Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Heterocyclic compounds that contain 4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[2,3-c]pyridine as part of their structure.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity specific for HIV-1.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (1/8964)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (2/8964)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (3/8964)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (4/8964)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635. (5/8964)

The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine.  (+info)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (6/8964)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization of human cells to topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis. (7/8964)

BACKGROUND: Among the inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase II (an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs) tested in the National Cancer Institute's In Vitro Antineoplastic Drug Screen, NSC 284682 (3'-hydroxydaunorubicin) and NSC 659687 [9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-1-(N-[2(dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl)-6H-pyrido -(4,3-b)carbazole] were the only compounds that were more cytotoxic to tumor cells harboring an activated ras oncogene than to tumor cells bearing wild-type ras alleles. Expression of the multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) facilitates tumor cell resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors. We investigated whether tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes showed enhanced sensitivity to other topoisomerase II inhibitors in the absence of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. METHODS: We studied 20 topoisomerase II inhibitors and individual cell lines with or without activated ras oncogenes and with varying degrees of multidrug resistance. RESULTS: In the absence of multidrug resistance, human tumor cell lines with activated ras oncogenes were uniformly more sensitive to most topoisomerase II inhibitors than were cell lines containing wild-type ras alleles. The compounds NSC 284682 and NSC 659687 were especially effective irrespective of the multidrug resistant phenotype. The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization to topoisomerase II inhibitors was far more prominent with the non-DNA-intercalating epipodophyllotoxins than with the DNA-intercalating inhibitors. This difference in sensitization appears to be related to a difference in apoptotic sensitivity, since the level of DNA damage generated by etoposide (an epipodophyllotoxin derivative) in immortalized human kidney epithelial cells expressing an activated ras oncogene was similar to that in the parental cells, but apoptosis was enhanced only in the former cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activated ras oncogenes appear to enhance the sensitivity of human tumor cells to topoisomerase II inhibitors by potentiating an apoptotic response. Epipodophyllotoxin-derived topoisomerase II inhibitors should be more effective than the DNA-intercalating inhibitors against tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes.  (+info)

Raf-1 is activated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580. (8/8964)

SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imi dazole) is widely used as a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report that SB203580 activates the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in quiescent smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The concentrations of SB203580 required lie above those necessary to inhibit p38 MAPK and we were unable to detect basal levels of active p38 MAPK. SB203580 does not directly activate Raf-1 in vitro, and fails to activate Ras, MEK, and ERK in intact cells. In vitro, however, SB203580-stimulated Raf-1 activates MEK1 in a coupled assay. We conclude that activation of Raf-1 by SB203580 is not mediated by an inhibition of p38 MAPK, is Ras-independent, and is uncoupled from MEK/ERK signaling.  (+info)

The exact cause of acatalasia is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations that affect the function or expression of the catalase enzyme. The disorder is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood, and treatment typically involves managing the symptoms with a high-calorie diet, vitamin supplements, and antioxidants. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a potential treatment option.

Here are some key points to consider when discussing acatalasia in the medical field:

* Acatalasia is a rare congenital disorder that affects the small intestine and is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of catalase enzyme.
* The exact cause of acatalasia is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations that affect the function or expression of the catalase enzyme.
* Symptoms of acatalasia include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate.
* Treatment typically involves managing the symptoms with a high-calorie diet, vitamin supplements, and antioxidants.
* Bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a potential treatment option in some cases.

In summary, acatalasia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the small intestine and is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the catalase enzyme, leading to an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the body and a range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and failure to gain weight or grow at the expected rate. Treatment typically involves managing the symptoms with a high-calorie diet, vitamin supplements, and antioxidants, and bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a potential treatment option in some cases.

Types of Intestinal Neoplasms:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that grow on the inner lining of the intestine. They can become malignant over time if left untreated.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop in the inner lining of the intestine. They can be subdivided into several types, including colon cancer and rectal cancer.
3. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can occur in the intestines.
4. Leiomyosarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that develop in the smooth muscle layers of the intestine.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact cause of intestinal neoplasms is not known, but several factors can increase the risk of developing these growths. These include:

1. Age: The risk of developing intestinal neoplasms increases with age.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colon cancer or other intestinal neoplasms can increase the risk of developing these growths.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.
4. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations can increase the risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.
5. Diet and lifestyle factors: A diet high in fat and low in fiber, as well as lack of physical activity, may increase the risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.


Intestinal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

1. Abdominal pain or discomfort
2. Changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation
3. Blood in the stool
4. Weight loss
5. Fatigue
6. Loss of appetite


To diagnose intestinal neoplasms, a doctor may perform several tests, including:

1. Colonoscopy: A colonoscope is inserted through the rectum and into the colon to visualize the inside of the colon and detect any abnormal growths.
2. Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is removed from the colon and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
3. Imaging tests: Such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any abnormalities in the colon.
4. Blood tests: To check for certain substances in the blood that are associated with intestinal neoplasms.


The treatment of intestinal neoplasms depends on the type and location of the growth, as well as the stage of the cancer. Treatment options may include:

1. Surgery: To remove the tumor and any affected tissue.
2. Chemotherapy: To kill any remaining cancer cells with drugs.
3. Radiation therapy: To kill cancer cells with high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation.
4. Targeted therapy: To use drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them.
5. Immunotherapy: To use drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.


The prognosis for intestinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the location of the growth, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while later-stage cancers have a poorer prognosis.


Intestinal neoplasms can cause several complications, including:

1. Obstruction: The tumor can block the normal flow of food through the intestine, leading to abdominal pain and other symptoms.
2. Bleeding: The tumor can cause bleeding in the intestine, which can lead to anemia and other complications.
3. Perforation: The tumor can create a hole in the wall of the intestine, leading to peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdomen) and other complications.
4. Metastasis: The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs, and cause further complications.
5. Malnutrition: The tumor can make it difficult for the body to absorb nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.


There is no sure way to prevent intestinal neoplasms, but there are several steps that may help reduce the risk of developing these types of cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding known risk factors: Avoiding known risk factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a diet high in processed meat can help reduce the risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.
2. Maintaining a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help keep the intestines healthy and may reduce the risk of cancer.
3. Exercise regularly: Regular exercise can help maintain a healthy weight, improve digestion, and may reduce the risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.
4. Managing chronic conditions: Managing chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and obesity can help reduce the risk of developing intestinal neoplasms.
5. Screening tests: Regular screening tests such as colonoscopy, CT scan, or barium enema can help detect precancerous polyps or early-stage cancer, allowing for early treatment and prevention of advanced disease.

Early detection and diagnosis are crucial for effective treatment and survival rates for intestinal neoplasms. If you have any of the risk factors or symptoms mentioned above, it is essential to consult a doctor as soon as possible. A thorough examination and diagnostic tests can help determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment.

Phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to toxins, or infections with certain viruses or other pathogens that interfere with phagocyte function.

The consequences of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction can include increased susceptibility to infections and the development of persistent or chronic infections, which can lead to a range of health problems and diseases.

Phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction is an important area of research in immunology and infectious disease, as understanding the mechanisms that control phagocyte function can help us develop new therapies and treatments for infections and other immune-related disorders.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) poisoning is a type of toxicity that occurs when the brain is exposed to high levels of this substance. MPTP is a synthetic compound that was originally developed as a drug for treating Parkinson's disease, but it was found to be too toxic for human use.

MPTP poisoning can cause severe and irreversible damage to the brain's dopamine-producing neurons, leading to a condition called parkinsonism. Symptoms of MPTP poisoning include muscle rigidity, tremors, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and changes in mood and cognitive function.

The diagnosis of MPTP poisoning is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests, including blood and urine analysis for the presence of MPTP or its metabolites. Treatment of MPTP poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as management of symptoms and prevention of complications, as well as medications to reduce dopamine levels in the brain.

MPTP poisoning can occur through intentional exposure (e.g., suicide attempt) or accidental exposure (e.g., ingestion of contaminated food or water). It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risks and signs of MPTP poisoning, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term neurological damage and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis provides a fairly general method for generating substituted pyridines using pyridine itself as a ... Pyridine is also used as a base in some condensation reactions. As a base, pyridine can be used as the Karl Fischer reagent, ... Yields of pyridine up to be 93% can be achieved with the nickel-based catalyst. Pyridine can also be produced by the ... Pyridine easily dissolves in water and harms both animals and plants in aquatic systems. Pyridine has a flash point of 17 °C ...
... are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a ... Media related to Pyridine alkaloids at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Alkaloids with a pyridine partial structure are usually further subdivided according to their occurrence and their biogenetic ... nicotine anabasine ricinine "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Entry on Pyridin. at: Römpp ...
The other isomers are pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde. It is a colorless liquid that is routinely ... Pyridine-3-carbaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C5H4NCHO. It is one of three isomeric pyridinaldehydes. ...
The other isomers are pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde. Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde is a colorless oily ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Pyridine-2-carbaldehyde, also called 2-formylpyridine, is an organic compound with the formula NC5H4CHO. It is one of three ... Pyridine aldehydes are typically prepared by oxidation of the hydroxymethyl- or methylpyridines. The drug pralidoxime can be ...
The Boger pyridine synthesis is a cycloaddition approach to the formation of pyridines named after its inventor Dale L. Boger, ... 4-triazine to form the pyridine nucleus. The reaction is especially useful for accessing pyridines that would be difficult or ... v t e (Pyridine forming reactions, Heterocycle forming reactions, Organic reactions, Name reactions, All stub articles, Organic ... The initial adduct then expels nitrogen, and the pyridine is rearomatized with loss of the amine. Boger, Dale L.; Panek, James ...
... may stand for NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Re/Si-specific) NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Si- ...
... may stand for NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Re/Si-specific) NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Si-specific) ...
AC with 0 elements, Use dmy dates from April 2020, Chemical data pages, Pyridines, Chemical data pages cleanup). ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on pyridine. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions ...
The structure of pyridine-N-oxide is very similar to that of pyridine with respect to the parameters for the ring. The molecule ... Pyridine N-oxide is five orders of magnitude less basic than pyridine, but it is isolable as a hydrochloride salt, [C5H5NOH]Cl ... Treatment of the pyridine-N-oxide with phosphorus oxychloride gives 4- and 2-chloropyridines. The N-oxides of various pyridines ... The C-N-C angle is 124°, 7° wider than in pyridine. The oxidation of pyridine can be achieved with a number of peracids ...
The other isomers are pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde. Pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde is a colorless liquid ... Pyridine-4-carbaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C5H4NCHO. It is one of three isomeric pyridinaldehydes. ...
... (III) is first reduced to Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime(I) by sodium borohydride in alkaline solution, ... CH3COO)Co(DH)2py + NaX → XCo(DH)2py + NaCH3COO (X = Br, I, CNO, CN, N3 or SCN) The pyridine base in the axial position can also ... Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime is a yellow-brown powder that is sparingly soluble in most solvents, including water. The complex ... Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime is a coordination compound containing a CoIII center with octahedral coordination. It has been ...
In enzymology, a pyridine N-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Damani LA, Shaker MS, Crooks PA, Godin CS, Nwosu C (1986). "N-methylation and quaternization of pyridine in vitro by rabbit ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:pyridine N-methyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and pyridine, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine ...
Another use of the Kröhnke pyridine synthesis was the generation of a number of 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridines that were ... Hantzsch pyridine synthesis Gattermann-Skita synthesis Chichibabin pyridine synthesis Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement ... β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds used to generate highly functionalized pyridines. Pyridines occur widely in natural and ... Ultimately, the Kröhnke pyridine synthesis offers a facile and straightforward approach to the synthesis of a wide breadth of ...
The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis (/ˈtʃiːtʃiːˌbeɪbiːn/) is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings. The reaction involves the ... Shimizu, S.; Watanabe, N.; Kataoka, T.; Shoji, T.; Abe, N.; Morishita, S.; Ichimura, H. "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". ... Methyl-substituted pyridines, which show widespread uses among multiple fields of applied chemistry, are prepared by this ... 3-Methylpyridine and pyridine are produced from acrolein and ammonia. Acrolein and propionaldehyde react with ammonia affords ...
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis or Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is a multi-component organic reaction between an aldehyde ... The initial reaction product is a dihydropyridine which can be oxidized in a subsequent step to a pyridine. The driving force ... As a Multi-component reaction, the Hantzch pyridine synthesis is much more atom efficient with a simpler number of reaction ... Katrinsky, Alan R.; Ostercamp, Daryl L.; Yousaf, Taher I. (1986). "The mechanism of the hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A study by ...
... (EC is an enzyme with systematic name 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanal: ... 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine+dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ...
In organic chemistry, the Bohlmann-Rahtz pyridine synthesis is a reaction that generates substituted pyridines in two steps, ... Xiong, Xi; Bagley, Mark C.; Chapaneri, Krishna (2 August 2004). "A new mild method for the one-pot synthesis of pyridines". ... Bagley, Mark C.; Dale, James W.; Bower, Justin (January 2001). "A New Modification of the Bohlmann-Rahtz Pyridine Synthesis". ... v t e (Ring forming reactions, Name reactions, Pyridine forming reactions, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ...
... is the coordination complex with the formula FeCl2(pyridine)4. A yellow solid, it is a ... A monohydrate as well as several related complexes are known, e.g. CoCl2(pyridine)4 and NiCl2(pyridine)4. It is prepared by ... Long, Gary J.; Clarke, Peter J. (1978). "Crystal and molecular structures of trans-tetrakis(pyridine)dichloroiron(II), -nickel( ... II), and -cobalt(II) and trans-tetrakis(pyridine)dichloroiron(II) monohydrate". Inorganic Chemistry. 17 (6): 1394-1401. doi: ...
Examples include sulfur trioxide pyridine complex SO3(py) and pyridine adduct of borane, BH3py. Many metal pyridine complexes ... With a pKa of 5.25 for its conjugate acid, pyridine is about 15x less basic than imidazole. Pyridine is a weak pi-acceptor ... Transition metal pyridine complexes encompass many coordination complexes that contain pyridine as a ligand. Most examples are ... Few low-valent metal complexes of pyridines are known. The role of pyridine as a Lewis base extends also to main group ...
... is the compound with the formula C5H5NSO3. It is a colourless solid that dissolves in polar ... It is the adduct formed from the Lewis base pyridine and the Lewis acid sulfur trioxide. The compound is mainly used as a ... Thomas T. Tidwell "Sulfur Trioxide-Pyridine" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2001, John Wiley & Sons. doi: ... Pyridine complexes, Reagents for organic chemistry, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ...
... or Barluenga's reagent, named after José Barluenga, is a mild iodinating reagent. ... Commercially available, it may be prepared by reacting iodine with pyridine in the presence of silver tetrafluoroborate ...
... pyridine and (E)-2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-pyridine reduce traumatic neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo by antagonizing N- ... 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) is a research drug which was one of the first compounds found to act as a selective ... van der Kam EL, de Vry J, Tzschentke TM (December 2007). "Effect of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine on intravenous self- ... van der Kam EL, De Vry J, Tzschentke TM (April 2009). "The mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) ...
... catalyse the interchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron ... A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (35): 23542-23547. PMID 1748631. ...
The molecular complex RhCl3(pyridine)3 is an intermediate in the synthesis of [RhCl2(pyridine)4]Cl. Vasilchenko, D. B.; Baidina ... Dichlorotetrakis(pyridine)rhodium(III) chloride is the chloride salt of the coordination complex with the formula [RhCl2( ... The tetrahydrate converts to the monohydrate upon vacuum drying at 100 °C. The hydrates of [RhCl2(pyridine)4]Cl are prepared by ... Acharya, K. R.; Tavale, S. S.; Guru Row, T. N. (1984). "Structure of mer-Trichlorotris(pyridine)rhodium(III), RhCl3(C5H5N)3". ...
When the pyridine ligands were removed, the transient square planar [Ag(H2O)4]2+ remains, which spontaneously oxidizes water to ... Tetrakis(pyridine)silver(II) peroxydisulfate is a chemical compound which contains silver in the rare oxidation state of +2. ... "Tetrakis(pyridine)silver(II) Peroxodisulfate, [Ag(py)4]S2O8, a Reagent for the Oxidative Transformations" Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn ... The complex also releases tiny amounts of pyridine vapor which is a possible carcinogen. Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PYROXD1 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase domain 1". Retrieved 2018-05-16. Rose JE, Behm FM, Drgon T, Johnson ... The encoded protein belongs to the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase family but lacks the C-terminal ... PNDRs are flavoproteins that catalyze the pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of thiol residues in other proteins. ...
PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meat. ... a b International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997) PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine)(Group 2B ... 1995) High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are ... pyridine). Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48: S98-S105. Zheng, W. & Lee, S. (2009). Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine ...
Pyridine forms an N-oxide with some oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide. This pyridine-N-oxide undergoes a rearrangement ... however the yellow pigments often reported in degradation of many pyridine solvents, such as unsubstituted pyridine or picoline ... Pyridine diols undergo chemical transformation in solution to form intensely colored pigments. Similar pigments have been ... Leis D. G.; Curran B. C. (1945). "Electric Moments of Some Gamma-Substituted Pyridines". Journal of the American Chemical ...
Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and -4-thione". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3610. doi:10.1039/ ... This yellow crystalline solid is a derivative of pyridine. The compound and its derivatives serve primarily as acylating agents ... 2-Mercaptopyridine derivatives can also be generated from precursors lacking preformed pyridine rings. It arises for example in ...
... pyridine-N-oxide and pyridine-2-thiol), both of which have pKa > 8. It is only slightly soluble in water (2.5 g L−1) but is ... Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and −4-thione". J. Chem. Soc.: 3610-3613. doi:10.1039/JR9580003610. Entry on Pyrithion. ... Thomas, K.; Jerchel, D. (1964). "The Introduction of Substituents into the Pyridine Ring". In Foerst, Wilhelm (ed.). Newer ... The tautomerism of mercapto- and acylamino-pyridine 1-oxides". J. Chem. Soc.: 2937-2942. doi:10.1039/JR9600002937. Ebrahimia, R ...
Studies in people and animals suggest that pyridine may damage the liver. This chemical has been found in at least 11 of 1,416 ... Everyone is exposed to very low levels of pyridine in air, water, and food. Workers who make or use the chemical may be exposed ... What is pyridine?. Pyridine is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell. It can be made from crude coal tar or from other ... How can pyridine affect my health?. Very little information is available on the health effects of pyridine. Animal studies and ...
Azabenzene, Azine Colorless to yellow liquid with a nauseating, fish-like odor.
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... Molecular Formula: C11H12F3NO3 ...
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... pyridine-3-carboxylic acid , C6H5MgNO2+2 , CID 19022218 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Pyridine-containing block copolymers are a special type of macromolecule, and they can self-assemble into highly-ordered nano- ... Pyridine-containing block copolymers are a special type of macromolecule, and they can self-assemble into highly-ordered nano- ... In this contribution, we reported a new type of pyridine-containing block-copolymer of polyethylene glycol-block-poly(N-(2- ... This facile strategy provides a new avenue to the scale-up preparation of smart and diversiform pyridine-containing polymer ...
Ligand Pyridine-3-hydroxyacetonitrile. Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data ... view of Pyridine-3-hydroxyacetonitrile (97060 - OYIMSJKFABKGTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N) ...
The global pyridine market size reached US$ 663.6 Million in 2022. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US ... Pyridine Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2023-2028 - ... Figure 14: Global: Pyridine (Pyridine N-Oxide) Market: Sales Value (in Million US$), 2017 & 2022 *Figure 15: Global: Pyridine ( ... Global Pyridine & Pyridine Derivatives Market Size study, By Type (Pyridine, Alpha Picoline, Beta Picoline, Gamma Picoline, 2- ...
2-hydroxy-5-nitro pyridine Inquire. CAS NO:5418-51-9; MF:C5H4N2O3. 2-hydroxyethyl pyridine Inquire. 2-methylpiperazine Inquire ... 2-amino-5-nitro pyridine Inquire. CAS NO:4214-76-0; MF:C5H5N3O2. 2-ethoxypropene Inquire. CAS NO:926-66-9; MF:C5H10O. ... 4-chloro pyridine hydrochloride Inquire. CAS NO:7379-35-3; MF:C5H5Cl2N. 4-methyl imidazole Inquire. CAS NO:822-36-6; MF:C4H6N2 ...
... pyridine-5,7(6H)-dione, CAS 18184-79-7, EC-000.1114, MW C15H12N2O2 from direct supplier at the best price ... 6-(2-phenylethyl)-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5,7(6H)-dione. 5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5,7(6H)-dione, 6-(2-phenylethyl)-. 18184- ... 6-(2-phenylethyl)-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5,7(6H)-dione. CAS: 18184-79-7. Catalog Number:EC-000.1114 ...
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Alkyl Pyridine. Minimum orders are typically one drum for liquid materials and pallets for materials that ship in bags. ...
Pyridines 69 Pyrimidines 36 Quaternary Ammonium salts 44 Reagents 113 Research Organics & Inorganics 878 Salts 312 Sealing ...
... is also widely used as an extractant for morphine and coffee, pyridine salt is also used as a textile lubricant, and ... Pyridine is used as demulsifier in aureomycin extraction. There are also some drugs based on pyridine as raw material or ... In addition, pyridine is also used to produce propargyl and plant growth regulator.. Pyridine is also an important ... Pyridine is also the raw material of inulin, an indispensable active component in insecticidal aerosols, and one of the ...
Substituted pyridines have acidic hydrogens in the neighboring position of the ring. The resonance allows to stabilize the base ... PYRIDINE THEORY Hits: 365 Pyridines with 2,4-alkyl groups have acidic hydrogens in the neighboring position of the ring. These ... No thoughts on "Reactivity of alkyl and vinyl pyridines" Login to post a comment Username. ...
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... pyridine AldrichCPR; find Sigma-Aldrich-PH016256 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & ...
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3-Aminomethyl pyridine supplier,manufacturer wholesale good 3-Aminomethyl pyridine with factory price from China.Buy now! ...
... pyridine-6-carbaldehyde. Me mahdollistamme tieteen tekemisen tarjoamalla käyttöösi kattavan tuotevalikoiman, hyvän palvelun, ...
The silver(I) and iodine(I) complexes of the 2-substituted pyridines 2-(diphenylmethyl)pyridine (1) and 2-(1,1-diphenylethyl) ... Iodine(i) complexes incorporating sterically bulky 2-substituted pyridines (2022). Ward, J. S., Gomila, R. M., Frontera, A., & ... pyridine (2), along with their potential protonated side products, were synthesised to investigate the steric limitations of ... Rissanen, K. (2022). Iodine(i) complexes incorporating sterically bulky 2-substituted pyridines. RSC Advances, 12(14), 8674- ...
CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotype/phenotype relations and urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in ... 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ...
... Colombo, Gioele. Primo. ;Attilio Ardizzoia, G.. Secondo. ; ... Herein we report on the photoluminescent behavior of zinc(II) and silver(I) complexes with 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridines ... Herein we report on the photoluminescent behavior of zinc(II) and silver(I) complexes with 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridines ... These peculiar features can be transferred to the corresponding complexes when imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines are used as ligands. ...
13-cyclobutyl epothilones and related pyridine side chain analogues. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... 13-cyclobutyl epothilones and related pyridine side chain analogues. ...
  • No studies are available in people or animals on the carcinogenic effects of pyridine. (
  • This is the No studies are available in people or animals on the exposure level of a chemical that is likely to cause permanent carcinogenic effects of pyridine. (
  • Pyridine sticks to soil particles. (
  • At present, there is a rise in the utilization of pyridine derivatives, such as beta picoline, to manufacture vitamin B3 and B6 for improving digestion, maintaining cholesterol levels, curing skin diseases, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular problems. (
  • Moreover, there is an increase in the employment of pyridine as a raw material to produce insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides around the world. (
  • Pyridine is extensively used in agrochemicals to manufacture herbicides, pesticides and insecticides. (
  • Pyridine is also used in the production of insecticides chlorpyrifos and methyl chlorpyrifos, which are broad-spectrum insecticides. (
  • Pyridine is also the raw material of inulin, an indispensable active component in insecticidal aerosols, and one of the insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for use in homes and public places. (
  • Pyridine is very soluble in water. (
  • pyridine caused these effects because the patients were taking o Pyridine is very soluble in water. (
  • In the production of dyes, pyridine is mainly used to produce blue BB, blue RR, disperse blue S-RB, soluble reducing blue IBC, soluble reducing grey IBL, etc., with a small amount. (
  • ToxFAQs Internet address via WWW is breathed an unknown amount of pyridine for an unknown reported. (
  • In the pesticide industry, pyridine is mainly used in the production of herbicides paraquat and Dioxin, etc., which has been widely used in the world in recent years. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have not classified pyridine as to its human carcinogenicity. (
  • ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) have not classified pyridine as to its human carcinogenicity. (
  • This minireview collects the results that we obtained in the recent years on luminescent compounds based on imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines, an interesting class of heterocycles characterized by relevant photophysical properties like high Stokes shift, good absolute quantum yields, good photostability and a λem modulable depending on the substituents on the heterocyclic ring. (
  • The chemical sensor was based on the reaction of basic pyridine with certain chlorinated compounds to form an intense red color. (
  • It o Workers may be exposed in industries that make pyridine can be made from crude coal tar or from other chemicals. (
  • This, coupled with the rising demand for pyridine as a solvent to produce chemicals and adhesives, is propelling the growth of the market. (
  • There are more than ten kinds of pyridine related to twenty kinds of chemicals produced in China. (
  • used to make many different products such as medicines, o People may breathe pyridine when it is released into the vitamins, food flavorings, paints, dyes, rubber products, air from burning cigarettes and from hot coffee. (
  • Animal studies and some limited case reports in people have noted liver damage from exposure to pyridine. (
  • These tests can't tell how much pyridine you were exposed to or if harmful health effects will occur from the exposure to pyridine. (
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set an occupational exposure limit of 5 parts of pyridine per million parts of workplace air (5 ppm) for an 8-hour workday over a 40-hour workweek. (
  • people have noted liver damage from exposure to pyridine. (
  • We do not know whether pyridine affects the ability of (OSHA) has set an occupational exposure limit of 5 parts of men and women to have children or whether it causes birth pyridine per million parts of workplace air (5 ppm) for an defects. (
  • Health (NIOSH) and the American Conference of Governmen tal and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have established the The Department of Health and Human Services, the same guidelines as OSHA for pyridine exposure levels in the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Envi workplace. (
  • Exposures to pyridine (110861) and 4- phenyl-propylpyridine (2057490) had a combined average exposure of 7.0 parts per million (ppm) in the molding area. (
  • This quinolone agent is a derivative of pyridine carboxylic acid with broad-spectrum bactericidal effect. (
  • The silver(I) and iodine(I) complexes of the 2-substituted pyridines 2-(diphenylmethyl)pyridine (1) and 2-(1,1-diphenylethyl)pyridine (2), along with their potential protonated side products, were synthesised to investigate the steric limitations of iodine(I) complex formation. (
  • The solid-state structures for the silver(I) and iodine(I) complexes were extensively compared to the literature and analysed by DFT to examine the influence of the sterically bulky pyridines and their anions. (
  • These peculiar features can be transferred to the corresponding complexes when imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines are used as ligands. (
  • Herein we report on the photoluminescent behavior of zinc(II) and silver(I) complexes with 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridines acting as N,N-bidentate, neutral ligands. (
  • CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotype/phenotype relations and urinary excretion of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a human dietary intervention study. (
  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed during ordinary cooking , and is subsequently metabolically activated by cytochrome P4501A2 ( CYP1A2 ) and N- acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). (
  • Red wine consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adduct levels in prostate. (
  • Pyridine is primarily released to the environment from industries that make and use this chemical. (
  • Pyridine is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell. (
  • OSAKA, N. Memory psychophysics for pyridine smell scale. (
  • Pyridine (C5H5N) is a heterocyclic organic compound with a strong sour, putrid, and fish-like odor. (
  • Workers may be exposed in industries that make pyridine or use it to make other products by breathing it in air or by touching it. (
  • Besides this, the increasing usage of pyridine in the food and beverage (F&B) industry as a low-volume additive for flavoring products is offering lucrative growth opportunities to market players. (
  • How can pyridine affect my health? (
  • For example, in the production of antihistamines and detoxification drugs, pyridine is used to absorb the chlorine produced. (
  • How likely is pyridine to cause cancer? (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about pyridine. (
  • Very little information is available on the health effects of pyridine. (
  • Headaches, giddiness, a desire to sleep, quickening of the pulse, and rapid breathing occurred in adults who breathed an unknown amount of pyridine for an unknown length of time. (
  • Everyone is exposed to very low levels of pyridine in air, water, and food. (
  • There are medical tests available to measure levels of pyridine in urine and blood. (
  • We do not know whether pyridine affects the ability of men and women to have children or whether it causes birth defects. (
  • These players are extensively investing in research and development (R&D) activities to produce pyridine with less toxicity, which is projected to strengthen the growth of the market. (
  • In addition, pyridine is also used to produce propargyl and plant growth regulator. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows pyridine to be used as a flavoring agent in the preparation of foods. (
  • Mild skin irritation and eye irritation were seen in pyridine to be used as a flavoring agent in the preparation of rabbits when pyridine was placed on their skin or in their foods. (
  • People who live near hazardous waste sites or landfills where pyridine exists may be exposed to it by breathing contaminated air or by drinking contaminated water. (
  • Pyridine can also be o People who live near hazardous waste sites or landfills where pyridine exists may be exposed to it by breathing formed from the breakdown of many natural materials in the contaminated air or by drinking contaminated water. (
  • Two patients with epilepsy had damage to the liver and o In the air, it may take several months or years until it kidneys after ingesting some pyridine. (
  • How has the global pyridine market performed so far and how will it perform in the coming years? (
  • The global pyridine market size reached US$ 663.6 Million in 2022. (
  • IMARC Group provides an analysis of the key trends in each sub-segment of the global pyridine market report, along with forecasts at the global and regional level from 2023-2028. (
  • Pyridine N-Oxide holds the largest market share on account of its potential of reacting with both nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents. (
  • What are the key regional markets in the global pyridine industry? (
  • What has been the impact of COVID-19 on the global pyridine industry? (
  • In addition, pyridine in synthetic resin, rubber additives industry also has applications. (
  • However, it still remains a critical challenge to design and fabricate pyridine-containing block polymeric nano-assemblies in a large scale in aqueous media. (
  • This facile strategy provides a new avenue to the scale-up preparation of smart and diversiform pyridine-containing polymer nanomaterials with potential applications in biomedicine. (
  • Pyridine can also be formed from the breakdown of many natural materials in the environment. (
  • What happens to pyridine when it enters the environment? (
  • The EPA requires that discharges or accidental spills into the environment of 1,000 pounds or more of pyridine be reported. (
  • Pyridine-containing block copolymers are a special type of macromolecule, and they can self-assemble into highly-ordered nano-objects for a wide range of applications due to their multiple properties including hydrogen bond acceptance, pH sensitivity, facile functionalization and metal ion coordination. (
  • We do not know if the pyridine caused these effects because the patients were taking several other medications at the same time. (
  • The OSHA evaluation criteria for a 10 hour time weighted average for pyridine is 5ppm. (