single CNS synapses can vary greatly among repeated stimuli. To determine whether this observation could be attributed to synapses releasing a variable number of transmitter quanta, we assessed the prevalence of multiquantal transmitter release in primary cultures of cortical neurons with the action potential (AP)-dependent presynaptic turnover of the styryl dye FM1-43 (,; ). It was assumed that if a high proportion of vesicles within a terminal were loaded with FM1-43 the amount of dye released per stimulus would be proportional to the number of quanta released and/or the probability of release at a terminal. To rule out differences in the amount of release (between terminals) caused by release probability or incomplete loading of terminals, conditions were chosen to maximize both release probability and terminal loading. Three-dimensional reconstruction of terminals was employed to ensure that bouton fluorescence was accurately measured. Analysis of the relationship between the loading of terminals and release indicated that presumed larger terminals (>FM1-43 uptake) release a greater amount of dye per stimulus than smaller terminals, suggesting multiquantal release. The distribution of release amounts across terminals was significantly skewed toward higher values, with 13-17% of synaptic terminals apparently releasing multiple quanta per AP. In conclusion, our data suggest that most synaptic terminals release a relatively constant amount of transmitter per stimulus; however, a subset of terminals releases amounts of FM1-43 that are greater than that expected from a unimodal release process.  (+info)

Properties of fast endocytosis at hippocampal synapses. (8/1005)

Regulation of synaptic transmission is a widespread means for dynamic alterations in nervous system function. In several cases, this regulation targets vesicular recycling in presynaptic terminals and may result in substantial changes in efficiency of synaptic transmission. Traditionally, experimental accessibility of the synaptic vesicle cycle in central neuronal synapses has been largely limited to the exocytotic side, which can be monitored with electrophysiological responses to neurotransmitter release. Recently, physiological measurements on the endocytotic portion of the cycle have been made possible by the introduction of styryl dyes such as FM1-43 as fluorescent markers for recycling synaptic vesicles. Here we demonstrate the existence of fast endocytosis in hippocampal nerve terminals and derive its kinetics from fluorescence measurements using dyes with varying rates of membrane departitioning. The rapid mode of vesicular retrieval was greatly speeded by exposure to staurosporine or elevated extracellular calcium. The effective time-constant for retrieval can be < 2 seconds under appropriate conditions. Thus, hippocampal synapses capitalize on efficient mechanisms for endocytosis and their vesicular retrieval is subject to modulatory control.  (+info)

Dinaciclib, also known as SCH727965, is a potent CDK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinaciclib selectively inhibits cyclin dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9 activity in vitro with IC(50) values of 1, 1, 3, and 4 nmol/L, respectively. Compared with flavopiridol, Dinaciclib exhibits superior activity with an improved therapeutic index. Dinaciclib induced regression of established solid tumors in a range of mouse models following intermittent scheduling of doses below the maximally tolerated level..
N-Alkylation of a novel pyridine sensor results in pyridinium salts whose conformations are stabilised by pyridinium cation-π interactions resulting in a fluorescent response that can be used to sense the presence of alkylating agents in solution at low concentration.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dinaciclib induces anaphase catastrophe in lung cancer cells via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2. AU - Danilov, Alexey. AU - Hu, Shanhu. AU - Orr, Bernardo. AU - Godek, Kristina. AU - Mustachio, Lisa Maria. AU - Sekula, David. AU - Liu, Xi. AU - Kawakami, Masanori. AU - Johnson, Faye M.. AU - Compton, Duane A.. AU - Freemantle, Sarah J.. AU - Dmitrovsky, Ethan. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Despite advances in targeted therapy, lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Chromosomal instability is a prominent feature in lung cancer and, because it rarely occurs in normal cells, it represents a potential therapeutic target. Our prior work discovered that lung cancer cells undergo anaphase catastrophe in response to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), followed by apoptosis and reduced growth. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of the multi-CDK inhibitor dinaciclib on lung cancer cells were ...
3-(Dibutylamino)phenol 43141-69-1 MSDS report, 3-(Dibutylamino)phenol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3-(Dibutylamino)phenol safety information specifications ect.
... : Accelerate the process of destaining by absorbing stain as
Chemical behavior of the oxopurines 8-oxoadenosine and 8-oxoinosine has been investigated. Purine quinones, pivotal intermediates in oxidation of oxopurines were successfully trapped and the resulting products were characterized. Formation of purine quinones was demonstrated with both chemical and photochemical oxidizing agents. Adducts formed as a result of reaction of purine quinones with nucleophiles were isolated and characterized. Pyrene dihydrodioxins have been synthesized and shown to be effective agents for release of pyrene-4,5-dione. Pyrene-4,5-dione is an effective DNA photo-oxidation agent. Pyrene dihydrodioxin incorporating a pyridinium salt as a possible internal electron trap has been shown to release pyrenequinone rapidly. Dihydrodioxins containing two pyridine and pyridinium salt moieties have been synthesized and characterized by variety of methods including 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Dihydrodioxin containing two pyridine moieties was separated into D and L enantiomers via liquid
2240-71-3 - BYHUUEMAOFMBQK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Pyridinium, 2-(2-(8-hydroxy-2-quinolyl)vinyl)-1-methyl-, chloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
1-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)pyridinium chloride | C11H8ClN3O4 | CID 77850 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
1-benzyl-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)pyridinium chloride | C15H16ClNO2 | CID 83108 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
This page contains information on the chemical Pyridinium, 1-(6-hydroxy-4-oxo-7,7,7-trifluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)heptyl)-, chloride including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
SALVAVIDAS PHARMACEUTICAL from Surat, Gujarat, India, leading Exporter,Manufacturer,Supplier and Wholesaler of CETYL PYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE at the best price.
TradingChem provides information about Pyridinium,3-(aminocarbonyl)-1-(5-O-phosphono-b-D-ribofuranosyl)-, inner salt, ,CAS #: 1094-61-7.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases 1 and 2 (PARP1/2) are required for single-strand break repair, and their inhibition causes DNA replication-fork collapse and double-strand break (DSB) formation. These DSBs are primarily repaired via homologous recombination (HR), a high-fidelity repair pathway. Should HR be deficient, DSBs may be repaired via error-prone nonhomologous end-joining mechanisms, or may persist, ultimately resulting in cell death. Synthetic lethality thus exists between PARP and HR functions. Multiple myeloma (MM) cells are characterized by chromosomal instability and pervasive DNA damage, implicating aberrant DNA repair. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), upstream modulators of HR, are dysregulated in MM. Here we show that a CDK inhibitor, dinaciclib, impairs HR repair and sensitizes MM cells to the PARP1/2 inhibitor ABT-888. Dinaciclib abolishes ABT-888-induced BRCA1 and RAD51 foci and potentiates DNA damage, indicated by increased γH2AX foci. Dinaciclib treatment reduces expression of ...
73622-54-5 - LPYXHMLPBJVMJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Acetic acid, 2-(dibutylamino)-2-phenyl-, hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. The reactions can be summarized by the following equations: ##STR1##
Questions remain on additives for negative ion ESI LC-MS using negative ion mode ESI is the best detectionidentification method for many types of compound. Additives such as ammonium salts, pyridinium salts or organic acids are required in order to give better peak shape in the HPLC and adequate response from the mass spectrometer however, there...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Co-crystallization is used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve the shelf life of drugs (Vishweshwar et al., 2006; Lemmerer, 2012). It is also used in many fields of chemistry, including material science. It is known that 2-acylaminopyridine forms co-crystals with acids, while in 2-aminopyridine acid complexes proton transfer takes place, yielding salts (Aakeröy et al., 2010; 2006). The current report deals with the competition between formation of a salt and co-crystal. It is worth pointing out that the 2-acylamino moiety prefers to form co-crystals, while the 6-amino moiety prefers salt formation. In 2-pivaloylamino pyridine, both groups are present in the same molecule. Moreover, the increased acidity of NH in the -NHCO- group, in general, increases the hydrogen bonding donation ability of the NH proton. On the other hand, we used the sterically demanding pivaloyl group to hinder the efficient NH···O═C interaction of the -NHCO-tBu part of the title molecule. Thus the interacting ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie E Sen, Lyndsay Wood, Reshma Jacob, Alisa Xhambazi, Britanny Pease, Alexis Jones, Taylor Horsfield, Alice Lin, Michel Cusson].
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Biotium \ DI_8_ANEPPS \ 61012 for more molecular products just contact us
Skrivele B.; Pajuste K.; Kaldre D.; Plotniece A.; Ose V.; Sobolev A.; Danne R.; Cekavicus B.; Birjukovs P.; Erts D.; Duburs G. The influence of preparation conditions on nanoaggregates formed by self-assembling amphiphilic pyridinium derivatives. Abstracts, 23rd Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society = ECIS 2009 (September 6-11), 3rd D43 Action Workshop (September 7-8); : P.D43.055. Antalya, Turkey, 2009 ...
概要1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)pyridinium chloride (the Zincke salt) 在被仲胺亲核进攻后再开环得到 5-aminopenta-2,4-dienal (the Zincke aldehy...
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial ...
In mitosis, a dramatic decrease in endocytosis rate has been reported (Berlin et al., 1978). We repeated those observations (Fig. 1) using either fluorescent dextran or FM1-43 uptake as a measure of endocytosis rate by measuring the number of vesicles per cell and the total fluorescence intensity. With fluorescent dextran, the endocytosis rate normally decreased to ∼10% of interphase level in metaphase. FM1-43 is a water-soluble dye that is membrane impermeable, but it is readily incorporated into endocytic vesicles and is retained after cell fixation (Betz and Bewick, 1992; Terasaki, 1995). Fig. 1, b-e shows FM1-43 labeling of HeLa cells in various stages of mitosis in parallel with the DAPI staining patterns that enable rapid identification of mitotic phases in HeLa cells (Fig. 1, b-e, bottom). While interphase cells were brightly stained with FM1-43-labeled endocytic vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm (low numerical aperture objectives were used to detect even out of focus vesicles), ...
Get Sample PDF of [email protected] http://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10379905 After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production, production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Cetylpyridinium Chloride Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Further in the report, Cetylpyridinium Chloride Market is examined for price, cost and gross revenue. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In prolongation with this data sale price for various types, applications and region is also included. The Cetylpyridinium Chloride Industry consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Analysis also include consumption, Import and export data for Regions Germany, France, UK, Russia, Italy, Spain, Benelux. Purchase this report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10379905 With the help of supply and consumption ...
cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate 6004-24-6 MSDS report, cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate MSDS safety technical specifications search, cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate safety information specifications ect.
Blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor programmed death 1 (PD1) has demonstrated remarkable success in the clinic for the treatment of cancer; however, a majority of tumors are resistant to anti-PD1 monotherapy. Numerous ongoing clinical combination therapy studies will likely reveal additional therapeutics that complement anti-PD1 blockade. Recent studies found that immunogenic cell death (ICD) improves T cell responses against different tumors, thus indicating that ICD may further augment antitumor immunity elicited by anti-PD1. Here, we observed antitumor activity following combinatorial therapy with anti-PD1 Ab and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib in immunocompetent mouse tumor models. Dinaciclib induced a type I IFN gene signature within the tumor, leading us to hypothesize that dinaciclib potentiates the effects of anti-PD1 by eliciting ICD. Indeed, tumor cells treated with dinaciclib showed the hallmarks of ICD including surface calreticulin expression and release of high ...
PYRIDINE, also called azabenzene and azine, is a heterocyclic aromatic tertiary amine characterized by a six-membered ring structure composed of five carbon atoms and a nitrogen which replace one carbon-hydrogen unit in the benzene ring (C5H5N). The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself. It is colorless, flammable, toxic liquid with a unpleasant odor, miscible with water and with most organic solvents, boils at 115 C. Its aqueous solution is slightly alkaline. Its conjugate acid is called pyridinium cation, C5H5NH+, used as a oxidation agent for organic synthesis.. Pyridine is a base with chemical properties similar to tertiary amines. Nitrogen in the ring system has an equatorial lone pair of electrons, that does not participate in the aromatic pi-bond. Its aqueous solution is slightly alkaline. It is incompatible and reactive with strong oxidizers and strong acids, and reacts violently with chlorosulfonic acid, maleic anhydride, oleum, perchromates, b-propiolactone, ...
4-[5-(Pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]pyridinium benzoate.: In the title compound, C(12)H(9)N(4)O(+)·C(7)H(5)O(2) (-), π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-c
On Fri, 14 Jul 2000 11:41:17 +0100, nospam at our.site wrote: ,This message has been posted by: Luis M. Martins ,L.Martins at REMOVE-THIS-TO-SENDicrf.icnet.uk, , ,Hi , ,I am using PhastGel BlueR coomassie blue dye from Pharmacia, I am concearned ,with destaining the gel without losing the signal from the bands (I have ,around 10ng protein per band) , ,I am currently destaining in 10% Acetic acid, this takes quite a long time ,and leaves an uneven blue background. I was considering using methanol to ,improve solubility of the CB stain. How much methanol should I use without ,risking loosing signal from the bands? , ,Your help is much appreciated! , ,Regards, , ,Miguel Hi Miguel & Group... For visualization of ng levels of protein you should go for silver staining instead of CB or Sypro dyes (assumed that you stain electrophoretic gels and just need visualization). Silver staining with the right shortcuts is nearly as fast as CB, but have sub ng sensitivity. Staining techniques have recently ...
A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of endocytosis requires the discovery and characterization of the protein machinery that mediates this aspect of membrane trafficking. A novel genetic screen was used to identify yeast mutants defective in internalization of bulk lipid. The fluorescent lipophilic styryl dye FM4-64 was used in conjunction with FACS to enrich for yeast mutants that exhibit internalization defects. Detailed characterization of two of these mutants, dim1-1 and dim2-1, revealed defects in the endocytic pathway. Like other yeast endocytosis mutants, the temperature-sensitive dim mutant were unable to endocytose FM4-64 or radiolabeled alpha-factor as efficiently as wild-type cells. In addition, double mutants with either dim1-delta or dim2-1 and the endocytosis mutants end4-1 or act1-1 displayed synthetic growth defects, indicating that the DIM gene products function in a common or parallel endocytic pathway. Complementation cloning of the DIM genes revealed identity ...
This page contains information on the chemical Benzoic acid, p-amino-, 3-(dibutylamino)propyl ester, hydrochloride including: 8 synonyms/identifiers.
Figure S1 - (A)Live cell imaging of dividing WT yeast. (B) Live cell imaging of dividing yeast co-stained with the vacuolar membrane marker FM4-64 and calcofluor-white. (C) cDCFDA fluorescence emission spectra of young and old yeast. (D)Live cell imaging of dividing Matα yeast cells expressing either Ste3-GFP, or the GFP variant pHluorin fused to ...
We began our study with evaluation of the conditions for this envisioned cross-coupling reaction between 4-iodotoluene 1-a and pyridinium salts 1 derived from 2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)ethan-1-amine and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate. The desired product was obtained in 77% yield with 10 mole percent (mol %) NiBr2•diglyme catalyst and 10 mol % tridentate ligand L3 in the presence of 2.5 equivalents (equiv) of zinc at 60°C under argon atmosphere (entry 1; Fig. 1C). When NiI2 instead of NiBr2•diglyme was used as a catalyst, the yield decreased markedly to 45% (entry 2). Reductive metal species were found to be important for this transformation, as evidenced by the low yield (56%) obtained when using Mn as reducing reagent (entry 3). Bidentate ligands L1 and L2 led to only trace amount of product 3a, indicating that the additional coordinating site of L3 was crucial for achieving reactivity (entries 4 and 5). Further evaluation of the reaction conditions by lowering the reaction ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Buy Di-8-ANEPPS (CAS 157134-53-7), a fast responding membrane potential dye, from Santa Cruz. Molecular Formula: C36H52N2O3S, Molecular Weight: 592.87
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 33631-05-9, 2-Amino-4-hydroxypyridine, 2-Aminopyridin-4-ol, molecular formula: C5H6N2O.
A systematic study on the methyl substituted 2-hydroxypyridine molecule is presented in this paper to investigate the methylation effect in the ground..
The fluorescent dye FM1‐43 and its derivatives can be used to monitor the physiology of synaptic vesicle turnover in central nerve terminals
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Intravital multiphoton photoconversion with a cell membrane dye.
Movie. ​Z-stack of live hiPS cell colony expressing mEGFP-tagged Histone H2B type 1-J protein. Cell Mask Deep Red Plasma Membrane dye was applied to mark cell boundaries (magenta). NucBlue Live Ready Probe Reagent was used to compare mEGFP-tagged H2B localization (left panel) to a NucBlue Live (Hoechst) DNA stain (left panel). Cells were imaged in 3D on a spinning-disk confocal microscope. Movie starts at the bottom of the cells and ends at the top. Scale bar, 5µm. ...
Movie. ​Z-stack of live hiPS cell colony expressing mEGFP-tagged Histone H2B type 1-J protein. Cell Mask Deep Red Plasma Membrane dye was applied to mark cell boundaries (magenta). NucBlue Live Ready Probe Reagent was used to compare mEGFP-tagged H2B localization (left panel) to a NucBlue Live (Hoechst) DNA stain (left panel). Cells were imaged in 3D on a spinning-disk confocal microscope. Movie starts at the bottom of the cells and ends at the top. Scale bar, 5µm. ...
Alternatively, but off the topic a little bit now, one can do chemilumienscent and then simply overlay the film (or the imager image if using electronic capture of the light) from each stripped and reprobed blot. Keld ...
FM - MedHelps FM Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for FM. Find FM information, treatments for FM and FM symptoms.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the tolerable dose of combination therapy with ofatumumab and dinaciclib (phase 1b component) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), small lymphocytic leukemia (SLL), and B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL).. II. To characterize the toxicity of combination therapy with ofatumumab and dinaciclib in CLL/SLL/B-PLL.. III. To determine the overall response rate associated with this treatment as assessed by consensus response criteria. (Phase II). SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To estimate progression-free survival (PFS) after combination treatment with ofatumumab and dinaciclib.. II. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of dinaciclib when given in combination with ofatumumab.. III. To correlate pharmacokinetic features of dinaciclib with response, toxicity (particularly tumor lysis syndrome), and pharmacodynamic endpoints.. IV. To perform detailed baseline and serial pharmacodynamic studies of combination therapy with ofatumumab and dinaciclib and correlate these ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of dinaciclib given in combination with epirubicin in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the predictive value of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 protein (MCL-1), low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E), and tumor grade as predictors of biologic response (i.e. induction of apoptosis) in tumors treated with therapy.. II. To evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy. III. To determine the effects of therapy on proliferation as measured by proliferation-related Ki-67 antigen (Ki67) and apoptosis as measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL).. OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of dinaciclib.. Patients receive dinaciclib intravenously (IV) over 2 hours on day 1 and epirubicin hydrochloride IV over 30 minutes on day 2. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 12 courses in the absence of disease ...
... ( CPC ) is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound used in some types of mouthwashes , toothpastes , lozenges , throat sprays, breath sprays, and nasal sprays . It is an antiseptic that kills bacteria and other microorganisms. It has been shown to be effective in preventing dental plaque and reducing gingivitis . It has also been used as an ingredient in certain pesticides . Cetylpyridinium chloride may cause brown stains between the teeth and on the surface of teeth. However, these stains can be easily removed by a dental hygienist during a routine check-up. Synonyms Cetylpyridinium chloride is present in commercial products such as 1-palmitylpyridinium chloride, C16-alkylpyridinium chloride, 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride, acetoquat CPC, aktivex, ammonyx CPC, cecure, ceepryn chloride, cepacol, ceprim, cepacol chloride, cetafilm, cetamium, dobendan, halset, ipanol, medilave, mercocet, merothol, pionin B, pristacin, pyrisept, and asept. Chemistry Cetylpyridinium chloride has
Optical methods for recording electrical activity in the goldfish optic tectum were evaluated. Tectal slices, with a short section of the optic nerve attached, were stained with a fluorescent styryl dye. Potential- dependent fluorescence changes following optic nerve stimulation were monitored with a photodiode. We found that large optical signals could be obtained. Experimental manipulations of the slice bathing solution permitted us to identify several events that contributed to the optical response, including activity in afferent fibers, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and presumptive glial depolarizations. These results suggest that voltage-sensitive dyes can provide a useful alternative method for monitoring synaptic responses in the goldfish tectum, and may prove valuable in studying changes in the functional synaptic organization of the tectum following manipulations of the retinotectal pathway.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial heterogeneity of transmembrane potential responses of single guinea-pig cardiac cells during electric field stimulation. AU - Sharma, Vinod. AU - Tung, Leslie. PY - 2002/7/15. Y1 - 2002/7/15. N2 - Changes in transmembrane voltage (Vm) of cardiac cells during electric field stimulation have a complex spatial- and time-dependent behaviour that differs significantly from electrical stimulation of space-clamped membranes by current pulses. A multisite optical mapping system was used to obtain 17 or 25 μm resolution maps of Vm along the long axis of guinea-pig ventricular cells (n = 57) stained with voltage-sensitive dye (di-8-ANEPPS) and stimulated longitudinally with uniform electric field (2, 5 or 10 ms, 3-62 V cm-1) pulses (n = 201). The initial polarizations of Vm responses (Vmr) varied linearly along the cell length and reversed symmetrically upon field reversal. The remainder of the Vm responses had parallel time courses among the recording sites, revealing a common ...
... aims at providing comprehensive data on bis(dibutylamino)difluoromethane
Pyridinium cation Oxygen Tetrahydropyran Pyran (2H-Oxine is not used) Pyrylium cation ... Although heterocyclic chemical compounds may be inorganic compounds or organic compounds, most contain at least one carbon. ... A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of ... Heterocyclic compounds are pervasive in many areas of life sciences and technology.[9] Many drugs are heterocyclic compounds.[ ...
"Codehydrogenase I and other pyridinium compounds as V factor for Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae". J. ... NR was the compound that led to the most rapid growth of this bacterium. Notably, H. influenza cannot grow on nicotinic acid, ...
The cationic group (pyridinium ring) of the compound probably inhibits the efflux through the membrane. This results in an ... The pyridinium side-group of cephaloridine has unstable bonds to the core of the compound (in comparison with other ... Cephaloridine is a cephalosporin compound with pyridinium-1-ylmethyl and 2-thienylacetamido side groups. The molecular nucleus ... The pyridinium side-group interacts with the reduced NADP in a redox cycle. It has been suggested that superoxide anion ...
Basic aromatic compounds get protonated and form aromatic cations (e.g. pyridinium) under acidic conditions. Typical examples ... In these compounds the nitrogen atom is connected to a hydrogen atom. Examples of non-basic nitrogen-containing aromatic rings ... In these compounds the nitrogen atom is not connected to a hydrogen atom. ...
1,3-dicarbonyl compounds have also been shown to be viable starting materials in place of the α-pyridinium methyl ketone salts ... These compounds were then reacted with various α-pyridinium methyl ketones 32 to give the desired tri-substituted pyridine 33. ... α-pyridinium acyl ketone salt 39 was cyclized with pinocarvone derivative 40 to generate pyridine 41. The benzylic position of ... The pyridinium cation is then eliminated to form hydroxy-dienamine 12. Aromatization of 12 via subsequent loss of water ...
Chromium-based reagents such as pyridinium chlorochromate can also be used to convert alcohols to carbonyl compounds; although ... and dried under vacuum to yield the title compound (0.275 g, 90%): mp 246-249° (dec); 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz, 50°) δ 8.23 (s ... with oxoammonium salt to give nitroxide radicals and pyridinium salts (see equation (3) below). Because this reaction consumes ... react with alcohols to form carbonyl compounds. The other two equivalents of oxoammonium (red) undergo comproportionation to re ...
... pyridinium compounds MeSH D03.383.725.762.232 --- cetylpyridinium MeSH D03.383.725.762.300 --- desmosine MeSH D03.383.725.762. ... quinolinium compounds MeSH D03.438.810.824.200 --- dequalinium MeSH D03.438.810.824.700 --- pyrvinium compounds MeSH D03.438. ...
R pyridinium, C 5H 5NH+ (protonated pyridine) quaternary ammonium cations having one triple-bonded substitution and one single- ... Onium compounds at IUPAC Onium compounds at IUPAC Overview at chem.qmul.ac.uk Onium compounds at the US National Library of ... Compounds of an onium cation and some other negative ion are known as onium compounds or onium salts. Onium ions and onium ... protonated organomercury compounds; formed as intermediates in oxymercuration reactions) carbynium ions, protonated carbynes, ...
The Zincke reaction is used for the selective introduction of radicals in pyridinium compounds (it has no relation to the ... The pyridinium cation is isoelectronic with benzene. Pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (PPTS) is an illustrative pyridinium salt; ... So fluorine is the best leaving group for the substitution with organolithium compounds. The nucleophilic attack compounds may ... "Pyridinium Chlorochromate. An Efficient Reagent for Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds". ...
... pyridinium bromide (compound 2) (heterobivalent ligand: D2R agonist and nAChR antagonist) Oxantel α3β2-Nicotinic receptor α3β4- ... "Bifunctional compounds targeting both D2 and non-α7 nACh receptors: Design, synthesis and pharmacological characterization". ... no change in maximum efficacy Desformylflustrabromine Further compounds.. (see references →) (−)-7-methyl-2-exo-[3'-(6-[18F] ...
... pyridinium bromide (compound 2, D2R agonist and nAChR antagonist) UNC9994 The dopamine receptor D2 has been shown to interact ... "Bifunctional compounds targeting both D2 and non-α7 nACh receptors: Design, synthesis and pharmacological characterization". ...
... an important pyridinium compound is the herbicide paraquat. Pyridinium chlorochromate George A. Olah, Michael Watkins (1978). " ... The pyridinium ion also plays a role in Friedel-Crafts acylation. When pyridine is included, it forms a complex with the ... Pyridinium refers to the cation [C5H5NH]+. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine. Many related cations are known involving ... Pyridinium cations are aromatic ion, as determined through Hückel's rule. It is isoelectronic to benzene. When the acidic ...
A variety of related compounds are known with similar reactivity. Although no longer widely used, PCC offers the advantage of ... Pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) is a yellow-orange salt with the formula [C5H5NH][CrO3Cl]. It is a reagent in organic synthesis ... One disadvantage to the use of PCC is its toxicity, which it shares with other hexavalent chromium compounds. Oxidation with ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)75204-X. Agarwal, S.; Tiwari, H. P.; Sharma, J. P. (1990). "Pyridinium Chlorochromate: An Improved ...
The analogous quinoline compound behaves similarly. Pyridinium tribromide can be obtained by reacting pyridinium hydrobromide ... Pyridinium perbromide (also called pyridinium bromide perbromide, pyridine hydrobromide perbromide, or pyridinium tribromide) ... Pyridinium tribromide is a crystalline red solid which is virtually insoluble in water. Pyridinium tribromide is used as a ... It can also be considered as a complex containing pyridinium bromide-the salt of pyridine and hydrogen bromide-with an added ...
... is a pyridinium salt of dichromate with the chemical formula [C5H5NH]2[Cr2O7]. This compound is named after the Australian- ... Among organic acids, acetic acid, pyridinium trifluoroacetate or pyridinium tosylate can be added, the first one being most ... Pyridinium dichromate, MSDS, Alfa Caesar Alexander Senning Elsevier's dictionary of chemoetymology: the whies and whences of ... In its chemical structure and functions it is closely related to other compounds made from hexavalent chromium oxide, such as ...
One of these advantages is that the compound is available as an air-stable yellow solid that is not very hygroscopic. Unlike ... E.J. Corey has developed several new synthetic reagents: PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate), also referred to as the Corey-Suggs ... The formations of dithianes can be accomplished with a Lewis acid (scheme 7) or directly from carbonyl compounds. The pKa of ... Corey, E.J.; Suggs, W. (1975). "Pyridinium chlorochromate. An efficient reagent for oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols ...
Several other chromium compounds are used for the oxidation of alcohols. These include Collins reagent and pyridinium ... Researches on acetylenic compounds. Part XV. The oxidation of primary acetylenic carbinols and glycols". J. Chem. Soc.: 604. ... Researches on acetylenic compounds. Part I. The preparation of acetylenic ketones by oxidation of acetylenic carbinols and ... The chemistry of the triterpenes and related compounds. Part XVIII. Elucidation of the structure of polyporenic acid C". J. ...
... pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), and chromate/dichromate compounds Permanganate compounds such as potassium permanganate Sodium ... and other analogous halogen compounds Hypochlorite and other hypohalite compounds, including household bleach (NaClO) ... and nitrate compounds Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Peroxydisulfuric acid (H2S2O8) Peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5) Chlorite, chlorate, ... Hexavalent chromium compounds such as chromic and dichromic acids and chromium trioxide, ...
PON1 hydrolyzes the metabolites, not the parent compounds of insectides. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be ... Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or ... Current antidotes for OP poisoning consist of a pretreatment with carbamates to protect AChE from inhibition by OP compounds ... Structure-activity relationship and efficacy in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds". Curr. Med. Chem. ...
Structure-activity relationship and efficacy in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds". Curr. Med. Chem. ... Jokanović M, Prostran M (2009). "Pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators. ... belongs to a family of compounds called oximes that bind to organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase. It is used to ... "Current understanding of the application of pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators in treatment of organophosphate ...
Oximes are drugs known for their ability to reverse the binding of organophosphorus compounds to the enzyme ... Jokanović M, Prostran M (2009). "Pyridinium oximes as cholinesterase reactivators. Structure-activity relationship and efficacy ... This results in full enzyme recovery and the phosphate-oxime compound is eliminated from the organism via urine. Oximes like ... in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds". Curr. Med. Chem. 16 (17): 2177-88. doi:10.2174/ ...
This alcohol is the triethylsilyl ether of the naturally occurring compound baccatin III. The related compound, 10- ... Allylic oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate, sodium acetate, and celite gave ketone 6.6, which was subsequently reduced ... This was the last compound before the addition of the amide tail. As shown in Scheme 7, Ojima lactam 7.1 reacted with alcohol ... The oxetane ring in compound 6.3 was obtained via an SN2 reaction involving a mesylate derived from acetate 4.9. Ring B was ...
Pyridinium 4-Caffeoyl-1,5-quinide Coffee portal "Highly Active Compound Found In Coffee May Prevent Colon Cancer". ScienceDaily ... Methylpyridinium is a chemical compound which is the quaternary ammonium compound derived from the N-methylation of pyridine. ... salts containing methyl substituted pyridinium cations". Materials chemistry and physics. 50 (1): 20-24. doi:10.1016/S0254-0584 ...
A limited number of (rapidly interchanging) conformers exist for this type of compound. In handcuff-shaped catenanes, two ... diffraction shows that due to pi-pi interactions the aromatic group of the cyclophane is held firmly inside the pyridinium ring ... "A catenane consisting of a large ring threaded through both cyclic units of a handcuff-like compound". Chemical Communications ...
Jones oxidation Pyridinium chlorochromate Pyridinium dichromate Sarett oxidation J. C. Collins, W. W. Hess and F. J. Frank ( ... Moreover, the Collins reagent is especially useful for oxidations of acid sensitive compounds. This complex is both difficult ... It can be used as an alternative to the Jones reagent and pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) when oxidizing secondary alcohols to ... Accountius noted an isolation in the compound with the empirical composition CrO3•2C5H5N, a brick-red complex, from a reaction ...
Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ... One of his new classes of compounds was "syndesmides", which were compounds formed by the combination of two or more simpler ... By the reaction of an acid chloride with organocadmium compounds or organocopper compounds. ... The most widely used member of this class of compounds is methyl vinyl ketone, CH3C(O)CH=CH2, which is useful in the Robinson ...
The inhibition effect of the compounds was evaluated against bacteria, molds and yeasts; the activities were expressed as the ... A series of bis-pyridinium quaternary ammonium salts (bis-PyQAs) with different aryl and heteroaryl moieties were synthesized ... Synthesis and in Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of New N-Heterocyclic Diquaternary Pyridinium Compounds. Bianca Furdui 1. ... "Synthesis and in Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of New N-Heterocyclic Diquaternary Pyridinium Compounds." Molecules 19, no. 8: ...
The crystal structure of the N-allyl-2, 6-di (ortho-chloro-phenyl) -4-methoxyphenyl pyridinium perchlorate molecular compound ... The Crystal Structure Analyses of Molecular Compound N ? allyl-2, 6 - di (ortho-chloro-phenyl) ? 4 - methoxyphenyl pyridinium ... The Crystal Structure Analyses of Molecular Compound N ? allyl-2, 6 - di (ortho-chloro-phenyl) ? 4 - methoxyphenyl pyridinium ... Mouayed M. Mahmoud, Saad N. Ibrahim, "The Crystal Structure Analyses of Molecular Compound N ? allyl-2, 6 - di (ortho-chloro- ...
These compounds are to be tested for tuberculostatic activity. ... The compounds reported here were prepared for the purpose of ... The compounds reported here were prepared for the purpose of determining the effects of active groups on the pyridine ring, and ... The compounds reported here were prepared for the purpose of determining the effects of active groups on the pyridine ring, and ... Maglaughlin, Edward Phillip. Pyridinium Derivatives of 9,10-Endo-o-Phenylene-9,10-Dihydro-1,4-Anthraquinone, thesis, 1956; ...
The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. The reactions can be ... N-(hydrophobe aromatic)pyridinium compounds. US7005555. 25 Jun 2003. 28 Feb 2006. Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.. Process for ... pyridinium acetate 6 Propionaldehyde Butylamine 1-butyl-2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyridinium acetate 7 Butyraldehyde Ethylamine 1,3, ... pyridinium acetate 9 Butyraldehyde Butylamine 1-butyl-2-propyl-3,5-diethyl pyridinium acetate10 Butyraldehyde Monoethanol- 1- ...
Typical such corrosion inhibitors are made from acids such as sebacic and azelaic acid and amino compounds such as ammonia, ... Certain salts of polycarboxylic acids and amino compounds are useful as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous systems used in well- ... N-(hydrophobe aromatic)pyridinium compounds. US5531937 *. 12 Sep 1995. 2 Jul 1996. Betz Laboratories, Inc.. Water soluble ... THE AMINO COMPOUND (II):. The amino compounds useful in making the carboxylate salts used in this invention can be represented ...
Structure, phase transitions and dielectric properties of a new inclusion compound of bis-thiourea pyridinium nitrate salt. ... Thermal expansion and decomposition of bicchulite-type to melilite-type compounds. Peters, Lars / Knorr, Karsten / Katzke, ...
0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Dihydropyridines); 0 (Prodrugs); 0 (Pyridinium Compounds); 0 (Salts); 7M8K3P6I89 (1,4- ... Part of target compounds (5d, 6d, 7d, 10d, 13d, 16d) displayed potent antimicrobial effect against ten common pathogens (S. ... Salt forms of pharmaceutical compounds can have unique pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties. MDV1634 was evaluated for ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Quaternary Ammonium Compounds); 0 (Salts). ...
0/A2E compound; 0/Antioxidants; 0/DNA, Mitochondrial; 0/Lipofuscin; 0/Pyridinium Compounds; 0/Retinoids; 8558G7RUTR/Pyruvic ... Pyridinium Compounds / metabolism*, pharmacology. Pyruvic Acid / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Retinoids / metabolism*, ...
Pyridinium Compounds / metabolism*. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / metabolism*. Retina / metabolism, ultrastructure*. Synapses ... 0/FM1 43; 0/Fluorescent Dyes; 0/Pyridinium Compounds; 0/Quaternary Ammonium Compounds ...
0 (N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium); 0 (Nicotinic Antagonists); 0 (Picolines); 0 (Pyridinium Compounds); 0 (Receptors, ... DR mimetics, compounds that can mimic the effects of DR, have been intensively explored. d-Allulose (d-Alu), the C3-epimer of d ...
Electrostatographic toner containing an alkyl pyridinium compound and imaging method. EP0161128A1 *. Mar 20, 1985. Nov 13, 1985 ... Quaternary ammonium compound as charge adjuvants for positive electrostatic liquid developers. US5401809 *. Dec 3, 1993. Mar 28 ... Positive toners containing long chain hydrazinium compounds. US4286037 *. Sep 5, 1978. Aug 25, 1981. Oce-Van Der Grinten N.V.. ... Toner compositions containing pyridinium tetrafluoroborates. US4464452 *. May 2, 1983. Aug 7, 1984. Xerox Corporation. ...
Toners containing alkyl pyridinium compounds and their hydrates. US4338390. 4 Dic 1980. 6 Jul 1982. Xerox Corporation. ... Examples of specific positive charge controlling additives include alkyl pyridinium halides, and preferably cetyl pyridinium ... adding an optional charge director compound such as an aluminum compound to the dispersion; and diluting the dispersion. ... and cetyl pyridinium halide, especially the chloride and bisulfides, and mixtures thereof. ...
Both Pyridostigmine bromide and Cephaloridine are quarternary pyridinium compounds. The second group are all dipeptide analogs ... A compound was considered active if, in the presence of the compound, the increase in the amount of antibody (that specifically ... Therefore the percent score is a measure of the ability of the compound (at 10 M) to increase antibody binding. The compounds ... In this study we describe the initial testing of the compounds leading to the identification of 14 compounds that were analyzed ...
Chemicals/CAS: Arginine, 74-79-3; Cross-Linking Reagents; Lysine, 56-87-1; pentosidine, 124505-87-9; Pyridinium Compounds ... Biology · Biomedical Research · Collagen · Pentosidine · Pyridinium · collagen · pyridinium derivative · animal tissue · ... Pyridinium Compounds · Reproducibility of Results · Sensitivity and Specificity · Spectrometry, Fluorescence · Tendons A high- ... Biomedical Research · Collagen · Cross-linking · Matrix metalloproteinase · MMP · Palate · TIMP · gelatinase A · pyridinium ...
Microbial metabolism of pyridinium compounds. Metabolism of 4-carboxy-1-methylpyridinium chloride, a photolytic product of ...
Pyridinium cation Oxygen Tetrahydropyran Pyran (2H-Oxine is not used) Pyrylium cation ... Although heterocyclic chemical compounds may be inorganic compounds or organic compounds, most contain at least one carbon. ... A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of ... Heterocyclic compounds are pervasive in many areas of life sciences and technology.[9] Many drugs are heterocyclic compounds.[ ...
These compounds are usually pyridinium salts of metallates, e.g., (2) Note. An additional example of a compound provided for ... Compound in which acyclic nitrogen is bonded directly to the group. (1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is: ... Compounds in which the tricyclo ring system contains ring oxygen. (1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is: ... Compounds in which the bicyclo ring system contains ring sulfur. (1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is: ...
Ring-Fused Pyridinium Compounds from Rhodium-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reactions * Full Text * HTML ...
... pyridinium chloride , C7H10ClNO , CID 118750 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Are there any specific compounds that are know to cause ... That produces a pyridinium compound which is the real problem. ... And in a further stroke of bad luck, the same compound is also an inhibitor of a key enzyme in mitochondria - and you dont ... Organomercury compounds are (in high doses) pretty bad news in general, causing all sorts of neurological problems. They just ... The compound gets oxidized by monoamine oxidase B, which is a common fate for molecules of its type. ...
Mono and bis-ester derivatives of pyridinium and quinolinium compounds as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. ... Mono and bis-ester derivatives of pyridinium and quinolinium compounds as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors. ...
... alkyl pyridinium compounds, inclusive of cetyl pyridinium chloride. Additionally, toner and developer compositions useful in ... 4,617,249 relating to toners with a crosslinking compound, reference for example column 4, lines 42 to 64. ... and a peroxide to a polyoxyalkylene compound, such as a siloxane, wherein there results a graft copolymer; and more ... there are incorporated into the toner compositions charge enhancing additives such as alkyl pyridinium halides, distearyl ...
Cephem compound having pyridinium group Family Cites Families (7). * Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party. Publication ... Cephem compound having catechol group WO2011125966A1 (en) 2010-04-05. 2011-10-13. 塩野義製薬株式会社. Cephem compound having pseudo- ... Chemical compounds EP1427418B1 (en) * 2001-08-24. 2009-11-11. Yale University. Piperazinone compounds as anti-tumor and anti- ... C07D-HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS * C07D499/00-Heterocyclic compounds containing 4-thia-1-azabicyclo [3.2.0] heptane ring systems, i. ...
... a pyridinium quarternary ammonium compound; an ethoxylated quarternary ammonium compound; a propoxylated quarternary ammonium ... A preferred pyridinium quarternary is cetyl pyridinium. Preferred ethoxylated quats are the ethoxylated C2 -C10 quat. The C2 -C ... compound and an imidazoline quarternary ammonium compounds. Preferred alkyl benzyl quarternary ammonium compounds are the C1 -C ... Aqueous solutions of quaternary ammonium compounds US4204018A (en) * 1972-05-19. 1980-05-20. Bernstein Bruce S. Activated ...
  • 8 One way of distinguishing between these two modes of inhibitor binding is that only the second class bind inhibitors with a permanent positive charge, such as glycosyl pyridinium ions or quaternary ammonium compounds such as the dimethylated analogue of 1-deoxynojirimycin. (rsc.org)
  • The compounds reported here were prepared for the purpose of determining the effects of active groups on the pyridine ring, and to determine the effects of substituted methyl groups on the nucleus. (unt.edu)
  • The results may be interpreted in terms of nucleophilic attack of aniline at the 2'-position of the N-(deca-B-methyl-1,12-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane-1-carbonyl)pyridinium intermediate, followed by ring-opening of the pyridine nucleus and recyclization. (mendeley.com)
  • It is otherwise difficult to understand e.g. why methylglucoside (pp. 24 and 25), a-Dmethylglucoside (pp. 22 and 58), ~-~-methylglucoside (p. 22), a-methyl-mglucopyranoside and P-methyl-D-ghcopyranoside (p. 106) are listed separately in the index, though the substances are simply anomers of the same compound. (docme.ru)
  • Increased DASPMI fluorescence under conditions that elevate the mitochondrial membrane potential has been attributed to uptake according to Nernst distributions, delocalization of pi-electrons, quenching processes of the methyl pyridinium moiety, and restricted torsional dynamics at the mitochondrial inner membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Compound 5 is the N -methyl derivative of agelongine ( 12 ) which consist of a pyridinium ring and an ester linkage instead of the aminoimidazole moiety and the common amide bond in PIAs. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Additionally, five new compounds, four with a dimeric PIA structure ( 1 - 4 ) and the N -methyl analogue ( 5 ) of the bromopyrrole alkaloid agelongine ( 12 ) , were isolated. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Such influence of the acceptor's electrochemical nature is revealed through varying the group attached to the N atom of the pyridinium-4-oxime moiety. (rsc.org)
  • They were the first to prepare α-aminopyrazoles 3 and proposed that the products formed from the reaction of compound 3 with sodium nitrite in acidic medium were nitrosoamino compounds 4 ,which could be used in further condensation reactions to obtain a range of other products. (springer.com)
  • Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation Reactions of Aryl Halides and Related Compounds. (docme.ru)
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200900013 Palladium Catalysis Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation Reactions of Aryl Halides and Related Compounds Anne Brennfhrer, Helfried Neumann, and Matthias Beller* Keywords: aryl halides · carbon monoxide · carbonylation · homogeneous catalysis · palladium Dedicated to Professor Armin de Meijere on the occasion of his 70th birthday Angewandte Chemie 4114 www.angewandte.org 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Angew. (docme.ru)
  • This Review summarizes the recent work in the area of palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions of aryl halides and related compounds. (docme.ru)
  • The major EAG-active compound was identified as 2-butyroxy-8-heptadecene by gas chromatographic (GC) retention indices, mass spectra, in both electron impact and chemical ionization modes, hydrogenation, epoxidation, and derivatization with dimethyldisulfide. (springer.com)
  • Mono- and bis-pyridinium-4-oxime compounds are introduced as new electron acceptors for the formation of colored, supramolecular, inter-ionic charge-transfer complexes with hexacyanoferrate( II ) as a donor. (rsc.org)
  • Comparison of the solid-state structures and the aqueous-phase dyads reveals the nature of the charge-transfer interactions involving conjugated pyridinium-4-oximes as electron acceptors. (rsc.org)
  • Systematic variation of electron donating groups on the pyridinium species is shown to influence the presence and/or strength of various supramolecular synthons, including hydrogen bonding and pi interactions. (osti.gov)
  • Product arising from burning: The substance is combustible and will burn if involved in a fire, evolving noxious fumes (eg oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, plus chlorine and sodium containing compounds). (europa.eu)
  • Compounds wherein the metal is bonded directly to the singly bonded chalcogen of a group, in which the X's are the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), which group is additionally attached directly or indirectly to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding. (uspto.gov)
  • Compounds wherein the metal is bonded directly to a chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium) which is attached directly or indirectly to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding. (uspto.gov)
  • The molecules of compound 2 were linked in crystal by electrostatic π-π interactions of carbonyl oxygen atom with the diazo nitrogen atom bonded to the ring. (springer.com)
  • They could also be used for the establishment of carbon-sulfur, carbon-nitrogen bonds, carbon-oxygen bonds, carbon-halogen bonds, carbon-selenium, along with other organometallic compounds. (prsync.com)
  • In these compounds the nitrogen atom is typically considered to be crucial for inhibitory activity, as the corresponding oxygen, 5 sulfur and carbon analogues are normally much weaker inhibitors. (rsc.org)
  • A sodium borohydride reduction of ylides furnishes the target compounds, N-substituted [benzoylamino]-3-ethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Organomercury compounds are (in high doses) pretty bad news in general, causing all sorts of neurological problems. (sciencemag.org)
  • The focus of this thesis has been organometallic catalysis applied to compounds containing heteroatoms which are usually poisonous to metal catalysts, by channelling their innate reactivity advantageously. (diva-portal.org)
  • It plays an important role in the selective mono-oxidation of xylenes to tolualdehydes and arylhydroxyamines to nitroso compounds. (fishersci.ca)
  • In experiments with smooth muscle and retinal endothelial cell cultures in hyperglycemic conditions, each active compound was shown to accelerate the cleavage of IAP, and this was associated with a decrease in IAP association with SHPS-1 as determined by coimmunoprecipitation of the proteins from cell lysates. (hindawi.com)
  • The lesser EAG-active compound was identified as the corresponding alcohol. (springer.com)
  • The method is preferably used to prepare nanoparticles of a poorly water soluble, pharmaceutically active compound suitable for in vivo delivery, particularly by parenteral routes. (google.de)
  • 5 . The process of claim 1 wherein the water solubility of the pharmaceutical active compound is less than 10 mg/ml. (google.de)
  • The principle of active compound separation depends on the activity of adsorbents and polarity of the solvent. (sorbeadindia.com)
  • Typical such corrosion inhibitors are made from acids such as sebacic and azelaic acid and amino compounds such as ammonia, ethanol amine, di- and tri-ethanol. (google.com.au)
  • The products of these reductions are chiral compounds, which could constitute further chemical building blocks. (diva-portal.org)
  • These compounds are utilized satisfactorily, because of their interesting chemical and mechanical properties, in a number of industrial applications, e.g., for production of compatible blends of nonmiscible polymers, ion exchange materials, membranes for reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, plasticizers for macro-defect-free concretes, and conductive composites. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Compounds wherein the metal is bonded directly (a) to a ring carbon of the six-membered hetero ring, or (b) to a carbon atom which additionally is attached directly or indirectly to the six-membered hetero ring by nonionic bonding. (uspto.gov)
  • The evaluation of these compounds cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cell lines, and Ishikawa cells, using the CellTiter-Glo (CTG) luminescent cell viability assay is underway. (aacrjournals.org)