Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of ALPHA-MANNOSIDASE activity that results in lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich intermediate metabolites. Virtually all patients have psychomotor retardation, facial coarsening, and some degree of dysostosis multiplex. It is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A glutamate antagonist (RECEPTORS, GLUTAMATE) used as an anticonvulsant (ANTICONVULSANTS) and to prolong the survival of patients with AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (1/3377)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (2/3377)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Effect of riluzole on the neurological and neuropathological changes in an animal model of cardiac arrest-induced movement disorder. (3/3377)

Posthypoxic myoclonus and seizures precipitate as secondary neurological consequences in ischemic/hypoxic insults of the central nervous system. Neuronal hyperexcitation may be due to excessive activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, an effect that has been shown to follow ischemic/hypoxic events. Therefore, riluzole, an anticonvulsant that inhibits the release of glutamate by stabilizing the inactivated state of activated voltage-sensitive sodium channels, was tested for its antimyoclonic and neuroprotective properties in the cardiac arrest-induced animal model of posthypoxic myoclonus. Riluzole (4-12 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated the audiogenic seizures and action myoclonus seen in this animal model. Histological examination using Nissl staining and the novel Fluoro-Jade histochemistry in cardiac-arrested animals showed an extensive neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Riluzole treatment almost completely prevented the neuronal degeneration in these brain areas. The neuroprotective effect was more pronounced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. These effects were seen at therapeutically relevant doses of riluzole, and the animals tolerated the treatment well. These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of posthypoxic myoclonus and seizure may involve excessive activation of glutamate neurotransmission, and that riluzole may serve as an effective pharmacological agent with neuroprotective potential for the treatment of neurological conditions associated with cardiac arrest in humans.  (+info)

Bilirubin, formed by activation of heme oxygenase-2, protects neurons against oxidative stress injury. (4/3377)

Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, which is immediately reduced to bilirubin (BR). Two HO active isozymes exist: HO1, an inducible heat shock protein, and HO2, which is constitutive and highly concentrated in neurons. We demonstrate a neuroprotective role for BR formed from HO2. Neurotoxicity elicited by hydrogen peroxide in hippocampal and cortical neuronal cultures is prevented by the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) via stimulation of protein kinase C. We observe phosphorylation of HO2 through the protein kinase C pathway with enhancement of HO2 catalytic activity and accumulation of BR in neuronal cultures. The neuroprotective effects of PMA are prevented by the HO inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX and in cultures from mice with deletion of HO2 gene. Moreover, BR, an antioxidant, is neuroprotective at nanomolar concentrations.  (+info)

Long-term suppression of synaptic transmission by tetanization of a single pyramidal cell in the mouse hippocampus in vitro. (5/3377)

1. The consequences of stimulating a single pyramidal cell in the CA1 area of the hippocampus for synaptic transmission in the stratum radiatum were investigated. 2. Tetanic activation of single pyramids caused by depolarizing current injection, but not an equal number of distributed action potentials, reduced excitatory transmission by 20 %, with a delayed onset, for more than 1 h. 3. EPSPs in the tetanized pyramidal cells were increased for equally long periods but this was not the cause of the field EPSP reduction. Spontaneous somatic IPSPs were not affected; evoked IPSPs were decreased in the tetanized cell. 4. Paired pulse facilitation of the field EPSPs was unchanged. 5. The field EPSP reduction was markedly diminished by a knife cut along the base of pyramidal cells in CA1. 6. The addition of antagonists of GABA, NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors blocked or diminished the field EPSP slope reduction evoked by intracellular stimulation. 7. Simultaneous recordings revealed long-lasting excitations of interneurons located in the outer oriens layer as a result of single pyramid tetanization. 8. Intense firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells can thus persistently inhibit mass transmission through the hippocampus. This effect involves activation of interneurons by glutamate receptors.  (+info)

Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. (6/3377)

1. Whole-cell clamp recordings of the compound synaptic current elicited by afferent stimulation of Schaffer collaterals showed that blockade of the NMDA, AMPA and GABAA receptor-mediated components by 6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl- benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (R-CPP) and picrotoxin, respectively, left a small residual current in 39 out of 41 CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic cultures and 9 out of 16 CA1 cells in acutely prepared slices. 2. This current represented 2. 9 +/- 0.4 % of the compound evoked synaptic response in organoypic cultures and 1.4 +/- 0.5 % in slices. It was characterized by a slightly rectifying I-V curve and a reversal potential of 3.4 +/- 5. 1 mV. 3. This residual current was insensitive to blockers of GABAB, purinergic, muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors, but it was essentially blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine (91 +/- 4 % blockade; 20 microM), and partly blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (200 nM) and methyllycaconitine (10 nM), two antagonists with a higher selectivity for alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors (48 +/- 3 % and 55 +/- 11 % blockade, respectively). 4. The residual current was of synaptic origin, since it occurred after a small delay; its amplitude depended upon the stimulation intensity and it was calcium dependent and blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin. 5. We conclude that afferent stimulation applied in the stratum radiatum evokes in some hippocampal neurones a small synaptic current mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors.  (+info)

Linear summation of excitatory inputs by CA1 pyramidal neurons. (7/3377)

A fundamental problem in neurobiology is understanding the arithmetic that dendrites use to integrate inputs. The impact of dendritic morphology and active conductances on input summation is still unknown. To study this, we use glutamate iontophoresis and synaptic stimulation to position pairs of excitatory inputs throughout the apical, oblique, and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. Under a variety of stimulation regimes, we find a linear summation of most input combinations that is implemented by a surprising balance of boosting and shunting mechanisms. Active conductances in dendrites paradoxically serve to make summation linear. This "active linearity" can reconcile predictions from cable theory with the observed linear summation in vivo and suggests that a simple arithmetic is used by apparently complex dendritic trees.  (+info)

Carbamazepine facilitates effects of GABA on rat hippocampus slices. (8/3377)

AIM: To study the influence of carbamazepine (Car) on GABA effect in hippocampus. METHODS: Evoked potentials were recorded on pyramidal cells in CA1 after stimulation (0.5 Hz, 50 microseconds) to Schaffer collaterals in rat hippocampal slices (350 microns). RESULTS: Car 0.1 and 0.2 mmol.L-1 did not affect field potentials, whereas Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus GABA (0.1-1 mmol.L-1) gave rise to a stronger inhibition on field potentials than that of GABA alone. Bicuculline did not reverse Car facilitation on GABA inhibition on field potentials. (-)-Baclofen was more effective in inhibiting field potentials than GABA. Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus (-)-baclofen (1-5 mumol.L-1) brought an inhibition stronger than that of (-)-baclofen alone. CONCLUSION: Car facilitates the effects of GABA on pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 region, probably related to GABAB receptors.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphological variation of layer III pyramidal neurones in the occipitotemporal pathway of the macaque monkey visual cortex. AU - Elston, Guy N.. AU - Rosa, Marcello G.P.. PY - 1998/5/28. Y1 - 1998/5/28. N2 - We compared the morphological characteristics of layer III pyramidal neurones in different visual areas of the occipitotemporal cortical stream, which processes information related to object recognition in the visual field (including shape, colour and texture). Pyramidal cells were intracellularly injected with Lucifer Yellow in cortical slices cut tangential to the cortical layers, allowing quantitative comparisons of dendritic field morphology, spine density and cell body size between the blobs and interblobs of the primary visual area (V1), the interstripe compartments of the second visual area (V2), the fourth visual area (V4) and cytoarchitectonic area TEO. We found that the tangential dimension of basal dendritic fields of layer III pyramidal neurones increases from ...
Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) lead to dendritic spine abnormalities and are sufficient to cause cognition impairment. The decrease in PAK in the brain of Alzheimers disease (AD) patients is suspected to underlie synaptic and dendritic disturbances associated with its clinical expression, particularly with symptoms related to frontal cortex dysfunction. To investigate the role of PAK combined with Aβ and tau pathologies (3xTg-AD mice) in the frontal cortex, we generated a transgenic model of AD with a deficit in PAK activity (3xTg-AD-dnPAK mice). PAK inactivation had no effect on Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels, but increased the phosphorylation ratio of tau in detergent-insoluble protein fractions in the frontal cortex of 18-month-old heterozygous 3xTg-AD mice. Morphometric analyses of layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the frontal cortex showed that 3xTg-AD-dnPAK neurons exhibited significant dendritic attrition, lower spine density and longer spines compared to NonTg and 3xTg-AD mice. Finally, ...
The actions of the opioid agonist U50488H on I-A and I-K were examined in acutely isolated mouse hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. U50488H caused a concentration dependent, rapidly developing and reversible inhibition of voltage-activated I-A and I-K. The inhibitory actions were still observed in the presence of 30 muM naloxone or 5 muM nor-binaltorphimine dihydrochloride. The IC50 values for the blockade of I-A and I-K were calculated as 20.1.9 and 3.7 muM, respectively. In the presence of 3.3 muM U50488H, repetitive stimulation induced use-dependent inhibition of I-A and I-K. A 10 muM concentration of U50488H positively shifted the half-activation membrane potential of I-A by +11 mV, but negatively shifted I-K by -14 mV. These results demonstrate that U50488H can directly inhibit neuronal I-A and I-K without involvement of the activation of kappa -opioid receptors. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights ...
In our experimental study, we combined paired patch-clamp recordings and two-photon Ca2+ imaging to quantify inhibition exerted by individual GABAergic contacts on hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrites. We observed that Ca2+ transients from back-propagating action potentials were significantly reduced during simultaneous activation of individual nearby GABAergic synapses. To simulate dendritic Ca2+ inhibition by individual GABAergic synapses, we employed a multi-compartmental CA1 pyramidal cell model with detailed morphology, voltage-gated channel distributions, and calcium dynamics, based with modifications on the model of Poirazi et al., 2003, modelDB accession # 20212 ...
Probably the most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, can be seen as a different dendritic framework among different cortical areas markedly. be considerably different in MF1 and 4 of 10 in MF2 (Desk ?(Desk22). Open up in another window Shape 5 Rate of recurrence histograms and plots from the (A) size, (B) branching patterns, (C) backbone density from the basal dendritic trees and shrubs, and (D) cell body size, of coating III pyramidal neurons sampled in granular prefrontal cortex from the macaque monkey (M1 and M2), vervet monkey (VM1 and VM2) and baboon (B1 and B2). Mistake bars?=? regular errors. Desk 1 order S/GSK1349572 Quantity, size [suggest, regular deviation (SD), regular error from the suggest (SEM), minimal, and optimum] from the basal dendritic trees and shrubs of coating III pyramidal cells in cortical areas 9, 10, 12vl, 13, and 46 in the prefrontal cortex from the macaque monkey. pair-wise Scheffe evaluations of morphological guidelines of neurons in the ...
We performed experiments to determine whether axonal sprouting occurs in neurons of chronic neocortical epileptogenic lesions. Partially isolated somatosensory cortical islands with intact pial blood supply were prepared in mature rats. Neocortical slices from these lesions, studied 6-39 d later, generated spontaneous and/or evoked epileptiform field potentials (Prince and Tseng, 1993) during which neurons displayed prolonged polyphasic excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials/currents. Single electrophysiologically characterized layer V pyramidal neurons in control and epileptogenic slices were filled with biocytin using sharp and patch-electrode techniques, their axonal arbors reconstructed and compared quantitatively. Neurons in injured cortex had a 56% increase in total axonal length, a 64% increase in the number of axonal collaterals and more than a doubling (115% increase) of the number of axonal swellings. The presumed boutons were smaller and more closely spaced than those of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ionic mechanisms of endogenous bursting in CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. T2 - A model study. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Clancy, Colleen E. PY - 2008/4/30. Y1 - 2008/4/30. N2 - A critical property of some neurons is burst firing, which in the hippocampus plays a primary role in reliable transmission of electrical signals. However, bursting may also contribute to synchronization of electrical activity in networks of neurons, a hallmark of epilepsy. Understanding the ionic mechanisms of bursting in a single neuron, and how mutations associated with epilepsy modify these mechanisms, is an important building block for understanding the emergent network behaviors. We present a single-compartment model of a CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neuron based on recent experimental data. We then use the model to determine the roles of primary depolarizing currents in burst generation. The single compartment model incorporates accurate representations of sodium (Na+) channels (Nav1.1) and T-type calcium ...
The burst firing pattern of the hippocampal pyramidal cells was first described by Kandel and Spencer in their intracellular studies using the in vivocat preparation (Kandel and Spencer, 1961)....
Previous studies have reported reduced spontaneous and evoked excitatory neurotransmission in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons from Mecp2-null mice but have differed on whether this was attributable to changes in release properties of individual synapses (Nelson et al., 2006) or changes in synapse number (Chao et al., 2007). Moreover, it was not known whether or not changes observed at hippocampal synapses also occur in the neocortex or whether observations made in neuronal cultures were recapitulated in vivo. The latter point is important because targets of MeCP2, like BDNF, may be regulated differently in culture and in vivo because of very different prevailing activity patterns (Chang et al., 2006). Our results are consistent with a reduction in the number of recurrent excitatory synapses in the neocortex of symptomatic mice similar to that reported for autaptic hippocampal synapses in culture (Chao et al., 2007). This would explain the nearly twofold reduction in connection probability ...
Study of the pyramidal cells and interneurons recruited by intracortical microstimulation in primary somatosensory cortex. Code includes morphological models for seven types of pyramidal cells and eight types of interneurons, NEURON code to simulate ICMS, and an artificial reconstruction of a 3D slab of cortex implemented in MATLAB ...
Proximity of excitatory and inhibitory axon terminals adjacent to pyramidal cell bodies provides a putative basis for nonsynaptic interactions. Video ...
Plot of the membrane potential in the axon as a function of the membrane potential in the soma just prior to action potential initiation in either real layer 5 pyramidal cells (top) or in our full model of a layer 5 pyramidal cell (below). Note that there is significant variation between the line of equality (red line)
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Okay I found the file, but Im not sure how to change it to what I would need it to do. Since I need to apply it to a pyramidal cell and apply the low frequency I am also not sure how to change the frequency. Is there any file that explains how the izap.hoc file works? Thank you for your time ...
Alterations in the density and size of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex have been described in schizophrenia and mood disorder. However, the changes are generally modest and have not always been replicated. We investigated the possibility that specific pyramidal neuron sub-populations, defined by their immunoreactivity with the anti-neurofilament antibodies SMI32, N200, and FNP7, are differentially affected in these disorders. First, we assessed the distribution and characteristics of pyramidal neurons labelled by the antibodies in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 9, 32, 46), using single and double label immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. Three largely separate sub-populations of pyramidal neurons were identified, although with more substantial overlap between SMI32- and FNP7-positive neurons in lamina V. We then determined the density, size and shape of the three pyramidal neuron sub-populations in area 9 in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or
The prefrontal cortex regulates behavior, cognition, and emotion by using working memory. Prefrontal functions are impaired by stress exposure. Acute, stress-induced deficits arise from excessive protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, which diminishes prefrontal neuronal firing. Chronic stress additionally produces architectural changes, reducing dendritic complexity and spine density of cortico-cortical pyramidal neurons, thereby disrupting excitatory working memory networks. In vitro studies have found that sustained PKC activity leads to spine loss from hippocampal-cultured neurons, suggesting that PKC may contribute to spine loss during chronic stress exposure. The present study tested whether inhibition of PKC with chelerythrine before daily stress would protect prefrontal spines and working memory. We found that inhibition of PKC rescued working memory impairments and reversed distal apical dendritic spine loss in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of rat prelimbic cortex. Greater spine density ...
A rich literature describes inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons in terms of the distinct inhibitory cell types that target the soma, axon initial segment, or dendritic arbor. Less attention has been devoted to how localization of inhibition to specific parts of the pyramidal dendritic arbor influences dendritic signal detection and integration. The effect of inhibitory inputs can vary based on their placement on dendritic spines versus shaft, their distance from the soma, and the branch order of the dendrite they inhabit. Inhibitory synapses are also structurally dynamic, and the implications of these dynamics depend on their dendritic location. Here we consider the heterogeneous roles of inhibitory synapses as defined by their strategic placement on the pyramidal cell dendritic arbor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - (-)Deprenyl reduces delayed neuronal death of hippocampal pyramidal cells. AU - Paterson, I. A.. AU - Barber, A. J.. AU - Gelowitz, D. L.. AU - Voll, C.. PY - 1997/3/13. Y1 - 1997/3/13. N2 - Ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death can be mediated by apoptosis, and (-)deprenyl has been shown to block apoptosis in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons. This study has investigated whether (-)deprenyl can prevent delayed neuronal death of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Rats were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia and treated with (-)deprenyl (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline daily. After sacrifice the left and right hippocampi were examined histologically. Unilateral delayed neuronal death was seen in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 fields up to 14 days after the ischemia. After 14 days treatment with (-)deprenyl there was 66%, 91% and 96% reduction in delayed neuronal death in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 fields, respectively. (-)Deprenyl was effective when given at the onset or after ischemia, but not ...
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
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All the measurements on the brain sections were performed at the approximate level of bregma −2.18. For analysis of apical dendritic length of CA1 pyramidal neurons, the total area of EGFP labeled apical dendrites from the exit point of pyramidal cell layer to the distal end of apical dendrites were measured and normalized to the total area from the exit point of pyramidal cell layer to the pia surface (the boundary between CA1 and dentate gyrus). One normalized value of apical dendrite length was obtained from one brain and a total of 3-4 brains were measured for each group. For analysis of spine morphology, a total of about 2 mm dendrites from 3 brains for each group were examined. Spine density was calculated as the average number on a 20 µm length scale. For analysis of spine size, 100 largest spines from each section (one section from one brain) were identified and their head sizes were measured. 300 values of each group were pooled together for comparison between groups. For analysis of ...
Mechanisms of action potential (AP) generation in neocortical pyramidal cells have been the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research over the last several decades. It has proven very difficult, however, to arrive at a consensus model which can satisfactorily account for all of its features. One of the still unresolved issues is lack of accurate description of Na+ channel kinetics in different neuronal compartments. Here, we measured kinetics of somatic Na+ channels using high temporal resolution (5-10 kHz, −3dB, low pass four-pole Bessel filter) cell-attached recordings from layer 5 pyramidal neurons in neocortical slices. The data were described by fitting different Markov models with differential evolution fit algorithms. The limited speed of voltage steps and the effect of current filtering were accounted for in the fit procedure. Hodgkin-Huxley-type models which assumed a number of independent activation gates were not the optimal description of the experimentally recorded ...
Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the
The apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal cells are aligned ,perpendicular to the cortical surface -- this allows the PSPs in ,the apical dendrites of many (millions?) cortical pyramidal ,cells to summate spatially, and thus be detectable on the ,cortical or scalp surface. The dendrites of other cell types ,are generally aligned in random directions, so that the PSPs in ,these dendrites cancel each other (when observed from an ,electrode that is far away). ,clip, ,Kevin Kevin, thanks for replying to my post and to the one above. Since the brain has many folds & invaginations, many of the apical dendrites would not be at right angles to the surface of the brain. Why isnt this a problem in assuming the valididty of EEG recordings ? Would local field potentials recorded from one laminellar layer be a more suitable means for determining the activity of a brain area and perhaps for investigating the relationship between say, midbrain structures and the cortex ? Thanks for your attention. Mark ...
Through compartment modeling of these neurons, we extract aspects of altered morphology and electrophysiology that are central to age-related deterioration in cognitive function. We explore homeostatic mechanisms that can compensate for this deterioration partially or completely. To quantify homeostatic trade-offs between morphology and electrical function, we have designed morphologic metrics that include spine surface area, numbers of apical and basal dendrites, and volume of the soma, while active channel metrics are characterized by their maximal conductances, kinetics, and spatial distribution. By utilizing the concept of normalized sensitivity [3, 4], the effect of perturbations in these metrics on neuronal function characterized by AP firing rate, somatic input resistance, AP firing rate adaptation, electrotonic lengths, and transfer impedance, is determined in terms of unitless measures (sensitivities). By nature, unitless measures allow direct quantitative comparison between parameters ...
Purpose: Chronic cerebral ischemia is a common pathological state, which can lead to cognitive disorder and neurological dysfunction. Aminoguanidine i..
Kv4.2 is abundant in the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus.[293]. Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 are expressed in membranes of somata, dendrites, and spines of pyramidal cells and GABAergic neurons. [319]. KChIP2 co-localizes with Kv4.2 in the dendrites of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (Fig. 3d-f), in the apical and basal dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal cells, and in several subcortical structures including the striatum and thalamus [1195]. Immunocytochemical studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of neuronal rat Kv4.2 channels is restricted to the somatodendritic area, and the high abundance of Kv4.2 in the soma and dendrites led to the hypothesis that these channels may have an important influence on postsynaptic neuronal signal transduction [1686]. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Kv4.2 has a somatodendritic distribution, and in adult hippocampus, Kv4.2 is expressed on distal dendrites and neuropils of CA1-3 neurons. The somatodendritic ...
Hippocampal pyramidal region consist of pyramidal cells and several types of interneurons. The importance of this region is because hippocampal theta waves with 4-10 Hz frequency are generated here. Gamma waves with 40-70 Hz frequency are mostly superimposed on theta waves.. Isolated hippocampal CA-1 pyramidal neurons show resonance with theta frequency [24]. In addition, whole cell clamping in thin slices of CA-1pyramidal neurons show resonance in these neurons with the preferred resonant frequency of 2-5 Hz [11, 12 and 13]. Similarly, horizontal interneurons with cell bodies in stratum oriens have resonant frequency around 1-5 Hz. However, the majority of interneurons in pyramidal layer are fast spiking interneurons (including basket cells and axo-axonic interneurons) and their resonant frequency is around gamma band (~ 40 Hz) [13].. As mentioned before, CA-1 pyramidal neurons contain both M current and h-current that may be responsible for generation of subthreshold resonance in theta-range ...
Hippocampal pyramidal region consist of pyramidal cells and several types of interneurons. The importance of this region is because hippocampal theta waves with 4-10 Hz frequency are generated here. Gamma waves with 40-70 Hz frequency are mostly superimposed on theta waves.. Isolated hippocampal CA-1 pyramidal neurons show resonance with theta frequency [24]. In addition, whole cell clamping in thin slices of CA-1pyramidal neurons show resonance in these neurons with the preferred resonant frequency of 2-5 Hz [11, 12 and 13]. Similarly, horizontal interneurons with cell bodies in stratum oriens have resonant frequency around 1-5 Hz. However, the majority of interneurons in pyramidal layer are fast spiking interneurons (including basket cells and axo-axonic interneurons) and their resonant frequency is around gamma band (~ 40 Hz) [13].. As mentioned before, CA-1 pyramidal neurons contain both M current and h-current that may be responsible for generation of subthreshold resonance in theta-range ...
The local circuits in the neocortex of mammals consists of neurons that need to obtain reliably meaningful information from their dominant activating inputs and to alter their responses to these inputs in relation to inputs that are activating other local cortical circuits. Both of these tasks are mediated by structural features in the neocortex. This chapter discusses the structural features of mammalian neocortex as well as the features that allow dynamic interaction among neurons in different columns. The focus is on the complex variability within and across nervous systems involving neuron densities and proportions to glia and other nonneural cells. The chapter also looks at dendritic arbors of cortical pyramidal cells and how they vary across cortical areas and species, patterns of intrinsic horizontal areal connections, and feedback connections from higher to lower areas in hierarchies of cortical areas.
Estimating Potential Output for Argentina. María Josefina Rouillet Economic and Financial Research Department, Central Bank of Argentina Strategies for Implementing Monetary Policy in the Americas: The Role of Inflation Targeting Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta October 4-5, 2004. Slideshow 1245816 by Gabriel
In the cerebral cortex, diverse types of neurons form intricate circuits and cooperate in time for the processing and storage of information. Recent advances reveal a spatiotemporal division of labor in cortical circuits, as exemplified in the CA1 hippocampal area. In particular, distinct GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing) cell types subdivide the surface of pyramidal cells and act in discrete time windows, either on the same or on different subcellular compartments. They also interact with glutamatergic pyramidal cell inputs in a domain-specific manner and support synaptic temporal dynamics, network oscillations, selection of cell assemblies, and the implementation of brain states. The spatiotemporal specializations in cortical circuits reveal that cellular diversity and temporal dynamics coemerged during evolution, providing a basis for cognitive behavior. ...
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Abstract: The model [N. Todd, ``A theory of the principal monaural pathway. I. Pitch and time perception, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (these proceedings)] proposes to account for auditory streaming by a cross-correlation mechanism modeled as an array of cortical columns. A column contains excilatory and inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells which receive input from both the thalamus and from neighboring columns. For columns with coherent thalamic inputs, the outputs of the pyramids sum across frequency because local interneurons compute a correlation between the AM transform of the inputs of the local and remote columns, and selectively gate the input to the pyramidal cell. (1) Grouping by frequency proximity---for columns separated by less than a critical band, thalamic inputs are unresolved. (2) Grouping by temporal proximity---at repetition rates below the mean of the AM distribution, AM fundamentals are less well represented; at higher repetition rates the AM harmonics are more separated. ...
English, McKenzie, et al. identify, validate, and quantify monosynaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons, using the spike timing of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in vivo. Their large-scale method uncovers a backbone of connectivity rules in the hippocampus CA1 circuit.. ...
Article: Early exposure to alcohol leads to permanent impairment of dendritic excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons. ...
Synaptic connections between layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and FS interneurons were studied with paired whole-cell recordings in acute neocortical slices of the medial prefrontal cortex from juvenile rats. In the reciprocal connections the amplitude of postsynaptic responses was larger and neurotransmission had a lower failure rate than in the unidirectional connections. The differences between these types of connections persisted during the short-train stimulation. ...
Pyramidal neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog. This neuron is stained using the Golgi Stain. (Image courtesy of Biodidac ...
Fourteen detailed 3D somato-dendritic morphologies of cat spinal alpha-motoneuron imported from (Ascoli et al., 2007). The vertical upward neuri
Of Mice and Men: Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Human Cortical Pyramidal Neurons Brian Kalmbach, Ph.D. Allen Institute for Brain Science host: Nikolai DembrowRead ...
Betz, S J. and Morrison, D C., Lipopolysaccharide-lipid a associated protein (lap) complexes. II. Modulation of chemical and biological properties of lps. Abstr. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2440 ...
Area 4 (Precentral gyrus): Primary motor cortex (gigantopyramidal - only area that contains giant pyramidal cells of Betz) Lesion: Contralateral spastic…
Agarwal, A.; Zhang, M.; Trembak-Duff, I.; Unterbarnscheidt, T.; Radyushkin, K.; Dibaj, P.; de Souza, D. M.; Boretius, S.; Brzózka, M. M.; Steffens, H. et al.; Berning, S.; Teng, Z.; Gummert, M. N.; Tantra, M.; Guest, P. C.; Willig, K. I.; Frahm, J.; Hell, S. W.; Bahn, S.; Rossner, M. J.; Nave, K. A.; Ehrenreich, H.; Zhang, W.; Schwab, M. H.: Dysregulated expression of Neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity. Cell Reports 8 (4), pp. 1130 - 1145 (2014 ...
Agarwal, A.; Zhang, M.; Trembak-Duff, I.; Unterbarnscheidt, T.; Radyushkin, K.; Dibaj, P.; de Souza, D. M.; Boretius, S.; Brzózka, M. M.; Steffens, H. et al.; Berning, S.; Teng, Z.; Gummert, M. N.; Tantra, M.; Guest, P. C.; Willig, K. I.; Frahm, J.; Hell, S. W.; Bahn, S.; Rossner, M. J.; Nave, K. A.; Ehrenreich, H.; Zhang, W.; Schwab, M. H.: Dysregulated expression of Neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity. Cell Reports 8 (4), S. 1130 - 1145 (2014 ...
Looking for online definition of pyramidal layer in the Medical Dictionary? pyramidal layer explanation free. What is pyramidal layer? Meaning of pyramidal layer medical term. What does pyramidal layer mean?
OBJECTIVE A pilot study of the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in layer III of human temporal and frontal cerebral neocortex in schizophrenia.. METHODS Postmortem material from a group of eight prospectively diagnosed schizophrenic patients, five archive schizophrenic patients, 11 non-schizophrenic controls, and one patient with schizophrenia-like psychosis, thought to be due to substance misuse, was impregnated with a rapid Golgi method. Spines were counted on the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in temporal and frontal association areas, of which the soma was in layer III (which take part in corticocortical connectivity) and which met strict criteria for impregnation quality. Altogether 25 blocks were studied in the schizophrenic group and 21 in the controls. If more than one block was examined from a single area, the counts for that area were averaged. All measurements were made blind: diagnoses were only disclosed by a third party after measurements were completed. Possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selectivity of pyramidal cells and interneurons in the human medial temporal lobe. AU - Ison, Matias J.. AU - Mormann, Florian. AU - Cerf, Moran. AU - Koch, Christof. AU - Fried, Itzhak. AU - Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) respond selectively to pictures of specific individuals, objects, and places. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to such degree of stimulus selectivity are largely unknown. A necessary step to move forward in this direction involves the identification and characterization of the different neuron types present in MTL circuitry. We show that putative principal cells recorded in vivo from the human MTL are more selective than putative interneurons. Furthermore, we report that putative hippocampal pyramidal cells exhibit the highest degree of selectivity within the MTL, reflecting the hierarchical processing of visual information. We interpret these differences in selectivity as a plausible ...
OKeefe and Recce [1993] Hippocampus 3:317-330 described an interaction between the hippocampal theta rhythm and the spatial firing of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus: they found that a cells spike activity advances to earlier phases of the theta cycle as the rat passes through the cells place field. The present study makes use of large-scale parallel recordings to clarify and extend this finding in several ways: 1) Most CA1 pyramidal cells show maximal activity at the same phase of the theta cycle. Although individual units exhibit deeper modulation, the depth of modulation of CA1 population activity is about 50%. The peak firing of inhibitory interneurons in CA1 occurs about 60 degrees in advance of the peak firing of pyramidal cells, but different interneurons vary widely in their peak phases. 2) The first spikes, as the rat enters a pyramidal cells place field, come 90 degrees-120 degrees after the phase of maximal pyramidal cell population activity, near the phase where
Looking for online definition of Pyramidal neuron in the Medical Dictionary? Pyramidal neuron explanation free. What is Pyramidal neuron? Meaning of Pyramidal neuron medical term. What does Pyramidal neuron mean?
A study has been made of the neuronal somata in the motor and somatic sensory cortices of the monkey. Pyramidal cells in the motor cortex are very similar to those described previously in sensory and parietal cortical areas. The largest pyramidal cells in area 4, the Betz cells of layer V, are up to 50 μm in transverse diameter. Although basically resembling smaller pyramidal cells, the nucleus of a Betz cell often has a complex indentation and is smaller in relation to the overall size of the cell soma than is that of a smaller pyramid and the cytoplasm of Betz cells contains discrete clumps of endoplasmic reticulum. As with other pyramidal cells, the synapses on to Betz cell somata are all of the symmetrical type. Previous descriptions of stellate cells have been of cells receiving a high density of axosomatic synapses of both the asymmetric and symmetrical type. Cells like this are found in both the motor and somatic sensory cortices and have been termed here large stellate cells. In ...
The neuronal layers in the neocortex are designated by Roman numerals, beginning at the pial surface (Fig. 32-1). There are six layers in the neocortex, with some of these layers being further subdivided on the basis of their architectural features.. Layer I, the molecular layer, contains very few neuron cell bodies and consists primarily of axons running parallel (horizontal) to the surface of the cortex. The apical dendrites of cells located in deeper layers also ramify within layer I.. Layer II, the external granular layer, is composed of a mixture of small neurons called granule cells and slightly larger neurons that are called pyramidal cells on the basis of the shape of their cell body. The apical dendrites of these pyramidal cells extend into layer I and their axons descend into and through the deeper cortical layers.. Layer III, the external pyramidal layer, contains primarily small to medium-sized pyramidal cells along with some neurons of other types. In general, the smaller pyramidal ...
cGMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. It also relaxes smooth muscle tissues. In blood vessels, relaxation of vascular smooth muscles lead to vasodilation and increased blood flow. cGMP is a secondary messenger in phototransduction in the eye. In the photoreceptors of the mammalian eye, the presence of light activates phosphodiesterase, which degrades cGMP. The sodium ion channels in photoreceptors are cGMP-gated, so degradation of cGMP causes sodium channels to close, which leads to the hyperpolarization of the photoreceptors plasma membrane and ultimately to visual information being sent to the brain.[2]. cGMP is also seen to mediate the switching on of the attraction of apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in cortical layer V towards semaphorin-3A (Sema3a).[3] Whereas the axons of pyramidal cells are repelled by Sema3a, the apical dendrites are attracted to it. The attraction is mediated by the increased levels of soluble guanylate ...
Many central nervous system (CNS) neurons have extensively pocampal pyramidal neurons, markedly reducing AP firing arborized dendrites on which they receive the majority of their when initiated from dendritic depolarization, but minimally synaptic contacts. Recent advances in electrophysiological tech- affecting APs initiated from somatic depolarization. This effect niques have shown that the apical dendrites of hippocampal on dendritic excitability was not due to action on Na+ chan- and neocortical pyramidal neurons have markedly different nels, but rather to an increase in Ih, a voltage-gated current electrical properties from those of their corresponding soma- present in high density in the dendrites. These results show ta, and these differing properties are due to non-uniform dis- that a drug can affect excitability and AP firing regionally with- tributions and kinetics of voltage-gated channels. For example, in a neuron, and provide evidence that Ih is centrally involved in hippocampal ...
Abstract: A number of previous studies have looked at the effect of financial crises on actual output several years beyond the crisis. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the growth of potential output also is affected by recessions, whether or not they include financial crises. Trend per capita output growth is calculated using HP filters, and average growth is compared for the two years preceding a recession, the two years immediately following a recession peak, and the two years after that. Panel regressions are run to determine whether characteristics of recessions, including depth, length, extent to which they are synchronized across countries, and whether or not they include a financial crisis, can explain the cumulative four-year loss in the level of potential output following an output peak preceding a recession. The main result is that the depth of a recession has a significant effect on the loss of potential for advanced countries, while the length is important for emerging ...
The probability of synaptic transmitter release determines the spread of excitation and the possible range of computations at unitary connections. To investigate whether synaptic properties between neocortical pyramidal neurons change during the assembly period of cortical circuits, whole-cell volta …
Norepinephrine (NE) causes an increase in the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro. The possibility that this increase in tonic inhibition is caused by an excitatory effect on inhibitory interneurons was investigated through whole-cell recordings from pyramidal cells and both whole-cell and cell-attached patch recordings from visualized interneurons in acute slices of rat hippocampus. Adrenergic agonists caused a large increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs recorded from pyramidal cells in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor blockers, but they had no effect on either the frequency or the amplitude of action potential-independent miniature IPSCs recorded in tetrodotoxin. This effect was mediated primarily by an alpha adrenoceptor, although a slight beta adrenoceptor-dependent increase in IPSCs was also observed. NE caused interneurons located in all strata to depolarize and begin firing action potentials. Many of these ...
Like so many of Washingtons most influential and successful wine personalities, Bob Betz is a veteran of Ste Michelle, for whom he directed promotion and educational outreach, in the process earning an M.W. Betz and his wife, Cathy, commenced their own operation in 1997, committed to blending across a range of the states best vineyards, and they built an attendant facility in 2005. Since 2005, he noted as we toured historic Red Willow Vineyard with its owner-manager Mike Sauer, things are pretty constant - same rows, same blocks not only from Red Willow but from the other growers with whom Betz works. Betz exudes self-consciousness and meticulousness, and in traveling around viticultural Washington, one quickly realizes that his advice is eagerly sought by and generously accorded colleagues of all ages and levels of experience. In April of last year, the Washington wine world was shocked by the news that the Betzes had sold their winery to South Africans Steve and Bridgit Griessel, whose ...
Characterization of synaptic connectivity is essential to understanding neural circuit dynamics. For extracellularly recorded spike trains, indirect evidence for connectivity can be inferred from short-latency peaks in the correlogram between two neurons. Despite their predominance in cortex, however, significant interactions between excitatory neurons (E) have been hard to detect because of their intrinsic weakness. By taking advantage of long duration recordings, up to 25 h, from rat prefrontal cortex, we found that 7.6% of the recorded pyramidal neurons are connected. This corresponds to 70% of the local E-E connection probability that has been reported by paired intracellular recordings(11.6%). This value is significantly higher than previous reports from extracellular recordings, but still a substantial underestimate. Our analysis showed that long recording times and strict significance thresholds are necessary to detect weak connections while avoiding false-positive results, but will ...
Aliev G, Liu J, Shenk JC, Fischbach K, Pacheco GJ, Chen SG, Obrenovich ME, Ward WF, Richardson AG, Smith MA, Gasimov E, Perry G, Ames BN. 2009. Neuronal mitochondrial amelioration by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats. J Cell Mol Med 13: 320-333 ...
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K A selectivity originates from its fast activation and slow inactivation. Activation of KA by synchronized versus semi-synchronized input. The continuous black lines represent synchronous input (100%), the gray lines semi-synchronous input (70%). The dashed lines represent values of KA steady-state activation and inactivation at the membrane potentials dictated in A. A: Membrane potential in the soma. B: Current through KA at input site. Note the difference in current around 4 ms. C: Inactivation of KA at input site. The interval 2-10 ms shows that the effect seen in B originates from the dynamical aspects of KA. D: Activation of KAat input site. Note activation around time of input 2-10 ms. ...
Tissue and organ function has been conventionally understood in terms of the interactions among discrete and homogeneous cell types. This approach has proven difficult in neuroscience due to the marked diversity across different neuron classes, but it may be further hampered by prominent within-class variability. Here, we considered a well-defined canonical neuronal population-hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs)-and systematically examined the extent and spatial rules of transcriptional heterogeneity. Using next-generation RNA sequencing, we identified striking variability in CA1 PCs, such that the differences within CA1 along the dorsal-ventral axis rivaled differences across distinct pyramidal neuron classes. This variability emerged from a spectrum of continuous gene-expression gradients, producing a transcriptional profile consistent with a multifarious continuum of cells. This work reveals an unexpected amount of variability within a canonical and narrowly defined neuronal population ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural representation of spatial topology in the rodent hippocampus. AU - Chen, Zhe. AU - Gomperts, Stephen N.. AU - Yamamoto, Jun. AU - Wilson, Matthew A.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Pyramidal cells in the rodent hippocampus often exhibit clear spatial tuning in navigation. Although it has been long suggested that pyramidal cell activity may underlie a topological code rather than a topographic code, it remains unclear whether an abstract spatial topology can be encoded in the ensemble spiking activity of hippocampal place cells. Using a statistical approach developed previously, we investigate this question and related issues in greater detail.We recorded ensembles of hippocampal neurons as rodents freely foraged in one- and two-dimensional spatial environments and used a decode-to-uncover strategy to examine the temporally structured patterns embedded in the ensemble spiking activity in the absence of observed spatial correlates during periods of rodent navigation or awake ...
Introduction: Many studies have shown that amygdala kindling produces synaptic potentiation by induction of changes in the neuronal electrophysiological properties and inward currents both in epileptic focus and in the areas which are in connection with the epileptic focus and have important role in seizure development and progression such as ...
van den Burg, E.H., Engelmann, J., Bacelo, J., Gómez, L., Grant, K.: Etomidate reduces initiation of backpropagating dendritic action potentials: implications for sensory processing and synaptic plasticity during anesthesia. Journal of neurophysiology. 97, 2373-2384 (2007 ...
van den Burg, E. H., Engelmann, J., Bacelo, J., Gómez, L., & Grant, K. (2007). Etomidate reduces initiation of backpropagating dendritic action potentials: implications for sensory processing and synaptic plasticity during anesthesia. Journal of neurophysiology, 97(3), 2373-2384. doi:10.1152/jn. ...
The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum
It has been suggested that hydrogen peroxide is involved in cascades of pathological events affecting neural cells. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether this molecule is able by itself to modify membrane properties of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. Intr …
Ong, W.-Y., Ling, S.-F., Chiueh, C.-C., Farooqui, A.A. (2005). Injury and recovery of pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampus after a single episode of oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular injection of ferrous ammonium citrate. Reproduction Nutrition Development 45 (5) : 647-662. [email protected] Repository. ...
Downloadable! Any meaningful analysis of cyclical developments, of medium term growth prospects or of the stance of fiscal and monetary policies are all predicated on either an implicit or explicit assumption concerning the rate of potential output growth. Given the importance of the concept, the measurement of potential output is the subject of contentious and sustained research interest. All the available methods have pros and cons and none can unequivocally be declared better than the alternatives in all cases. Thus, what matters is to have a method adapted to the problem under analysis, with well defined limits and, in international comparisons, one that deals identically with all countries. This is the approach adopted in the present paper where it is stated clearly that the objective is to produce an economics based, production function, method which can be used for operational EU policy surveillance purposes.
I have found a solution. Because I want to manipulate VLANs, I have to use a bridge. VLAN is working on OSI layer 2 and a bridge is the device that can handle layer 2 protocols. So first I added two VLAN interfaces to the physical interface eth1. Then added all interfaces eth0, vlan4 and vlan6 to the bridge. The rest is done by nftables.. IPv4 and IPv6 are defined on layer3 and have no different meaning on layer 2. So nftables can handle them just as packets with different marks, which is the protocol type in the IP header. Fortunately nftables can select them with ...
Another idea that I had not even begun to consider was that the size of mRNAs hanging around synapses might be a factor. They note that dendritically localized mRNAs can be longer than the average dendritic spine when laid out straight and suggest that too many of these might lead to a traffic jam, but mRNAs dont exist in a linearized form very often, so I think a more appropriate indicator might be volume. Lets see. The average spine head diameter in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells is 0.4 microns. If we pretend a spine head is a sphere or hemi-sphere we get volumes of either 0.03 or 0.015 microns^3. Schuman et al. provide a length for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) RNA of 3.17 microns. What is the diameter of a RNA molecule? Lets pretend it is smaller at least than a DNA helix which is about 2.5 nm and that we can approximate the volume as a cylinder: 1.55E-5 microns^3. So, conservatively, I can fit a little less than a thousand of the largest mRNA molecule in an average dendritic ...
To examine this further, we subtracted the membrane potential in the soma from the membrane potential simultaneously recorded in the axon. Shown here is a plot of membrane potential difference between the axon initial segment and the soma in a layer 5 pyramidal cell during injection of noise into the soma. Note that
Alexander Betz Alex joined the PNAC Division in 1997 as a Programme Leader Track, before becoming a Programme Leader in 2008. He left the LMB in September
Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web ...
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NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Cerebellar Purkinje cell Last post by tom_morse « Fri May 27, 2005 6:03 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Model 3808 cant use Create Your Own\Single Cell Last post by ted « Sat Sep 28, 2019 9:23 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Model 3808 cant use Create Your Own\Single Cell Last post by ted « Sat Sep 28, 2019 9:23 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Cerebellar Purkinje cell Last post by tom_morse « Fri May 27, 2005 6:03 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
Im trying to pass an astrocytes Ca2+ concentration (which is modeled by RxD) to the neighboring pyramidal cells and ... Is this supported? Id like to pass calcium ion concentration info of astrocytes to neighboring pyramidal cells. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Cerebellar Purkinje cell Last post by tom_morse « Fri May 27, 2005 6:03 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Model 3808 cant use Create Your Own\Single Cell Last post by ted « Sat Sep 28, 2019 9:23 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
NEURON implementation of Compte et al 2003 pyramidal cell Last post by rth « Thu Feb 09, 2017 9:57 pm. ... Model 3808 cant use Create Your Own\Single Cell Last post by ted « Sat Sep 28, 2019 9:23 pm. ... e_pas in Poirazi2003 CA1 pyr cell model Last post by ted « Wed Jul 17, 2019 10:16 am. ... No capacitance in cortical cells from Bazhenov (2002) Last post by pascal « Tue Sep 25, 2018 4:29 pm. ...
Im trying to pass an astrocytes Ca2+ concentration (which is modeled by RxD) to the neighboring pyramidal cells and ... Is this supported? Id like to pass calcium ion concentration info of astrocytes to neighboring pyramidal cells. ...
  • Neural circuits in the cerebral cortex consist primarily of excitatory pyramidal (Pyr) cells and inhibitory interneurons. (
  • These subtypes of interneurons are reported to play distinct roles in tuning and/or gain of visual response of pyramidal cells in the visual cortex. (
  • To understand mechanisms underlying the different functional roles of these interneurons in cortical circuits, the quantitative information on functional connectivity with target Pyr cells is crucial. (
  • The activation/inactivation of single PV neurons modified visual responses of postsynaptic Pyr cells in 6 of the 7 pairs whereas that of single SOM neurons did not induce such a modification in 8 of the 11 pairs, suggesting that the operation mode of the two major subtypes of interneurons is different. (
  • Initially we analyzed inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) of Pyr cells evoked by action potentials of presynaptic PV or SOM neurons in vivo in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex of mice in which each subtype of interneurons expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). (
  • To activate single PV or SOM neurons we injected depolarizing currents into target interneurons through recording electrodes so as to generate action potentials which induced unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) in postsynaptic Pyr cells. (
  • In addition, in NCAM-null mice, the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal cells increased, whereas the intrinsic excitability of GABAergic interneurons did not change. (
  • Regarding network development, a connectivity preference for cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons to target calbindin-expressing principal cells is diminished. (
  • GluR5 kainate receptor activation in interneurons increases tonic inhibition of pyramidal cells. (
  • Electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents generates kainate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and action potentials in identified interneurons that project to the dendrites and somata of pyramidal neurons. (
  • Interneuron gap junctions enhance synchrony of γ oscillations (25-70 Hz) in isolated interneuron networks and also in networks containing both interneurons and principal cells, as shown in mice with a knockout of the neuronal (primarily interneuronal) connexin36. (
  • Our data demonstrate that the decrease in the number of GAD mRNA-containing neurons in the stratum oriens of CA1 in pilocarpine-treated rats involved two subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons: interneurons labeled for somatostatin only (O-LM and bistratified cells) and interneurons labeled for parvalbumin only (basket and axo-axonic cells). (
  • These results indicate that the loss of somatostatin-containing neurons corresponds preferentially to the degeneration of interneurons with an axon projecting to stratum lacunosum-moleculare (O-LM cells) and suggest that the death of these neurons is mainly responsible for the deficit of dendritic inhibition reported in this region. (
  • We detected selective increases in phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in interneurons, indicating cell-specific-upregulated mTORC1 signaling. (
  • Our results indicate that Tsc1 haploinsufficiency in MGE-derived inhibitory cells upregulates mTORC1 activity in these interneurons, reduces their synaptic inhibition of pyramidal cells, and alters contextual fear discrimination and spatial working memory. (
  • identify, validate, and quantify monosynaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons, using the spike timing of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in vivo. (
  • Post-hoc differentiation of pyramidal "complex spike" cells (see top image below) and interneurons (see bottom image below) is facilitated in part by evaluation of auto-correlograms (far left panel), which show distinct patterns of activity, with pyramidal cells showing "complex spikes" characterized by bursts of action potentials immediately following the refractory period. (
  • Pyramidal cells are further differentiated from interneurons by the mean firing rates of the cell and the trough to peak width of their waveforms. (
  • Note that the pyramidal cells also have distinct place fields (far right panel) while the interneurons do not. (
  • Networks of hippocampal interneurons, with pyramidal neurons pharmacologically disconnected, can generate gamma-frequency (20 Hz and above) oscillations. (
  • Here we use network simulations to investigate how pyramidal cells, connected to the interneurons and to each other through AMPA-type and/or NMDA-type glutamate receptors, might modify the interneuron network oscillation. (
  • With or without AMPA-receptor mediated excitation of the interneurons, the pyramidal cells and interneurons fired in phase during the gamma oscillation. (
  • Synaptic excitation of the interneurons by pyramidal cells caused them to fire spike doublets or short bursts at gamma frequencies, thereby slowing the population rhythm. (
  • We show that putative principal cells recorded in vivo from the human MTL are more selective than putative interneurons. (
  • [22] , [23] observed slow oscillation-associated firing modulations in both hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons in urethane-anesthetized mice, whereas Isomura et al. (
  • In the current study, the Poulet lab shows that pyramidal cells generate single signals that activate PV interneurons. (
  • Large variability in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor density on interneurons and a comparison with pyramidal-cell spines in the rat hippocampus. (
  • Pyramidal cells receive input from several types of GABA-releasing interneurons and innervate them reciprocally. (
  • On average, the synaptic AMPA receptor content is several times higher on interneurons than in the spines of pyramidal cells. (
  • These results show that synaptic NMDA receptor density differs between pyramidal cells and interneurons. (
  • Some interneurons may have a high NMDA receptor content, whereas others, like some parvalbumin-expressing cells, a particularly low synaptic NMDA receptor content. (
  • Consequently, fast glutamatergic activation of interneurons is expected to show cell type-specific time course and state-dependent dynamics. (
  • Pyramidal cells, or pyramidal neurons, are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. (
  • Pyramidal neuron visualized by green fluorescent protein (gfp) A hippocampal pyramidal cell One of the main structural features of the pyramidal neuron is the conic shaped soma, or cell body, after which the neuron is named. (
  • A human neocortical pyramidal neuron stained via Golgi technique . (
  • A pyramidal cell (or pyramidal neuron , or projection neuron ) is a multipolar neuron located in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex . (
  • This lends weight to the notion that cells in the ventricular zone comprise a heterogeneous population, and that lineage contributes substantially to the phenotype of a neuron. (
  • A-B. Confocal images of CA1 hippocampal region double labeled with NeuN (red) and phospho-S6 (green) show a moderate increase in phospho-S6 expression in pyramidal neuron cell bodies and a marked phospho-S6 upregulation in the dendrites (arrows) in the post-HS group (B, B1), relative to controls (A, A1). (
  • basket cell a neuron of the cerebral cortex whose fibers form a basket-like nest in which a Purkinje cell rests. (
  • By means of intracellular recording and staining of single cells in the cat striate cortex in vivo, a biophysically distinct class of pyramidal neuron termed "chattering cells" is described. (
  • The one-off signal from the PYR cell caused the PV neuron to fire - an amazingly efficient response. (
  • A somatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (
  • Pyramidal cells in rats have been shown to undergo many rapid changes during early postnatal life. (
  • Removal of circulating gonadal steroids by ovariectomy of adult female rats resulted in a profound decrease in dendritic spine density in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. (
  • We have studied the morphology of the basal dendritic arbor of cortical pyramidal neurons in addiction-resistant Fischer 344 strain rats that self-administered morphine. (
  • Morphine self-administration did not produce significant changes in the structure of the dendritic arbors or in the spine density of pyramidal neurons in either the prelimbic or motor cortex of F344 rats. (
  • However, when the structure of these cortical pyramidal cells from Fischer 344 rats was compared with that previously reported in addiction-prone Lewis rats in the same cortical areas, significant morphological differences were found between both strains. (
  • We suggest that strain differences in the structure of pyramidal cells in certain cortical areas might represent an anatomical substrate for the distinct vulnerability to the reinforcing effects of morphine exhibited by Fischer 344 and Lewis rats in operant self-administration paradigms. (
  • The effects of neonatal undernutrition on dendritic arbor density, perikaryon measurements, and the number of spines (detected by rapid-Golgi) of basilar dendritic segments in layer III pyramidal neurons of the dlPFC were examined in male Wistar rats on postnatal (PDs) 12, 20, and 30. (
  • Thus, the alterations of the dlPFC pyramidal neurons may interfere with the plastic synaptic activity and cognitive performance of rats subjected to the stress of early underfeeding. (
  • This study analyses the effect of aminoguanidine intervention on hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrite morphological change and spinophilin expression of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, so as to explore its cerebral protection mechanism. (
  • The pyramidal cell density of CA1 hippocampal subfield following STZ-induced diabetes in young rats were studied. (
  • Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) were present in 42% of the CA1 pyramidal cells from controls and 62% from kainate-treated rats. (
  • The kainate-treated rats with pyramidal cells that responded to photostimulaltion with repetitive EPSCs appeared to have experienced more severe seizures. (
  • Shao, LR & Dudek, FE 2004, ' Increased excitatory synaptic activity and local connectivity of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy ', Journal of neurophysiology , vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 1366-1373. (
  • In an effort to determine if sex differences exist in the morphologic characteristics of pyramidal cells and granule cells of the hippocampal formation and whether sex plays a role in determining thyroid hormone sensitivity of these neuronal populations, we used single-section Golgi impregnation to examine the effects of neonatal thyroid hormone administration on hippocampal cells from the brains of adult rats of both sexes. (
  • Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus in adult rats leads to delayed, selective death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3. (
  • 1 We investigated the types and distribution of voltage-gated K + channels in the soma and apical dendrite of layer 5 (L5) neocortical pyramidal neurones, of young rats (postnatal days 13-15), in acute brain slices. (
  • In order to establish whether more than one population of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurone exist in the hippocampus, we have performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from interneurones located in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 region of developing rats. (
  • Hippocampal pyramidal cells form glutamatergic synapses on dendritic spine heads. (
  • We aimed to test the hypothesis that purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from a VGKC-Ab LE serum would excite hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells by reducing VGKC function at mossy-fiber (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. (
  • This suggests that the LE IgG increased the release probability on MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses compared to the control IgG. (
  • This is the first functional demonstration that LE IgGs reduce VGKC function at CNS synapses and increase cell excitability. (
  • 1. The pharmacological and biophysical properties of excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were studied using patch electrodes and whole-cell recording from thin slices. (
  • Given the known anatomical distribution of inhibitory synapses, our data suggest that the collective inhibitory input to a pyramidal cell is sufficient to control Ca(2+) levels across the entire dendritic arbor with micrometer and millisecond precision. (
  • A role for silent synapses in the development of the pathway from layer 2/3 to 5 pyramidal cells in the neocortex. (
  • Dr Katalin Toth investigates the mechanisms governing synaptic short-term plasticity at mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses using a combination of state-of-the-art electrophysiological and imaging techniques. (
  • In mouse hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral fiber synapses onto CA1 pyramidal cells could be induced by brief trains of 5-Hz synaptic stimulation (30 s) or by longer trains of 5-Hz stimulation (3 min) delivered during β-adrenergic receptor activation. (
  • In contrast, 5-Hz stimulation, either alone or in the presence of the β- adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, failed to induce LTP at associational-commissural (assoc-com) fiber synapses onto CA3 pyramidal cells. (
  • Our results suggest that although CA3 pyramidal cells give rise to both the Schaffer collateral fiber synapses in CA1 and the assoc-com fiber synapses in CA3, the induction of LTP at these synapses may be regulated by different activity- and modulatory neurotransmitter-dependent processes. (
  • Cholinergic varicosities often made direct contact to pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses. (
  • To compare the NMDA receptor content of synapses, we used a quantitative postembedding immunogold technique on serial electron microscopic sections, and analysed the synapses on interneuron dendrites and pyramidal cell spines in the CA1 area. (
  • radiatum, including the proximal synapses of somatostatin-positive cells, whereas others had immunoreactivity for the NR1 subunit similar to or higher than synapses on pyramidal cell spines. (
  • This study has shown that the density of dendritic spines and synapses on the spiny branchlets of CA1 pyramidal cells in the upper stratum radiatum was preserved following a single ethanol exposure on postnatal day six, but that the overall length of the dendrite tree was increased. (
  • This is thought to be an attempt to compensate for CA1 pyramidal cell loss with reduced plasticity of the existing dendrite and suggests that instead the total number of spines and synapses per CA1 cell may have been altered. (
  • IPSPs can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. (
  • Transcription factors such as Ctip2 and Sox5 have been shown to contribute to the direction in which pyramidal neurons direct their axons. (
  • Mossy cell dendritic trees and axon collaterals ramified in different regions of the hippocampus than dendrites and axons of CA3c pyramidal cells. (
  • Electrical coupling between pyramidal cell axons, and between interneuron dendrites, have both been described in the hippocampus. (
  • amacrine cell any of five types of retinal neurons that seem to lack large axons, having only processes that resemble dendrites. (
  • Second messenger modulation of electrotonic coupling between region CA3 pyramidal cell axons in the rat hippocampus. (
  • Gap junction coupling between hippocampal cell axons has been implicated in high frequency oscillations. (
  • We used antidromic activation of region CA3 from the fimbria to test the hypothesis that, if gap junctions exist between CA3 pyramidal cell axons, they should cause cross-talk between cells. (
  • Our studies support the existence of gap junction coupling between CA3 pyramidal cell axons in the fimbria that can be acutely modulated by 2nd messengers. (
  • 506, 755-773], have axons that ramify almost exclusively in strata radiatum and oriens, overlapping with the Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway originating from CA3 pyramidal cells. (
  • The axons from CA3 pyramidal neurons are an important input to the CA1 cells and it is likely that the synaptic complement of the CA1 apical dendritic tree will be altered to accommodate this imbalance. (
  • Pyramidal neurons compose approximately 80% of the neurons of the cortex, and release glutamate as their neurotransmitter , making them the major excitatory component of the cortex (see synapse ). (
  • Excitatory synaptic potentials dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in guinea-pig hippocampal pyramidal cells. (
  • To examine the latter we used laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) of caged glutamate in conjunction with whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to probe the integration of pyramidal cells in the sensorimotor regions of the mouse neocortex. (
  • Whole cell recordings were obtained during focal flash photolysis of caged glutamate, which served as a focal excitant to activate local pyramidal cells and to study possible connections between neurons. (
  • Flash photolysis of caged glutamate on the somatodendritic area of CA1 pyramidal neurons caused a burst of action potentials. (
  • Photoactivation of glutamate on recorded CA1 pyramidal cells in the kainate group sometimes caused afterdischarges, but not in controls. (
  • Status epilepticus decreases glutamate receptor 2 mRNA and protein expression in hippocampal pyramidal cells before neuronal death. (
  • Human limbic encephalitis serum enhances hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission. (
  • We examined the changes in mTORC1 activity and synaptic transmission in hippocampal cells, as well as hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. (
  • Tsc1 f/wt mice showed intact basic membrane properties, as well as miniature excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, in pyramidal and Nkx2.1-expressing inhibitory cells. (
  • These findings suggest that pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex have separate lineages and are derived from different progenitor cells in the ventricular zone. (
  • Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are formed during development in an inside-out manner, by which deep layer (DL) neurons are generated first, and upper layer (UL) neurons are generated last. (
  • Pyramidal neurones of layer 5 in the neocortex are primary output cells of the cortex ( White, 1989 ). (
  • Where do we find pyramidal cells in neocortex? (
  • What are the smaller cells of the neocortex? (
  • Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in pyramidal cell dendrites are activated by subthreshold EPSPs and by back-propagating action potentials. (
  • The extent of back-propagation of action potentials within pyramidal dendrites depends upon the K+ channels. (
  • K+ channels in pyramidal cell dendrites provide a mechanism for controlling the amplitude of action potentials. (
  • Mossy cells had significantly higher input resistances, smaller amplitude burst afterhyperpolarizations, smaller amplitude action potentials, less spike-frequency adaptation, and more anomalous rectification than CA3c pyramidal cells. (
  • Schiller J, Schiller Y, Stuart G, Sakmann B: Calcium action potentials restricted to distal apical dendrites of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. (
  • The signal produced by the PV cell - after stimulation by the PYR cell - was passed on to target nerve cells and prevented them from generating action potentials of their own," Poulet says. (
  • M1 was highly expressed in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons, whereas it was low or undetectable in various GABAergic interneuron subtypes. (
  • The increase in inhibitory tone onto pyramidal cells, and the increased pyramidal cell excitability in NCAM-null mice will alter the delicate coordination of excitation and inhibition (E/I coordination) in the ACC, and may be a factor contributing to circuit dysfunction in diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, in which NCAM has been implicated. (
  • suggests that pyramidal cells can adjust their sensitivity to different temporal patterns of inhibition and excitation by modulating the kinetics of I(KIF). (
  • This results in a massive increase of tonic GABAergic inhibition in the somata and apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. (
  • We simulated the behavior of pyramidal cells stimulated by oscillatory inhibition at the tuft and noisy excitatory inputs at the basal dendrite and tuft. (
  • Second, we examined the synchronization of a population of pyramidal cells downstream to oscillatory inhibition with frequencies in the beta range. (
  • Both mechanisms have in common that they dominate the behavior of the pyramidal cell only when oscillatory inhibition is in the lower frequency range (2-20 Hz). (
  • Taken together, the results show that FAC and BAC firing can be used in conjunction with oscillatory inhibition to produce synchronized burst firing in pyramidal cells. (
  • We demonstrate that the loss of parvalbumin-containing neurons corresponds to the death of axo-axonic cells, suggesting that perisomatic inhibition and mechanisms controlling action potential generation are also impaired in this model. (
  • Tsc1 f/wt mice, we found a decrease in synaptic inhibition of pyramidal cells. (
  • Thus, selective dysregulation of mTORC1 function in Nkx2.1-expressing inhibitory cells appears sufficient to impair synaptic inhibition and contributes to cognitive deficits in the Tsc1 mouse model of TSC. (
  • Recordings of spontaneous and evoked PSPs suggest that mossy cells receive more excitatory input and less inhibitory input than CA3c pyramidal cells. (
  • We compared the effects of LE and healthy control IgG by whole-cell patch-clamp and extracellular recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal acute slices. (
  • Using paired recordings of retrogradely labeled cells, we investigated the synaptic connectivity between two projection cell types: those projecting to the pons [corticopontine (CPn) cell], often with collaterals to the striatum, and those projecting to both sides of the striatum but not to the pons [crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cell]. (
  • Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings obtained from CA3 pyramidal cells in organotypic slice cultures revealed that under conditions of low intracellular calcium buffering application of muscarine-depressed NMDA receptor current. (
  • In vivo electrophysiological recordings have been used to study neuronal activity and hippocampal dependent learning and memory function since the Nobel Prize winning discovery of " Place Cells " by O'Keefe and Dostrovsky in 1971 . (
  • This activity pattern can be visualized in the video below of the Dancing Place Cells which was made from actual data recordings of hippocampal place cells. (
  • 4 In somatic cell-attached recordings, three classes of single K + channels could be differentiated based on their unitary conductance and inactivation kinetics, a fast inactivating channel having a conductance of 13 ± 1 pS, a slow inactivating channel having a conductance of 9.5 ± 0.5 pS, and a very slowly inactivating channel having a conductance of 16 ± 1 pS. (
  • With multineuron patch-clamp recordings, Le Bé and Markram [12] recently demonstrated that synaptic connectivity between pyramidal cells in rat neocortical slices displays spontaneous rewiring during a period of hours. (
  • Here, we measured kinetics of somatic Na+ channels using high temporal resolution (5-10 kHz, −3dB, low pass four-pole Bessel filter) cell-attached recordings from layer 5 pyramidal neurons in neocortical slices. (
  • Whole-cell recordings are an advanced method that can be performed in living mice that have been genetically modified," says Jean-Sebastian Jouanneau, a postdoc in Poulet's lab and a lead author on the paper. (
  • Surprisingly, in vivo recordings from ELL pyramidal cells (Fig. 1B ) do not show any of the characteristics associated with bursting found in vitro [ 3 ]. (
  • The resulting removal of intracellular Ca 2+ changed the cell bursting pattern to one characteristic of in vitro recordings. (
  • Other key structural features of the pyramidal cell are a single axon, a large apical dendrite, multiple basal dendrites, and the presence of dendritic spines. (
  • Dendritic spines receive most of the excitatory impulses (EPSPs) that enter a pyramidal cell. (
  • Mossy cells had larger soma areas than CA3c pyramidal cells, and they had more large complex spines (thorny excrescences) on their proximal dendrites and somata than CA3c pyramidal cells. (
  • The data reveal markedly different trends between rodents and primates: there is an appreciable increase in the size, branching complexity, and number of spines in the dendritic trees of pyramidal cells with increasing size of V1 in the brain in rodents, whereas there is relatively little difference in primates. (
  • For example, the dendritic trees of pyramidal cells in V1 of the adult cane rat are nearly three times larger, and have more than 10 times the number of spines in their basal dendritic trees, than those in V1 of the adult macaque (7900 and 600, respectively), which has a V1 40 times the size that of the cane rat. (
  • Quantitative analyses of control brains revealed sex differences in the number of primary dendrites and the number of spines on the apical dendritic shaft of CA3 pyramidal cells. (
  • Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is associated with a lower density of dendritic spines on deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (
  • M1 was preferentially distributed on the extrasynaptic membrane of pyramidal cell dendrites and spines. (
  • Four populations of synapse were examined: i). on spines of pyramidal cells in stratum (str. (
  • The median density of NR1 subunit labelling was highest on pyramidal cell spines. (
  • and double bouquet cells, which innervate distal dendrites and dendritic spines. (
  • Typical human pyramidal cell bodies range from 10 to 50 micrometers. (
  • The Human Pyramidal Cell in the CA3 region of the Hippocampus-How many connections? (
  • For single pyramidal cells FACs predominantly occur when the tuft receives stronger excitation than the basal dendrites, while BACs occur predominantly when the tuft and basal dendrites are excited equally strong. (
  • The quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of dendrites demonstrated that the stratum oriens and stratum radiatum contained significant portions of the pyramidal cell dendritic trees. (
  • The amount of dendritic length in stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA3 varied depending on the location of the cell. (
  • Many CA3 cells located within the limbs of the dentate gyrus, for example, had no dendrites extending into stratum lacunosum-moleculare whereas those located distally in CA3 had about the same percentage of their dendritic tree in stratum lacunosum-moleculare as in stratum radiatum. (
  • basal cell an early keratinocyte, present in the stratum basale of the epidermis. (
  • Many degenerating cell bodies in the stratum oriens and degenerating axon terminals in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare were observed at 1 and 2 weeks after injection. (
  • Cholecystokinin-positive basket cells (53%) preferentially innervate stratum pyramidale and adjacent strata oriens and radiatum. (
  • Soma position and orientation in stratum radiatum, the number and orientation of dendrites, and the passive and active membrane properties of the two cell populations are only slightly different. (
  • In addition, in stratum radiatum and its border with lacunosum of perfusion-fixed hippocampi, 31.6 ± 3.8% (adult) or 26.8 ± 2.9% (postnatal day 17-20) of cholecystokinin-positive cells were also immunoreactive for calbindin. (
  • Oscillations induced in CA1 in vitro by tetanic stimulation of the stratum radiatum or oriens were analysed using intracellular and multichannel field potentials along the cell axis. (
  • Additionally, CCS cells preferentially innervated the basal dendrites of other CCS cells but made contacts onto both the basal and apical dendrites of CPn cells. (
  • they also occurred along apical dendrites and axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. (
  • Phospho-S6 (Ser235/236) expression is highly upregulated in the cell bodies and dendrites of hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal neurons at 24 h following neonatal seizures. (
  • Ovariectomy or gonadal steroid replacement did not affect spine density of CA3 pyramidal cells or granule cells of the dentate gyrus. (
  • No significant sex differences or thyroid hormone effects were observed for granule cells of the dentate gyrus. (
  • GluR2 immunolabeling is unchanged in granule cells of the dentate gyrus, which are resistant to seizure-induced death. (
  • The CA2 field contained cells which resembled CA3 pyramidal cells in most respects except for the absence of thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites. (
  • By applying this newly developed two-photon microscope to in vivo imaging, we were able to successfully visualize hippocampal neurons in dentate gyrus and panoramic views of CA1 pyramidal neurons and cerebral cortex, in both young adult and adult mice. (
  • Neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are commonly subdivided into two broad classes: pyramidal and nonpyramidal. (
  • To determine whether the two neuronal classes in the cerebral cortex are derived from the same or separate progenitor cells, we used a recombinant retrovirus containing the reporter gene E-coli beta-galactosidase as a lineage marker. (
  • Through such approach, it can improve chronic cerebral ischemia anoxic condition and the damage process of hippocampal pyramidal dendrite and dendrite spine, maintain normal transmission of synapse, so as to exert brain protection effect and improve cognitive disorder caused by chronic cerebral ischemia. (
  • The division of the postsynaptic neuronal surface by two classes of GABAergic cell expressing cholecystokinin in both the hippocampus and isocortex provides further evidence for the uniform synaptic organisation of the cerebral cortex. (
  • Due to branching, the total dendritic length of a pyramidal cell may reach several centimeters. (
  • The total dendritic length, dendritic length in each of the hippocampal laminae, and the number of dendritic branches were measured in 20 CA1 pyramidal cells, 7 neurons in CA2 and 20 CA3 pyramidal cells. (
  • The total dendritic length of CA3 pyramidal cells varied in a consistent fashion depending on their position within the field. (
  • Pyramidal neurons throughout the transverse extent of CA1 had a total dendritic length on the order of 13,500 μm. (
  • The short time course required to observe these effects (3 d for the estradiol effect and 5 hr for the progesterone effect) implies that CA1 pyramidal cell dendritic spine density may fluctuate during the normal (4-5 d) rat estrous cycle. (
  • Pyramidal cells are characterized by markedly different sized dendritic trees, branching patterns, and spine density across the cortical mantle. (
  • Quantification of pyramidal cells in rodents has also revealed regional specialization in the size, branching structure, and spine density of their dendritic trees. (
  • Anomalies of asymmetry of pyramidal cell density and structure in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. (
  • 7 The results suggest that the decrease of the voltage-gated K + channel density from the soma along the apical dendrite of L5 pyramidal neurones helps to define a distal, low threshold region for the initiation of dendritic regenerative potentials. (
  • Here we studied layer III pyramidal cells in V1 of three species of rodents, the greater cane rat, highveld gerbil, and four-striped mouse, by the same methodology used to sample data from layer III pyramidal cells in primates. (
  • Here we quantified layer III pyramidal cell structure in V1 of the greater cane rat, the bushveld gerbil and the four-striped mouse and compared them with previously published data sampled from the baboon, macaque monkey, vervet monkey, owl monkey, marmoset, galago, and tree shrew. (
  • It is not known if the GABAergic terminals of double bouquet cells are co-aligned with specific glutamatergic inputs. (
  • However, in the hippocampal CA1 area, it is clear that the terminals of Schaffer collateral-associated cells are co-stratified with the glutamatergic input from the CA3 area, with as yet unknown functional consequences. (
  • One of the striking differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions is the absence of glutamatergic input to the cells in vitro which might provide the major source of Ca 2+ to the cell via NMDA receptors. (
  • Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. (
  • Moreover, pyramidal cell morphology did not differ in these two cortical areas in saline self-administered animals. (
  • The role of guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the generation of the outward current during transient oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was investigated in CA3 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures using the single-electrode voltage-clamp technique with KMeSO4-filled microelectrodes. (
  • individual GABAergic contacts on hippocampal pyramidal cell dendrites. (
  • The possible functions of GABAergic axoaxonic cells are discussed, including the ideas that they may be involved in controlling the output of pyramidal neurons in superficial layers not only to contralateral cortical areas but also to deeper layers of the ipsilateral cortex, and that they may be involved in imposing a functionally significant spatial pattern on groups of pyramidal neurons. (
  • However, at least eight distinct GABAergic interneurone types terminate in the dendritic domain of CA1 pyramidal cells, some of them with as yet undetermined neurochemical characteristics. (
  • This study tests whether cellular compartmentalization can explain how cells, despite severely reduced input resistance, can still fire briskly and have IPSPs superimposed on the slow GABAergic depolarization, and whether this behaviour occurs in vivo. (
  • Pyramidal neurons are also one of two cell types where the characteristic sign, Negri bodies, are found in post-mortem rabies infection. (
  • Both in humans and rodents, pyramidal cell bodies (somas) average around 20 μm in length. (
  • Their cell bodies can be as large as 100 micrometers in humans. (
  • Proximity of excitatory and inhibitory axon terminals adjacent to pyramidal cell bodies provides a putative basis for nonsynaptic interactions. (
  • Anichkov's cell a plump modified histiocyte in the inflammatory lesions of the heart (Aschoff bodies) characteristic of rheumatic fever. (
  • More than 90% of 142 boutons surrounding the cell bodies of 20 pyramidal neurons were immunoreactive for GAD. (
  • Whilst pyramidal cells have been quantified in a few cortical areas in some other species there are, as yet, no uniform comparative data on pyramidal cell structure in a homologous cortical area among species in different Orders. (
  • however, it remains to be determined to what extent pyramidal cells may differ among cortical areas in other non-primate mammalian species. (
  • Effects of transient oxygen-glucose deprivation on G-proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors in rat CA3 pyramidal cells in vitro. (
  • The three dimensional organization of the dendritic trees of pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus was investigated using intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase in the in vitro hippocampal slice preparation and computer-aided reconstruction. (
  • The sequential generation of cortical layers, which exists in vivo, has been partially recapitulated in vitro by differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (Gaspard et al. (
  • Our results show that the generated pyramidal neurons will express DL and UL laminar markers in vitro as they do in vivo and that the presence of FGF8 in induction media creates a proliferative effect, while FGF2 induces hESC to differentiate at a higher rate. (
  • Pyramidal cells within the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) of weakly electric fish have a well-defined burst mechanism in vitro (Fig. 1A ), which is based on a somato-dendritic interaction [ 2 ]. (
  • In our computational model, which is based on the in vitro ghost-burst model, Ca 2+ enters the cell through NMDA channels in the dendrites. (
  • Layer-specific pyramidal cell oscillations evoked by tetanic stimulation in the rat hippocampal area CA1 in vitro and in vivo. (
  • To investigate how NCAM deletion affects the spatial organization of inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells, we used laser scanning photostimulation in brain slices of VGAT-ChR2-EYFP transgenic mice crossed to either NCAM-null or wild type (WT) mice. (
  • Receptive field organization determines pyramidal cell stimulus-encoding capability and spatial stimulus selectivity. (
  • Muller, R. U. & Kubie, J. L. The effects of changes in the environment on the spatial firing of hippocampal complex-spike cells. (
  • Pyramidal cells with defined place fields in at least one environment are subsequently analyzed for drug-induced effects on firing rates, spatial correlations across environments, and spatial information content per spike. (
  • Pyramidal cells in the CA1 area of the rodent hippocampus PDGFD have localized receptive fields (RFs) that are tuned to the (measured) animals spatial location during navigation in one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) environments. (
  • Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. (
  • We examined postsynaptic responses evoked by mossy fiber activation, recorded in CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices prepared from zinc transporter 3 knockout and wild-type mice. (
  • The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. (
  • Findings from the present and prior studies converge on synergistic alterations in CDC42 signaling pathway that could destabilize actin dynamics and produce spine deficits preferentially in deep layer 3 pyramidal cells in schizophrenia. (
  • This study has investigated whether (-)deprenyl can prevent delayed neuronal death of hippocampal pyramidal cells. (
  • These results demonstrate that gonadal steroids are necessary for the maintenance of normal adult CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cell structure. (
  • The aim of this study is to describethe morphological alterations in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of adult hydrocephalic mice. (
  • Acute adult-onset hydrocephalus was associated with increased pyknosis and reduced dendritic arborization in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1 but not CA3 region. (
  • This was established unequivocally for an individual Golgi‐impregnated axoaxonic cell by combining Golgi impregnation and immunocytochemistry in the same sections: A Golgi‐impregnated axoaxonic cell whose cell body was in layer II gave rise to numerous terminal segments, some of which were examined in the electron microscope after gold‐toning. (
  • Overall, I(KIF) is a critical conductance controlling the excitability of DCN pyramidal cells. (
  • This reduction was associated with decreased Ca2+ influx during LTP induction, which was the consequence of a reduced excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons. (
  • These results suggest that M1 is so positioned to sense ambient ACh released from cholinergic varicosities at variable distances, and to enhance the synaptic efficacy and excitability of pyramidal cells. (
  • A larger proportion of mossy cells than CA3c pyramidal cells responded to perforant path stimulation with depolarizing postsynaptic potentials without any apparent hyperpolarization. (
  • Conversely, a smaller proportion of mossy cells than CA3c pyramidal cells responded to perforant path stimulation with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), and spontaneous IPSPs were more difficult to detect in mossy cells. (
  • These intrinsic and synaptic properties of mossy cells may explain this cell type's exceptional vulnerability to excitotoxic damage by intense afferent stimulation. (
  • Muscarinic receptor stimulation reduces NMDA responses in CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells via Ca2+-dependent activation of tyrosine phosphatase. (
  • The cisternal organelle that resides in the axon initial segment (AIS) of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells is thought to be involved in regulating the Ca(2+) available to maintain AIS scaffolding proteins, thereby preserving normal AIS structure and function. (
  • In addition, the synaptic coverage of the axon initial segment of CA1 pyramidal cells was significantly decreased in pilocarpine-treated animals. (
  • The dendritic morphologies of CCS cells were correlated with their somatic depth within the cortex. (
  • The somatic and dendritic features of Golgistained pyramidal neurons were examined by light microscopy in both hydrocephalic and control mice. (
  • When generating somatic daughter cells, karyokinesis uses a process called mitosis, which produces daughter cells with a full complement of chromosomes. (
  • Between postnatal days 3 and 21, pyramidal cells have been shown to double in the size of the soma, increase in length of the apical dendrite by fivefold, and increase in basal dendrite length by thirteenfold. (
  • Notice the apical dendrite extending vertically above the soma and the numerous basal dendrites radiating laterally from the base of the cell body. (
  • These cells have a triangularly shaped soma , or cell body, a single apical dendrite extending towards the pial surface, multiple basal dendrites , and a single axon . (
  • Alexander and Crutcher, 1990 ), knowledge of the patterns of synaptic connectivity between corticostriatal cells may suggest a physiological substrate for cortical influence on the basal ganglia circuitry. (
  • First, we investigated the occurrence and phase-locking of FAC and BAC firing in one cell as function of the ratio of excitatory basal and tuft inputs. (
  • basal granular cells APUD cells located at the base of the epithelium at many places in the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Following a series of investigations into the appearance of the basal dendritic skirt of pyramidal cells in the supragranular layers of the occipital cortex of the aged rat, we now extend our findings to the somatosensory cortex of these same animals. (
  • In mice, TMT induces a selective neuronal loss of dentate granule cells, astrocyte hypertrophy, and microglia activation. (

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