Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide to nicotinate and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.19.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Heterocyclic compounds that contain 4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[2,3-c]pyridine as part of their structure.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC 1.1.1.53.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A plant family of the order Celastrales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Carboxylic acids that have a homocyclic ring structure in which all the ring atoms are carbon.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity specific for HIV-1.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (1/8964)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Regulation and function of family 1 and family 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes (UGT1A, UGT2B) in human oesophagus. (2/8964)

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8719-8726]. Previous work suggests that these enzymes play a protective role in chemical carcinogenesis [Strassburg, Manns and Tukey (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2979-2985]. In this study, UGT1 and UGT2 gene expression was investigated in human oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma in addition to the characterization of individual UGT isoforms using recombinant protein. UGT mRNA expression was characterized by duplex reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and revealed the expression of UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A5 and UGT1A6 transcripts were not detected. UGT2 expression included UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15, but UGT2B4 mRNA was absent. UGT2 mRNA was present at significantly lower levels than UGT1 transcripts. This observation was in agreement with the analysis of catalytic activities in oesophageal microsomal protein, which was characterized by high glucuronidation rates for phenolic xenobiotics, all of which are classical UGT1 substrates. Whereas UGT1A9 was not regulated, differential regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10 mRNA was observed between normal oesophageal epithelium and squamous-cell carcinoma. Expression and analysis in vitro of recombinant UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 demonstrated that UGT1A7, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 catalysed the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene, as well as other environmental carcinogens, such as 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-(4, 5-beta)-pyridine. Although UGT1A9 was not regulated in the carcinoma tissue, the five-fold reduction in 7-hydroxybenzo(alpha)pyrene glucuronidation could be attributed to regulation of UGT1A7 and UGT1A10. These data elucidate an individual regulation of human UGT1A and UGT2B genes in human oesophagus and provide evidence for specific catalytic activities of individual human UGT isoforms towards environmental carcinogens that have been implicated in cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factors I and II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfides under in vivo redox conditions. (3/8964)

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I does not quantitatively form its three native disulfide bonds in the presence of 10 mM reduced and 1 mM oxidized glutathione in vitro [Hober, S. et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 1749-1756]. In this paper, we show (i) that both IGF-I and IGF-II are unable to form and maintain their native disulfide bonds at redox conditions that are similar to the situation in the secretory vesicles in vivo and (ii) that the presence of protein disulfide isomerase does not overcome this problem. The results indicate that the previously described thermodynamic disulfide exchange folding problem of IGF-I in vitro is also present in vivo. Speculatively, we suggest that the thermodynamic disulfide exchange properties of IGF-I and II are biologically significant for inactivation of the unbound growth factors by disulfide exchange reactions to generate variants destined for rapid clearance.  (+info)

delta-Aminolevulinate synthetases in the liver cytosol fraction and mitochondria of mice treated with allylisopropylacetamide and 3,5-dicarbethoxyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. (4/8964)

Hepatic delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthetase was induced in mice by the administration of allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both cases, a significant amount of ALA synthetase accumulated in the liver cytosol fraction as well as in the mitochondria. The apparent molecular weight of the cytosol ALA synthetase was estimated to be 320,000 by gel filtration, but when the cytosol ALA synthetase was subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation, it showed a molecular weight of 110,000. In the mitochondria, there were two different sizes of ALA synthetase with molecular weights of 150,000 and 110,000, respectively; the larger enzyme was predominant in DDC-treated mice, whereas in AIA-treated mice and normal mice the enzyme existed mostly in the smaller form. When hemin was injected into mice pretreated with DDC, the molecular size of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase changed from 150,000 to 110,000. The half-life of ALA synthetase in the liver cytosol fraction was about 30 min in both the AIA-treated and DDC-treated mice. The half-life of the mitochondrial ALA synthetase in AIA-treated mice and normal mice was about 60 min, but in DDC-treated mice the half-life was as long as 150 min. The data suggest that the cytosol ALA synthetase of mouse liver is a protein complex with properties very similar to those of the cytosol ALA synthetase of rat liver, which has been shown to be composed of the enzyme active protein and two catalytically inactive binding proteins, and that ALA synthetase may be transferred from the liver cytosol fraction to the mitochondria with a size of about 150,000 daltons, followed by its conversion to enzyme with a molecular weight of 110,000 within the mitochondria. The process of intramitochondrial enzyme degradation seems to be affected in DDC-treated animals.  (+info)

Selective antiaggressive effects of alnespirone in resident-intruder test are mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptors: A comparative pharmacological study with 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin, ipsapirone, buspirone, eltoprazine, and WAY-100635. (5/8964)

The present study characterized the effects of the novel, selective, and potent 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (serotonin) (5-HT1A) receptor agonist, alnespirone [S-20499, (S)-N-4-[5-methoxychroman-3-yl)propylamino)butyl- 8-azaspiro-(4,5)-diacetamide, hydrochloride] on offensive and defensive resident-intruder aggression in wild-type rats and compared its actions with those of the prototypical full 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2- dipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), the partial 5-HT1A agonists ipsapirone and buspirone, and the mixed 5-HT1A/1B agonist eltoprazine. All five agonists exerted effective dose-dependent decreases of offensive aggressive behavior in resident rats; 8-OH-DPAT was the most potent (ID50 = 0.074 mg/kg), followed by eltoprazine (0.24), buspirone (0.72), ipsapirone (1.08), and alnespirone (1.24). However, in terms of selectivity of the antiaggressive effects as determined by the absence of decrements in social interest and general motor activity, alnespirone appeared to be superior. In the defensive aggression test, neither alnespirone nor any of the other four agonists changed defensive behaviors in the intruder rats. The involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the antiaggressive actions of these drugs was confirmed by showing that the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride), which was inactive alone, fully prevented the antiaggressive effects of alnespirone, 8-OH-DPAT, and buspirone and partly reversed those of ipsapirone and eltoprazine. The data clearly indicate that alnespirone effectively suppresses offensive aggression with an advantageous profile of action compared with other full or partial 5-HT1A agonists. These selective antiaggressive actions of alnespirone are mediated by stimulating 5-HT1A receptors, presumably the somatodendritic autoreceptors at the raphe nuclei. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for a major involvement of these 5-HT1A receptors in the modulation of aggressive behavior by 8-OH-DPAT, ipsapirone, buspirone, and eltoprazine.  (+info)

Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (6/8964)

Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates.  (+info)

The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization of human cells to topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis. (7/8964)

BACKGROUND: Among the inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase II (an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs) tested in the National Cancer Institute's In Vitro Antineoplastic Drug Screen, NSC 284682 (3'-hydroxydaunorubicin) and NSC 659687 [9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-1-(N-[2(dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl)-6H-pyrido -(4,3-b)carbazole] were the only compounds that were more cytotoxic to tumor cells harboring an activated ras oncogene than to tumor cells bearing wild-type ras alleles. Expression of the multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) facilitates tumor cell resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors. We investigated whether tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes showed enhanced sensitivity to other topoisomerase II inhibitors in the absence of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. METHODS: We studied 20 topoisomerase II inhibitors and individual cell lines with or without activated ras oncogenes and with varying degrees of multidrug resistance. RESULTS: In the absence of multidrug resistance, human tumor cell lines with activated ras oncogenes were uniformly more sensitive to most topoisomerase II inhibitors than were cell lines containing wild-type ras alleles. The compounds NSC 284682 and NSC 659687 were especially effective irrespective of the multidrug resistant phenotype. The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization to topoisomerase II inhibitors was far more prominent with the non-DNA-intercalating epipodophyllotoxins than with the DNA-intercalating inhibitors. This difference in sensitization appears to be related to a difference in apoptotic sensitivity, since the level of DNA damage generated by etoposide (an epipodophyllotoxin derivative) in immortalized human kidney epithelial cells expressing an activated ras oncogene was similar to that in the parental cells, but apoptosis was enhanced only in the former cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activated ras oncogenes appear to enhance the sensitivity of human tumor cells to topoisomerase II inhibitors by potentiating an apoptotic response. Epipodophyllotoxin-derived topoisomerase II inhibitors should be more effective than the DNA-intercalating inhibitors against tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes.  (+info)

Raf-1 is activated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB203580. (8/8964)

SB203580 (4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imi dazole) is widely used as a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, we report that SB203580 activates the serine/threonine kinase Raf-1 in quiescent smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The concentrations of SB203580 required lie above those necessary to inhibit p38 MAPK and we were unable to detect basal levels of active p38 MAPK. SB203580 does not directly activate Raf-1 in vitro, and fails to activate Ras, MEK, and ERK in intact cells. In vitro, however, SB203580-stimulated Raf-1 activates MEK1 in a coupled assay. We conclude that activation of Raf-1 by SB203580 is not mediated by an inhibition of p38 MAPK, is Ras-independent, and is uncoupled from MEK/ERK signaling.  (+info)

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A novel collection of tetracyclic imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives was designed and synthesized as potential antiproliferative brokers. Their antiproliferative exercise in opposition to human most cancers cells was influenced by the introduction of chosen amino facet chains on the completely different positions on the tetracyclic skeleton and significantly, by the place of N atom within the pyridine nuclei. Thus, the vast majority of compounds confirmed improved exercise compared to commonplace drug etoposide. A number of compounds confirmed pronounced cytostatic impact within the submicromolar vary, particularly on HCT116 and MCF-7 most cancers cells. The obtained outcomes have confirmed the numerous impression of the place of N nitrogen within the pyridine ring on the enhancement of antiproliferative exercise, particularly for derivatives bearing amino facet chains on place 2.. Thus, regioisomers 6, 7 and 9 confirmed noticeable enhancement of exercise compared to their counterparts 10, 11 ...
A pyridine derivative having the formula 1,3-dihydro-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-styryl)-6-methyl-7-hydroxy-furo-[3,4,c] pyridine and therapeutically acceptable salts thereof are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for the preparation of the compound. The compounds are therapeutically useful for a stabilizing effect on the red blood corpuscles and as selective diuretics.
1-(1-Cyclopropylpropyl)-2-methoxy-4-(4-methoxy-2,5-dimethylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine | C22H27N3O2 | CID 18001320 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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article{58dd5e7f-04eb-4872-b723-950f7f7c215f, abstract = {Novel hexahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines prepared by the addition of ethyl (1-benzylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)acetate (2) to the fungal metabolite podoscyphic acid (1a) and esters of 1a have been evaluated for their ability to inhibit the inducible TNF-α promoter activity in T cells. The methyl ester 3b is the most potent, inhibiting the TNF-α driven reporter gene expression in Jurkat T cells with an IC50-value of 2.0 μg/ml (3.6 μM). In addition, compound 3b inhibited the inducible TNF-α production in the myelomonocytic U937 cells with an IC50-value of 4.6 μM.}, author = {Rether, Jan and Erkel, Gerhard and Anke, Timm and Eriksson Bajtner, Johan and Sterner, Olov}, issn = {0968-0896}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {1236--1241}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry}, title = {Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives as inhibitors of TNF-alpha expression in T cells}, url = ...
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib, an oral antiangiogenic drug, in patients with recurrent or refractory cervical cancer as salvage treatment, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records of recurrent or refractory cervical cancer patients admitted to the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Hunan Cancer Hospital, from October 1, 2016, to December 31, 2017. Patients who progressed within 6 months after the last treatment were given apatinib orally at a dose of 250 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in our retrospective study. Up to February 1, 2019, the median follow-up time was 18 months. The median progression-free survival was 128 days (95% confidence interval (CI): 20–540 days), and the median overall survival was 9 months (95% CI: 4–23 months). The longest period of apatinib administration was 540 days. No complete response was observed,
5-Bromo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-amine | C6H5BrN4 | CID 9834334 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The Raman spectra of pyridine N-oxide and its solutions in phenol, methanol and dioxan have been recorded. The band at 1254±10 cm.−1 has been assigned to the N-O stretching vibration. The variations in the double bond frequencies of pyridine ring, and in the frequency of N-O bond, owing to hydrogen bond formation, have been listed. On conversion of pyridine to pyridine N-oxide the various frequencies attributed to the different modes of vibrations in the pyridine ring get altered as a result of the considerable disturbance caused by the new bond.. ...
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Product name : Terpyridine CAS 1148-79-4Ag & Ru spectrophotometric determinationCAS-Nr. : 1148-​79-​4 | MW: 233.3 DFormula: C15H11N3Purity:
Synthesis, initial SAR and biological evaluation of 1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-amine derived inhibitors of IkappaB kinase.
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Capot Chemical CAS# 887115-56-2, 5-bromo-1-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine. 887115-56-2 MSDS,ROS,887115-56-2 MOA,COA,SPECS,pecifications,1H-NMR,GHS,CAT #32986
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Pyridine, any of a class of organic compounds of the aromatic heterocyclic series characterized by a six-membered ring structure composed of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C5H5N. Pyridine is
Background: To study safety and efficacy of apatinib in combination of radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic bony disease prostate cancer(SBPC), based on the potential synergistic antitumor activity between apatinib and Radiation Therapy (RT). Patients and methods: In phase I dose escalation part, 18 patients received apatinib dose at 250 mg every other day, 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. In phase II part, the 250 mg daily cohorts were expanded to 20 patients in combination of RT (6 Gy/fraction, 5 fraction in total), one patient lost followed up and excluded the study, comparing with RT alone cohort with 10 patients, ratio of RT to RT + apatinib was 1 to 2 ...
Background: To study safety and efficacy of apatinib in combination of radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic bony disease prostate cancer(SBPC), based on the potential synergistic antitumor activity between apatinib and Radiation Therapy (RT). Patients and methods: In phase I dose escalation part, 18 patients received apatinib dose at 250 mg every other day, 250 mg daily and 500 mg daily. In phase II part, the 250 mg daily cohorts were expanded to 20 patients in combination of RT (6 Gy/fraction, 5 fraction in total), one patient lost followed up and excluded the study, comparing with RT alone cohort with 10 patients, ratio of RT to RT + apatinib was 1 to 2 ...
This phase 1 study investigated Pharmacokinetics of apatinib in healthy Caucasian, Japanese and Chinese subjects following a single-dose administration to
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of SOX(S-1+ oxaliplatin) chemotherapy plus Apatinib in the conversion therapys of local
Two series of solid solutions based on the [Fe(bpp)2][BF4]2 (bpp = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine) spin-crossover lattice are described. Materials of formula [FeyNi1−y(bpp)2][BF4]2 (0.95 ≥ x ≥ 0.15) are all phase-pure. In contrast, [Fe(bpp)2]x[Ru(terpy)2]1−x[BF4]2 (0.95 ≥ x ≥ 0.28) crystallise as a mixture of Crystal engineering in molecular magnetism
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The push‐pull‐substituted bis(terpyridine)ruthenium(II) amino acid [Ru(4′‐tpy‐COOH)(4′‐tpy‐NH2)]2+ ([5]2+; tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″‐terpyridine) with carboxylic acid ...
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Four new RuII[BOND]Cl and RuII[BOND]H2O complexes containing the meridional 2,2:6,2-terpyridine (trpy) ligand and the chelating 2-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (H3p) ligand of general formula in- and out-[RuII(tr ...
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PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To assess safety, tolerability, and identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of entinostat given in combination with MK-3475 (pembrolizumab).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To obtain a preliminary estimate of efficacy of entinostat in combination with MK-3475 (pembrolizumab).. EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVE:. I. To assess the dynamic quantitative change in measurable immunological biomarkers (proportions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells [MDSCs], and programmed death protein-1 [PD-1] expression in bone marrow) with the combined epigenetic-immunotherapy and correlation with any observed clinical responses.. OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of entinostat.. Patients receive lower dose entinostat orally (PO) on days 1 and 8 or higher dose entinostat PO on days 1, 8, and 15, and pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1 of cycle 2 and cycles thereafter. Treatment repeats every 21 days for up to 4 cycles in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable ...
7-ethynyl-2,2,4-trimethyl[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-c]pyridine - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
article{24d84870-db0e-4dc5-a0ac-1dbddec36d1a, abstract = {,p,In this study, we investigated the ability of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes to act as DNA binders. The substitution reactions of three Ru(ii) chlorophenyl terpyridine complexes, i.e. [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(en)Cl]Cl (1), [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(dach)Cl]Cl (2) and [Ru(Cl-Ph-tpy)(bpy)Cl]Cl (3) (Cl-Ph-tpy = 4′-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine, en = 1,2-diaminoethane, dach = 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine), with a mononucleotide guanosine-5′-monophosphate (5′-GMP) and oligonucleotides such as fully complementary 15-mer and 22-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for DNA, and fully complementary 13-mer duplexes with a centrally located GG-binding site for RNA were studied quantitatively by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Duplex RNA reacts faster with complexes 1-3 than duplex DNA, while shorter duplex DNA (15mer GG) reacts faster compared with 22mer GG duplex DNA. The measured enthalpies and entropies of activation ...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a form of cancer that easily aggress to contiguous structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) are increased in majority species of cancers and suppress tumor progression by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2. Apatinib is a highly selective VEGFR2 antagonist which has inhibitive effect on antiapoptotic and cell growth in CCA. While, the effect of apatinib cell migration and invasion in CCA is still unknown. CCA cell lines QBC939 and TFK-1 were transfected with siKDR to establish the KDR function loss cell model, and recombined human VEGF (rhVEGF) protein was added into the culture medium to enhance the VEGF expression. RT-qPCR and western bloting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGFR2 to investigate whether it was effectively repressed or activated with rhVEGF or apatinib treatment. Then, MTT, wound healing assay, and transwell matrix assay were applied to measure the effect of apatinib and rhVEGF on cell viability,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Competition for electrons between mono-oxygenations of pyridine and 2-hydroxypyridine. AU - Yang, Chao. AU - Tang, Yingxia. AU - Xu, Hua. AU - Yan, Ning. AU - Li, Naiyu. AU - Zhang, Yongming. AU - Rittmann, Bruce. PY - 2018/5/21. Y1 - 2018/5/21. N2 - Pyridine and its heterocyclic derivatives are widely encountered in industrial wastewaters, and they are relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation. Pyridine biodegradation is initiated by two mono-oxygenation reactions that compete for intracellular electron donor (2H). In our experiments, UV photolysis of pyridine generated succinate, whose oxidation augmented the intracellular electron donor and accelerated pyridine biodegradation and mineralization. The first mono-oxygenation reaction always was faster than the second one, because electrons provided by intracellular electron donors were preferentially utilized by the first mono-oxygenase; this was true even when the concentration of 2HP was greater than the concentration of ...
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The synthesis and preliminary evaluation of new benzo[f]quinoline and pyridine derivatives, obtained by application of the Reissert method and its modifications, as HIV-1 RT inhibitors and anti-infectives are presented. The most active products against HIV-1 RT wild type are the ethyl 2-cyano-1,2-dihydrobenzo[f]quinoline-1-carboxylate 2b, propyl 2-cyano-1,2-dihydrobenzo[f]quinoline-1-carboxylate 2c, and 2-cyano-1-(2-furoyl)-1,2-dihydrobenzo[f]quinoline 2n, which maintain their activity against the mutant type P236L, resulting inactive against the Y181C type. Using the data previously obtained by our research team for analogous series derived from quinoline as reference, the compounds which have now been obtained present an increase in the cytotoxic character attributable to the introduction of a benzene ring fused with the quinoline base nucleus, as well as a decrease of the activity as HIV-1 RT inhibitors when the quinoline benzenic ring is eliminated ...
Six patients followed at the HIV clinic at Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System had been on RAL + unboosted ATV+N(t)RTI for >24 weeks at the time of clinical review. All participants received RAL 400 mg BID + ATV 300 mg BID as part of their regimens, which had been started between April 2007 and May 2008. Individuals initiated on RAL before the drug became licensed and available for use in December 2008, had obtained the medication via an expanded access program. Median age was 58 (range 50 to 84) years, median time from diagnosis was 14.5 (range 9 to 21) years, and the median time on ART was 10.5 (range 9 to 21) years. Before initiation of RAL + ATV-based therapy, the mean HIV viral load was 115 752 copies/mL, and the mean CD4 count was 309 cells/mm3 (range 32 to 477). After 24 weeks of treatment, the viral load for all participants had become and remained undetectable, while the mean CD4 count was 543 cells/mm3 (range 101 to 1001), with an average gain of 234 CD4 cells/mm3 (Figures ...
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The antineoplastic activity of α‐N‐heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones was discovered several decades ago. Currently the most promising drug candidate of this class of compounds is Triapine (3‐aminopyridine‐2‐carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, 3‐AP), which entered several phase I and II clinical trials as an antitumor agent. We discovered that Triapine possesses intrinsic fluorescence properties. This enabled us to monitor for the first time the uptake and intracellular distribution of an α‐N‐heterocyclic thiosemicarbazone in living human cancer cells by fluorescence microscopy. In addition we synthesized the first zinc(II) complex [Zn(Triapine)Cl2]•HCl of Triapine, which shows fluorescence as well, compared its cytotoxicity in human cancer cells with that of the parental compound and studied the influence of metal complexation on intracellular distribution.. Triapine and its zinc complex were characterized spectroscopically. The UV‐Vis spectrum of Triapine in water shows a ...
Results: 178 patients (pts) were observed for 1-81 (median 16.5, IQR 7-27) months totaling 325 patient years. Mean age at switch was 44 years, mean weight 76 kg, mean CD4 516 cells/mm3. Duration of preceding viral suppression was 0 - 177 (median 18, IQR 7-38) months. Most common preceding regimen was ATV/r+TDF+FTC (89 pts). Most common reasons given for switching to ATV+TDF+FTC were simplification (83 pts), dyslipidemia (17), gastrointestinal toxicity (10), coronary risk (10), CNS toxicity (10), hyperbilirubinemia (6 ...
The addition of both MEK1 inhibitor U0126 or JNK inhibitor SP600125 coupled with RI inhibitor SB431542 had no detectable result to the mesenchymal phenotype on the cells. The mixture these details of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 restored cortical actin stain ing, but tension fiber actin remained inside the cells. Escalating the concentration of RI inhibitor SB431542 to ten M led to a even more lessen from the level of anxiety fib ers, nonetheless, the combination of RI inhibitor SB431542 by using a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or ROCK inhibitor Y27632 was additional effective at getting rid of them. Related results were observed in wild variety mTEC cells, which has a mixture of RI inhibi tor SB431542 and ROCK inhibitor Y27632 reversing EMT as indicated by each gene expression and cell morphology. Collectively, these information indicate that therapy in the cells with RI inhibitor SB431542 by itself are unable to result in total re acqui selleck AZD4547 sition of cortical ...
PURPOSE:To improve the sensitivity of the composition to a visible ray by incorporating a specified iron allene complex, 3-substd. cumarine compd. and/or a pyridine derivative or its salt in the titled composition. CONSTITUTION:The titled composition comprises the iron allene complex which is composed of at least one kind of a nongaseous ethylenic unsatd. compd. at a room temp. and is shown by formula I, the 3-subst. cumarine compd. shown by formula II and/or the pyridine derivative or its salt shown by formula III. In the formulas I and II, R is hydrogen atom or alkoxy group, etc., X is BF4 or PF6, etc., R1-R4 are each hydrogen atom or alkyl group, etc., X is aryl or a heterocyclic ring group, etc., R5 is alkyl group, etc. In formula III, R1 and R2 are each 1-6C alkyl group, A is aryl group condensed with a pyridine ring. Thus, as the titled composition has the high sensitivity against the visible ray, the exposure light source with the low energy can be used, and great numbers of master plates
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Ethyl pyridine phases are the workhorse phases for preparative and process scale SFC purifications. Celeris 2EP (2-ethyl pyridine) and 4EP (4-ethyl pyridine) media is designed to be highly reproducible based on tight product specifications and low metal content. Celeris 2EP is especially well-suited for separation of acidic compounds and exhibits broad selectivity towards a variety of other compound types. The Celeris 4EP phase offers alternate selectivity to the 2EP phase. Celeris 2EP and 4EP SFC columns deliver high performance separations comparable to other ethyl pyridine phases at a much lower price ...
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Added November 1, 2014; Updated November 30, 2014; January 1, 2015; January 31, 2015; May 8, 2015; May 15, 2015; May 29, 2015; June 12, 2015; June 20, 2015; July 17, 2015; August 5, 2015; September 17, 2015; October 19, 2015; November 4, 2015; December 7, 2015; December 31, 2015. ...
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We know that if nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring, however, its basicity decreases markedly. So in pyridine nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring hence its basicity is much more less than piperidine. The difference between the two lies in the fact that the nitrogen lone pair occupies an sp3- hybridized orbital in piperidine versus an sp2-hybridized one in pyridine. As we have noted on several occasions, electrons in orbitals with more s character are more strongly held than those with less s character. For this reason, nitrogen holds on to its unshared pair more strongly in pyridine than in piperidine and is less basic ...
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2YKI: Tricyclic Series of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Inhibitors Part I: Discovery of Tricyclic Imidazo[4,5-C]Pyridines as Potent Inhibitors of the Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone.
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Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or eluant is the "carrier" portion of the mobile phase. It moves the ...
Pyridine. *Pyroligneous Acid And Extract. *Pyrrole. *Pyruvic Acid. R[edit]. *Raisin Juice Concentrate ...
PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meat. ... a b International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997) PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine)(Group 2B ... 1995) High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are ... pyridine". Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 87 (11): 1116-1120. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.1996.tb03120.x. PMC 5921009.. .mw- ...
Pyridine forms an N-oxide with some oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide. This pyridine-N-oxide undergoes a rearrangement ... however the yellow pigments often reported in degradation of many pyridine solvents, such as unsubstituted pyridine or picoline ... Pyridine diols undergo chemical transformation in solution to form intensely colored pigments. Similar pigments have been ... Leis D. G.; Curran B. C. (1945). "Electric Moments of Some Gamma-Substituted Pyridines". Journal of the American Chemical ...
Pyridine-barbituric acid colorimetry. A sample containing inorganic cyanide is purged with air from a boiling acid solution ... The cyanogen chloride formed couples pyridine with barbituric acid to form a strongly colored red dye that is proportional to ... this technology is non-toxic and considerably less prone to interference than the pyridine-barbituric acid colorimetry method. ...
Zamani M, Sharifi Tehrani A, Ali Abadi AA (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. 72 (4): 773-7. PMID 18396809 ...
Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and -4-thione". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3610. doi:10.1039/ ... This yellow crystalline solid is a derivative of pyridine. The compound and its derivatives serve primarily as acylating agents ... 2-Mercaptopyridine derivatives can also be generated from precursors lacking preformed pyridine rings. It arises for example in ...
... pyridine-N-oxide and pyridine-2-thiol), both of which have pKa > 8. It is only slightly soluble in water (2.5 g L−1) but is ... Tautomeric pyridines. Part I. Pyrid-2- and −4-thione". J. Chem. Soc.: 3610-3613. doi:10.1039/JR9580003610. Entry on Pyrithion. ... The tautomerism of mercapto- and acylamino-pyridine 1-oxides". J. Chem. Soc.: 2937-2942. doi:10.1039/JR9600002937. CS1 maint: ... Thomas, K.; Jerchel, D. (1964). "The Introduction of Substituents into the Pyridine Ring". In Foerst, Wilhelm; Birnbaum, Henry ...
Al2Br6 dissociates readily to give the strong Lewis acid, AlBr3. Regarding the tendency of Al2Br6 to dimerize, it is common for heavier main group halides to exist as aggregates larger than implied by their empirical formulae. Lighter main group halides such as boron tribromide do not show this tendency, in part due to the smaller size of the central atom. Consistent with its Lewis acidic character, water hydrolizes Al2Br6 with evolution of HBr and formation of Al-OH-Br species. Similarly, it also reacts quickly with alcohols and carboxylic acids, although less vigorously than with water. With simple Lewis bases (L), Al2Br6 forms adducts, such as AlBr3L. Aluminium tribromide reacts with carbon tetrachloride at 100 °C to form carbon tetrabromide: ...
The pyridine analog is quinoline or isoquinoline. For azepine, benzazepine is the preferred name. Likewise, the compounds with ... Included are pyridine, thiophene, pyrrole, and furan. Another large class of heterocycles are fused to benzene rings, which for ... pyridine, thiophene, pyrrole, and furan are quinoline, benzothiophene, indole, and benzofuran, respectively. Fusion of two ...
Polycyclic condensed pyridine derivatives Actinidine, gentianine, pediculinine [80] Sesquiterpene pyridine derivatives ... Simple derivatives of pyridine Nicotinic acid → dihydronicotinic acid → 1,2-dihydropyridine [78] Trigonelline, ricinine, ... Polycyclic noncondensing pyridine derivatives Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, anatabine [76][79] ... More recent classifications are based on similarity of the carbon skeleton (e.g., indole-, isoquinoline-, and pyridine-like) or ...
10.75 indicate that triethylamine is a stronger base than pyridine. ...
Pyrazolo(3,4-b)pyridines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (12): 1340-6. doi:10.1021/jm00270a006. PMID 4358224. Sarges R ( ...
Martin, J. C. J. (1980). "Synthesis of pyridines from dicyanopyrimidines. A diels-alder approach to the c-ring of streptonigrin ... The resulting highly substituted pyridines can be difficult to access by other means. (6) Release of isocyanates from Diels- ...
... of pyridines with heterogeneous catalyst Methods designed specifically for 2-substituted pyridine ... Pyridines are highly variable substrates for asymmetric reduction (even compared to other heteroaromatics), in that five carbon ... Hydrogenating such functionalized pyridines over a number of different heterogeneous metal catalysts gave the corresponding ... Similarly, chiral Brønsted acid catalysis with a Hantzsh ester as a hydride source is effective for some 2-alkyl pyridines with ...
... pyridine). Instead of zirconium used as central atom, an analogous reaction with titanium is possible, too. The highly reactive ...
These compounds are invariably isolated as adducts, e.g., C5H5B-pyridine. The cyclic compound borole, a structural analog of ...
5N) from pyridine (C. 5H. 5N). Several variations of this technique have been described, including the use of molten potassium ...
Protection: Triethylsilyl chloride and pyridine. Deprotection: Hydrolysis using hydrofluoric acid, pyridine and tetrahydrofuran ... pyridine, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, and dicholoromethane Deprotection: Potassium carbonate in methanol and water solvent ... Diol 5.7 was selectively activated using methanesulfonyl chloride and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine to give mesylate 5.8, in 78% ... Deprotection: Hydrolysis using hydrofluoric acid and pyridine Protected secondary alcohol in Ojima lactam 7.1 during reaction ...
Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement Ciamician, G.; Dennestedt, M. (1881). Ciamician synthesis of pyridines from pyrroles. Chem. ...
... his main interest was in pyridines. Katritzky moved to Cambridge in 1958, continuing his research on pyridines as well as ...
... (pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC and DPA) is a chemical compound which plays a role in the heat ... Dipicolinic acid is among the least volatile, least adsorbed by soil, and most rapidly degraded of the simple pyridines. A ... Simple substituted pyridines vary significantly in environmental fate characteristics, such as volatility, adsorption, and ... Sims, G. K.; O'Loughlin, E.J. (1989). "Degradation of pyridines in the environment". CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental ...
Sims, Gerald K.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Crawford, Ronald L. (1989). "Degradation of pyridines in the environment". Critical ... Though crude oil is predominantly composed of various hydrocarbons, certain nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, such as pyridine, ...
They are prepared by treating pyridine with acids. As pyridine is often used as an organic base in chemical reactions, ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... When pyridine is included, it forms a complex with the electrophilic acylium ion, rendering it even more reactive. Pyridinium ... Pyridinium refers to the cation [C5H5NH]+. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine. Many related cations are known involving ...
Commonly detected examples include quinoline derivatives, pyridine, and various alkyl homologues of pyridine (picoline, ... Degradation of pyridines in the environment. CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. Speckman, Stephen ( ...
Degradation of pyridines in the environment. CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. Wipperman, Matthew ... In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oil often contains various heterocyclic compounds, such as pyridine, which appear to be ... such as pyridine or quinoline), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Interest in the microbial biodegradation ...
Niacin is the generic name for both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide (pyridine 3-carboxylic acid and pyridine 3-carboxamide, ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_399. ISBN ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. XLI. doi:10.1002/ ... Like pyridine, 3-methylpyridine is a colorless liquid with a strong odor and is classified as a weak base. 3-Methylpyridine is ...
"Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ...
The other isomers are pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde. 2-Formylpyridine is a colorless oily liquid with ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... Pyridine aldehydes are typically prepared by oxidation of the hydroxymethyl- or methylpyridines. The drug pralidoxime can be ... 2-Formylpyridine, also commonly called pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, is an organic compound with the formula NC5H4CHO. It is one ...
The biodegradation of pyridines proceeds via multiple pathways. Although pyridine is an excellent source of carbon, nitrogen, ... "Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... It is one of several dimethyl-substituted derivatives of pyridine, all of which are referred to as lutidines. It is a colorless ... Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1985). "Degradation of pyridine derivatives in soil". Journal of Environmental Quality. 14 (4): 580 ...
Studies in people and animals suggest that pyridine may damage the liver. This chemical has been found in at least 11 of 1,416 ... Everyone is exposed to very low levels of pyridine in air, water, and food. Workers who make or use the chemical may be exposed ... What is pyridine?. Pyridine is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell. It can be made from crude coal tar or from other ... How can pyridine affect my health?. Very little information is available on the health effects of pyridine. Animal studies and ...
The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C5H5N. Pyridine is ... Pyridine, any of a class of organic compounds of the aromatic heterocyclic series characterized by a six-membered ring ... The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C5H5N. ... the simple heterocyclic compounds are pyridine, pyrrole, furan, and thiophene. A molecule of pyridine contains a ring of six ...
Toxicological Profile for Pyridine. CAS#: 110-86-1 Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Pyridine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. The reactions can be ... This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic ... Substituted pyridines and dihydropyridines. US4071746 *. 22 Jun 1976. 31 Ene 1978. Petrolite Corporation. Alkylbenzyl ... We have also discovered that pyridinium acetates formed can be converted to the corresponding pyridines in excellent yield by ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Kiefer, J.H.; Zhang, Q.; Kern, R.D.; Yao, J.; Jursic, B., Pyrolysis of Aromatic Azines: Pyrazine, Pyrimidine, and Pyridine, J. ... Rodgers, M.T.; Stanley, J.R.; Amunugama, R., Periodic Trends in the Binding of Metal Ions to Pyridine Studied by Threshold ... Burrows, G.H.; King, L.A., Jr., The free energy change that accompanies hydrogenation of pyridine to piperidine, J. Am. Chem. ... Shaofeng, L.; Pilcher, G., Enthalpy of formation of pyridine-N-oxide: the dissociation enthalpy of the (N-O) bond, J. Chem. ...
Azabenzene, Azine Colorless to yellow liquid with a nauseating, fish-like odor.
Lonza manufactures pyridine derivatives that are used for the manufacture of active ingredients in the pharmaceutical, ... Pyridine Derivatives are value added intermediates and are used for the manufacture of active ingredients in the pharmaceutical ...
Pyridine definition, a colorless, flammable, liquid organic base, C5H5N, having a disagreeable odor, usually obtained from coal ... pyridine. *. When cinchonine is distilled with solid potassium hydrate, it yields pyrrol and bases of both the pyridine and ... pyridine. pyrexia, pyrgeometer, pyrheliometer, pyribenzamine, pyric, pyridine, pyridium, pyridostigmine bromide, pyridoxal, ... Pyridines include compounds used as water repellents, herbicides, and various drugs. The pyridine ring structure is also part ...
The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis provides a fairly general method for generating substituted pyridines using pyridine itself as a ... Pyridine is added to ethanol to make it unsuitable for drinking. In low doses, pyridine is added to foods to give them a bitter ... From p. 253: "Pyridine. The first of these bases, to which I give the name of pyridine, … " Anderson, T. (1851). "Ueber die ... Oxidation of pyridine occurs at nitrogen to give pyridine-N-oxide. The oxidation can be achieved with peracids: C5H5N + RCO3H ...
Piperazinyl-pyridine analogues are provided, of the Formula: ,chemistry id=CHEM-US-00001 num=1,,img id=EMI-C00001 he= ... Piperazinyl-Pyridine Analogues As noted above, the present invention provides piperazinyl-pyridine analogues of Formula I. ... Preparation of Piperazinyl-Pyridine Analogues Piperazinyl-pyridine analogues may generally be prepared using standard synthetic ... The term "piperazinyl-pyridine analogue," as used herein, encompasses all compounds of Formula I, as well as compounds of other ...
Learn More about Pyridines
pyridines.html>Pyridines ... Examples of pyridines include the well-known alkaloids lycodine, the A3 adenosine receptor antagonist, and a N,N ... Pyridine derivatives have also been implicated as small molecule α-helical mimetics in the inhibition of protein-protein ... The pyridine moiety is present in countless molecules with applications as varied as catalysis, drug design, molecular ...
A technical report number was assigned to the chronic study of this test article. The study was considered inadequate and no technical report was prepared.. Pyridine was subsequently studied and published in TR-470. ...
Conversely, pyridine nitrogen functionalization can also lead to pyridinium ylides. These dipolar species can undergo a variety ... Since functionalization of the pyridine nitrogen, rendering a (transient) pyridinium ion, is usually required to render the ... In this article, we collect and summarize nucleophilic dearomatization reactions of pyridines reported in the literature ... complementing and updating previous reviews published in the early 2010s dedicated to various aspects of pyridine chemistry. ...
Pyridine alkaloids are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a ... Alkaloids with a pyridine partial structure are usually further subdivided according to their occurrence and their biogenetic ... nicotine anabasine ricinine "Pyridine Alkaloids". Cornell University, Department of Animal Science. Entry on Pyridin. at: Römpp ... The most important examples of pyridine alkaloids are the nicotine and anabasine, which are found in tobacco, the areca ...
Pyridine is widely used as a versatile solvent. Deuterated pyridine, called pyridine-d5, is a common solvent for1H NMR ... Pyridine can be classified as a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Each molecule of pyridine is a six-membered ring ... Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 1993). ISBN 3527303855 ... Pyridine is toxic. (Its oral lethal dose LD50 in rats was found to be 891 mg kg-1). It is volatile and can be absorbed through ...
PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meat. ... a b International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1997) PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine)(Group 2B ... 1995) High concentrations of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) occur in chicken but are ... pyridine". Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 87 (11): 1116-1120. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.1996.tb03120.x. PMC 5921009.. .mw- ...
In contrast to pseudoazulenes of the 1H-indeno[1,2-b]-and 2H-indeno[2,1-c]pyridine series, they are stable both in the solid ... Hydrogen Chloride Bromide Organic Chemistry Pyridine Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. 11, pp. 1511- ... 1H-1-Methylindeno[2,1-b]pyridine forms a perchlorate and a picrate (retention of the pseudoazulene structure) but is converted ... pyridines rather than to the corresponding yilds or indenoindolizines upon treatment with bases under various conditions. All ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of pyridine in methanol at infinite dilution for various temperature and ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of pyridine in methanol at infinite dilution. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of pyridine in methanol at infinite dilution for various temperature and ...
... provides an electrode for the electrochemically reversible interconversion of the oxidised and reduced versions of a pyridine ... 3. Reduced pyridine nucleotide is then converted back to its oxidised form at the working electrode by the immobilised pyridine ... A method according to claim 1 wherein said pyridine nucleotide is NAD+. 29. A method according to claim 1 wherein said pyridine ... A method according to claim 1 wherein said pyridine nucleotide is NADH. 27. A method according to claim 1 wherein said pyridine ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
Pyridine has an unpleasant, nauseating odour and it is irritating to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Mild symptoms of ... The critical effects of pyridine seem to be its effects on the central nervous system and the liver. Summary in swedish.. ...
Cl as a catalyst and a pyridine compound as a ligand of the catalyst system. ... pyridine, 4-tertiary-butylpyridine, pyridine, 4-(morpholino)pyridine, 4-(N-methylpiperazino)pyridine, 2,2-dipyridyl, or 2- ... pyridine (where R3 is H) ##STR14## 4-(morpholino)pyridine [where R3 is 4-(morpholino)] ##STR15## 4-(n-methylpiperazino)pyridine ... Pyridine 0.5 51(70)VI Pyridine 1.0 905VII 4-Dimethylaminopyridine 0.5 76VIII 4-Dimethyl- 0.5 975 aminopyridineIX Methyl ...
2-substituted pyridines in good yields. By exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N- ... and pentasubstituted pyridines as well as fused pyridines from readily available starting materials.. Z. Song, X. Huang, W. Yi ... Pyridine N-oxides were converted to 2-aminopyridines in a one-pot fashion using Ts2O-tBuNH2 followed by in situ deprotection ... Various polysubstituted pyridines were provided in high yields.. J. Shen, D. Cai, C. Kuai, Y. Liu, M. Wei, G. Cheng, X. Cui, J ...
... pyridine 0.97; CAS Number: 5638-76-6; Linear Formula: C8H12N2; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more ...
Shop a large selection of Pyridine products and learn more about Pyridine, Reagent, ACS, 99%, Spectrum. Pyridine, Reagent, ACS ... Spectrum™ Pyridine, Reagent, ACS As an ACS grade quality reagent, its chemical specifications are the de facto standards for ...
This page contains information on the chemical Pyridine including: 28 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations ... Pyridine*Pyridine hydrobromide*Pyridine perchlorate*Pyridine perchlorate [Forbidden]*Pyridine sulfate (1:1) *Pyridine, ... Pyridine, hydrofluoride*Pyridine, perchlorate (8CI) (9CI) *Pyridine, sulfate (1:1) *Pyridinium bromide*Pyridinium fluoride* ... Pyridine. 3. UN1282. II. 3. IB2, T4, TP2. None. 202. 242. Forbid. Forbid. B. 21, 100. Pyridine perchlorate. Forbidden. Forbid. ...
Pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH with the concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. ... Alanine dehydrogenase/pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase, conserved site-2 (IPR008143). Short name: Ala_DH/PNT_CS2 ... Alanine dehydrogenases (EC:1.4.1.1) and pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (EC:1.6.1.1) have been shown to share regions of ... Similarities between alanine dehydrogenase and the N-terminal part of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and their possible ...
  • Furthermore, hydrogen fluoride pyridine is also traded by the various synonyms such as olah's reagent, Pyridinium Polybifluoride, Poly (pyridine fluoride), HF-pyridine, among others. (openpr.com)
  • Pyridine occurs in coal tar , its principal source before development of a synthesis based on acetaldehyde and ammonia. (britannica.com)
  • The pyridine moiety is present in countless molecules with applications as varied as catalysis, drug design, molecular recognition, and natural product synthesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Examples of pyridines include the well-known alkaloids lycodine, the A 3 adenosine receptor antagonist, and a N,N -dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) analogue commonly applied in organic synthesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There are now many methods in industry and in the laboratory for the synthesis of pyridine and its derivatives. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis is a multicomponent reaction involving formaldehyde, a keto-ester and a nitrogen donor. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This reaction is called the "Kröhnke pyridine synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • By exchanging acetic anhydride for DMF in the second step, 2-substituted pyridine N -oxides were obtained, enabling the synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted pyridines. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • A reaction sequence involving a Wittig reaction, a Staudinger reaction, an aza-Wittig reaction, a 6π-3-azatriene electrocyclization, and a 1,3-H shift enables a quick one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted pyridines in very good yields from aldehydes, phosphorus ylides, and propargyl azide. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The combination of iodine and triethylamine triggers an oxime-based synthesis of 2-aryl-substituted pyridines with high chemo-selectivity and wide functional group tolerance. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • A redox-neutral, [3+3]-type condensation of O -acetyl ketoximes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, that is synergistically catalyzed by a copper(I) salt and a secondary ammonium salt (or amine), allows modular synthesis of a variety of substituted pyridines under mild conditions with tolerance of a broad range of functional groups. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride pyridine is also used in the formulation of drugs and fluorine synthesis in the pharmaceutical and healthcare sector. (openpr.com)
  • Pyridine is important in industrial organic chemistry, both as a fundamental building block and as a solvent and reagent in organic synthesis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Y. Rajendra Prasad, P. Praveen Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, and A. Srinivasa Rao, "Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New Chalcones of 2-Acetyl Pyridine," E-Journal of Chemistry , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 144-148, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Kröhnke Pyridine Synthesis. (lookchem.com)
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of thrombin inhibitors based on a pyridine scaffold. (diva-portal.org)
  • The synthesis involved a Grignard exchange reaction on the pyridine scaffold using an amino acid derivative as electrophile followed by an SNAr reaction using an amine as nucleophile. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two additional studies deal with the synthesis of two classes of potential thrombin inhibitors based on the pyridine scaffold. (diva-portal.org)
  • Pyridine , any of a class of organic compounds of the aromatic heterocyclic series characterized by a six-membered ring structure composed of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. (britannica.com)
  • Pyridines include compounds used as water repellents, herbicides, and various drugs. (dictionary.com)
  • The pyridine ring structure is also part of many larger compounds, including niacin and nicotine. (dictionary.com)
  • Pyridines are heterocyclic six-membered aromatic compounds containing a single nitrogen atom. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pyridines are a class of important heterocycles and appear in many naturally occurring bioactive compounds, pharmaceutical molecules, and chiral ligands in polysubstituted forms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pyridine alkaloids are a class of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing chemical compounds widely found in plants, that contain a pyridine ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including the nicotinamides . (wikidoc.org)
  • 3. A compounds according to claim 1 or 2 in which at least one of A, B, D and E is a group other than hydrogen and that it is in a position on the pyridine ring ortho to the substituent W. (google.com.au)
  • For this reason some researchers or scholars looked into the effect produced by various compounds containing pyridine moiety. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Pyridine compounds ( fig. 1 ) are well defined by the presence of a six membered heterocyclic ring with the chemical formula C 5 H 5 N, comprising of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The applicable subheading for 4-Pyridine Acetic Acid Hydrochloride will be 2933.39.6100 , Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which provides for heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero- atom(s) only: compounds containing an unfused pyridine ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the structure: other. (faqs.org)
  • compounds containing an unfused pyridine ring (whether or not hydrogenated) in the structure: other. (faqs.org)
  • Tariff No.: 2933.39.61 - Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom(s) only containing an unfused pyridine ring, described in add. (faqs.org)
  • Pyridine derivatives have also been implicated as small molecule α-helical mimetics in the inhibition of protein-protein interactions, and functionally selective GABA A ligands. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • With other pyridine ligands possessing amide or hydroxyl functional groups, the connectivity patterns in the crystal structures of their complexes are governed by hydrogen bonding interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • In a series of rhenium tricarbonyl complexes coordinated by asymmetric diimine ligands containing a pyridine moiety bound to an oxazoline ring were synthesized, structurally and electrochemically characterized, and screened for CO 2 reduction ability. (osti.gov)
  • The geometries and coordination properties of modular pyridine-hydrazone N,N-ligands containing C-symmetric trans-2,5-diphenylpyrrolidine and trans-2,5-diphenylpiperidine as the terminal dialkylamino units have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis of [PdCl(N,N)] complexes [(N,N)=pyridine hydrazone ligand]. (csic.es)
  • The reaction with many Lewis acids results in the addition to the nitrogen atom of pyridine, which is similar to the reactivity of tertiary amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each molecule of pyridine is a six-membered ring related to the structure of benzene -one CH group in the benzene ring is replaced by a nitrogen atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pyridine has a lone pair of electrons at the nitrogen atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In organic reactions, pyridine behaves as a tertiary amine with protonation, alkylation, acylation and N-oxidation at the nitrogen atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pyridine is a simple and fundamentally important heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that is structurally related to benzene , wherein one CH group in the six-membered ring is replaced by a nitrogen atom. (wikidoc.org)
  • An organic carbonate such as dimethyl carbonate is prepared by reacting an alcohol such as methanol with carbon monoxide and oxygen in the presence of a catalyst system containing Cu(OMe)Cl as a catalyst and a pyridine compound as a ligand of the catalyst system. (google.com)
  • Pyridine is sometimes used as a ligand in coordination chemistry . (wikidoc.org)
  • The influence of substituents on the pyridine-based ligand over intermolecular interactions in the solid state is investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • the previously reported ligand (2,6bis( 2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine, (CNC) pincer complexes of transition metals across the from titanium to iridium, have been synthesised, fully characterised and investigated. (bl.uk)
  • The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C 5 H 5 N. (britannica.com)
  • Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridine crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pna21 and lattice parameters a = 1752 pm, b = 897 pm, c = 1135 pm, and 16 formula units per unit cell (measured at 153 K). For comparison, crystalline benzene is also orthorhombic, with space group Pbca, a = 729.2 pm, b = 947.1 pm, c = 674.2 pm (at 78 K), but the number of molecules per cell is only 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridine is a fundamentally important chemical compound with the formula C 5 H 5 N . It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid, fishy odor. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A pyridine derivative having the formula 1,3-dihydro-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxy-styryl)-6-methyl-7-hydroxy-furo-[3,4,c] pyridine and therapeutically acceptable salts thereof are disclosed. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. Pyridine derivative of the formula: ##STR2## and therapeutically acceptable salts thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • The new compound according to this invention is 1,3-dihydro-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxy-styryl)-6-methyl-5-hydroxy-furo-[3,4,c] pyridine which has the formula: I, and the therapeutically acceptable salts thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • Pyridine is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant smell. (cdc.gov)
  • Although, the complex of hydrogen fluoride pyridine is a colorless liquid with high toxicity, and partially soluble in water. (openpr.com)
  • Pyridine, is a colorless liquid which is flammable and has an unpleasant smell. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Since pyridine and 3,5-lutidine are not able to form hydrogen-bonding interactions, the solid state structures of their complexes, [Zn(quin) 2 (Py) 2 ] ( 1 ) and [Zn(quin) 2 (3,5-Lut) 2 ] ( 2 ), are governed by π ··· π stacking, C-H∙∙∙ π, and C-H∙∙∙O intermolecular interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Halogen complexes of pyridines. (caltech.edu)
  • The complexes derived from ɑ-methyl-substituted pyridines can be distinguished by the magnitudes and directions of their ^(13)C "iodination" shifts. (caltech.edu)
  • Pires, A. Thermal behavior and electrical conductivity of poly (vinyl pyridine)/copper complexes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Pyridine is an imperative pharmacophore, a privileged scaffold and an exceptional heterocyclic system in the field of drug discovery which provides many opportunities in study/explore this moiety as an anticancer agent by acting on various receptors of utmost importance. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In position 2 of the pyridine ring, a para-amidinobenzylamine moiety was incorporated as P1 residue by an SNAr reaction using ammonia as nucleophile followed by a reductive amination. (diva-portal.org)
  • Pyridine can be classified as a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • PhIP ( 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine ) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in cooked meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Headaches, giddiness, a desire to sleep, quickening of the pulse, and rapid breathing occurred in adults who breathed an unknown amount of pyridine for an unknown length of time. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate the amount of pyridine generated from degradation of ceftazidime in icodextrin peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Furthermore, Increasing demand for chemicals like symtet, chlorphyrifos, etc from the agrochemical industry is also likely to drive the demand for pyridine & pyridine derivatives in the coming years. (openpr.com)
  • There is a growing demand for pyridine from various applications such as agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, latexes, and others. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The company adopted mergers and acquisitions as its major strategy to increase production and cater to the rising demand for pyridine & pyridine derivatives. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Very little information is available on the health effects of pyridine. (cdc.gov)
  • No studies are available in people or animals on the carcinogenic effects of pyridine. (cdc.gov)
  • The critical effects of pyridine seem to be its effects on the central nervous system and the liver. (ilo.org)
  • Reduced pyridine nucleotides are oxidatively catalyzed in weakly acidic solutions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intercalation with anhydrous pyridine does not affect either the excitation spectrum or the photoluminescence spectrum of the host lattice. (osu.edu)
  • The global pyridine & pyridine derivatives market is growing at a significant pace owing to driving factors such as increasing demand for vitamin b3 from the pharmaceutical industry. (openpr.com)
  • The global Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives market is segmented on the basis of type and application. (openpr.com)
  • Alanine dehydrogenases ( EC:1.4.1.1 ) and pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase ( EC:1.6.1.1 ) have been shown to share regions of similarity [ PMID: 8439307 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The sequence of alanine dehydrogenase from several bacterial species are related with those of the alpha subunit of bacterial pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and of the N-terminal half of the eukaryotic enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Similarities between alanine dehydrogenase and the N-terminal part of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase and their possible implication in the virulence mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Pyridine was originally isolated industrially from crude coal tar. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pyridine is obtained industrially from crude coal tar or is synthesized from acetaldehyde , formaldehyde and ammonia . (wikidoc.org)
  • By substituting other aldehydes for acetaldehyde, one can obtain alkyl and aryl substituted pyridines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hydrogen fluoride pyridine is also used as a chemical intermediate in the conversion of secondary and tertiary alcohols into their respective alkyl fluorides. (openpr.com)
  • Substituted pyridines having at the 3 or 5 position a carbonyl oxy(thio)ester or a heterocyclocarbonyl and at the other a substituted alkyl group, herbicidal compositions and methods of use thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • It was established that N-phenacyl and p-nitrophenacyl bromides and N-methyl-1-azafluorenium iodide, as well as N-phenacyl-7-nitro-1-azafluorenium bromide, are converted to N-substituted 1H-indeno[2,1-b]pyridines rather than to the corresponding yilds or indenoindolizines upon treatment with bases under various conditions. (springer.com)
  • This latter base has been shown to be a hydrogen addition product of pyridine , C5H5N. (dictionary.com)
  • 1H-1-Methylindeno[2,1-b]pyridine forms a perchlorate and a picrate (retention of the pseudoazulene structure) but is converted to N-methyl-1-azafluorenium chloride by the action of hydrogen chloride. (springer.com)
  • Fact.MR recently published a market study on the global Hydrogen Fluoride Pyridine Market. (openpr.com)
  • The study provides detailed assessment on the key market dynamics, including drivers, trends, opportunities, restraints, and detailed information about the Hydrogen Fluoride Pyridine Market structure. (openpr.com)
  • It also presents exclusive information about how the Hydrogen Fluoride Pyridine Market will grow during the forecast period of 2019-2029. (openpr.com)
  • Hydrogen Fluoride Pyridine is a type of nucleophilic fluorinating reagent, which consists of a mixture of hydrogen fluoride and pyridine in the ratio of 55-75% to 25-45% respectively. (openpr.com)
  • Hydrogen fluoride is a colorless gas, which is highly reactive and corrosive when exposed to the environment, while pyridine is an aromatic chemical compound. (openpr.com)
  • Hydrogen fluoride pyridine is a strong acid and oxidizing agent, and it is incompatible with strong bases and alkali metals, and it reacts violently with water. (openpr.com)
  • The complex chemical compound hydrogen fluoride pyridine is widely used in the preparation of beta-fluoroamines through reaction with amino alcohols. (openpr.com)
  • Moreover, hydrogen fluoride pyridine is also used in the preparation of gem-difluorides by reacting with ketoximes in associated with nitrosonium tetrafluorborate. (openpr.com)
  • In addition, hydrogen fluoride pyridine is also used in the formulation of analogs antimitotic natural curacin. (openpr.com)
  • Globally, the complex chemical compound of the hydrogen fluoride and pyridine i.e. hydrogen fluoride pyridine market is predominantly driven by the rising demand from various end use industries such as industrial chemicals, pharmaceutical & healthcare, and agrochemicals. (openpr.com)
  • Moreover, the demand is ever rising in the pharmaceutical and healthcare sector in the upcoming years in medicines and drugs is expected to fuel the consumption of hydrogen fluoride pyridine to a significant extent. (openpr.com)
  • Numerous other applications in the chemical industry such as preparation of antacids, is also projected to drive the hydrogen fluoride pyridine market over the course of the upcoming period. (openpr.com)
  • Moreover, the application of hydrogen fluoride pyridine in the agrochemicals is also expected to lay a strong platform for the robust growth in the market during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • The global Hydrogen Fluoride Pyridine market can be segmented on the basis of application, end-use, and region. (openpr.com)
  • From the regional perspective, the global hydrogen fluoride pyridine market is projected to witness steady growth during the forecast period owing to growing demand from the various end use industry across the different regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Latin America, Europe, among others. (openpr.com)
  • The Asia Pacific is estimated to account for dominant share and significant growth in the global hydrogen fluoride pyridine market during the forecast period, owing to strong growth of various end use industry such as pharmaceutical and agriculture industry in the emerging economies such as China, India, and Japan. (openpr.com)
  • China and Japan are prominent drug producer followed by US in the global market and expected to hold a significant share in the global hydrogen fluoride pyridine market during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • except that when A, B, D and E are all hydrogen, W is attached to the pyridine ring at the 2-position and Z is oxygen, R 1 and R 2 are not both ethyl. (google.com.au)
  • Reduction Of Pyridine Hydrochloride And Pyridonium Salts By Means Of Hydrogen And Platinum-Oxide Platinum Black. (alfa.com)
  • Monitoring of consecutive adsorption and desorption of pyridine revealed absorption bands in the UV-Vis region characteristic for (a) pyridinium ions formed on Brønsted acid sites, (b) pyridine coordinated to Lewis acid sites, (c) pyridine hydrogen-bonded to surface hydroxyl groups, and (d) physisorbed pyridine. (rsc.org)
  • Pyridine is used as a solvent and is added to ethyl alcohol to make it unfit for drinking. (britannica.com)
  • Pyridine is widely used as a versatile solvent . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Deuterated pyridine, called pyridine- d 5 , is a common solvent for 1 H NMR spectroscopy. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pyridine is widely used as a versatile solvent , since it is polar but aprotic . (wikidoc.org)
  • The ease of formation of each species appears to be a function of pyridine basicity, the Lewis acidity of the halogen (I_2 or ICl), the solvent polarity, and the relative donor-acceptor concentrations. (caltech.edu)
  • 2-PAM (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride) - also called pralidoxime - is one of a class of chemicals, called oximes that reverse the binding of cholinesterase inhibitors with acetylcholinesterase. (cdc.gov)
  • A series of 2,4-disubstituted pyridine derivatives has been designed, synthesised and evaluated as thrombin inhibitors. (diva-portal.org)
  • We report the structural and functional features of two new catalysts: a mononuclear [Fe(N5mpy)(CH3CN)](BF4)2 (N5mpy = (N,N′E,N,N′E)-N,N′-(pyridine-2,6-diylbis(ethan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(1-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine)) complex and a binuclear {[Fe(N5mpy)]2O}(BF4)4 complex. (uva.nl)
  • This market research report administers a broad view of the Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives Market on a Global basis, presenting a forecast and statistics in terms of revenue during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • The report contains imperative and pivotal details affecting the developments and growth of the market and also talks about the restricting factors that may restrain the Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives market growth during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South & Central America providing an exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives market. (openpr.com)
  • The report also analyzes the factors affecting Pyridine and Pyridine Derivatives market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (openpr.com)
  • The pyridine & pyridine derivatives market is projected to reach USD 656.3 Million by 2021, at a CAGR of 6.6% from 2016 to 2021. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Vertellus Holdings LLC used expansions as its major strategy to increase its regional reach and market share in the pyridine & pyridine derivatives market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The optimum concentration of pyridine for both growth of the organism and pyridine degradation was 13 mM. (osti.gov)
  • In this article, we collect and summarize nucleophilic dearomatization reactions of pyridines reported in the literature between 2010 and mid-2018, complementing and updating previous reviews published in the early 2010s dedicated to various aspects of pyridine chemistry. (mdpi.com)
  • The company has fully-integrated facilities that cater across the pyridine chemistry value chain, and has 10 manufacturing facilities around the globe, including facilities in the U.S., Europe, China, and India. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Correspondingly pyridine is more prone to nucleophilic substitution, as evidenced by the ease of metalation by strong organometallic bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most straightforward synthetic approaches to polysubstituted DHP derivatives is provided by nucleophilic dearomatization of readily assembled pyridines. (mdpi.com)
  • A variety of nucleophilic species (organometallic reagents, enolates, heteroaromatics, umpoled aldehydes) can be productively engaged in pyridine dearomatization reactions, including catalytic asymmetric implementations, providing useful and efficient synthetic platforms to (enantioenriched) DHPs. (mdpi.com)
  • Fochi, M. Nucleophilic Dearomatization of Activated Pyridines. (mdpi.com)
  • Nucleophilic aromatic substitution takes place at C2 and C4 for example in the Chichibabin reaction of pyridine with sodium amide to 2-aminopyridine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In organic reactions pyridine behaves both as a tertiary amine with protonation , alkylation , acylation and N-oxidation at nitrogen and as an aromatic compound with Nucleophilic substitutions . (wikidoc.org)
  • 10010168 - 13C and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings and Electrical Effects of Ortho Substituents in Monosubstituted Pyridines. (cdc.gov)
  • Since magnetic shieldings of 13c and 1h nuclei in the para-positions of monosubstituted benzines have been found to correlate well with hammett pn constants, the Bureau of Mines undertook the measurement of the shielding of the corresponding atoms, i.e., those in the 5- positions, in 2-substituted pyridines to investigate the electrical effects of ortho-substituents in monosubstituted pyridines. (cdc.gov)
  • A Grignard exchange reaction was used to introduce various benzoyl substituents in position 4 of the pyridine ring, where they serve as P3 residues in binding to thrombin. (diva-portal.org)
  • This invention relates to substituted pyridines prepared by reacting aldehydes, amines, lower carboxylic acids such as acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to a pyridine derivative, to a process for its preparation and to therapeutic compositions containing it. (patentgenius.com)
  • The results provide new evidence that the metabolism of pyridine by microorganisms does not require initial hydroxylation of the ring and that permeability barriers do not account for the extremely limited range of substrate isomers used by pyridine degraders. (asm.org)
  • Since functionalization of the pyridine nitrogen, rendering a (transient) pyridinium ion, is usually required to render the pyridine nucleus sufficiently electrophilic to suffer the attack of a nucleophile, the material is organized according to the type of N -functionalization. (mdpi.com)
  • The bond lengths and bond angles in pyridine and the pyridinium ion are almost identical. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The bond lengths and bond angles in pyridine and the pyridinium ion are almost identical [1] because protonation does not affect the aromatic pi system. (wikidoc.org)
  • Pyridine is very soluble in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Spectrum™ Pyridine, Reagent, ACS As an ACS grade quality reagent, its chemical specifications are the de facto standards for chemicals used in many high-purity applications and typically designate the highest quality chemical available for laboratory use. (fishersci.com)
  • Pyridine hydrochloride is a classical reagent for cleavage of aryl methyl ethers at 200-220o. (alfa.com)
  • Historically, pyridine was produced from coal tar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of pyridine and its derivatives to oxidize, forming amine oxides (N-oxides), is also a feature of tertiary amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lone pair does not overlap with the aromatic π-system ring, consequently pyridine is basic, having chemical properties similar to those of tertiary amines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because this lone pair is not delocalized into the aromatic system of "pi" electrons, pyridine is basic , with chemical properties similar to those of tertiary amines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 2-(trimethylsilyl)-pyridine manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (marketpublishers.com)
  • It captures 2-bromo-5-(cyclobutanoylamino)-pyridine market trends, pays close attention to 2-bromo-5-(cyclobutanoylamino)-pyridine manufacturers and names suppliers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 2-Bromo-5-(cyclobutanoylamino)-pyridine (CAS 885267-03-8) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on 2-bromo-5-(cyclobutanoylamino)-pyridine market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The organism oxidized pyridine for energy and released N contained in the pyridine ring as ammonium. (asm.org)
  • The organism had a NAD-linked succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase which was induced by pyridine. (asm.org)
  • 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a potent, selective and systemically active mGlu5 receptor antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • In the present paper we describe 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) as a potent, selective and systemically active antagonist for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5). (nih.gov)
  • After partial sciatic nerve section, the mGluR5-specific antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) had no effect on any of these behaviors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Trifluoromethyl pyridine derivatives have alsobeen disclosed in U.S. Pat. (patentgenius.com)
  • The company has several patents with respect to pyridine, and there is much scope for enhancing its product portfolio. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The report includes 2-bromo-5-(cyclobutanoylamino)-pyridine description, covers its application areas, manufacturing methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • In addition to the hydroxy radical, the pyridine nucleus may also be substituted with bromo, chloro or iodo radicals. (patentgenius.com)
  • This step comprises treating2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-5-acetyl-pyridine in which the 3- and 4-hydroxy groups are blocked with an isopropylidene bridge, in the presence of a strong base, with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde in solution in aqueous alcohol at or slightly aboveroom temperature. (patentgenius.com)
  • Addition of Grignard reagents to pyridine N -oxides in THF at room temperature and subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride at 120 C afforded 2-substituted pyridines in good yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Isomerization of Isospirostans to Furostenols with Pyridine Hydrochloride as the Catalyst. (alfa.com)
  • Pyridine has an unpleasant, nauseating odour and it is irritating to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. (ilo.org)
  • The situation is rather similar for the 13C NMR spectra of pyridine and benzene: pyridine shows a triplet at δ(α-C) = 150 ppm, δ(β-C) = 124 ppm and δ(γ-C) = 136 ppm, whereas benzene has a single line at 129 ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have discovered novel substituted pyridines and a method for their preparation which comprises reacting an aldehyde, an amine, a carboxylic acid and oxygen. (google.es)
  • This cation is the conjugate acid of pyridine and its pKa has a value of 5.30. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Other examples of the pyridine class can be formed by the reaction of 1,5-di ketones with ammonium acetate in acetic acid followed by oxidation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It was found that upon interaction with acid sites, the electronic properties of pyridine change significantly. (rsc.org)
  • The classical pyridine FT-IR method probes the presence of different Brønsted and Lewis acid sites as well, but lacks sensitivity towards the differentiation between surface hydroxyl groups. (rsc.org)
  • We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC 50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μ M , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μ M, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μ M, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μ M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • This is not exactly the case with the higher groups of alkaloids-the derivatives of pyridine and quinoline. (dictionary.com)
  • Alkaloids with a pyridine partial structure are usually further subdivided according to their occurrence and their biogenetic origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important examples of pyridine alkaloids are the nicotine and anabasine, which are found in tobacco, the areca alkaloids in betel and ricinine in castor oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyridine is used to dissolve other substances. (cdc.gov)
  • These fire-produced substances are called, from their origin, the ' pyridine series. (dictionary.com)
  • These azo-pyridine intercalated GO sheets show superior optical properties with bright blue emission via excited state intra-molecular proton transfer (ESIPT) which have potential applications in graphene based optoelectronic devices. (rsc.org)
  • This review throws light on recent biological expansions of pyridine along with their structure activity relationships/molecular docking to deliver association between various synthesized newer derivatives and receptor sites. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The N-substituted pyridinium salts formed can be converted to pyridines by thermal dealkylation. (google.es)