Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of ALPHA-MANNOSIDASE activity that results in lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich intermediate metabolites. Virtually all patients have psychomotor retardation, facial coarsening, and some degree of dysostosis multiplex. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A glutamate antagonist (RECEPTORS, GLUTAMATE) used as an anticonvulsant (ANTICONVULSANTS) and to prolong the survival of patients with AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (1/3377)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (2/3377)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Effect of riluzole on the neurological and neuropathological changes in an animal model of cardiac arrest-induced movement disorder. (3/3377)

Posthypoxic myoclonus and seizures precipitate as secondary neurological consequences in ischemic/hypoxic insults of the central nervous system. Neuronal hyperexcitation may be due to excessive activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, an effect that has been shown to follow ischemic/hypoxic events. Therefore, riluzole, an anticonvulsant that inhibits the release of glutamate by stabilizing the inactivated state of activated voltage-sensitive sodium channels, was tested for its antimyoclonic and neuroprotective properties in the cardiac arrest-induced animal model of posthypoxic myoclonus. Riluzole (4-12 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated the audiogenic seizures and action myoclonus seen in this animal model. Histological examination using Nissl staining and the novel Fluoro-Jade histochemistry in cardiac-arrested animals showed an extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Riluzole treatment almost completely prevented the neuronal degeneration in these brain areas. The neuroprotective effect was more pronounced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. These effects were seen at therapeutically relevant doses of riluzole, and the animals tolerated the treatment well. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of posthypoxic myoclonus and seizure may involve excessive activation of glutamate neurotransmission, and that riluzole may serve as an effective pharmacological agent with neuroprotective potential for the treatment of neurological conditions associated with cardiac arrest in humans.  (+info)

Bilirubin, formed by activation of heme oxygenase-2, protects neurons against oxidative stress injury. (4/3377)

Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, which is immediately reduced to bilirubin (BR). Two HO active isozymes exist: HO1, an inducible heat shock protein, and HO2, which is constitutive and highly concentrated in neurons. We demonstrate a neuroprotective role for BR formed from HO2. Neurotoxicity elicited by hydrogen peroxide in hippocampal and cortical neuronal cultures is prevented by the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) via stimulation of protein kinase C. We observe phosphorylation of HO2 through the protein kinase C pathway with enhancement of HO2 catalytic activity and accumulation of BR in neuronal cultures. The neuroprotective effects of PMA are prevented by the HO inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX and in cultures from mice with deletion of HO2 gene. Moreover, BR, an antioxidant, is neuroprotective at nanomolar concentrations.  (+info)

Long-term suppression of synaptic transmission by tetanization of a single pyramidal cell in the mouse hippocampus in vitro. (5/3377)

1. The consequences of stimulating a single pyramidal cell in the CA1 area of the hippocampus for synaptic transmission in the stratum radiatum were investigated. 2. Tetanic activation of single pyramids caused by depolarizing current injection, but not an equal number of distributed action potentials, reduced excitatory transmission by 20 %, with a delayed onset, for more than 1 h. 3. EPSPs in the tetanized pyramidal cells were increased for equally long periods but this was not the cause of the field EPSP reduction. Spontaneous somatic IPSPs were not affected; evoked IPSPs were decreased in the tetanized cell. 4. Paired pulse facilitation of the field EPSPs was unchanged. 5. The field EPSP reduction was markedly diminished by a knife cut along the base of pyramidal cells in CA1. 6. The addition of antagonists of GABA, NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors blocked or diminished the field EPSP slope reduction evoked by intracellular stimulation. 7. Simultaneous recordings revealed long-lasting excitations of interneurons located in the outer oriens layer as a result of single pyramid tetanization. 8. Intense firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells can thus persistently inhibit mass transmission through the hippocampus. This effect involves activation of interneurons by glutamate receptors.  (+info)

Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. (6/3377)

1. Whole-cell clamp recordings of the compound synaptic current elicited by afferent stimulation of Schaffer collaterals showed that blockade of the NMDA, AMPA and GABAA receptor-mediated components by 6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl- benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (R-CPP) and picrotoxin, respectively, left a small residual current in 39 out of 41 CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic cultures and 9 out of 16 CA1 cells in acutely prepared slices. 2. This current represented 2. 9 +/- 0.4 % of the compound evoked synaptic response in organoypic cultures and 1.4 +/- 0.5 % in slices. It was characterized by a slightly rectifying I-V curve and a reversal potential of 3.4 +/- 5. 1 mV. 3. This residual current was insensitive to blockers of GABAB, purinergic, muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors, but it was essentially blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine (91 +/- 4 % blockade; 20 microM), and partly blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (200 nM) and methyllycaconitine (10 nM), two antagonists with a higher selectivity for alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors (48 +/- 3 % and 55 +/- 11 % blockade, respectively). 4. The residual current was of synaptic origin, since it occurred after a small delay; its amplitude depended upon the stimulation intensity and it was calcium dependent and blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin. 5. We conclude that afferent stimulation applied in the stratum radiatum evokes in some hippocampal neurones a small synaptic current mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors.  (+info)

Linear summation of excitatory inputs by CA1 pyramidal neurons. (7/3377)

A fundamental problem in neurobiology is understanding the arithmetic that dendrites use to integrate inputs. The impact of dendritic morphology and active conductances on input summation is still unknown. To study this, we use glutamate iontophoresis and synaptic stimulation to position pairs of excitatory inputs throughout the apical, oblique, and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. Under a variety of stimulation regimes, we find a linear summation of most input combinations that is implemented by a surprising balance of boosting and shunting mechanisms. Active conductances in dendrites paradoxically serve to make summation linear. This "active linearity" can reconcile predictions from cable theory with the observed linear summation in vivo and suggests that a simple arithmetic is used by apparently complex dendritic trees.  (+info)

Carbamazepine facilitates effects of GABA on rat hippocampus slices. (8/3377)

AIM: To study the influence of carbamazepine (Car) on GABA effect in hippocampus. METHODS: Evoked potentials were recorded on pyramidal cells in CA1 after stimulation (0.5 Hz, 50 microseconds) to Schaffer collaterals in rat hippocampal slices (350 microns). RESULTS: Car 0.1 and 0.2 mmol.L-1 did not affect field potentials, whereas Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus GABA (0.1-1 mmol.L-1) gave rise to a stronger inhibition on field potentials than that of GABA alone. Bicuculline did not reverse Car facilitation on GABA inhibition on field potentials. (-)-Baclofen was more effective in inhibiting field potentials than GABA. Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus (-)-baclofen (1-5 mumol.L-1) brought an inhibition stronger than that of (-)-baclofen alone. CONCLUSION: Car facilitates the effects of GABA on pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 region, probably related to GABAB receptors.  (+info)

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

There are two main types of status epilepticus:

1. Generalized status epilepticus: This type affects the entire brain and is characterized by severe convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal status epilepticus: This type affects only one part of the brain and can cause more subtle symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, speech difficulties, or confusion.

The diagnosis of status epilepticus is based on clinical findings, medical history, and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Treatment typically involves prompt administration of anticonvulsant medications, such as benzodiazepines or barbiturates, to control seizures and prevent further brain damage. In severe cases, sedation, mechanical ventilation, or anesthesia may be required to support the patient's vital functions.

The prognosis for status epilepticus depends on several factors, including the underlying cause, the severity of the seizure, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier the treatment is initiated, the better the outcome. However, long-term neurological and cognitive deficits can occur in some cases.

Preventive measures for status epilepticus include proper management of underlying conditions that may trigger seizures, such as epilepsy or head trauma, and avoiding triggers like alcohol or drugs. Additionally, prompt medical attention should be sought if seizure warning signs are present, such as changes in sensation, confusion, or convulsions.

There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:

1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.

Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.

Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Epilepsy, temporal lobe can cause a variety of seizure types, including:

1. Partial seizures: These are seizures that affect only one part of the brain, such as the temporal lobe.
2. Simple partial seizures: These are seizures that do not involve convulsions or loss of consciousness.
3. Complex partial seizures: These are seizures that involve impaired awareness or altered perception, and may involve convulsions or muscle stiffness.
4. Tonic-clonic seizures (formerly known as grand mal seizures): These are seizures that involve convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.

The symptoms of epilepsy, temporal lobe can vary depending on the location of the seizure focus within the temporal lobe and the individual's age, but may include:

1. Auras (sensory disturbances such as flashing lights or unusual smells)
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Memory loss or difficulty with memory
4. Emotional changes (such as fear, anxiety, or euphoria)
5. Speech difficulties
6. Muscle stiffness or weakness
7. Coordination problems
8. Vision changes (such as blurred vision or double vision)
9. Hearing changes (such as ringing in the ears)
10. Numbness or tingling sensations

Epilepsy, temporal lobe is typically diagnosed using a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

The symptoms of alpha-mannosidosis typically appear during childhood and can include:

* Developmental delays and intellectual disability
* Coarse facial features, such as a prominent forehead, large ears, and widely spaced eyes
* Poor muscle tone and motor skills
* Vision loss or blindness
* Hearing loss or deafness
* Respiratory problems
* Cardiac problems
* Increased risk of infections

If left untreated, alpha-mannosidosis can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Progressive intellectual disability
* Seizures
* Poor coordination and balance
* Increased risk of infections and respiratory problems
* Malformation of the brain and other organs

There is currently no cure for alpha-mannosidosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:

* Enzyme replacement therapy: This involves replacing the missing enzyme with a synthetic version to help break down the sugars that build up in the body.
* Vitamin supplements: Certain vitamins, such as vitamin E, may be prescribed to help manage some of the symptoms of alpha-mannosidosis.
* Physical therapy: This can help improve muscle tone and coordination.
* Occupational therapy: This can help individuals with alpha-mannosidosis learn new skills and adapt to their condition.
* Speech therapy: This can help improve communication and address any hearing or speech difficulties.

Early diagnosis and treatment of alpha-mannosidosis are crucial to managing the symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. If you suspect that your child may have alpha-mannosidosis, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional as soon as possible. They can perform tests to confirm the diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment options. With early diagnosis and proper management, individuals with alpha-mannosidosis can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their full potential.

Brain hypoxia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients. Treatment options may include oxygen therapy, medications to improve blood flow to the brain, and surgery to remove any blockages or obstructions in blood vessels.

Pyramidal cells are among the largest neurons in the brain. Both in humans and rodents, pyramidal cell bodies (somas) average ... Ion channels within pyramidal cell dendrites have different properties from the same ion channel type within the pyramidal cell ... Pyramidal cell axons follow cues such as growth factors to make specific connections. With proper connections, pyramidal cells ... Due to branching, the total dendritic length of a pyramidal cell may reach several centimeters. The pyramidal cell's axon is ...
The corticospinal tract contains the axons of the pyramidal cells, the largest of which are the Betz cells, located in the ... Involvement of the pyramidal tract at any level leads to pyramidal signs. The myelination of the pyramidal fibres is incomplete ... The cells have their bodies in the cerebral cortex, and the axons form the bulk of the pyramidal tracts. The nerve axons travel ... Nerve fibres in the corticospinal tract originate from pyramidal cells in layer V of the cerebral cortex. Fibres arise from the ...
It is primarily found in interneurons that modulates the firing rates of pyramidal cells primarily at a local level. They feed- ... The theory in utilizing somatostatin is that if pyramidal cells are eliminated, then the feed forward, otherwise known as ... forward inhibit pyramidal cells. In a series of studies where somatostatin was expressed in a rodent kindling model, it was ... Naegele JR, Maisano X, Yang J, Royston S, Ribeiro E (May 2010). "Recent advancements in stem cell and gene therapies for ...
TASK-3 channels are also expressed in the hippocampus; both on pyramidal cells and interneurons. It is thought that these ... some cells in the neocortex, habenula, olfactory bulb granule cells, and cells in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory ... "Melanoma cells exhibit strong intracellular TASK-3-specific immunopositivity in both tissue sections and cell culture". Cell. ... TASK 3 is coexpressed with TASK 1 (KCNK3) in the cerebellar granule cells, locus coeruleus, motor neurons, pontine nuclei, ...
Each CA1 Pyramidal cell also sends an axonal branch to fimbria. Hilar mossy cells and CA3 Pyramidal cells are the main origins ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 send their axons to CA1. Pyramidal cells of CA1 send their axons to the subiculum and deep layers of the ... Like mossy cells, a single CA3 Pyramidal cell contributes to both commissural and associational fibers, and they terminate on ... The basal dendrites of Pyramidal neurons are also found here, where they receive input from other Pyramidal cells, septal ...
Verbal memory deficit correlates with pyramidal cell loss in TLE. This is more so on the left in verbal memory loss. Neuronal ... mossy cells normally excite basket cells which in turn, inhibit granule cells. Loss of mossy cells lowers the threshold of ... It has been found that GABA reversal potential is depolarising in the subpopulation of the pyramidal cells due to the lack of ... Lillis, Kyle P.; Kramer, Mark A.; Mertz, Jerome; Staley, Kevin J.; White, John A. (1 September 2012). "Pyramidal cells ...
They are frequently seen in hippocampal pyramidal cells. An experimental model of Hirano body formation has been reported, ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ... Hirano bodies are found in the nerve cells of individuals afflicted with certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as ... Bamburg, James R.; Bloom, George S. (2009-08-01). "Cytoskeletal pathologies of Alzheimer disease". Cell Motility and the ...
"Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells". Nature. 271 (5646): 676-77. Bibcode: ... Thus, protective cells termed astrocytes surround the capillaries in the brain and absorb nutrients from the blood and ... As calcium flux is necessary for proper excitability of a cell, any significant inhibition could prevent a large amount of ... This α7-nAChR functions to allow calcium ion influx into cells, and thus when blocked by ingested bungarotoxin will produce ...
"Pyramidal cell regulation of interneuron survival sculpts cortical networks". Nature. 557 (7707): 668-673. Bibcode:2018Natur. ... Cell. 125 (1): 127-142. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.01.042. PMC 2365888. PMID 16615895. Sánchez-Alcañiz, Juan Antonio; Haege, Sammy ... S2CID 14576611 - via Wong, Fong Kuan; Bercsenyi, Kinga; Sreenivasan, Varun; Portalés, Adrián; Fernández-Otero, Marian ... S2CID 11507206 - via Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Molano-Mazón, Manuel; Catchpole, Timothy; Valdeolmillos, Miguel; ...
... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been used to ... These IPSPs also regulate theta rhythms in pyramidal cells. On the other hand, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are ... IPSPs can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. ... a theta pattern of IPSPs in pyramidal cells occurs independent of the input. This research also studies DSIs, showing that DSIs ...
Association with the postsynaptic area of hippocampus pyramidal cells". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (8): 4373-80. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.8. ... Marr HS, Basalamah MA, Edgell CJ (1998). "Endothelial cell expression of testican mRNA". Endothelium. 5 (3): 209-19. doi: ... 2001). "Distribution of testican expression in human brain". Cell Tissue Res. 302 (2): 139-44. doi:10.1007/s004410000277. PMID ... a multidomain testicular proteoglycan resembling modulators of cell social behaviour". Eur. J. Biochem. 214 (1): 347-50. doi: ...
They are the larger pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex. There is a type of giant pyramidal cell called Betz cells and are ... The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are also called upper motor neurons. The fibers of the upper motor neurons project ... The cell bodies of Betz cell neurons are the largest in the brain, approaching nearly 0.1 mm in diameter. The primary motor ... also known as pyramidal insufficiency, occurs in the neural pathway above the anterior horn of the spinal cord. Such lesions ...
Within these cells, some also inhibit specific pyramidal cell dendrites. By inhibiting PV cells activity, the neuromodulator- ... the neuromodulation-activated cells allow select sensory inputs to excite the pyramidal neurons and be represented in the brain ... lift the inhibition of the pyramidal neurons; in other words, the activity of VIP and SST-expressing cells result in the ... neuromodulation is increasingly being recognized for its fine-tuning of the PV cell-mediated inhibition of excitatory pyramidal ...
... and composed of dark angular to roughly spherical cells that are 40-70 µm in diameter. The angular cells form pyramidal warts ... The spore-bearing cells, the asci, are 330-400 µm long by 16-20 µm wide. The ascus has a thickened apical ring that is capped ... The paraphyses (sterile cells interspersed among the asci) are 8-9 µm long and have internal partitions called septa. The ...
"The giant cells" were cortical pyramidal cells of unusual size. There were also particularities in layer 3. In 1925 Vogt ... He found that Lenin's brain showed a great number of "giant cells", which Vogt saw as a sign of superior mental function. " ... The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where she worked on viral transformation and cellular immortalization of cancer cells ...
One class of pyramidal cell, E-cells, respond to increases; a second, I-cells, respond to decreases in stimulus amplitude ... Beyond pyramidal cells and spherical cells, a more complex feature detector exists in the dorsal torus semicurcularis of the ... where spherical cells relay phase or time information to higher centers and pyramidal cells code for amplitude information. As ... More specifically, pyramidal cells are considered feature detectors that respond to the amplitude of the stimulus. ...
Silberberg G, Markram H (March 2007). "Disynaptic inhibition between neocortical pyramidal cells mediated by Martinotti cells ... "Chrna2-Martinotti Cells Synchronize Layer 5 Type A Pyramidal Cells via Rebound Excitation". PLOS Biology. 15 (2): e2001392. doi ... When the pyramidal neuron, which is the most common type of neuron in the cortex, starts getting overexcited, Martinotti cells ... The arbors transgress multiple columns in layer VI and make contacts with the distal tuft dendrites of pyramidal cells. ...
... has a greater density of pyramidal ganglion cells than in the other areas; layer VI is wider, more diffuse and has fewer cells ... to area 19 of Brodmann-1909 in the relative abundance of small cell types relative to the number of larger pyramidal cells; a ... clear internal pyramidal layer (V) with few cells; and a distinct multiform layer (VI). The major differences from areas 18 and ... 19 are somewhat lesser cell density; absence of a division of the external pyramidal layer (III) into sublayers 3a and 3b; ...
The second kind of corticothamic axons is the Rockland type II (1994). This emanates from larger pyramidal cells and is much ...
"Disynaptic Inhibition between Neocortical Pyramidal Cells Mediated by Martinotti Cells". Neuron. 53 (5): 735-746. doi:10.1016/j ... Many of the known neuron types, such as pyramidal neurons and Chandelier cells, were described based on their morphological ... for labeling from the cell body to synapse; Retrograde tracing, for labeling from the synapse to cell body; Viral neuronal ... Other more sophisticated neuron formats have separate geometrical modeling of the neuron cell body and neuron processes using ...
Granular cells populate the hippocampus slightly after pyramidal cell migration. These cells have farther distance to travel ... Pyramidal CA1 and CA3 precursor cells, therefore, do not have to migrate far to reach their final destination. The figure to ... Reelin knockout mice lack a single, distinct pyramidal cell body layer due to excess migration. Unexpectedly, these mice have ... the right indicates migration of pyramidal neurons forming the CA3 (orange) and CA1 (red) cell body layers. These cells ...
These sodium channels on the dendrites are abundant in certain types of neurons, especially mitral and pyramidal cells, and ... Buzsáki, G; Kandel, A (1998). "Somadendritic backpropagation of action potentials in cortical pyramidal cells of the awake rat ... Stuart, G. Sakmann B. (1994). "Active propagation of somatic action potentials into neocortical pyramidal cell dendrites". ... "Modeling Back Propagating Action Potential in Weakly Excitable Dendrites of Neocortical Pyramidal Cells". Proceedings of the ...
When LIA is present large numbers of pyramidal cells are activated. There is always a delay of a few seconds between the onset ... LIA is often accompanied by ripples in the pyramidal cell layer. When the neural circuitry of the hippocampus is activated it ... the presence of LIA and think that theta ordinarily provides an inhibitory process which locks most of the pyramidal cells so ...
Piriform cortex In vivo repeated optogenetic stimulation of pyramidal cells of the piriform cortex in healthy animals was able ... December 1996). "Subregion- and cell type-restricted gene knockout in mouse brain". Cell. 87 (7): 1317-1326. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... Tischer D, Weiner OD (August 2014). "Illuminating cell signalling with optogenetic tools". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell ... Cell. 121 (1): 141-152. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.004. PMID 15820685. S2CID 14608546. Li X, Gutierrez DV, Hanson MG, Han J, ...
... a widening of the relatively cell-free zone of the external pyramidal layer (III); cells in the internal pyramidal layer (V) ... are denser and rounded; and the cells of the multiform layer (VI) assume a more distinct tangential orientation. According to ...
"Polarized and compartment-dependent distribution of HCN1 in pyramidal cell dendrites". Nature Neuroscience. 5 (11): 1185-93. ... Cell. 93 (5): 717-29. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81434-8. PMID 9630217. Hofmann F, Biel M, Kaupp UB (Dec 2005). "International ... in surviving dentate gyrus granule cells of human and experimental epileptic hippocampus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (17 ...
"Optical activation of lateral amygdala pyramidal cells instructs associative fear learning". Proceedings of the National ... Cell. 161 (7): 1592-605. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.032. PMC 4886855. PMID 26052046. Sun Z, Xu X, He J, Murray A, Sun MA, Wei X ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.009. PMC 3215943. PMID 22036561. Johansen JP, Hamanaka H, Monfils MH, Behnia R, Deisseroth K, Blair ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.009. PMC 3215943. PMID 22036561. Johansen JP, Cain CK, Ostroff LE, LeDoux JE (October 2011). " ...
She has used biophysical models of pyramidal neurons to show that dendrites of these cells integrate inputs in a sigmoidal ... "Arithmetic of Subthreshold Synaptic Summation in a Model CA1 Pyramidal Cell". Neuron. 37 (6): 977-987. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273( ... "Arithmetic of Subthreshold Synaptic Summation in a Model CA1 Pyramidal Cell". Neuron. 37 (6): 977-987. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273( ... Poirazi, Panayiota; Brannon, Terrence; Mel, Bartlett W. (March 2003). "Pyramidal Neuron as Two-Layer Neural Network". Neuron. ...
Pyramidal cells in the hippocampus called place cells play a significant role in self-location during movement over short ... Bose A, Recce M (19 June 2001). "Phase precession and phase-locking of hippocampal pyramidal cells". Hippocampus. 11 (3): 204- ... As the larger population of cells fire occasionally when the rat is outside of the cells' individual place fields, the firing ... Moser EI, Kropff E, Moser MB (19 February 2008). "Place cells, grid cells, and the brain's spatial representation system". ...
... giant pyramidal (Betz) cells are present in the internal pyramidal layer (V); lack of an internal granular layer (IV) such that ... Distinctive features (Brodmann-1905): the cortex is unusually thick; the layers are not distinct; the cells are relatively ... the boundary between the external pyramidal layer (III) and the internal pyramidal layer (V) is indistinct; lack of a distinct ...
However, bacteria produce D-amino acid residues that polymerize into short polypeptides which can be found in bacterial cell ... if the carbanion is planar or if it cannot maintain a pyramidal structure, then racemization should occur, though not always.: ...
... contribute to the somatic medium afterhyperpolarization and excitability control in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, Journal of ... Ca2+ Channels Involved in the Generation of the Slow Afterhyperpolarization in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons. J ... Afterhyperpolarization, or AHP, is the hyperpolarizing phase of a neuron's action potential where the cell's membrane potential ... as reported for the stellate cells of the entorhinal cortex. This mechanism is proposed to be functionally important to ...
When measuring the spectra of gases it is relatively easy to obtain very long path-lengths by using a multiple reflection cell ... The potential energy curve for such a vibration has a double minimum for the two pyramidal geometries, so that the vibrational ...
In a mouse model, researchers also found RAD51 products in corticospinal tract axons at the pyramidal decussation. They ... "Non cell-autonomous role of DCC in the guidance of the corticospinal tract at the midline". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 410. ... a protein thought to be responsible for axon guidance and neuronal cell migration during development. A mutation of this gene ( ...
The stem color is light brown to reddish-brown below the level of the ring, and it has small pyramidal scales scattered about ... The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are cylindrical to club-shaped, hyaline, four-spored with sterigmata up to 2 µm long, and ...
The unit cell is a rhombohedron (which gives the name for the rhombohedral lattice). This is a unit cell with parameters a = b ... "Minerals in the Hexagonal crystal system, Dihexagonal Pyramidal class (6mm)". Retrieved 2014-08-03. Jaswon, Maurice ... The hexagonal unit cell for the rhombohedral Bravais lattice is the R-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice ... The rhombohedral unit cell for the hexagonal Bravais lattice is the D-centered cell, consisting of two additional lattice ...
For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located mostly on postsynaptic parts of cells, while groups II and III are ... Chu Z, Hablitz JJ (October 2000). "Quisqualate induces an inward current via mGluR activation in neocortical pyramidal neurons ... Baskys A, Blaabjerg M (March 2005). "Understanding regulation of nerve cell death by mGluRs as a method for development of ... Their action can be excitatory, increasing conductance, causing more glutamate to be released from the presynaptic cell, but ...
... can also be used as a source of hydrogen for acid fuel cells if the unreacted ammonia can be removed. Ruthenium and ... The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted by the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR ...
The lid consists of a kidney-shaped cell work-frame enclosing a sheet of the horn, on which were mounted pairs of exquisite ... two pyramidal strapmounts and a scabbard-buckle. By the man's head were a firesteel and a leather pouch, containing rough ... In his work, they are transferred into the cell work medium with dazzling technical and artistic virtuosity. These are the work ... with superlative scabbard-bosses of domed cellwork and pyramidal mounts. Attached to this and lying toward the body was the ...
This affects in the cells action potential profile, as seen in cardiomyocytes, pneumocytes and neurons leading to conduction ... The typical Trichoderma conidiophore with paired branches assumes a pyramidal aspect. Typically the conidiophore terminates in ... Chlamydospores are typically unicellular subglobose and terminate short hyphae; they may also be formed within hyphal cells. ... cells and production of nano-channels that obstruct vital ion channels that ferry potassium and sodium ions across the cell ...
... other cells receive input: a proximal entorhinal input toward pyramidal cells and a coincident dentate gyrus input toward ... occluding basket cell activity and enabling pyramidal cells to signal. During this period, Oriens- Lacunosum Moleculare (O-LM) ... the divide often drawn between basket cells, pyramidal cells, and interneurons, to distinguish encoding from retrieval ... Encoding as a procedure begins when septal GABAergic inhibition is at minimum, freeing basket cells to act within CA3, and ...
... if a pyramidal cell (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a ... The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glial cells. Glial cells (also ... Glial cells are different: as with most types of cells in the body, they are generated throughout the lifespan. There has long ... The essential function of the brain is cell-to-cell communication, and synapses are the points at which communication occurs. ...
As of 2004, the park does not have telephone or electrical lines, although it uses solar cells for limited electricity needs. ... while pavilions 2 and 5 each has log columns that support a pyramidal roof. The CCC also built six rustic latrines with ...
Square pyramidal coordination tends to occur where a six-member ring is formed with the bridgehead, bridge, feet donor atom and ... It is an important molecule in red blood cells. Chlorophyll comes in several forms and is important in plant photosynthesis. ... When the two internal donor atoms are pyramidal (such as the secondary amines in trien or EDDA), two diastereomers for the ...
... gold and the platinum group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms ... 4 and square-pyramidal IrH4− 5 hydrido complexes". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 340 (1-2): 180-188. doi:10.1016/S0925-8388( ... iridium is used to detect nucleic acids in CyTOF experiments to analyse the presence or viability of nucleated cells in ...
Produce Pyramidal-Projection Neurons for All Layers of Cerebral Cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 19 (10): 2439-2450. doi:10.1093/ ... They are multipolar cells produced by radial glial cells who have undergone asymmetric division. IPCs can produce neuron cells ... When radial glial cells divide, they produce one replacement radial glial cell and one IPC. That IPC can then divide to form ... Progenitor cell Neurogenesis Radial glial cell Kowalczyk, Tom; Pontious, Adria; Englund, Chris; Daza, Ray A. M.; Bedogni, ...
In unit cells, hole filling can sometimes lead to polyhedral arrays with a mix of hcp and fcc layering. Cubic crystal system ... is the number of layers in the pyramidal stacking arrangement and M {\displaystyle M} is the number of cannonballs along an ...
Cell. 184 (3): 759-774.e18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.12.013. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 8312698. PMID 33400916. Wikimedia Commons has ... Dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons can be shown forming within days following sensory experience and learning. Changes can ... The staining of single cells, e.g. with the Golgi stain, to trace cellular processes and connectivity suffers from the limited ... Holtmaat A, Wilbrecht L, Knott GW, Welker E, Svoboda K (June 2006). "Experience-dependent and cell-type-specific spine growth ...
It is based on a co-located finite-volume approach that accepts meshes with any type of cell (tetrahedral, hexahedral, ... prismatic, pyramidal, polyhedral...) and any type of grid structure (unstructured, block structured, hybrid, conforming or with ...
... vestry and bedroom cells. The small and austere bedroom cells on the upper floor are representative of the vow of poverty taken ... It was then dominated by the two prominent steeply pitched gable roofs sheltering the end wings and a tall pyramidal roof ...
These upper motor neurons originate in layer V pyramidal cells of the neocortex, and travel through the posterior limb of the ... Betz cells are very large cells that are very visible under a microscope, and while they account for only about 5% of cells ... These cells are notable because of their rapid conduction rate, over 70m/sec, the fastest conduction of any signals from the ... After patients are lesioned in some part of the pyramidal tracts, they are paralyzed on the corresponding side of the body. ...
The two ends of the building have pyramidal roofs, and a hipped roof extends between these two end bays. The roof is clad with ... The watch house consisted of cells, charge rooms, laundry, toilet and shower and had an internal exercise yard, creating a ... Centrally located on the site is an early steel framed awning with pyramidal roof, protecting petrol bowsers. At the eastern ... In 1988 the two buildings were joined and the watch house extended to accommodate more cell space. These alterations allowed ...
Kaplan, MS, "Cell Proliferation in the Adult Mammalian Brain," Thesis, May 1979. Kaplan, MS & JW Hinds, "Neurogenesis in the ... Kaplan, MS & Casey, M., "Aging of Granule and Pyramidal Neurons in the Rodent Hippocampus," in preparation. Kaplan, MS, " ... A pioneer of neurogenesis research, his work refuted the classic idea that no new nerve cells are born in the adult mammalian ... In the 1960s Joseph Altman and coworkers published a series of papers reporting that some dividing cells in the adult brain ...
This is important in cells that receive and integrate thousands of synaptic inputs. These cells can often require numerous ... Jacobson, G. A. (2005). "Subthreshold Voltage Noise of Rat Neocortical Pyramidal Neurones". The Journal of Physiology. 564 (1 ... Noise is observed as changes in the membrane potential of a cell. The change in potential causes the accuracy of a neuron to be ... Intrinsic voltage noise is due to random changes in the membrane potential of a cell, and intrinsic temporal noise is caused by ...
As a respiratory poison, it affects the transport of oxygen or interferes with the utilization of oxygen by various cells in ... Phosphine has a trigonal pyramidal structure. Phosphines are compounds that include PH3 and the organophosphines, which are ... Phosphine appears to be mainly a redox toxin, causing cell damage by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. ... PH3 is a trigonal pyramidal molecule with C3v molecular symmetry. The length of the P−H bond is 1.42 Å, the H−P−H bond angles ...
... pyramidal neurons called Betz cells, which send long axons to the contralateral motor nuclei of the cranial nerves and to the ... The Betz cells along with their long axons are referred to as upper motor neurons (UMN). There is a precise somatotopic ... The internal pyramidal layer (layer V) of the precentral cortex contains giant (70-100 micrometers) ... pyramidal decussation), the axons travel down the spinal cord as the lateral corticospinal tract. Fibers that do not cross over ...
Stimulation of pyramidal tract neurons has been found to modulate the timing and intensity of scratch reflex. Furthermore, ... These techniques have enabled researchers to understand the neural circuitry of the scratch reflex on a single-cell level. The ...
Extrapyramidal and pyramidal symptoms and signs may occur and the disease may mimic spinocerebellar ataxias in the beginning ... International Journal of Cell Biology. 2013: 910314. doi:10.1155/2013/910314. PMC 3884631. PMID 24454379. Arata H, Takashima H ... Certain symptoms are common to GSS, such as progressive ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia; they worsen as the disease ...
"Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed by CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus". ... Summerhill S, Stroud T, Nagendra R, Perros-Huguet C, Trevethick M (2008). "A cell-based assay to assess the persistence of ... Mauriège P, De Pergola G, Berlan M, Lafontan M (May 1988). "Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent ... lipolytic responses and characterization of beta-adrenergic binding sites on human fat cell membranes with highly selective ...
Pyramidal cells -- RDoC Element. Type of Element: Cell. The following construct(s)/subconstruct(s) refer to this element.... * ... Home , Research , Research Funded by NIMH , Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) , Units of Analysis , Cells , Pyramidal cells. ...
Whole cell recordings were performed on the somata of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal slice preparation Remote ... Dendritic Na+ channels amplify EPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells R Lipowsky et al. J Neurophysiol. 1996 Oct. ... Dendritic Na+ channels amplify EPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells R Lipowsky 1 , T Gillessen, C Alzheimer ... 1. Whole cell recordings were performed on the somata of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal slice preparation Remote ...
The strength, which makes the LCM approach quite unique, is that the analysis is specific to pyramidal cells and no other cell ... Thus quantitative and qualitative assessments of CKB, 14-3-3-γ, and Hsc71 in pyramidal cells and pyramidal rich regions of the ... we reduce the complexity of the analyses by focusing on one cell type-the pyramidal CA1 cells. In the overall comparison ... Creatine Kinase B-Type Level Is Increased in Pyramidal Cells of Both Hippocampus and Frontal Cortex ...
... sc-283 labels numerous cells in the pyramidal cell layer of ErbB4-KO mice. Overlay images show ErbB4 immunofluorescence using ... Selective expression of ErbB4 in interneurons, but not pyramidal cells, of the rodent hippocampus Detlef Vullhorst 1 , Jörg ... Selective expression of ErbB4 in interneurons, but not pyramidal cells, of the rodent hippocampus Detlef Vullhorst et al. J ... ErbB4 was not detected in any of the 18 pyramidal cells analyzed (positive for the glutamatergic marker VGluT1), whereas 8 of ...
Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 bistratified cell; Hippocampus CA1 basket cell; ... A model of unitary responses from A/C and PP synapses in CA3 pyramidal cells (Baker et al. 2010). CA1 pyramidal neuron ( ... CA1 pyramidal neuron (Migliore et al 1999). CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Li and Ascoli 2006, 2008). CA1 pyramidal ... CA1 pyramidal neuron (Migliore et al 1999). CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Li and Ascoli 2006, 2008). CA1 pyramidal ...
FMRP regulates mRNAs encoding distinct functions in the cell body and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. ... FMRP regulates mRNAs encoding distinct functions in the cell body and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons ... FMRP regulates mRNAs encoding distinct functions in the cell body and dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons ... and both mitochondrial function and cell filamentation are elevated in dcp2Δ cells, suggesting that decapping sculpts gene ...
"Pyramidal Cells" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Pyramidal Cells" was a major or minor topic of these ... Parvalbumin-positive basket cells differentiate among hippocampal pyramidal cells. Neuron. 2014 Jun 04; 82(5):1129-44. ... Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other ... "Pyramidal Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Olfactory cortex pyramidal cell (Definition) Electrophysiological properties of Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells from ... Front Cell Neurosci. 2014. 12. 3. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex ... More information about Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells in other resources:. *View information about Olfactory cortex pyramidal ... View defining information for Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells at *View computational models for Olfactory cortex ...
New findings about comparing the effects of antibiotic therapy and phage therapy on memory and hippocampal pyramidal cells in ... Antibiotics are widely used to treat infectious diseases, and alongside their therapeutic benefits, they can damage host cells ...
Pyramidal neurons in superficial layers of cerebral cortex have extensive horizontal axons that provide a substrate for lateral ... The majority of boutons from cells lacking distal axon clusters were close to their cell bodies. Cells located more than 200 ... For all cells, synaptic boutons close to the cell body were located at similar distances from blob centers as the cell body. ... The locations of each cell body and the cells synaptic boutons relative to blobs were quantitatively analyzed. We found ...
Dendritic Excitability is an Essential Feature for Integration of Distal Synaptic Inputs in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons ... Pyramidal Cells--physiology. Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast NLM Classification: WL 102.5 NLM ID: 101289591 ... Dendritic excitability is an essential feature for integration of distal synaptic inputs in CA1 pyramidal neurons / Nelson ... Dendritic Excitability is an Essential Feature for Integration of Distal Synaptic Inputs in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons. ...
Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of ... Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of ... Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of ... Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of ...
They have an approximately conical cell body with a major dendrite trunk emerging from the top (the apical dendrite) and ... Pyramidal cells (neurons) are found in the cortex of the brain. ... Pyramidal Cell from Brain 1. Pyramidal cells (neurons) are ... nerve cell, nerve impulse, nervous system, neural, neuroanatomy, neurology, neuron, neurone, pyramidal cell, spine, synapse, ... These nerve impulses are represented as a set of purple glowing points.....The dendrites of pyramidal cells are covered by ...
Pyramidal Cell In Cerebral Cortex, Cajal Towel (Beach Towel (32 x 64)) by Science Source. Our towels are great. ... beach towels pyramidal cell cell neuron motor cortex cerebral cortex brain cajal neurons nerve cells 19th century 20th century ... photographs pyramidal cell cell neuron motor cortex cerebral cortex brain cajal neurons nerve cells 19th century 20th century ... Drawing of a pyramidal cell in the cerebral motor cortex by Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934). Pyramidal neurons (pyramidal ...
... as well as the local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells innervate both pyramidal cells and interneurons. To determine whether these ... In contrast, axons of in vitro labeled CA3 pyramidal cells in str. oriens and str. radiatum of the CA1 area made synaptic ... Local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellularly labeled in vitro or in vivo, innervated a relatively high proportion of ... Extrinsic and local glutamatergic inputs of the rat hippocampal CA1 area differentially innervate pyramidal cells and ...
Thus, IP(s)3 may activate a novel K+ conductance in CA1 pyramidal cells. IP3 itself did not elicit this conductance, suggesting ... it may be rapidly metabolized in these cells. ... potential firing when injected into hippocampal pyramidal cells ... Thus, IP(s)3 may activate a novel K+ conductance in CA1 pyramidal cells. IP3 itself did not elicit this conductance, suggesting ... A metabolically stable analog of 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate activates a novel K+ conductance in pyramidal cells of the rat ...
It has been shown that Kv1.2 is expressed on CA1 pyramidal cells, but not on dentate granule cells (Sheng et al., 1994; Guan et ... In contrast, cells from anti-CASPR2 tissue differed from cells recorded in control or anti-Kv1.2-treated slices (Table 1). It ... Intracellular recordings were performed in CA1 pyramidal cells impaled with borosilicate glass microelectrodes (80-120 MΩ, ... dentate granule cells appeared to be immunonegative (Sheng et al., 1994), and mossy fibers as well as CA3 pyramidal neurons ...
Whole cell recording from a layer 5 pyramidal cell in the auditory cortex reveals that the membrane potential of these cells ... Whole cell recording from a layer 5 pyramidal cell in the auditory cortex reveals that the membrane potential of these cells ... These results reveal a remarkable association between arousal level and membrane potential of some cortical pyramidal cells. ... Membrane Potential of Layer 5 Pyramidal Cells Follows Pupil Diameter. Copy Link. ...
Rounded Rear Pyramidal Texture for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells. Citation. Zin, N, McIntosh, K, Kho, T et al 2018, ... Rounded Rear Pyramidal Texture for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells, 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC ...
Pyramidal Cells; Seizures/chemically induced; Seizures/metabolism*; Signal Transduction/drug effects* ... This response was primarily observed in pyramidal neurons with little non-neuronal expression. Neuronal NF-κB/EGFP expression ...
Though they vary in size and position, the pyramidal cells (a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h) all exhibit the characteristic cone-shaped cell ... bipolar cells (not pictured here) and ganglion cells (o), amacrine cells and horizontal cells (a,b) seemed to defy his law of ... as well as bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and ganglion cells, in roughly the same arrangement. ... The axons of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus delicately contact the proximal dendrites of the giant pyramidal cells in ...
Whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells were made with a Multiclamp 700B amplifier (Axon Instruments), using 3-6 MΩ ... A, CA1 pyramidal cell filled with Alexa Fluor 594 through a somatic patch pipette. Box indicates oblique dendrites used for ... In hippocampal pyramidal cells, the induction of synaptic long-term plasticity is associated with changes in shape and size of ... To measure FRAP time constants (τFRAP) of individual spines, we filled CA1 pyramidal cells with Alexa Fluor 594 (Fig. 1A) and ...
Pyramidal cells are the principal neurons in the cortex. The principal neuron in the cerebellum is the Purkinje cell.. Ich ... The principal neuron in the cerebellar cortex is the Purkinje cell.. Die zentrale Schaltstelle/Integrationseinheit der ...
... pyramidal cells in layer 5 to participate in projection class L5IT and half of the thick tufted layer 5 pyramidal cells in L5PT ... Based on this, we classified the neuron as a pyramidal cell or interneuron. Then, we performed a spatial analysis of the axon ... Pyramidal cells in other layer all participated in the corresponding projection class. ... Cell type-specific thalamic innervation in a column of rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb. Cortex 20, 2287-2303 (2010). ...
... combined gene expression profiling and track tracing of pyramidal cells in the motor cortex. One population in layer 5 ... They did single-cell RNA-seq in visual and motor cortex of adult mice and found over 100 different distinguishable cell classes ... involved single-cell, genome-wide expression profiling in the retina using drop-seq (DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2015.05.002). Research ... All the data, including single-cell genetic data and microscopic images, is managed and coordinated by the BRAIN Cell Data ...
"Cortex, cognition, and the cell: New insights into the pyramidal neuron and prefrontal function". Cerebral Cortex. 13 (11): ... Schrödinger, Erwin (2001) [1958]. What is Life? : The physical aspects of the living cell (reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge ... The complexity of pyramidal neuron networks in a species is directly related to the increase in that speciess functional ... This is particular to networks of pyramidal neurons. Although computational neuroscience still has much to investigate ...
Here neurons in area CA2 appear green and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells red. ... hippocampal neurons labeled with green or red fluorescent proteins can be used to study specific populations of pyramidal cells ... and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Epigenetics and Stem Cell Biology Laboratory. The Synaptic and Developmental ...
They are found most frequently in the pyramidal cells of Ammons horn, and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. They are also ... Blood vessel without inflamatory cells (200x magnification). A = Red blood cells. B = Squamous epithelial cells ... In his report, he described Negri bodies as round or oval inclusions within the cytoplasm of nerve cells of animals infected ... Perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates in hematoxylin & eosin stained brain tissue. (100x Magnification) ...
Pyramidal Cells A8.186.211.577.405.700 A8.186.211.464.405.700. A8.186.211.730.885.213.766 A8.186.211.730.885.287.500.345.700. ... Leukemia, B-Cell C4.557.337.428.500 C4.557.337.428.80. C15.604.515.560.80. C20.683.515.528.80. Leukemia, B-Cell, Chronic C4.557 ... Tumor Stem Cells A11.872.910 A11.872.650. (Replaced for 2008 by Neoplastic Stem Cells). Umbilical Arteries A16.254.789.641 ... Leukemia, T-Cell C15.604.515.560.575. C20.683.515.528.582. Leukemia, T-Cell, Acute C4.557.337.428.511.800 C15.604.515.560. ...
  • 1. Whole cell recordings were performed on the somata of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal slice preparation Remote synaptic events were evoked by electrical stimulation of Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers in outer stratum radiatum. (
  • 2019). Homogenates of AD brain samples hence naturally include potential changes originating in glial cells, vascular cells, blood cells, and matrix components in addition to altered numbers and contents of neurons, making bulk analysis difficult to interpret (De Marchi et al. (
  • 2019). Hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and CA3 are areas rich in pyramidal neurons, mainly involved in memory formation, and severely affected in AD as reflected in models for AD (Kuczynski et al. (
  • We have previously applied LCM to study both intra-neuronal Aβ in isolated hippocampal neurons from post-mortem AD brain and the combined proteome of isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons pooled from six AD and six neurologically healthy cases, respectively (Aoki et al. (
  • We detected ErbB4 immunoreactivity in GABAergic interneurons but not in pyramidal neurons, a finding that was further corroborated by the lack of ErbB4 mRNA in electrophysiologically identified pyramidal neurons as determined by single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. (
  • Here we develop a strategy combining compartment-specific CLIP and TRAP in conditionally tagged mice to precisely define the ribosome-bound dendritic transcriptome of CA1 pyramidal neurons. (
  • Pyramidal neurons in superficial layers of cerebral cortex have extensive horizontal axons that provide a substrate for lateral interactions across cortical columns. (
  • To better understand the precise relationship between horizontal connections and blobs, we intracellularly labeled 20 layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in tangential living brain slices from V1 of macaque monkeys. (
  • The distant synaptic boutons from these cells were generally located relatively near to blob centers, but the neurons closest to blob centers had synaptic boutons closer to blob centers than those farther away. (
  • Pyramidal cells (neurons) are found in the cortex of the brain. (
  • Pyramidal neurons (pyramidal cells) are a type of. (
  • Pyramidal neurons (pyramidal cells) are a type of neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. (
  • Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. (
  • Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and studied by Santiago Ramon y Cajal. (
  • Since then, studies on pyramidal neurons have focused on topics ranging from neuroplasticity to cognition. (
  • This response was primarily observed in pyramidal neurons with little non-neuronal expression. (
  • Mouse hippocampal neurons labeled with green or red fluorescent proteins can be used to study specific populations of pyramidal cells. (
  • Here neurons in area CA2 appear green and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells red. (
  • Neuronal necrosis should be carefully differentiated from dark neuron artifact (see Brain - Introduction ) by screening for various stages of necrosis and/or the presence of inflammatory cells or other lesions in the vicinity of the truly necrotic neurons. (
  • In this case, the appearance of these necrotic neurons can be contrasted with the more normal morphology of an adjacent Purkinje cell (red arrow). (
  • Fluorescence of affected cells highlights the injured neurons, but the use of hematoxylin and eosin is also important to identify associated neural changes corroborating the fluorescent findings and defining the chronology of the lesions. (
  • Fluoro-Jade C is the most recent of the Fluoro-Jade stains and has been found to stain all degenerating neurons, regardless of specific insult or mechanism of cell death. (
  • Activated astrocytes, degenerating neurons, and cell nuclei can be labeled together using glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence, Fluoro-Jade C, and 4'',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively. (
  • The presence of more normal neurons in adjacent areas assists with the recognition of these forms of degenerate cells differentiating the changes from that of autolysis. (
  • D) Cerebellum showing severe depletion of Purkinje neurons and acute neuronal death (arrows and inset [original magnification ×40]) with relative sparing of the internal granule cell layer (arrowheads) and inflammation (short arrows) (original magnification ×10). (
  • It is rich in pyramidal neurons, which provide the anatomical substrates for the motor output function of area 4. (
  • Dendritic spines, tiny "thorns," or projections from the dendrites of a nerve cell, serve as receivers in many of the synaptic contacts between neurons. (
  • Their analysis focused on deep-layer pyramidal prelimbic cortex neurons because these cells reach into areas of the brain that have been implicated in drug-seeking behaviors. (
  • The scientists employed a light-based genetic, or optogenetic, technique to activate or inhibit pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic cortex at will. (
  • Feedforward inhibition (FFI) enables pyramidal cells in area CA1 of the hippocampus (CA1PCs) to remain easily excitable while faithfully representing a broad range of excitatory inputs without quickly saturating. (
  • We previously reported that ABA in adolescent female rats results in increased apical dendritic branching in CA1 pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampus at postnatal day 44 (P44). (
  • C) Pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus showing extensive acute neuronal death (arrows) (original magnification ×4). (
  • Emerging from the base of the neuron is a slender axon, which transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body. (
  • The principal neuron in the cerebellum is the Purkinje cell. (
  • The principal neuron in the cerebellar cortex is the Purkinje cell. (
  • Promoting regeneration while blocking cell death preserves motor neuron function in a model of ALS. (
  • The drawing is of a type of cortical neuron known as the pyramidal cell. (
  • These results reveal a remarkable association between arousal level and membrane potential of some cortical pyramidal cells. (
  • Parabolic avalanche scaling in the synchronization of cortical cell assemblies. (
  • We then discuss how the involvement of multiple cell types, each with a specific set of cellular properties, plays a crucial role in diversifying and increasing the computational power of a relatively small number of simple circuit motifs forming cortical networks. (
  • A) Cortical neuronal somata reconstruction to aid in cortical layer boundaries (dotted lines) based on cell number and size. (
  • FMRP regulates ~15-20% of mRNAs encoding synaptic functions and 10% of chromatin modulators, in the dendrite and cell body, respectively. (
  • Together, the data support a model in which FMRP regulates the translation and expression of synaptic and nuclear proteins within different compartments of a single neuronal cell type. (
  • The locations of each cell body and the cell's synaptic boutons relative to blobs were quantitatively analyzed. (
  • For all cells, synaptic boutons close to the cell body were located at similar distances from blob centers as the cell body. (
  • Serena M. Dudek, Ph.D., is Deputy Chief of the Neurobiology Laboratory, head of the Synaptic and Developmental Plasticity Group, and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Epigenetics and Stem Cell Biology Laboratory . (
  • Synaptic junctions between nerve cells can be between axon and dendritic spine or between axon and the dendrite itself. (
  • There are no comments for Pyramidal Cell In Cerebral Cortex, Cajal . (
  • It was impressive that they managed to get a complete record of 1500 µm 3 of the brain, with a complete map of all the cells and synapses. (
  • Studies show that a reduction of SynGAP activity can have multiple effects in nerve cells, including pushing synapses to develop too early. (
  • New findings about comparing the effects of antibiotic therapy and phage therapy on memory and hippocampal pyramidal cells in rats. (
  • Rats from an enriched environment have more spines on these cells than their littermates from an impoverished environment. (
  • The researchers compared nerve cell firing patterns in the brains of the shock-sensitive and shock-resistant groups of rats. (
  • Tiny optic fibers were implanted in the rats' brains to deliver light pulses to the cells. (
  • As predicted, activating these brain cells reduced cocaine seeking in the compulsive, shock-resistant rats. (
  • Inhibiting the cells in shock-sensitive rats increased cocaine seeking during foot-shock sessions. (
  • These two layer VI pyramidal cell somata (red and green arrows) give rise to the apical dendrites that form the core of the saturated cylinders. (
  • FFI in CA1PCs is mediated by two physiologically and morphologically distinct GABAergic interneurons: fast-spiking, perisomatic-targeting basket cells and regular-spiking, dendritic-targeting bistratified cells. (
  • 1 . Ferrante M, Ascoli GA (2015) Distinct and synergistic feedforward inhibition of pyramidal cells by basket and bistratified interneurons. (
  • Extrinsic and local glutamatergic inputs of the rat hippocampal CA1 area differentially innervate pyramidal cells and interneurons. (
  • Intrahippocampal N-MDA also increased hippocampal CHAT activity and resulted in a loss of pyramidal and dentate granule cells. (
  • A metabolically stable analog of 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate activates a novel K+ conductance in pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampal slice. (
  • In humans, only 5% of the fibers of the corticospinal tract originate from Betz cells in area 4. (
  • Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. (
  • The majority of boutons from cells lacking distal axon clusters were close to their cell bodies. (
  • Cells located more than 200 microm from blob centers were in interblobs and had long-distance clustered axon collaterals selectively targeting distant interblob regions. (
  • The dendrites of pyramidal cells are covered by small projections (dendritic spines) which are the contact point for axon terminals from other nerve cells. (
  • the dendritic arbor, the cell body, and the axon. (
  • DLK-dependent mitochondrial fission drives axon degeneration and neuronal cell death. (
  • Properties of action potential initiation in neocortical pyramidal cells: evidence from whole cell axon recordings. (
  • Cell-type specific FMRP-CLIP and TRAP in microdissected CA1 neuropil revealed 383 dendritic FMRP targets and suggests that FMRP differentially regulates functionally distinct modules in CA1 dendrites and cell bodies. (
  • Here we review our current understanding of neocortical interneuron diversity and the properties that distinguish cell types. (
  • They have an approximately conical cell body with a major dendrite trunk emerging from the top (the apical dendrite) and several dendrites emerging from around the base (the basal dendrites). (
  • A greenish glow represents a signal travelling towards the cell body along several of these dendrites (especially obvious in the apical dendrite trunk). (
  • D) The two pyramidal cells (red and green arrows) whose apical dendrites lie in the centers of the saturated reconstructions. (
  • Further, important substantiating evidence of brain tissue injury is represented by the edematous vacuolar change of the subjacent neuropil and the presence of necrotic condensed (pyknotic) nuclei of glial cells (arrowhead) within that region. (
  • The concept of pyramidal pathways with fibers originating only from Betz cells in the primary motor cortex has been invalidated. (
  • They are found most frequently in the pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn, and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. (
  • Although AD is largely regarded as a gray matter disease, different types of brain cells are affected and are further accompanied by extracellular changes (Mathys et al. (
  • Sympathetic ganglia comprises the thousands of afferent and efferent nerve cell bodies that run along either side of the spinal cord, connecting major organ systems, such as the renal system, to the spinal cord and brain. (
  • Perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates in hematoxylin & eosin stained brain tissue. (
  • This panel of brain necrosis images is intended to familiarize pathologists with the morphologic variations of neuronal cell death ranging from the morphology of acute necrosis to that of late stages of necrosis in which mineralization sometimes is prominent. (
  • Every once in a while, I get some glib story from believers in the Singularity and transhumanism that all we have to do to upload a brain into a computer is make lots of really thin sections and reconstruct every single cell and every single connection, put that data into a machine with a sufficiently robust simulator that executes all the things that a living brain does, and presto! (
  • The protein produced from this gene, called SynGAP, plays an important role in nerve cells in the brain. (
  • However, despite much attention this pathway and its effects on pyramidal cells have received recently, the presence of ErbB4 in these cells is still controversial. (
  • Whole cell recording from a layer 5 pyramidal cell in the auditory cortex reveals that the membrane potential of these cells closely follows the state of the mouse, as revealed by pupil diameter. (
  • Thus, IP(s)3 may activate a novel K+ conductance in CA1 pyramidal cells. (
  • Conversely, downregulation of FMRP targets involved in chromatin regulation in cell bodies and suggest a role for FMRP in stabilizing mRNAs containing stalled ribosomes in this compartment. (
  • In his report, he described Negri bodies as round or oval inclusions within the cytoplasm of nerve cells of animals infected with rabies. (
  • Absence of TRIC-B from type XIV Osteogenesis Imperfecta osteoblasts alters cell adhesion and mitochondrial function - A multi-omics study. (
  • They injected harmless viruses engineered to deliver genes for producing proteins that, once embedded in the neuron's surface, could induce or inhibit the cells' activity in response to light of specific wavelengths. (
  • Dr. Miller has done noteworthy work in the area of regenerative medicine to transplant retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) fibroblasts into the subretinal space of clinical subjects. (
  • only a small portion (3-5%) are large-diameter fibers (10-22mm) that originate in Betz cells from area 4. (
  • Paired with the companion software, Neurolucida Explorer , you can quickly and effectively analyze the morphology of subcellular structures, whole cells, or complex connective networks - from any species. (
  • Blood vessel without inflamatory cells (200x magnification). (
  • Cells located less than 130 microm from blob centers were found within both blobs and interblobs, but many were close to traditionally defined borders. (
  • We found that while ABA at P44 resulted in increased branching of ventral hippocampal pyramidal cells, relapse of ABA at P55 resulted in decreased branching. (
  • Cells from control animals were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in branching, more than doubling from P44 to P51, followed by pruning from P51 to P55. (
  • They are also found in the cells of the medulla and various other ganglia. (
  • [ 2 ] From 1950-1970, several other studies of electrical stimulation of the exposed motor cortex (ie, during neurosurgical procedures) were performed in animals and humans to study the pyramidal pathway and other corticospinal connections. (
  • TFQD - Thin film light-trapping enhanced quantum dot photovoltaic cells: an enabling technology for high power-to-weight ratio space solar arrays. (
  • The astroglial and stem cell functions of adult rat folliculostellate cells. (