Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Nicotinamide Mononucleotide: 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5: A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.NADP Transhydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cyclic P-OxidesNicotinamidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.19.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.IminesSemicarbazidesStereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Picolinic AcidsOrganometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)QuinoxalinesGram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods: A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Rats, Inbred F344SemicarbazonesFormates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.QuinolinesMicrosomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.AzetidinesMolecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.ThiazolesSchiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.NAD+ NucleosidaseDithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.FlavoproteinsCyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.ImidesHeme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.BenzoxepinsArylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Thienopyridines: Heterocyclic compounds that contain 4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[2,3-c]pyridine as part of their structure.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.GlutaratesFluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cortisone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC 1.1.1.53.Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Rotaxanes: Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Lycopodium: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.Benzene DerivativesOxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Celastraceae: A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Acids, Carbocyclic: Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Streptonigrin: Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Radiochemistry: The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Acatalasia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.AcetalsChemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Iodine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.AmidohydrolasesAdenine NucleotidesInhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.Metaraminol: A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.KetonesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Lac Repressors: Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.6-Aminonicotinamide: A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.Phagocyte Bactericidal Dysfunction: Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.ResorcinolsNicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Delavirdine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity specific for HIV-1.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Benzoin: A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.IndolizinesHydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Quinolinic AcidsDrug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (1/8964)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (2/8964)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (3/8964)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (4/8964)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635. (5/8964)

The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine.  (+info)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (6/8964)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization of human cells to topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis. (7/8964)

BACKGROUND: Among the inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase II (an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs) tested in the National Cancer Institute's In Vitro Antineoplastic Drug Screen, NSC 284682 (3'-hydroxydaunorubicin) and NSC 659687 [9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-1-(N-[2(dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl)-6H-pyrido -(4,3-b)carbazole] were the only compounds that were more cytotoxic to tumor cells harboring an activated ras oncogene than to tumor cells bearing wild-type ras alleles. Expression of the multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) facilitates tumor cell resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors. We investigated whether tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes showed enhanced sensitivity to other topoisomerase II inhibitors in the absence of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. METHODS: We studied 20 topoisomerase II inhibitors and individual cell lines with or without activated ras oncogenes and with varying degrees of multidrug resistance. RESULTS: In the absence of multidrug resistance, human tumor cell lines with activated ras oncogenes were uniformly more sensitive to most topoisomerase II inhibitors than were cell lines containing wild-type ras alleles. The compounds NSC 284682 and NSC 659687 were especially effective irrespective of the multidrug resistant phenotype. The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization to topoisomerase II inhibitors was far more prominent with the non-DNA-intercalating epipodophyllotoxins than with the DNA-intercalating inhibitors. This difference in sensitization appears to be related to a difference in apoptotic sensitivity, since the level of DNA damage generated by etoposide (an epipodophyllotoxin derivative) in immortalized human kidney epithelial cells expressing an activated ras oncogene was similar to that in the parental cells, but apoptosis was enhanced only in the former cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activated ras oncogenes appear to enhance the sensitivity of human tumor cells to topoisomerase II inhibitors by potentiating an apoptotic response. Epipodophyllotoxin-derived topoisomerase II inhibitors should be more effective than the DNA-intercalating inhibitors against tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes.  (+info)

Raf-1 is activated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580. (8/8964)

SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imi dazole) is widely used as a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report that SB203580 activates the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in quiescent smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The concentrations of SB203580 required lie above those necessary to inhibit p38 MAPK and we were unable to detect basal levels of active p38 MAPK. SB203580 does not directly activate Raf-1 in vitro, and fails to activate Ras, MEK, and ERK in intact cells. In vitro, however, SB203580-stimulated Raf-1 activates MEK1 in a coupled assay. We conclude that activation of Raf-1 by SB203580 is not mediated by an inhibition of p38 MAPK, is Ras-independent, and is uncoupled from MEK/ERK signaling.  (+info)

*Heterocyclic amine formation in meat

... pyridine (PhIP) in the rat". Mutation Research. 376: 107-114. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(97)00032-8. PMID 9202745. Weisburger, John ...

*Pyridyne

The methylthio and amino pyridines were found to be formed in the same ratio. In 1972 Kramer and Berry inferred the formation ... Pyridyne in chemistry is the pyridine analogue of benzyne. This reactive intermediate is of some importance to scientific ... Two isomers exist, the 2,3-pyridine (2,3-didehydropyridine) and the 3,4-pyridyne (3,4-didehydropyridine). The reaction of 3- ... of 3,4-pyridyne in gas-phase photolysis of pyridine-3-diazonium-4-carboxylate via time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The dimer ...

*Pyridine

The pyridine ligand replaced during the reaction is restored after its completion. Useful adducts of pyridine include pyridine- ... The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis provides a fairly general method for generating substituted pyridines using pyridine itself as a ... "Pyridine". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Lide, p. 3-448 Mootz, D. (1981). "Crystal structures of pyridine and pyridine ... pyridine. Pyridine is also used as a base in condensation reactions. Pyridine is used as a solvent in the manufacture of dyes ...

*Pyridine alkaloids

"Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Media related to Pyridine alkaloids at Wikimedia Commons ... Pyridine alkaloids are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a ... pyridine ring. Examples include nicotine and anabasine which are found in plants of the genus Nicotiana including tobacco. " ...

*Chichibabin pyridine synthesis

The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis (/ˈtʃiːtʃiːˌbeɪbiːn/ CHEE-chee-bay-been) is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings. In its ... 5-trisubstituted pyridine ratios of a Chichibabin pyridine synthesis involving phenylacetaldehyde. They concluded with relative ... Alkyl-substituted pyridines show widespread uses among multiple fields of applied chemistry, including the polymer and ... An Improved Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 74 (1): 200-2. doi:10.1021/ja01121a051. ...

*Pyridine-N-oxide

Pyridine N-oxide is five orders of magnitude less basic than pyridine, but it is isolable as a hydrochloride salt, [C5H5NOH]Cl ... The oxidation of pyridine can be achieved with a number of peracids including peracetic acid and perbenzoic acid in a reaction ... Pyridine-N-oxide is the heterocyclic compound with the formula C5H5NO. This colourless, hygroscopic solid is the product of the ... Scriven, E. F. V. (1984). "Pyridines and their Benzo Derivatives: (ii) Reactivity at Ring Atoms". In Katritzky, Alan R.; Rees, ...

*Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime

... (III) is first reduced to Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime(I) by sodium borohydride in alkaline solution, ... CH3COO)Co(DH)2py + NaX → XCo(DH)2py + NaCH3COO (X = Br, I, CNO, CN, N3 or SCN) The pyridine base in the axial position can also ... Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime is a yellow-brown powder that is sparingly soluble in most solvents, including water. The complex ... Chloro(pyridine)cobaloxime is a coordination compound containing a CoIII center with octahedral coordination. It has been ...

*Pyridine N-methyltransferase

In enzymology, a pyridine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.87) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Damani LA, Shaker MS, Crooks PA, Godin CS, Nwosu C (1986). "N-methylation and quaternization of pyridine in vitro by rabbit ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:pyridine N-methyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and pyridine, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine ...

*Pyridine (data page)

This page provides supplementary chemical data on pyridine. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions ...

*Boger pyridine synthesis

The Boger pyridine synthesis is a cycloaddition approach to the formation of pyridines named after its inventor Dale L. Boger, ... 4-triazine to form the pyridine nucleus. The reaction is especially useful for accessing pyridines that would be difficult or ... The initial adduct then expels nitrogen, and the pyridine is rearomatized with loss of the amine. Boger, Dale L.; Panek, James ... I. Thermal cycloaddition of 1,2,4-triazine with enamines: simple preparation of substituted pyridines". The Journal of Organic ...

*Hantzsch pyridine synthesis

The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis or Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis is a multi-component organic reaction between an aldehyde ... The initial reaction product is a dihydropyridine which can be oxidized in a subsequent step to a pyridine. The driving force ... The Knoevenagel-Fries modification allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical pyridine compounds. Hantzsch pyrrole synthesis ...

*Kröhnke pyridine synthesis

Another use of the Kröhnke pyridine synthesis was the generation of a number of 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyridines that were ... Hantzsch pyridine synthesis Gattermann-Skita synthesis Chichibabin pyridine synthesis Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement ... β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds used to generate highly functionalized pyridines. Pyridines occur widely in natural and ... Ultimately, the Kröhnke pyridine synthesis offers a facile and straightforward approach to the synthesis of a wide breadth of ...

*Pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase

... may stand for NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Re/Si-specific) NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (Si- ...

*Sulfur trioxide pyridine complex

... is the compound with the formula C5H5NSO3. It is a colourless solid that dissolves in polar ... It is the adduct formed from the Lewis base pyridine and the Lewis acid sulfur trioxide. The compound is mainly used as a ... Thomas T. Tidwell "Sulfur Trioxide-Pyridine" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2001, John Wiley & Sons. doi: ...

*3-Succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase

... (EC 1.2.1.83) is an enzyme with systematic name 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanal: ... 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ...

*Tetrakis(pyridine)silver(II) peroxydisulfate

When the pyridine ligands were removed, the transient square planar [Ag(H2O)4]2+ remains, which spontaneously oxidizes water to ... Tetrakis(pyridine)silver(II) peroxydisulfate is a chemical compound which contains silver in the rare oxidation state of +2. ... "Tetrakis(pyridine)silver(II) Peroxodisulfate, [Ag(py)4]S2O8, a Reagent for the Oxidative Transformations" Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn ... Tetrakis(Pyridine)Silver(2+)Peroxydisulfate. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 177-181. doi:10.1002/9780470132630.ch30. ISBN ...

*Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases

... catalyse the interchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron ... A family of flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (35): 23542-23547. PMID 1748631. ...

*Bis(pyridine)iodonium(I) tetrafluoroborate

... or Barluenga's reagent named after J. Barluenga, is a mild iodinating reagent. ... Commercially available, it may be prepared by reacting iodine with pyridine in the presence of silver tetrafluoroborate ...

*2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine

... pyridine and (E)-2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-pyridine reduce traumatic neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo by antagonizing N- ... 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) is a research drug which was one of the first compounds found to act as a selective ... Van Der Kam, EL; De Vry, J; Tzschentke, TM (2007). "Effect of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine on intravenous self- ... Van Der Kam, EL; De Vry, J; Tzschentke, TM (2009). "2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) potentiates ketamine and heroin ...

*2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine

PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meat. ... a b International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997) PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine)(Group 2B ... 1995) High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are ... pyridine). Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48: S98-S105. Zheng, W. & Lee, S. (2009). Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine ...

*Aromatization

Shimizu, S.; Watanabe, N.; Kataoka, T.; Shoji, T.; Abe, N.; Morishita, S.; Ichimura, H. (2005). "Pyridine and Pyridine ... followed by catalysed oxidation of dihydropyridine to pyridine. Hantzsch's approach to pyridines dates from 1881 and involves ... The difference can be seen in the basicity of the two systems, as pyridine can be easily protonated (its lone pair is available ... This can be seen in the pKa values of the respective conjugate acids - 8.25 for pyridine compared with −0.27 for pyrrole. In ...

*2-Pyridone

Pyridine forms an N-oxide with some oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide. This pyridine-N-oxide undergoes a rearrangement ... however the yellow pigments often reported in degradation of many pyridine solvents, such as unsubstituted pyridine or picoline ... Pyridine diols undergo chemical transformation in solution to form intensely colored pigments. Similar pigments have been ... Leis D. G.; Curran B. C. (1945). "Electric Moments of Some Gamma-Substituted Pyridines". Journal of the American Chemical ...

*2-Mercaptopyridine

Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and -4-thione". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3610. doi:10.1039/ ... This yellow crystalline solid is a derivative of pyridine. The compound and its derivatives serve primarily as acylating agents ... 2-Mercaptopyridine derivatives can also be generated from precursors lacking preformed pyridine rings. It arises for example in ...

*Pyrithione

... pyridine-N-oxide and pyridine-2-thiol), both of which have pKa > 8. It is only slightly soluble in water (2.5 g L−1) but is ... Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and −4-thione". J. Chem. Soc.: 3610-3613. doi:10.1039/JR9580003610. Jahn, Ullrich ( ... The tautomerism of mercapto- and acylamino-pyridine 1-oxides". J. Chem. Soc.: 2937-2942. doi:10.1039/JR9600002937. Ebrahimia, R ... Thomas, K.; Jerchel, D. (1964). "The Introduction of Substituents into the Pyridine Ring". In Foerst, Wilhelm; Birnbaum, Henry ...

*Glicaramide

Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (12): 1340-1346. doi:10.1021/jm00270a006. PMID 4358224. Progress ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 54903-50-3(4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine) for price inquiry. where to buy 54903-50-3(4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine).Also offer free database of 54903-50-3(4,5,6,7-Tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
A pyridine derivative having the formula 1,3-dihydro-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-styryl)-6-methyl-7-hydroxy-furo-[3,4,c] pyridine and therapeutically acceptable salts thereof are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for the preparation of the compound. The compounds are therapeutically useful for a stabilizing effect on the red blood corpuscles and as selective diuretics.
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on thieno[2,3-c]pyridine Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
J. V. Quagliano; J. Fujita; G. Franz; D. J. Phillips; J. A. Walmsley; S. Y. Tyree. The Donor Properties of Pyridine N-Oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1961, 83, (18), 3770-3773.. Mild oxidant for conversion of unactivated alkyl halides to aldehydes or ketones: J. Org. Chem., 22, 1135 (1957); 35, 244 (1970); Tetrahedron, 33, 1845 (1977). Substituted acetic acids and their anhydrides: J. Org. Chem., 38, 3737 (1973), as well as ɑ-bromo and ɑ-chloro acids: J. Org. Chem., 31, 3058 (1966); J. Am. Chem. Soc., 89, 4968 (1967), can undergo oxidative decarboxylation to aldehydes and ketones. ...
Tetrahydropoxen: 2,2-(1,2-ethanediylbis(iminomethylene)bis(pyridine N-oxide) and its complexes, X-ray structure of [Cu(H4-poxen)H2O] (ClO4)2 []H2O and [Co(poxen)H2O] (ClO4)2 ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 285980-95-2(1-[3-AMINO-6-(2-THIENYL)-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)THIENO[2,3-B]PYRIDIN-2-YL]ETHAN-1-ONE),please inquire us for 285980-95-2(1-[3-AMINO-6-(2-THIENYL)-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)THIENO[2,3-B]PYRIDIN-2-YL]ETHAN-1-ONE).
1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-acetic acid/AFI1155847270 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Buy high quality 1-(2-Fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-carboximidamide Hydrochloride 256499-19-1 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Product name : Terpyridine CAS 1148-79-4Ag & Ru spectrophotometric determinationCAS-Nr. : 1148-​79-​4 | MW: 233.3 DFormula: C15H11N3Purity:
1,2-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-7-ol - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
MolCore offers CAS No.183208-34-6, 5-Bromo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD07367221,183208-34-6 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
Comments:input packing wanted or destination,payment terms and other messages (we prefer you directly send your request to [email protected] or [email protected] for backup ...
ChemTube3D contains interactive 3D animations for some of the most important organic reactions covered during an undergraduate chemistry degree
The Lens serves nearly all of the patent documents in the world as open, annotatable digital public goods that are integrated with scholarly and technical literature along with regulatory and business data.
34580-76-2 - DXCSAORYPUTKOU-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1H-Pyrazolo(3,4-b)pyridine, 3-methoxy-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Background: To study safety and efficacy of apatinib in combination of radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic bony disease prostate cancer(SBPC), based on the potential synergistic antitumor activity between apatinib and Radiation Therapy (RT). Patients and methods: In phase I dose escalation part, 18 patients received apatinib dose at 250 mg every other day, 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. In phase II part, the 250 mg daily cohorts were expanded to 20 patients in combination of RT (6 Gy/fraction, 5 fraction in total), one patient lost followed up and excluded the study, comparing with RT alone cohort with 10 patients, ratio of RT to RT + apatinib was 1 to 2 ...
Background: To study safety and efficacy of apatinib in combination of radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic bony disease prostate cancer(SBPC), based on the potential synergistic antitumor activity between apatinib and Radiation Therapy (RT). Patients and methods: In phase I dose escalation part, 18 patients received apatinib dose at 250 mg every other day, 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. In phase II part, the 250 mg daily cohorts were expanded to 20 patients in combination of RT (6 Gy/fraction, 5 fraction in total), one patient lost followed up and excluded the study, comparing with RT alone cohort with 10 patients, ratio of RT to RT + apatinib was 1 to 2 ...
This phase 1 study investigated Pharmacokinetics of apatinib in healthy Caucasian, Japanese and Chinese subjects following a single-dose administration to
This is a Single-center, Open-label, Single-arm, Phase Ⅱ exploratory clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Apatinib plus S1 for patients with
Two series of solid solutions based on the [Fe(bpp)2][BF4]2 (bpp = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine) spin-crossover lattice are described. Materials of formula [FeyNi1−y(bpp)2][BF4]2 (0.95 ≥ x ≥ 0.15) are all phase-pure. In contrast, [Fe(bpp)2]x[Ru(terpy)2]1−x[BF4]2 (0.95 ≥ x ≥ 0.28) crystallise as a mixture of Crystal engineering in molecular magnetism
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 10273-90-2(Pyridine,3-methyl-2-phenyl-) for price inquiry. where to buy 10273-90-2(Pyridine,3-methyl-2-phenyl-).Also offer free database of 10273-90-2(Pyridine,3-methyl-2-phenyl-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
Four new RuII[BOND]Cl and RuII[BOND]H2O complexes containing the meridional 2,2:6,2"-terpyridine (trpy) ligand and the chelating 2-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (H3p) ligand of general formula in- and out-[RuII(tr ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-475521, 3-(Iodomethyl)pyridine hydriodide for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
I agree Our site saves small pieces of text information (cookies) on your device in order to deliver better content and for statistical purposes. You can disable the usage of cookies by changing the settings of your browser. By browsing our website without changing the browser settings you grant us permission to store that information on your device. ...
GSK1070916;942918-07-2;N-[4-[4-[2-[3-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl]-1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea;ABP000947.Active Biopharma Corp
Learn more about pyridine-2-carbaldehyde. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
buy 2-amino-1-pyridin-3-yl-ethanone hydrochloride (cas 93103-00-5), a product for lab from labseeker, ,MDL: MFCD03093361,MF: C7H9ClN2O
Learn more about 2-pyridin-3-ylmethoxy-benzaldehyde. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
The synthesis of terpyridine-based polyimide catalysis for hydrosilylation reaction is outlined in this work. 5,5′′-Bis(bromomethyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine was polymerized with the corresponding diimide derivatives of dianhyrides to give polyimides utilizing the terpyridine unit in the main chain. The synthesis of polyimides containing Ru(II) complexes in the side chain is described. Condensation polymerization is used to synthesize the macromolecular backbone and, as a result, the Ru(II) complex was attached via coordination chemistry. The material design emphasizes the relationship between the molecular structure and supramolecular organization of these polymers. It demonstrates that terpyridyl complexes remain a versatile functionality for constructing supramolecular assemblies. The terpyridine unit may enhance the electron carrier mobility of the polymers, while the incorporation of ruthenium complexes into a conjugated polymer significantly changes the catalytic properties of ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To assess safety, tolerability, and identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of entinostat given in combination with MK-3475 (pembrolizumab).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To obtain a preliminary estimate of efficacy of entinostat in combination with MK-3475 (pembrolizumab).. EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVE:. I. To assess the dynamic quantitative change in measurable immunological biomarkers (proportions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells [MDSCs], and programmed death protein-1 [PD-1] expression in bone marrow) with the combined epigenetic-immunotherapy and correlation with any observed clinical responses.. OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of entinostat.. Patients receive lower dose entinostat orally (PO) on days 1 and 8 or higher dose entinostat PO on days 1, 8, and 15, and pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1 of cycle 2 and cycles thereafter. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable ...
7-ethynyl-2,2,4-trimethyl[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyridine - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
article{24d84870-db0e-4dc5-a0ac-1dbddec36d1a, abstract = {,p,In this study, we investigated the ability of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes to act as DNA binders. The substitution reactions of three Ru(ii) chlorophenyl terpyridine complexes, i.e. [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(en)Cl]Cl (1), [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(dach)Cl]Cl (2) and [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(bpy)Cl]Cl (3) (Cl-Ph-tpy = 4′-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine, en = 1,2-diaminoethane, dach = 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), with a mononucleotide guanosine-5′-monophosphate (5′-GMP) and oligonucleotides such as fully complementary 15-mer and 22-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for DNA, and fully complementary 13-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for RNA were studied quantitatively by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Duplex RNA reacts faster with complexes 1-3 than duplex DNA, while shorter duplex DNA (15mer GG) reacts faster compared with 22mer GG duplex DNA. The measured enthalpies and entropies of activation ...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a form of cancer that easily aggress to contiguous structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) are increased in majority species of cancers and suppress tumor progression by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2. Apatinib is a highly selective VEGFR2 antagonist which has inhibitive effect on antiapoptotic and cell growth in CCA. While, the effect of apatinib cell migration and invasion in CCA is still unknown. CCA cell lines QBC939 and TFK-1 were transfected with siKDR to establish the KDR function loss cell model, and recombined human VEGF (rhVEGF) protein was added into the culture medium to enhance the VEGF expression. RT-qPCR and western bloting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGFR2 to investigate whether it was effectively repressed or activated with rhVEGF or apatinib treatment. Then, MTT, wound healing assay, and transwell matrix assay were applied to measure the effect of apatinib and rhVEGF on cell viability,
Disopyramide phosphate | C21H32N3O5P | CID 30928 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Find the Blink Price & Information for disopyramide phosphate - as low as $125.73 - pick up at your pharmacy (Rite Aid, Walmart & more). Price transparency and up to 80% savings.
Six patients followed at the HIV clinic at Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System had been on RAL + unboosted ATV+N(t)RTI for >24 weeks at the time of clinical review. All participants received RAL 400 mg BID + ATV 300 mg BID as part of their regimens, which had been started between April 2007 and May 2008. Individuals initiated on RAL before the drug became licensed and available for use in December 2008, had obtained the medication via an expanded access program. Median age was 58 (range 50 to 84) years, median time from diagnosis was 14.5 (range 9 to 21) years, and the median time on ART was 10.5 (range 9 to 21) years. Before initiation of RAL + ATV-based therapy, the mean HIV viral load was 115 752 copies/mL, and the mean CD4 count was 309 cells/mm3 (range 32 to 477). After 24 weeks of treatment, the viral load for all participants had become and remained undetectable, while the mean CD4 count was 543 cells/mm3 (range 101 to 1001), with an average gain of 234 CD4 cells/mm3 (Figures ...
Following a screening visit to establish study eligibility, eligible consenting subjects will be randomized 1:1 to one of the two treatment arms (switch to unboosted ATZ or continue ritonavir-boosted ATZ). Randomized open-label treatment will commence following study procedures at baseline. Participants will be assessed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48. On-study evaluations will include assessment of adverse clinical events and medication changes; blood tests for HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, standard safety parameters, fasting lipids and glucose, and pregnancy testing (if applicable); and urine tests for urinalysis and albumin to creatinine ratio. In addition, a serum sample will be stored at each visit for possible future testing. A timed plasma sample for measurement of pre-dose trough ATZ levels will be obtained once per subject at 4-8 weeks. Quality of life will be assessed by completion of the MOS-HIV questionnaire at baseline and every 12 weeks. Adherence will be ...
The antineoplastic activity of α‐N‐heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones was discovered several decades ago. Currently the most promising drug candidate of this class of compounds is Triapine (3‐aminopyridine‐2‐carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, 3‐AP), which entered several phase I and II clinical trials as an antitumor agent. We discovered that Triapine possesses intrinsic fluorescence properties. This enabled us to monitor for the first time the uptake and intracellular distribution of an α‐N‐heterocyclic thiosemicarbazone in living human cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy. In addition we synthesized the first zinc(II) complex [Zn(Triapine)Cl2]•HCl of Triapine, which shows fluorescence as well, compared its cytotoxicity in human cancer cells with that of the parental compound and studied the influence of metal complexation on intracellular distribution.. Triapine and its zinc complex were characterized spectroscopically. The UV‐Vis spectrum of Triapine in water shows a ...
Results: 178 patients (pts) were observed for 1-81 (median 16.5, IQR 7-27) months totaling 325 patient years. Mean age at switch was 44 years, mean weight 76 kg, mean CD4 516 cells/mm3. Duration of preceding viral suppression was 0 - 177 (median 18, IQR 7-38) months. Most common preceding regimen was ATV/r+TDF+FTC (89 pts). Most common reasons given for switching to ATV+TDF+FTC were simplification (83 pts), dyslipidemia (17), gastrointestinal toxicity (10), coronary risk (10), CNS toxicity (10), hyperbilirubinemia (6 ...
The addition of both MEK1 inhibitor U0126 or JNK inhibitor SP600125 coupled with RI inhibitor SB431542 had no detectable result to the mesenchymal phenotype on the cells. The mixture these details of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 restored cortical actin stain ing, but tension fiber actin remained inside the cells. Escalating the concentration of RI inhibitor SB431542 to ten M led to a even more lessen from the level of anxiety fib ers, nonetheless, the combination of RI inhibitor SB431542 by using a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or ROCK inhibitor Y27632 was additional effective at getting rid of them. Related results were observed in wild variety mTEC cells, which has a mixture of RI inhibi tor SB431542 and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 reversing EMT as indicated by each gene expression and cell morphology. Collectively, these information indicate that therapy in the cells with RI inhibitor SB431542 by itself are unable to result in total re acqui selleck AZD4547 sition of cortical ...
PURPOSE:To improve the sensitivity of the composition to a visible ray by incorporating a specified iron allene complex, 3-substd. cumarine compd. and/or a pyridine derivative or its salt in the titled composition. CONSTITUTION:The titled composition comprises the iron allene complex which is composed of at least one kind of a nongaseous ethylenic unsatd. compd. at a room temp. and is shown by formula I, the 3-subst. cumarine compd. shown by formula II and/or the pyridine derivative or its salt shown by formula III. In the formulas I and II, R is hydrogen atom or alkoxy group, etc., X is BF4 or PF6, etc., R1-R4 are each hydrogen atom or alkyl group, etc., X is aryl or a heterocyclic ring group, etc., R5 is alkyl group, etc. In formula III, R1 and R2 are each 1-6C alkyl group, A is aryl group condensed with a pyridine ring. Thus, as the titled composition has the high sensitivity against the visible ray, the exposure light source with the low energy can be used, and great numbers of master plates
Alfa Aesar™ Borane-2-methylpyridine complex, 95% 25g Alfa Aesar™ Borane-2-methylpyridine complex, 95% Boci to Bromoa -Organics
As part of a research programme targeting novel molecules as potential anti-inflammatory agents we synthesised methyl 3-hydroxythieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxylate based on the reported anti-inflammatory activity of the structurally related molecule 3-isopropoxy-5-methoxy-N-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetraazol-5-yl)-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide [1,2].[...]
Hi Team, I am writing this email in order to inform you that I am planning to buy products listed below. I request you to send me a detailed quotation regarding the same. Here is the list of items I would like to order: PRODUCT - Ethyl-3-Furoate The price range and the quality should be according to my satisfaction. Kindly send me the quotation of the following items and get in touch with me as soon as possible ...
6-BENZYL-5,7-DIOXO-OCTAHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-B] PYRIDINE 128740-13-6 route of synthesis, 6-BENZYL-5,7-DIOXO-OCTAHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-B] PYRIDINE chemical synthesis methods, 6-BENZYL-5,7-DIOXO-OCTAHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-B] PYRIDINE synthetic routes ect.
... phases are the workhorse phases for preparative and process scale SFC purifications. Celeris 2EP (2-ethyl pyridine) and 4EP (4-ethyl pyridine) media is designed to be highly reproducible based on tight product specifications and low metal content. Celeris 2EP is especially well-suited for separation of acidic compounds and exhibits broad selectivity towards a variety of other compound types. The Celeris 4EP phase offers alternate selectivity to the 2EP phase. Celeris 2EP and 4EP SFC columns deliver high performance separations comparable to other ethyl pyridine phases at a much lower price ...
Syndax announced the beginning of its Phase 2 study of entinostat in combination with anastrozole in postmenopausal women with operable triple-negative breast cancer to evaluate biomarkers and surrogates for response.
Added November 1, 2014; Updated November 30, 2014; January 1, 2015; January 31, 2015; May 8, 2015; May 15, 2015; May 29, 2015; June 12, 2015; June 20, 2015; July 17, 2015; August 5, 2015; September 17, 2015; October 19, 2015; November 4, 2015; December 7, 2015; December 31, 2015. ...
Alfa Aesar™ Pyridine hydrochloride, 98% 250g Alfa Aesar™ Pyridine hydrochloride, 98% Pyridinee to Pyrimidi -Organics
Visit ChemicalBook To find more 4-(4-CHLOROBENZOYL)PYRIDINE(14548-48-2) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of 4-(4-CHLOROBENZOYL)PYRIDINE(14548-48-2). At last,4-(4-CHLOROBENZOYL)PYRIDINE(14548-48-2) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
2YKI: Tricyclic Series of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Inhibitors Part I: Discovery of Tricyclic Imidazo[4,5-C]Pyridines as Potent Inhibitors of the Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone.
Title: MedicineNet atazanavir Specialty, Description: MedicineNet atazanavir Specialty, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 331052, Grade: 91, Type: RSS20
Looking for TCI AMERICAS 3-Methylpyridine,25mL (19VG03)? Graingers got your back. Price:$25.50. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Pyridine-2-carboxamidoxime 1772-01-6 NMR spectrum, Pyridine-2-carboxamidoxime H-NMR spectral analysis, Pyridine-2-carboxamidoxime C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The effect of MPEP on the number of lines crossed in open field. The effect of MPEP (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) on the number of lines crossed in the open fi
Learn what medical issues to discuss with the doctor before taking REYATAZ® (atazanavir) as part of an HIV-1 treatment regimen. Read risk information and full Prescribing Information.
Trans-dichlorotetrakis (Pyridine) platinum (IV) nitrate : a classical coordination compound. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1987, H. 2. S. 293-296 ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-Aldrich-82800, Pyridine hydrochloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
buy Benzamide,N-(5-bromo-2-pyridinyl)-3-methyl- (cas 433258-90-3), a product for lab from labseeker, ,MDL: MFCD03145787,MF: C13H11BrN2O
... -21chemnet.com is a leading B2B chemical business platform,and chemical from China are so good.which is the best platform where searched for by users chemical and chemical suppliers.
2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-(4-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-6-(3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylpyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-N- ...
Refinement. Refinement of F2 against ALL reflections. The weighted R-factor wR and goodness of fit S are based on F2, conventional R-factors R are based on F, with F set to zero for negative F2. The threshold expression of F2 > σ(F2) is used only for calculating R-factors(gt) etc. and is not relevant to the choice of reflections for refinement. R-factors based on F2 are statistically about twice as large as those based on F, and R- factors based on ALL data will be even larger. ...
Arcoxia a non steriodal anti-flammatory drug, information about side effects, uses, active ingredient and taking Arcoxia with other medicines
buy Zolpidem online canadian no script , no script Zolpidem pills , no prescription cod Zolpidem cheap Zolpidem sales , buy Zolpidem online without prescription , Zolpidem free shipping Zolpidem order online no membership overnight , Zolpidem online consultant , Zolpidem non prescription buy Zolpidem online canadian no script , no script Zolpidem pills , no prescription cod Zolpidem Zolpidem no script fedex , buy cheap Zolpidem no Prescription , Zolpidem with saturday delivery Zolpidem online no perscription , Zolpidem online no script , non generic Zolpidem no prescription buy Zolpidem without a perscription , buying Zolpidem without a prescription , Zolpidem without prescription or membership Zolpidem with next day delivery without prescription with free shipping , generic Zolpidem online Zolpidem overnight without prescription , non presciption Zolpidem , Zolpidem same day delivery buy Zolpidem online with overnight delivery , buying Zolpidem without a script , Zolpidem order online no ...
The important pyridine derivatives include niacin, nicotinamide, isonicotinoylhydrazine, nicotine, strychnine, and vitamin B6.. Vitamin B6 is a class of tetrasubstituted pyridine derivatives with coenzyme function, used clinically for the treatment of vomiting of pregnancy, radioactive vomiting, isoniazid poisoning, seborrheic dermatitis and pellagra, etc.. Pyridine is a kind of colorless or slightly yellow liquid with an alkalescence and special odor, naturally present in coal tar, shale oil, coal gas and petroleum. Miscible with water, alcohols, ethers, petroleum ether, oils, benzene, chloroform and most of other organic solvents, pyridine is an important chemical raw materials and solvents.. Similar to benzene with the same electronic structure pyridine has an almost hexagonal structure. The electron density of 2, 4, 6 sites is lower than that of 3, 5 sites due to the electronic absorption of nitrogen atoms in the ring. Therefore, in an acidic medium, electrophilic substitution reactions ...
The results of the IMPAACT/PACTG 1020A trial in children and adolescents indicate that, in the absence of ritonavir boosting, atazanavir can achieve protocol-defined PK targets-but only when used at higher doses of atazanavir (on a mg/kg body weight or mg/m2 body surface area basis) than doses currently recommended in adults. In IMPAACT/PACTG 1020A, children aged ,6 to ,13 years required atazanavir dosing of 520 mg/m2 per day of atazanavir capsule formulation to achieve PK targets.8 Unboosted atazanavir at this dose was well tolerated in those aged ,13 years who were able to swallow capsules.11 Doses required for older adolescents were greater than the adult approved dose of 400 mg atazanavir given without ritonavir boosting once daily; adolescents aged ,13 years required atazanavir dosing of 620 mg/m2 per day.8 In this study, the AUCs for the unboosted arms were similar to the ATV/r groups but the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was higher and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin) lower for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitors of type I MetAPs containing pyridine-2-carboxylic acid thiazol-2-ylamide. Part 2. T2 - SAR studies on the pyridine ring 3-substituent. AU - Luo, Qun Li. AU - Li, Jing Ya. AU - Chen, Ling Ling. AU - Li, Jia. AU - Ye, Qizhuang. AU - Nan, Fa Jun. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Systematic SAR studies on the pyridine ring 3-substituent of PCAT, an inhibitor of EcMetAP1 and ScMetAP1, revealed that 3-substituents have different selectivity for EcMetAP1 and ScMetAP1. The selective inhibitors of type I MetAP are useful tools for investigating the detailed interactions between the enzymes and their inhibitors. In addition, these findings provide useful information for the design and discovery of more potent inhibitors of type I MetAPs.. AB - Systematic SAR studies on the pyridine ring 3-substituent of PCAT, an inhibitor of EcMetAP1 and ScMetAP1, revealed that 3-substituents have different selectivity for EcMetAP1 and ScMetAP1. The selective inhibitors of type I MetAP are ...
Alfa Aesar™ 5-Nitroindole-3-carboxaldehyde, 95% 250mg Alfa Aesar™ 5-Nitroindole-3-carboxaldehyde, 95% Nitrog to Nitrophenylacet -Organics
... WALTHAM Mass. Sept. 11 2013 /PRNewswire/ ...The Breakthrough Therapy designation for entinostat is based on data f... The FDAs decision to designate entinostat a Breakthrough Therapy is ...,Syndaxs,Entinostat,Receives,Breakthrough,Therapy,Designation,from,FDA,for,Treatment,of,Advanced,Breast,Cancer,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expanded ligands: bis(2,2:6,2"-terpyridine carboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) complexes as metallosupramolecular analogues of dicarboxylic acids. AU - Constable, Edwin C. AU - Dunphy, Emma L. AU - Housecroft, Catherine E. AU - Neuburger, Markus. AU - Schaffner, Silvia. AU - Schaper, Frank. AU - Batten, Stuart Robert. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. UR - http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2007/DT/b709557k. U2 - 10.1039/B709557K. DO - 10.1039/B709557K. M3 - Article. SP - 4323. EP - 4332. JO - Journal of the Chemical Society. Dalton Transactions. JF - Journal of the Chemical Society. Dalton Transactions. SN - 1477-9226. ER - ...
1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives are important heterocyclic compounds which exhibit antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities (Luo & Hu, 2006; Liu & Hu, 2002). Despite possessing outstanding biological activities, only a few [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines are known. Some commonly used synthetic methods are the annulation of the 1,2,4-triazole ring starting with amino substituted pyridines by a multistep procedure (Jones & Sliskovic, 1983). Previously, imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and indolizines had been synthesized by a novel tandem reaction in our group (Wang et al., 2003; Ge et al., 2009; Jia et al., 2010). As an extension of this work, the synthesis of [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine heterocycles through this procedure has been undertaken. We present here the crystal structure of one of such compounds, ethyl 8-phenyl-6-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-7-carboxylate.. In title compound (Fig. 1) the the ...
Nature continuously provides fascinating and complicated structures which offer synthetic chemists amazing opportunities for the design of new methods for the natural product synthesis. Nitrogen containing aza-heterocycles are of unparalleled importance in natural product, bioorganic and medicinal chemistry. Pyridine in particular is one of the most common aza-heterocycles encountered in natural products, medicinal and materials chemistry. Pyridine derivatives also server as precursors to functionalized piperidines, which are likewise common structural motifs in bioactive and functionalized materials. Thus developing synthetic methods suitable for the manipulation of pyridine ring systems remains an important objective in the organic chemistry community. We approached this objective by two different routes. In the first method, we used the nucleophilicity of the benzylic position of the 4-alkyl pyridine substrates to engage in gold (I) catalyzed 5 or 6-endo dig cyclizations with attached alkynyl amide
WO2010063929 6-cycloamino-3-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-B]pyridin-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-B]pyridazine derivatives, preparation thereof and therapeutic use ...
Cheap order prescription zolpidem ,a href=http://ladien.com.sa/en/node/56999,zolpidem with no prescription,/a, [url=http://ladien.com.sa/en/node/56999]zolpidem with no prescription[/url] http://ladien.com.sa/en/node/56999 zolpidem with no prescription ,a href=http://bryansk24.ru/realty/doska/live/kvartiru/28455,order zolpidem cod overnight delivery,/a, [url=http://bryansk24.ru/realty/doska/live/kvartiru/28455]order zolpidem cod overnight delivery[/url] http://bryansk24.ru/realty/doska/live/kvartiru/28455 order zolpidem cod overnight delivery ,a href=http://ds003.centerstart.ru/node/1407,order zolpidem cod overnight delivery,/a, [url=http://ds003.centerstart.ru/node/1407]order zolpidem cod overnight delivery[/url] http://ds003.centerstart.ru/node/1407 order zolpidem cod overnight delivery ,a href=http://probki.vyatka.ru/content/zolpidem-no-prescription-29,zolpidem with no prescription,/a, [url=http://probki.vyatka.ru/content/zolpidem-no-prescription-29]zolpidem with no ...
We, China 2-Hydroxy-3-nitro pyridine Manufacturers, China 2-Hydroxy-3-nitro pyridine Suppliers, provide quality 2-Hydroxy-3-nitro pyridine product and the products related with China 2-Hydroxy-3-nitro pyridine - nwchemical
This goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of entinostat and lapatinib that can be given in combination to patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The effectiveness and safety of this dose combination will be studied. Researchers will also study the safety of the other dose combinations. Entinostat in an investigational drug and is not FDA approved or commercially available. It is currently being used for research purposes only. Lapatinib is approved by the FDA for certain kinds of breast cancer. The combination of these drugs is investigational.
Entinostat is under investigation for the treatment and other of Volunteers, Breast Cancer, Human Volunteers, and Normal Volunteers. Entinostat has been investigated for the treatment of Non-Small Lung Cancer, Epigenetic Therapy.
We,China Regorafenib 755037-03-7 Suppliers and China Regorafenib 755037-03-7 Manufacturers, provide Regorafenib 755037-03-7 product and the products related with China Regorafenib 755037-03-7 - princechem
Abstract. A single-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding pyridine and quinoline derivatives involves amide activation with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride in the presence of 2-chloropyridine followed by π-nucleophile addition to the activated intermediate and annulation. Compatibility of this chemistry with various functional groups is noteworthy.. ...
... The preparation of oxide and sulphide compounds whose structures are capable of incorporating organic and organometallic compounds between structural layers has led to an explosion of research into intercalation chemistry in recent years. A variety of techniques are used to facilitate this. Whilst some intercalation reactions occur extremely rapidly and without activation, others require the use of thermal or ultrasonic techniques, or even mechanical shaking. Unfortunately, these methods may lead to an undesirable degradation of the products crystalline structure, leading to difficulties in its characterisation. Once again, this represents a poorly researched area despite the promising findings of initial studies.. The intercalation of pyridine and pyridine derivatives into the layered compound a-VO(PO4) proceeds slowly under thermal conditions. The products may be formed with a maximum stoichiometry of a-VO(PO4).py0.85 by exposing the host to the pure pyridine derivative, or ...
(Z)-2-(4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylideneamino)-6-ethoxy-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile 1, when treated with either triphenylphosphine (4 equiv.) or polymer bound triphenylphosphine (5 equiv.) in dichloromethane at room temperature for 3 days affords 3‑amino-6-ethoxy-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-2,5-dicarbonitrile 2 in 60-62% yields.
Ibudilast (development codes: AV-411 or MN-166) is an anti-inflammatory drug used mainly in Japan, which acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, inhibiting the PDE4 subtype to the greatest extent, but also showing significant inhibition of other PDE subtypes. Ibudilast has bronchodilator, vasodilator and neuroprotective effects, and is mainly used in the treatment of asthma and stroke. It inhibits platelet aggregation, and may also be useful in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Ibudilast crosses the blood-brain barrier and suppresses glial cell activation. This activity has been shown to make ibudilast useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain and it not only enhances analgesia produced by opioid drugs, but also reduces the development of tolerance. It may have some use reducing methamphetamine and alcohol addiction. Ibudilast is listed as being an antagonist at the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This likely plays a large part in its effect, specifically its synergy with opioid drugs, its ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 33631-05-9, 2-Amino-4-hydroxypyridine, 2-Aminopyridin-4-ol, molecular formula: C5H6N2O.
2,3-dimethyl-8-(2,6-dimethylbenzylamino)-N-hydroxyethyl-irnidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-6-carboxamide mesylate salt form A and form B obtainable according to the present invention are substantially free from other crystalline and non-crystalline forms of 2,3- . dimethyl-8-(2,6-dimethylbenzylamino)-N-hydroxyethyl-imidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-6-carboxamide mesylate salt The term "substantially free from other crystalline and non-crystalline forms of 2,3-dimethyl-8-(2,6-dimethylbenzylamino)-N-hydroxyethyl-imidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-6-carboxamide mesylate salt" shall be understood to mean that the desired crystal form of 2,3-dimethyl-8-(2,6-dimethylbenzylamino)-N-hydroxyethyl-imidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-6-carboxamide mesylate salt contains less than 10 %, preferably less than 5 %, more preferably less than 3 %, and even more preferably less than 1 % of any other forms of 2,3-dimemyl-8-(2,6-dimemylbenzylarnino)-N-hydroxyemyl-. imidazo[l,2-a]pyridine-6-carboxamide mesylate salt ...
Apatinib Mesylate Market Research Report is a meticulous investigation of current scenario of the market, which covers a number of market dynamics. The Apa
0037] Mention may also be made, as pyrazole derivatives, of diamino-N,N-dihydropyrazolopyrazolones and in particular those described in application FR-A-2 886 136, such as the following compounds and the addition salts thereof: 2,3-diamino-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-one, 2-amino-3-ethylamino-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-one, 2-amino-3-isopropylamino-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-one, 2-amino-3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-on- e, 4,5-diamino-1,2-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one, 4,5-diamino-1,2-diethyl-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one, 4,5-diamino-1,2-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one, 2-amino-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-- 1-one, 2-amino-3-dimethylamino-6,7-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrazolo[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-- one, 2,3-diamino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-pyridazino[1,2-a]pyrazol-1-one, 4-amino-1,2-diethyl-5-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,2-dihydropyrazol-3-one, ...
Breast Cancer clinical trial. Clinical trial for Window of Opportunity Trial of Entinostat in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I-IIIC,TNBC.
Atazanavir - Get up-to-date information on Atazanavir side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Atazanavir
The binding behavior of the bifunctional Lewis acid (775-C5H5Fe)(2)[mu-(C5H3(BPh))(2)] (3) toward different pyridine derivatives as the Lewis base has been investigated. The 1: 1 and 1:2 adducts, 3 center dot D and 3 center dot D2 (donor, D = 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBupy) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine.... Full description. ...
What is/are Zolpidem? Zolpidem (brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Intermezzo, Stilnox, and Sublinox) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly, usually within 15 minutes, and has a short half-life of two to three hours. Zolpidem has not ...
3-Bromo-4-nitropyridine N-oxide | C5H3BrN2O3 | CID 548521 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
What Is Tipranavir? Tipranavir is a drug used as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART). It is also called Aptivus. It is manufactured by Boehringer ...
Shop Probable pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Before taking crizotinib, possible drug interactions should be reviewed with your doctor to avoid problems. This eMedTV page offers a detailed list of drugs, vitamins, and other products that can cause dangerous reactions when combined with crizotinib.
Ondachi, P., Castro, A., Bartkowiak, J., Luetje, C., Damaj, M., Mascarella, S., ... Carroll, F. (2014). Synthesis, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding, and Antinociceptive Properties of 2-Fluoro-3-(substituted pyridinyl)-7-deschloroepibatidine Analogues. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 57(3), 836 - 848 ...
PRODUCT MONOGRAPH Pr PRADAXA Dabigatran Etexilate Capsules Capsules 75 mg, 110 mg and 150 mg Dabigatran Etexilate, (as Dabigatran Etexilate Mesilate) Anticoagulant Boehringer Ingelheim Canada Ltd. 5180
The European Commissions Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) evaluated safety data on Zinc Pyrithione. The Committee noted that Zinc Pyrithione has been used, as an anti-dandruff agent, for more than 60 years, in concentrations up to 1-2%. The acute as well as the subchronic toxicity was moderate to low, for both Zinc Pyrithione alone, or incorporated in market formulations.. In chronic toxicity experiments it was shown that an oral application of 500 microg/kg/day can be regarded as a dose that does not cause any adverse effects (NOAEL). No evidence of a carcinogenic response was seen when Zinc Pyrithione was applied topically up to 100 mg/kg/day or given orally up to 5 mg/kg/day in lifetime studies. The presence of Zinc Pyrithione did not impact upon the low irritation potential of the cosmetic formulations tested. The same observation was valid for a shampoo formulation investigated in a mucous membranes test. The appropriate ...
Acylisothiocyanate (1) was allowed to react with benzylidene malononitrile producing oxazine derivative (2). Also, compound (1) was reacted with sodium azide followed by refluxing with sodium ethoxide affording thiazinotetrazole derivative (4). The reaction of acetylacetone with compound (1) gave pyridine derivative (5) by intramolecular cycloaddition while it was reacted with N-methyl aniline affording thiazine derivative (7). In addition, it was reacted with cyanoacetamide producing mercaptopyrimidine derivative (9). Finally, compound (1) was refluxed with phenylhydrazine, urea, guanidinum carbonate and anthranilic acid in the presence of dry acetone affording triazole derivative (11), N-substituted pyrimidine (15), compound (18) and thiopyrimidine derivative (19) respectively. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental and spectral data. Some of the synthesized compounds were screened as anticancer.
Sorafenib (Nexavar), is a multikinase inhibitor, which has demonstrated both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, inhibiting the activity of targets present in the tumoral cells (c-RAF [proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase], BRAF, (V600E)BRAF, c-KIT, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) and in tumor vessels (c-RAF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor [VEGFR]-2, VEGFR-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β). Sorafenib was initially approved for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Experimental studies have demonstrated that sorafenib has both antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo, against thyroid cancer cells. Furthermore, several completed (or ongoing) studies have evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in patients with papillary, follicular and medullary aggressive thyroid cancer. The results of the different studies showed good clinical ...
Background: Previous studies have suggested that both angiotensin II (ANGII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may alter cardiac adrenergic inotropic response in heart failure (HF). The increase in natriuretic peptides opposes several neurohormonal pathways, including ANGII and ET-1. We hypothesized that omapatrilat (OMA), a new vasopeptidase inhibitor that provides concomitant inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase, may improve adrenergic inotropic responsiveness in HF.. Methods: We studied the effect of OMA (0.04 mg/kg, IV) on left ventricular (LV) relaxation and contractile response to dobutamine (DOB, 6 μg/kg/min, IV) and exercise in 8 chronically instrumented conscious dogs after pacing-induced CHF. LV contractile performance was measured by the slope of LV end-systolic pressure-volume relations.. Results: After HF, OMA produced a significant decrease in the time constant of relaxation (τ, 19.2%, 39.5 ± 2.0 vs 48.9 ± 6.1 msec) and caused increases in the slope ...
Octenidine dihydrochloride is a cationic surfactant, with a bolaamphiphile structure, derived from pyridine, active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Since 1987, it has been used primarily in Europe as an antiseptic prior to medical procedures, including neonates. Since 1987, octenidine has been used in Europe as an antiseptic, in concentrations of 0.1 to 2.0%.[citation needed] It is a substitute for chlorhexidine, with respect to its slow action and concerns about the carcinogenic impurity 4-chloroaniline.[citation needed] Octenidine preparations are less expensive than chlorhexidine and no resistance had been observed as of 2007. They may contain the antiseptic phenoxyethanol. Octenidine dihydrochloride is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In vitro suspension tests with 5 minute exposure time have shown that octenidine requires lower effective concentrations than chlorhexidine to kill common bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus ...

WikiGenes - NNMT - nicotinamide N-methyltransferaseWikiGenes - NNMT - nicotinamide N-methyltransferase

N-methylated pyridines (e.g. MPP+) are well-established dopaminergic toxins, and the xenobiotic enzyme nicotinamide N- ... Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines [2]. ... Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide, pyridine, and structurally related ... methyltransferase (NNMT) can convert pyridines such as 4-phenylpyridine into MPP+, using S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as the ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/4837.html

NNMT (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase)NNMT (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase)

N-methylation of pyridines in Parkinsons disease.. Green S, Buttrum S, Molloy H, Steventon G, Sturman S, Waring R, Pall H, ... The enzyme catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide, pyridines and other structural analogs, playing a crucial role in the ... dependent enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines to form pyridinium ions (Rini et al., 1990 ... and in the formation of potentially toxic pyridine metabolites. Moreover, heightened NNMT activity was reported in many kinds ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/NNMTID44506ch11q23.html

ENZYME: 2.-.-.ENZYME: 2.-.-.

Pyridine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.88 8-hydroxyquercetin 8-O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.89 Tetrahydrocolumbamine 2-O- ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/2.-.-.-

PyridinePyridine

Kiefer, J.H.; Zhang, Q.; Kern, R.D.; Yao, J.; Jursic, B., Pyrolysis of Aromatic Azines: Pyrazine, Pyrimidine, and Pyridine, J. ... Rodgers, M.T.; Stanley, J.R.; Amunugama, R., Periodic Trends in the Binding of Metal Ions to Pyridine Studied by Threshold ... Burrows, G.H.; King, L.A., Jr., The free energy change that accompanies hydrogenation of pyridine to piperidine, J. Am. Chem. ... Shaofeng, L.; Pilcher, G., Enthalpy of formation of pyridine-N-oxide: the dissociation enthalpy of the (N-O) bond, J. Chem. ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi?ID=C110861&Mask=8

Pyridine DerivativesPyridine Derivatives

Lonza manufactures pyridine derivatives that are used for the manufacture of active ingredients in the pharmaceutical, ... Pyridine Derivatives are value added intermediates and are used for the manufacture of active ingredients in the pharmaceutical ...
more infohttps://www.lonza.com/products-services/coatings-and-composites/performance-intermediates/pyridine-derivatives.aspx

Pyridine, pentachloroPyridine, pentachloro

Other names: Pentachloropyridine; Perchloropyridine; 2,3,4,5,6-Pentachloropyridine; Pyridine, 2,3,4,5,6-pentachloro- ...
more infohttp://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C5Cl5N/c6-1-2

Patente US4174370 - Substituted pyridines - Google PatentesPatente US4174370 - Substituted pyridines - Google Patentes

The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. The reactions can be ... This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic ... Substituted pyridines and dihydropyridines. US4071746 *. 22 Jun 1976. 31 Ene 1978. Petrolite Corporation. Alkylbenzyl ... We have also discovered that pyridinium acetates formed can be converted to the corresponding pyridines in excellent yield by ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4174370?dq=flatulence

PyridinePyridine

A technical report number was assigned to the chronic study of this test article. The study was considered inadequate and no technical report was prepared.. Pyridine was subsequently studied and published in TR-470. ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr200299/abstracts/tr283/index.html

PyridinePyridine

A technical report number was assigned to the chronic study of this test article. The study was considered inadequate and no technical report was prepared.. Pyridine was subsequently studied and published in TR-470. ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/results/pubs/longterm/reports/longterm/tr200299/abstracts/tr283/

Pyridines - Heterocyclic Building Blocks | Sigma-AldrichPyridines - Heterocyclic Building Blocks | Sigma-Aldrich

Learn More about Pyridines
pyridines.html>Pyridines ... Examples of pyridines include the well-known alkaloids lycodine, the A3 adenosine receptor antagonist, and a N,N ... Pyridine derivatives have also been implicated as small molecule α-helical mimetics in the inhibition of protein-protein ... The pyridine moiety is present in countless molecules with applications as varied as catalysis, drug design, molecular ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/chemistry/chemistry-products.html?TablePage=16263322

ATSDR - Toxicological Profile: PyridineATSDR - Toxicological Profile: Pyridine

Toxicological profile for Pyridine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/TP.asp?id=535&tid=96

Pyridine - New World EncyclopediaPyridine - New World Encyclopedia

Pyridine is widely used as a versatile solvent. Deuterated pyridine, called pyridine-d5, is a common solvent for1H NMR ... Pyridine can be classified as a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Each molecule of pyridine is a six-membered ring ... Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 1993). ISBN 3527303855 ... Pyridine is toxic. (Its oral lethal dose LD50 in rats was found to be 891 mg kg-1). It is volatile and can be absorbed through ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pyridine

Pyridine synthesisPyridine synthesis

2-substituted pyridines in good yields. By exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N- ... and pentasubstituted pyridines as well as fused pyridines from readily available starting materials.. Z. Song, X. Huang, W. Yi ... Pyridine N-oxides were converted to 2-aminopyridines in a one-pot fashion using Ts2O-tBuNH2 followed by in situ deprotection ... Various polysubstituted pyridines were provided in high yields.. J. Shen, D. Cai, C. Kuai, Y. Liu, M. Wei, G. Cheng, X. Cui, J ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/synthesis/heterocycles/pyridines.shtm

Catalysts | Free Full-Text | Nucleophilic Dearomatization of Activated PyridinesCatalysts | Free Full-Text | Nucleophilic Dearomatization of Activated Pyridines

Conversely, pyridine nitrogen functionalization can also lead to pyridinium ylides. These dipolar species can undergo a variety ... Since functionalization of the pyridine nitrogen, rendering a (transient) pyridinium ion, is usually required to render the ... In this article, we collect and summarize nucleophilic dearomatization reactions of pyridines reported in the literature ... complementing and updating previous reviews published in the early 2010s dedicated to various aspects of pyridine chemistry. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2073-4344/8/12/632

Pyridine - Substance Information - ECHAPyridine - Substance Information - ECHA

About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/de/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.003.464

Pyridine acetate | C7H9NO2 - PubChemPyridine acetate | C7H9NO2 - PubChem

Pyridine acetate , C7H9NO2 , CID 165292 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/165292

Ethyl PyridineEthyl Pyridine

Celeris 2EP (2-ethyl pyridine) and 4EP (4-ethyl pyridine) media is designed to be highly reproducible based on tight product ... Celeris ethyl pyridine phases provide similar or better separation than competing EP phases. 1: Ibuprofen 2: Aspirin 3: ... Celeris 2EP and 4EP SFC columns deliver high performance separations comparable to other ethyl pyridine phases at a much lower ... Ethyl pyridine phases are the workhorse phases for preparative and process scale SFC purifications. ...
more infohttps://www.registech.com/chromatography/achiral-sfc-chromatography/celeris-ethyl-pyridine

Chemical Database: Pyridine (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Pyridine (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

This page contains information on the chemical Pyridine including: 28 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations ... Pyridine*Pyridine hydrobromide*Pyridine perchlorate*Pyridine perchlorate [Forbidden]*Pyridine sulfate (1:1) *Pyridine, ... Pyridine, hydrofluoride*Pyridine, perchlorate (8CI) (9CI) *Pyridine, sulfate (1:1) *Pyridinium bromide*Pyridinium fluoride* ... Pyridine. 3. UN1282. II. 3. IB2, T4, TP2. None. 202. 242. Forbid. Forbid. B. 21, 100. Pyridine perchlorate. Forbidden. Forbid. ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Pyridine.html

Pyridine Hydrobromide, TCI America™Pyridine Hydrobromide, TCI America™

pyridine hydrobromide, pyridinium bromide, pyridine, hydrobromide, pyridine, hydrobromide 1:1, pyridine hbr, ... pyridine hydrobromide, pyridinium bromide, pyridine, hydrobromide, pyridine, hydrobromide 1:1, pyridine hbr, ... pyridinehydrobromide, acmc-1bovh, pyridine hydrobromide, ksc178o2t, pyridine hydrobromide, purum at. IUPAC Name. pyridine; ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/pyridine-hydrobromide-tci-america/P1666250G

2-(2-Methylaminoethyl)pyridine 97% | Sigma-Aldrich2-(2-Methylaminoethyl)pyridine 97% | Sigma-Aldrich

... pyridine 0.97; CAS Number: 5638-76-6; Linear Formula: C8H12N2; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/m28804?lang=en®ion=US

Synthesis of N-substituted 1H-indeno[2,1-b]pyridines | SpringerLinkSynthesis of N-substituted 1H-indeno[2,1-b]pyridines | SpringerLink

In contrast to pseudoazulenes of the 1H-indeno[1,2-b]-and 2H-indeno[2,1-c]pyridine series, they are stable both in the solid ... Hydrogen Chloride Bromide Organic Chemistry Pyridine Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. 11, pp. 1511- ... 1H-1-Methylindeno[2,1-b]pyridine forms a perchlorate and a picrate (retention of the pseudoazulene structure) but is converted ... pyridines rather than to the corresponding yilds or indenoindolizines upon treatment with bases under various conditions. All ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00504112

Pyridine 1-oxide - Substance Information - ECHAPyridine 1-oxide - Substance Information - ECHA

Pyridine 1-oxide. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [3] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.010.705

Pyridine (Certified ACS), Fisher ChemicalPyridine (Certified ACS), Fisher Chemical

Flammable liquid and vapor. Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. May cause skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritation. Use personal protective equipment. Keep away from open flames, hot surfaces and sources of ignition. Use only under a chemical fume hood. Wash off immediately with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Immediate medical attention is required. Rinse immediately with plenty of water, also under the eyelids, for at least 15 minutes. Immediate medical attention is required. Move to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artifici ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/pyridine-certified-acs-fisher-chemical/P368S4

Butyl pyridine-2-carboxylate | C10H13NO2 - PubChemButyl pyridine-2-carboxylate | C10H13NO2 - PubChem

Butyl pyridine-2-carboxylate , C10H13NO2 , CID 79285 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/79285

Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis - Chempedia - LookChemChichibabin Pyridine Synthesis - Chempedia - LookChem

Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis A. E. Chichibabin, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 37, 1229 (1906); J. Prakt. Chem. 107, 122 (1924). ... Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis. A. E. Chichibabin, J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc. 37, 1229 (1906); J. Prakt. Chem. 107, 122 (1924). ... Condensation of carbonyl compounds with ammonia or amines under pressure to form pyridine derivatives; the reaction is ... reversible and produces different pyridine derivatives along with byproducts:. M. M. Sprung, Chem. Rev. 26, 301 (1940); R. L. ...
more infohttp://www.lookchem.com/Chempedia/Basic-Chemical/Chemical-Reaction/8254.html
  • Alanine dehydrogenases ( EC:1.4.1.1 ) and pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase ( EC:1.6.1.1 ) have been shown to share regions of similarity [ PMID: 8439307 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The sequence of alanine dehydrogenase from several bacterial species are related with those of the alpha subunit of bacterial pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and of the N-terminal half of the eukaryotic enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Similarities between alanine dehydrogenase and the N-terminal part of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and their possible implication in the virulence mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It was established that N-phenacyl and p-nitrophenacyl bromides and N-methyl-1-azafluorenium iodide, as well as N-phenacyl-7-nitro-1-azafluorenium bromide, are converted to N-substituted 1H-indeno[2,1-b]pyridines rather than to the corresponding yilds or indenoindolizines upon treatment with bases under various conditions. (springer.com)
  • Pyridines are a class of important heterocycles and appear in many naturally occurring bioactive compounds, pharmaceutical molecules, and chiral ligands in polysubstituted forms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1H-1-Methylindeno[2,1-b]pyridine forms a perchlorate and a picrate (retention of the pseudoazulene structure) but is converted to N-methyl-1-azafluorenium chloride by the action of hydrogen chloride. (springer.com)
  • By substituting other aldehydes for acetaldehyde, one can obtain alkyl and aryl substituted pyridines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A variety of nucleophilic species (organometallic reagents, enolates, heteroaromatics, umpoled aldehydes) can be productively engaged in pyridine dearomatization reactions, including catalytic asymmetric implementations, providing useful and efficient synthetic platforms to (enantioenriched) DHPs. (mdpi.com)
  • The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. (google.es)
  • Halogenated pyridines in particular are attractive building blocks for various cross-coupling methodologies, including Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the Emmert reaction (B. Emmert, 1939) pyridine is reacted with a ketone in presence of aluminium or magnesium and mercuric chloride to the carbinol also at C2. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At 25 °C pyridine has a viscosity of 0.88 mPa/s and thermal conductivity of 0.166 W·m−1·K−1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Celeris 2EP and 4EP SFC columns deliver high performance separations comparable to other ethyl pyridine phases at a much lower price. (registech.com)
  • The situation is rather similar for the 13C NMR spectra of pyridine and benzene: pyridine shows a triplet at δ(α-C) = 150 ppm, δ(β-C) = 124 ppm and δ(γ-C) = 136 ppm, whereas benzene has a single line at 129 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for gene duplication forming similar binding folds for NAD(P)H and FAD in pyridine nucleotide-dependent flavoenzymes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Celeris 2EP (2-ethyl pyridine) and 4EP (4-ethyl pyridine) media is designed to be highly reproducible based on tight product specifications and low metal content. (registech.com)