A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.

Delayed gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: effect of postoperative time and cisapride. (1/463)

OBJECTIVE: To study the recovery course of gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and therapeutic effects of cisapride. METHODS: To examine gastric emptying, acetaminophen was given, admixed in a pasty liquid meal, to 16 patients undergoing PPPD before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Cisapride was given orally to 10 patients before they received the acetaminophen regimen. Electrogastrography was performed at 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery in eight patients and at 6 to 12 months after surgery in seven patients. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed but returned to the preoperative level by 6 months after surgery. Pretreatment with cisapride accelerated gastric emptying during months 1 to 6 but not during months 6 to 12 after surgery. Electrogastrography frequently showed tachygastria 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery, but seldom 6 to 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: After Billroth I PPPD, gastric emptying is delayed but recovers by 6 months after surgery. Tachygastria may play a part in the pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying, but it can be treated with cisapride.  (+info)

Developmental changes in mucosubstances revealed by immunostaining with antimucus monoclonal antibodies and lectin staining in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum of the chick embryo. (2/463)

The mucosubstances in the epithelium lining the segment from gizzard to duodenum during development of the chick embryo was studied histochemically using monoclonal antibodies against gizzard mucus and lectins, with attention to the regional differentiation of the epithelium in this segment. The anterior limit of epithelial CdxA mRNA expression detected by in situ hybridisation, which served as the position of the gizzard-duodenal boundary, was clearly found from d 3. Granules positive for some antibodies or lectins were found in the region ranging from the posterior part of the gizzard to the duodenum at d 3, which was followed by an increase in the number of granules and a gradual enlargement of the granule-positive area to the anterior part of the gizzard over 4-6 d. From d 4, the epithelia of the gizzard body and of the pyloric or duodenal region came to be differently stained with some antibodies or lectins. From d 10, each region showed a specific pattern of staining. The epithelia of the gizzard body and pyloric region contained abundant mucus granules with a different staining pattern. In the duodenum the number of stained granules was low except in occasional goblet cells. Thus the epithelia of the gizzard body, pyloric region and duodenum may produce different mucosubstances and the regional differentiation in these epithelia may start at rather early stages soon after the formation of digestive tube.  (+info)

Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats. (3/463)

Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer.  (+info)

Effects of duodenal distension on antropyloroduodenal pressures and perception are modified by hyperglycemia. (4/463)

Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 15 mmol/l) affects gastrointestinal motor function and modulates the perception of gastrointestinal sensations. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of mild hyperglycemia on the perception of, and motor responses to, duodenal distension. Paired studies were done in nine healthy volunteers, during euglycemia ( approximately 4 mmol/l) and mild hyperglycemia ( approximately 10 mmol/l), in randomized order, using a crossover design. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a manometric, sleeve-side hole assembly, and proximal duodenal distensions were performed with a flaccid bag. Intrabag volumes were increased at 4-ml increments from 12 to 48 ml, each distension lasting for 2.5 min and separated by 10 min. Perception of the distensions and sensations of fullness, nausea, and hunger were evaluated. Perceptions of distension (P < 0.001) and fullness (P < 0.05) were greater and hunger less (P < 0.001) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia. Proximal duodenal distension stimulated pyloric tone (P < 0.01), isolated pyloric pressure waves (P < 0.01), and duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.01). Compared with euglycemia, hyperglycemia was associated with increases in pyloric tone (P < 0.001), the frequency (P < 0.05) and amplitude (P < 0.01) of isolated pyloric pressure waves, and the frequency of duodenal pressure waves (P < 0.001) in response to duodenal distension. Duodenal compliance was less (P < 0.05) during hyperglycemia compared with euglycemia, but this did not account for the effects of hyperglycemia on perception. We conclude that both the perception of, and stimulation of pyloric and duodenal pressures by, duodenal distension are increased by mild hyperglycemia. These observations are consistent with the concept that the blood glucose concentration plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility and sensation.  (+info)

Functional intestinal obstruction due to deficiency of argyrophil neurones in the myenteric plexus. Familial syndrome presenting with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy. (5/463)

In 3 infants functional intestinal obstruction, associated with a short small intestine, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, was shown to be due to failure of development of the argyrophil myenteric plexus, with the absence of ongoing peristalsis. 4 infants with similar clinical features have been described previously, and there is evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of this syndrome.  (+info)

Proximal gastric vagotomy: effects of two operative techniques on clinical and gastric secretory results. (6/463)

PGV performed in 39 patients by separating the lesser omentum from the stomach beginning 6 or 7 cm proximal to the pylorus and skeletonizing the distal 1 to 2 cm of esophagus was followed by 15.4% of proven and 10.2 of suspected recurrent ulcers. Insulin tests were done during the first 3 months postoperatively on 31 of the patients, including the 6 with proven and the 4 with suspected recurrent ulcers. The peak acid output to insulin minus tha basal acid output (PAOI-BAO) was less than 5 mEq/hr in 16 cases (52%) and from 5 to 25 mEq/hr in the remaining 15 cases. In 6 patients with proven recurrent ulcer, PAOI-BAO averaged 21.9 mEq/hr (range, 11.3 to 41.8); in the 4 patients with suspected recurrence, 9.5 (range, 4.4 to 11.8). The operative technique was changed in one respect; the distal 5 to 7.5 cm of the esophagus was skeletonized. In 14 patients, the mean PAOI-BAO +/- S.E. within 3 months of PGV was 1985 +/- 0.7 mEq/hr, and 13 of 14 values were less than 5 mEq/hr. One patient developed recurrent ulcer and required re-operation; this patient's value for PAO-BAO was 1.8 mEq/hr. The results show quantitatively that great differences in the completeness of PGV result from differences in the periesophageal dissection and emphasize its importance if optimal results are to be obtained and, especially, if the efficacy of the operation is to be judged.  (+info)

Promoting effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone on rat glandular stomach carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (7/463)

The modifying effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a mutagenic by-product in chlorinated water, on the development of glandular stomach cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. A total of 120 males, 6 weeks of age, were divided into six groups. After initiation with 100 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) solution and 5% NaCl diet for 8 weeks, 30 rats each in groups 1-3 were given MX in the drinking water at concentrations of 30, 10, or 0 ppm for the following 57 weeks. Ten animals each in groups 4-6 were administered the MX without prior carcinogen exposure. There were no statistical significant differences in final body weights between the groups. The incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the initiated 30 ppm MX group than those in the MNNG/NaCl group. The incidences of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also significantly increased (P < 0.05 or 0.01) by the MX treatments. With their multiplicity, the effects were clearly dose dependent. Interestingly, the 30 ppm MX alone itself induced atypical hyperplasias in the pylorus, although the incidences and severity were low. Moreover, MX showed a tendency to enhance the development of intrahepatic cholangiocellular tumors and thyroid follicular cell tumors in the MNNG-treated animals. The results of the present study thus indicate that MX exerts promoting effects when given during the postinitiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.  (+info)

Vagotomy suppresses cephalic phase insulin release in sheep. (8/463)

The effect of selective vagotomy of the abomasum, pylorus, duodenum and liver on insulin release during the cephalic phase of digestion was investigated in wethers and lactating ewes. Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves was carried out to test the completeness of the vagotomies performed. In experiment 1, using wethers, the abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches (ADV; n = 7) or the hepatic, abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches (HADV; n = 10) of the ventral and/or dorsal vagus nerves were cut; a third group of wethers underwent sham-operation (SO; n = 8). In experiment 2, vagotomy (ADV; n = 5) or sham-operations (SO; n = 5) were carried out in lactating ewes. Jugular blood was drawn before and after presentation of food for glucose and insulin determination (experiments 1 and 2) or before, during and after the electrical stimulation of the peripheral ends of the cut cervical vagus nerves in randomly selected lactating ewes (experiment 3: ADV = 3, SO = 3) and wethers (experiment 4: ADV = 4, HADV = 4, SO = 4), for determination of insulin only. Presentation of food caused an immediate and significant (P < 0.05) rise in plasma insulin levels in SO animals compared with ADV or HADV wethers (experiment 1) or ADV ewes (experiment 2) without any significant change in blood glucose concentrations. In comparison with the SO group the baseline-corrected areas under the insulin response curve were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller for the respective vagotomized groups for periods 1-2, 2-4 and 4-6 min (experiment 1) and 1-2 and 2-4 min (experiment 2) after presentation of food. Total area under the response curve for 10 min was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (experiment 1) and tended (P < 0.10) to be lower (experiment 2) for the vagotomized groups compared with that of the control groups. Direct electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves raised plasma insulin concentrations to significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels in the SO ewes but not in the ADV ewes (experiment 3). It was also evident that in experiment 1, HADV did not have any additive effect over that achieved by ADV alone. These results indicate that the vagal innervation of the gut mediates insulin release during the cephalic phase of feeding in sheep. It is concluded that insulin secretion from the pancreatic -cells in response to either food-related reflex activation of the vagal nuclei in the hypothalamus or direct cervical vagus nerve stimulation is mediated through the vagal efferent fibres carried in the abomasal, pyloric and duodenal branches of the vagus nerves in sheep.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Clarithromycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections. It is a member of the macrolide antibiotic family, which works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Clarithromycin is available by prescription and is often used in combination with other medications to treat conditions such as Helicobacter pylori infection and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.

The medical definition of clarithromycin is:

"A antibiotic medication used to treat various types of bacterial infections, belonging to the macrolide antibiotic family. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and is available by prescription."

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Atrophic gastritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation and atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach lining, specifically the mucous membrane called the gastric mucosa. This process involves the loss of glandular cells in the stomach, which can result in decreased acid production and potential vitamin B12 deficiency due to reduced intrinsic factor production. Atrophic gastritis can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disorders, chronic bacterial infection (usually with Helicobacter pylori), and the use of certain medications such as proton pump inhibitors. It can increase the risk of developing stomach cancer, so regular monitoring is often recommended.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Bismuth is a heavy, brittle, white metallic element (symbol: Bi; atomic number: 83) that is found in various minerals and is used in several industrial, medical, and household products. In medicine, bismuth compounds are commonly used as antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer agents due to their antibacterial properties. They can be found in medications like Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate. It's important to note that bismuth itself is not used medically, but its compounds have medical applications.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

Lansoprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It works by reducing the amount of acid produced in the stomach. The medical definition of Lansoprazole is:

A substituted benzimidazole that is a selective gastric proton pump inhibitor, which suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. It is used as an effective therapy for various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lansoprazole is available in the form of capsules or oral granules for delayed-release oral administration.

Here's a brief overview of its mechanism of action:

* Lansoprazole is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the parietal cells in the stomach, where it is converted into its active form.
* The active form of lansoprazole binds to and inhibits the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system, which is responsible for pumping hydrogen ions (protons) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell into the lumen of the stomach, where they combine with chloride ions to form hydrochloric acid.
* By inhibiting this proton pump, lansoprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which helps to relieve symptoms and promote healing of gastrointestinal disorders.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Pepsinogen A is the inactive precursor form of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach chief cells. Once exposed to acidic environment in the stomach, pepsinogen A is converted into its active form, pepsin. Pepsin plays a crucial role in digestion by breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. An elevated level of pepsinogen A in the blood may indicate damage to the stomach lining, such as that seen in gastritis or gastric cancer.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Tinidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial medication used to treat various infections caused by parasites or bacteria. According to the Medical Dictionary, it is defined as:

"A synthetic nitroimidazole antimicrobial agent, similar to metronidazole, that is active against a wide range of anaerobic bacteria and protozoa, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. It is used in the treatment of various clinical conditions, including bacterial vaginosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, and pseudomembranous colitis."

Tinidazole works by interfering with the DNA of the microorganisms, which leads to their death. It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed for a duration of 2-5 days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, and changes in taste sensation.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

The Lewis blood-group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is based on the presence or absence of two antigens: Lea and Leb. These antigens are carbohydrate structures that can be found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as well as other cells and in various body fluids.

The Lewis system is unique because its antigens are not normally present at birth, but instead develop during early childhood or later in life due to the action of certain enzymes in the digestive tract. The production of Lea and Leb antigens depends on the activity of two genes, FUT3 (also known as Lewis gene) and FUT2 (also known as Secretor gene).

There are four main phenotypes or blood types in the Lewis system:

1. Le(a+b-): This is the most common phenotype, where individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs.
2. Le(a-b+): In this phenotype, individuals lack the Lea antigen but have the Leb antigen on their RBCs.
3. Le(a-b-): This is a rare phenotype where neither Lea nor Leb antigens are present on the RBCs.
4. Le(a+b+): In this phenotype, individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs due to the simultaneous expression of FUT3 and FUT2 genes.

The Lewis blood-group system is not typically associated with transfusion reactions or hemolytic diseases, unlike other blood group systems such as ABO and Rh. However, the presence or absence of Lewis antigens can still have implications for certain medical conditions and tests, including:

* Infectious diseases: Some bacteria and viruses can use the Lewis antigens as receptors to attach to and infect host cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and peptic ulcers, binds to Lea antigens in the stomach.
* Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, autoantibodies against Lewis antigens have been found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
* Pregnancy: The Lewis antigens can be expressed on the surface of placental cells, and changes in their expression have been linked to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.
* Blood typing: Although not a primary factor in blood transfusion compatibility, the Lewis blood-group system is still considered when determining the best match for patients who require frequent transfusions or organ transplants.

Duodenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Duodenitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. In some cases, the cause may remain unidentified, leading to a diagnosis of "non-specific duodenitis."

Treatment for duodenitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or discontinuing NSAID use. Acid-suppressing medications and antacids may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and promote healing of the duodenal lining. In severe cases, endoscopic procedures or surgery might be necessary to manage complications like bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Gerbillinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes gerbils, jirds, and sand rats. These small mammals are primarily found in arid regions of Africa and Asia. They are characterized by their long hind legs, which they use for hopping, and their long, thin tails. Some species have adapted to desert environments by developing specialized kidneys that allow them to survive on minimal water intake.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Furazolidone is defined as an antimicrobial agent with nitrofuran structure. It is primarily used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis, traveller's diarrhea, and other types of bacterial diarrhea. Furazolidone works by inhibiting certain enzymes necessary for the survival of bacteria, thereby killing or stopping the growth of the microorganisms. It is also used as a preservative in some food products.

It's important to note that Furazolidone has been associated with rare but serious side effects such as lung and liver toxicity, so its use is generally restricted to short-term therapy and under close medical supervision.

Ranitidine is a histamine-2 (H2) blocker medication that works by reducing the amount of acid your stomach produces. It is commonly used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Ranitidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. Additionally, ranitidine can be used to prevent and treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by stress or injury in critically ill patients.

The medication is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it comes in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. As with any medication, ranitidine should be taken as directed by a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully monitored.

"Helicobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the stomach. The most well-known species is "Helicobacter pylori," which is known to cause various gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. These bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes stomach acid. Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Pepsinogens are inactive precursor forms of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach. They are composed of two types: Pepsinogen I (or gastric intrinsic factor) and Pepsinogen II. When exposed to acid in the stomach, these pepsinogens get converted into their active form, pepsin, which helps digest proteins in food. Measurement of pepsinogens in blood can be used as a diagnostic marker for certain stomach conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Pepsinogen C is not typically referred to as a medical term. However, pepsinogens are proenzymes, or inactive forms, of the enzyme pepsin, which plays a crucial role in digesting proteins in the stomach. Pepsinogen C is one of the three types of pepsinogens (A, C, and F) found in the gastric mucosa.

Pepsinogen C is produced mainly by the chief cells in the fundic region of the stomach. Its primary function is to protect the gastric mucosa from self-digestion by remaining in an inactive state until it is converted into pepsin upon exposure to hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

While pepsinogen C has been studied in relation to gastric diseases, such as atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, it is not commonly used as a clinical marker or diagnostic tool compared to pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II.

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of bacteria. It is a part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, which also includes doxycycline, minocycline, and others.

Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some atypical organisms such as rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochetes. It is commonly used to treat respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and other bacterial infections.

Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It should be taken orally with a full glass of water, and it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The drug can cause tooth discoloration in children under the age of 8, so it is generally not recommended for use in this population.

Like all antibiotics, tetracycline should be used only to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Antitrichomonatal agents are a group of medications specifically used to treat infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The most common antitrichomonal agent is metronidazole, which works by disrupting the parasite's ability to reproduce and survive within the human body. Other antitrichomonal agents include tinidazole and secnidazole, which also belong to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, or topical creams, and are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals for the treatment of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and drug interactions.

B-cell marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of indolent (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It arises from B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. MZLs typically involve the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles, which are structures found in lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are three subtypes of MZL: extranodal MZL (also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or MALT lymphoma), nodal MZL, and splenic MZL. Extranodal MZL is the most common form and can occur at various extranodal sites, such as the stomach, lungs, skin, eyes, and salivary glands. Nodal MZL involves the lymph nodes without evidence of extranodal disease, while splenic MZL primarily affects the spleen.

MZLs are typically low-grade malignancies, but they can transform into more aggressive forms over time. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Common treatments include watchful waiting, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

'Azure stains' is a term used in pathology to describe a histological staining technique that uses a type of dye called methyl blue, which turns the stained structures a blue-purple color. This technique is often used to stain acid mucins, which are found in various types of tissues and can be indicative of certain medical conditions.

In particular, azure stains are sometimes used to help diagnose certain types of cancer, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, a type of salivary gland tumor that produces acid mucins. The staining technique can help pathologists identify the presence and distribution of these mucins within the tumor cells, which can aid in making an accurate diagnosis and determining the best course of treatment.

It's worth noting that there are several different types of histological stains that use various dyes to highlight different structures or features within tissues. Azure stains are just one example of these techniques, and they are typically used in conjunction with other staining methods to provide a comprehensive picture of the tissue being examined.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

Nitroreductases are a group of enzymes that can reduce nitro groups (-NO2) to nitroso groups (-NHOH) or amino groups (-NH2) in various organic compounds. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and found in many different types of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals.

In medicine, nitroreductases have been studied for their potential role in the activation of certain drugs or prodrugs. For example, some anticancer agents such as CB1954 (also known as 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) are relatively inert until they are reduced by nitroreductases to more reactive metabolites that can interact with DNA and other cellular components. This property has been exploited in the development of targeted cancer therapies that selectively deliver prodrugs to tumor cells, where they can be activated by endogenous nitroreductases to kill the cancer cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues.

Nitroreductases have also been implicated in the development of bacterial resistance to certain antibiotics, such as metronidazole and nitrofurantoin. These drugs are activated by nitroreductases in bacteria, but overexpression or mutation of the enzyme can lead to reduced drug activation and increased resistance.

Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive fluid that helps to break down food, particularly proteins, and also creates an acidic environment that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the stomach.

Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, autoimmune disorders, aging, or surgical removal of the stomach. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, and malabsorption of nutrients. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and increased risk of gastrointestinal infections.

It is important to note that achlorhydria can be diagnosed through various tests, including a gastric acid analysis or a pH test. Treatment for achlorhydria may involve supplementing with hydrochloric acid or other digestive enzymes, modifying the diet, and addressing any underlying conditions.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus, which can cause discomfort and symptoms. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach) relaxes inappropriately, allowing the acidic or non-acidic gastric contents to flow back into the esophagus.

Gastroesophageal reflux becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when it is more severe, persistent, and/or results in complications such as esophagitis, strictures, or Barrett's esophagus. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and chronic cough or hoarseness.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

Parietal cells, also known as oxyntic cells, are a type of cell found in the gastric glands of the stomach lining. They play a crucial role in digestion by releasing hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor into the stomach lumen. Hydrochloric acid is essential for breaking down food particles and creating an acidic environment that kills most bacteria, while intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. Parietal cells are stimulated by histamine, acetylcholine, and gastrin to release their secretory products.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Sulfoxides are organic compounds characterized by the functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms and a carbon atom. The general structure is R-S(=O)O-R', where R and R' represent alkyl or aryl groups. They are often formed by the oxidation of sulfides, which contain a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. Sulfoxides have a trigonal pyramidal geometry at the sulfur atom due to the presence of two electron-withdrawing oxygen atoms. They exhibit properties of both polar and nonpolar compounds, making them useful as solvents and intermediates in organic synthesis.

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. IL-8 is also known as neutrophil chemotactic factor or NCF because it attracts neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, to the site of infection or injury.

IL-8 is produced by various cells including macrophages, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells in response to bacterial or inflammatory stimuli. It acts by binding to specific receptors called CXCR1 and CXCR2 on the surface of neutrophils, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events leading to neutrophil activation, migration, and degranulation.

IL-8 plays an important role in the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or tissue damage, where they can phagocytose and destroy invading microorganisms. However, excessive or prolonged production of IL-8 has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.

Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a medical condition characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract due to a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. They are usually caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

When a peptic ulcer bleeds, it can cause symptoms such as vomiting blood or passing black, tarry stools. In severe cases, the bleeding can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by a rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include medications to reduce stomach acid, antibiotics to eliminate H. pylori infection, and endoscopic procedures to stop the bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove damaged tissue.

Esophagitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the esophageal lining, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, heartburn, and acid reflux.

Esophagitis can be caused by various factors, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), infection, allergies, medications, and chronic vomiting. Prolonged exposure to stomach acid can also cause esophagitis, leading to a condition called reflux esophagitis.

If left untreated, esophagitis can lead to complications such as strictures, ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition that increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Treatment for esophagitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, managing symptoms, and protecting the esophageal lining to promote healing.

Serologic tests are laboratory tests that detect the presence or absence of antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum (the clear liquid that separates from clotted blood). These tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and other medical conditions.

In serologic testing for infectious diseases, a sample of the patient's blood is collected and allowed to clot. The serum is then separated from the clot and tested for the presence of antibodies that the body has produced in response to an infection. The test may be used to identify the specific type of infection or to determine whether the infection is active or has resolved.

Serologic tests can also be used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, by detecting the presence of antibodies that are directed against the body's own tissues. These tests can help doctors confirm a diagnosis and monitor the progression of the disease.

It is important to note that serologic tests are not always 100% accurate and may produce false positive or false negative results. Therefore, they should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Peptic esophagitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation and damage of the lining of the esophagus caused by stomach acid backing up into the esophagus. This is also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The term "peptic" indicates that digestive enzymes or stomach acids are involved in the cause of the condition.

Peptic esophagitis can cause symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and painful swallowing. If left untreated, it can lead to complications like strictures, ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus, which is a precancerous condition. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications to reduce acid production, and sometimes surgery.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

"Helicobacter felis" is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomachs of cats and other animals. It is closely related to "Helicobacter pylori," which is a well-known cause of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. "Helicobacter felis" has been associated with similar gastrointestinal diseases in cats and has been occasionally found in human stomachs, although its role in human pathogenesis is not as clearly established as that of "Helicobacter pylori."

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as Gastrospirillum hominis) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that can be found in the stomach and is associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is one of several species of Helicobacter that can infect the stomach, along with H. pylori, which is a more common cause of these conditions. The infection by H. heilmannii is less common and its transmission routes are not well understood, but it is believed to be associated with close contact with animals, particularly dogs and cats. Its identification and diagnosis can be challenging due to difficulties in culturing the bacterium and detecting it in gastric biopsies.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Gastric acidity determination is a medical test used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach. This test is often performed to diagnose or monitor conditions such as gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The test involves measuring the pH level of the stomach contents using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is passed through the nose and down into the stomach. In some cases, a small sample of stomach fluid may also be collected for further testing.

The normal range for gastric acidity is typically considered to be a pH level below 4. A higher pH level may indicate that the stomach is producing too little acid, while a lower pH level may suggest that it is producing too much. Based on the results of the test, healthcare providers can develop an appropriate treatment plan for the underlying condition causing abnormal gastric acidity.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Histamine H2 antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach. Histamine is a chemical that is released by the body during an allergic reaction and can also be released by certain cells in the stomach in response to food or other stimuli. When histamine binds to the H2 receptors in the stomach, it triggers the release of acid. By blocking the action of histamine on these receptors, H2 antagonists reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers. Examples of H2 antagonists include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

23S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of rRNA that is a component of the large ribosomal subunit in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit contains 50S, which consists of 23S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and around 33 proteins. The 23S rRNA plays a crucial role in the decoding of mRNA during protein synthesis and also participates in the formation of the peptidyl transferase center, where peptide bonds are formed between amino acids.

The 23S rRNA is a long RNA molecule that contains both coding and non-coding regions. It has a complex secondary structure, which includes several domains and subdomains, as well as numerous stem-loop structures. These structures are important for the proper functioning of the ribosome during protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in protein synthesis, 23S rRNA has been used as a target for antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth. For example, certain antibiotics bind to specific regions of the 23S rRNA and interfere with the function of the ribosome, thereby preventing bacterial protein synthesis and growth. However, because eukaryotic cells do not have a 23S rRNA equivalent, these antibiotics are generally not toxic to human cells.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Benzimidazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a imidazole ring. They have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of the benzimidazoles are used as antiparasitics, such as albendazole and mebendazole, which are effective against a variety of worm infestations. Other benzimidazoles have antifungal properties, such as thiabendazole and fuberidazole, and are used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, some benzimidazoles have been found to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

The cardia is a term used in anatomical context to refer to the upper part of the stomach that surrounds and opens into the lower end of the esophagus. It is responsible for controlling the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach and is also known as the cardiac orifice or cardiac sphincter. Any medical condition that affects this area, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can lead to symptoms like heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and chest pain.

The gastric fundus is the upper, rounded portion of the stomach that lies above the level of the cardiac orifice and extends up to the left dome-shaped part of the diaphragm. It is the part of the stomach where food and liquids are first stored after entering through the esophagus. The gastric fundus contains parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen, a precursor to the digestive enzyme pepsin. It is also the site where the hormone ghrelin is produced, which stimulates appetite.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Duodenoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a duodenoscope, which is a flexible, lighted tube with a camera and tiny tools on the end, through the mouth and down the throat to examine the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) and the opening of the bile and pancreatic ducts.

During the procedure, the doctor can take tissue samples for biopsy, remove polyps or other abnormal growths, or perform other interventions as needed. Duodenoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

It's important to note that duodenoscopes have been associated with the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in some cases, so healthcare providers must follow strict cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize this risk.

The pylorus is one component of the gastrointestinal system. Food from the stomach, as chyme, passes through the pylorus to the ... The word pylorus comes from Greek πυλωρός, via Latin. The word pylorus in Greek means "gatekeeper", related to "gate" (Greek: ... The pylorus (/paɪˈlɔːrəs/ or /pɪˈloʊrəs/), or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum. The pylorus is considered as ... Pyloric tumors Pyloric gland adenoma Stomach Dissection showing the stomach and pylorus in a cadaver. The antrum of the pylorus ...
Pylorus or Pyloros was a town of ancient Crete, south of Gortyna. Its site is located near modern Plora. Pliny. Naturalis ... 1854-1857). "Pylorus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 35°00′13″N 24°56′27″E / 35.003706°N ...
The bacterium was initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, then renamed C. pylori in 1987 (pylori being the genitive of pylorus ... H. pylori has been shown to increase the levels of COX2 in H. pylori positive gastritis. Chronic gastritis is likely to ... To demonstrate H. pylori caused gastritis and was not merely a bystander, Marshall drank a beaker of H. pylori culture. He ... Infection by H. pylori causes no symptoms in about 80% of those infected. About 75% of individuals infected with H. pylori ...
... is a standard name for all treatment protocols for peptic ulcers and gastritis in the ... The primary goal of the treatment is not only temporary relief of symptoms but also total elimination of H. pylori infection. ... The success of H. pylori cure depends on the type and duration of therapy, patient compliance and bacterial factors such as ... Patients with active duodenal or gastric ulcers and those with a prior ulcer history should be tested for H. pylori. ...
First report of resistance of H. pylori to the antibiotic metronidazole. Resistance of H. pylori to treatment will lead to the ... J. Robin Warren first observes H. pylori in a gastric biopsy. Fung, Papadimitriou, and Matz observe H. pylori. 1981 Yao Shi ... pylori that caused duodenal ulcers. This was the first description of a virulence factor for H. pylori infection determined by ... published a study on Helicobacter pylori. Morris intentionally consumes H. pylori. Like Marshall, he becomes ill, but unlike ...
In 1904 Price was awarded the Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize for his essay, "Congenital stenosis of the pylorus". He became a ... British Medical Journal: 11 March 1933 Price, Lloyd Turton (1904). "Congenital stenosis of the pylorus". {{cite journal}}: Cite ...
... pylori eradication, which is now the mainstay of therapy. Fifty to 95% of cases achieve complete response (CR) with H. pylori ... Following the recognition of the association of gastric MALT lymphoma with H. pylori infection, it was established that early- ... "MALT lymphoma Diagnosis, Staging, Treatment". pylori.org. UEG. Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2015-01-05. ... Hatakeyama, M.; Higashi, H. (2005). "Helicobacter pylori CagA: a new paradigm for bacterial carcinogenesis". Cancer Science. 96 ...
His team was the first in showing a 1-week course of antibiotic therapy can cure H. pylori infection, treat peptic ulcer and ... Sung, Joseph JY (2006). "Helicobacter pylori". In Feldman, Mark; Friedman, Lawrence S; Brandt, Lawrence J (eds.). Sleisenger & ... As a gastroenterologist, his research spans intestinal bleeding, Helicobacter pylori infection, peptic ulcer, and ...
H. pylori is of primary importance for medicine, but non-H. pylori species, which naturally inhabit mammals (except humans) and ... 1989). "Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov ... The most widely known species of the genus is H. pylori, which infects up to 50% of the human population. It also serves as the ... 2011). Helicobacter pylori. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-84-4. Vandamme P, Falsen E, Rossaq R, et al. (1991). " ...
Helicobacter pylori. National Academies Press (US). Rutherford, Julian C. (2014-05-15). "The Emerging Role of Urease as a ... a common virulence factor found in gastro-pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, a common infection causing about ...
Helicobacter pylori infection. Gluten-related disorders: untreated celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anemia can ...
June 2007). "The pylorus: take it or leave it? Systematic review and meta-analysis of pylorus-preserving versus standard ... The main advantage of this technique is that the pylorus, and thus normal gastric emptying, should in theory be preserved. ... Hüttner FJ, Fitzmaurice C, Schwarzer G, Seiler CM, Antes G, Büchler MW, Diener MK (February 2016). "Pylorus-preserving ... In recent years the pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (also known as Traverso-Longmire procedure/PPPD) has been ...
"Helicobacter Pylori Infections: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03. "Details: DSM-1740". www.dsmz.de. ... The order Campylobacterales includes human pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. The only publicly ... "Non-pylori Helicobacteraceae in the upper digestive tract of asymptomatic Venezuelan subjects: detection of Helicobacter ...
"What Is H. pylori?". WebMD. "Treatments for Nutritional anemia." Right Diagnosis. Assessed March 31, 2017. http://www. ...
Herndon, BL; Vlach, V; Dew, M; Willsie, SK (2004). "Helicobacter pylori-related immunoglobulins in sarcoidosis". Journal of ... Qayoom, S; Ahmad, QM (2003). "Psoriasis and Helicobacter pylori". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 69 ... "Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with ischemic stroke of non-cardiac origin: the BAT.MA.N. project study". Hepato- ... Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study". Cardiovascular ...
Stray-Pedersen A, Vege A, Rognum TO (October 2008). "Helicobacter pylori antigen in stool is associated with SIDS and sudden ... Helicobacter pylori bacterial infections; shaken baby syndrome and other forms of child abuse; overlaying, child smothering ...
In that sample, they discovered the presence of H. pylori. They later found out that H. pylori grow more slowly than two days, ... Marshall and Robin Warren showed that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a major role in causing many peptic ... Marshall continues research related to H. pylori and runs the H. pylori Research Laboratory at UWA. In 2007, Marshall was ... Marshall did not develop antibodies to H. pylori, suggesting that innate immunity can sometimes eradicate acute H. pylori ...
"H Pylori Facts" (PDF). CDC.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-01-12. Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, McCormick JK ( ... The only peer-reviewed treatments for H. pylori to date all include various Antibiotic Regimens. Some strains of LAB may affect ... Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults ... Hamilton-Miller, JM (October 2003). "The role of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection". ...
Subsequently, the duodenum is transected respecting the pylorus. A duodenum-intestinal anastomosis is carried out between 250 ...
"Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori". The New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (26): 1946. doi:10.1056/NEJM199812243392618. ...
Helicobacter pylori is also the cause of peptic ulcers with its manifestation in 55-68% reported cases. This was confirmed by ... Helicobacter pylori release microbial ureases into the stomach. The urease hydrolyzes urea to produce ammonia and carbonic acid ... Inhibition of urease is not only of interest to agriculture, but also to medicine as pathogens like H. pylori produce urease as ... When compared, the α subunits of Helicobacter pylori urease and other bacterial ureases align with the jack bean ureases. The ...
In addition, Helicobacter pylori which often occurs with Chagas would have caused Darwin to have peptic ulcer disease. Many of ... Barry Marshall (12 February 2009). "What I know and what I think I know..: Darwins Illness was Helicobacter Pylori". Retrieved ... and Helicobacter pylori. Evidence for familial systemic lactose intolerance syndrome was that vomiting and gastrointestinal ... Barry Marshall proposed in February 2009 that the cause of Darwin's illness was the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori ...
H. pylori can be diagnosed by testing the blood for antibodies, a urea breath test, testing the stool for signs of the bacteria ... H. pylori was first identified as causing peptic ulcers by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in the late 20th century, a ... The H. pylori hypothesis was still poorly received, so in an act of self-experimentation Marshall drank a Petri dish containing ... Helicobacter pylori was identified in 1982 by two Australian scientists, Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall, as a causative ...
Helicobacter pylori CD - Rom edition, DanDesign in cooperation with the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, in 1999. T ... Helicobacter pylori, 100 questions and answers. Hemofarm Vrsac, 2000th *T.Milosavljević, M.Krstić. Diseases of the digestive ... Sokic Milutinovic A, Wex T, Todorovic V, Bjelovic M, Milosavljevic T, Malfertheiner P. Influence of Helicobacter pylori ... Helicobacter pylori in clinical practice. Time books, Belgrade, 1996. T. Milosavljevic, Mr. D.Jovanovic, V.Petrović. ...
H. pylori also contains the same protein. H. pylori infection often leads to gastrointestinal issues such as peptic ulcers, ... A homolog of NlaIIIR is iceA1 from Helicobacter pylori. In H. pylori, there exists a similar methylase gene called hpyIM which ... IceA1 in H. pylori is similar to that of NlaIII in N. lactamica. NlaIII contains an ICEA protein that encompasses the 4 to 225 ... Xu, Q.; Peek, R. M.; Miller, G. G.; Blaser, M. J. (1997-11-01). "The Helicobacter pylori genome is modified at CATG by the ...
"Stomach intestinal pylorus-sparing surgery (SIPS) - Surgical weight loss , Northwell Health". nwh.northwell.edu. Retrieved 2020 ... including a modified bariatric technique known as stomach intestinal pylorus-sparing surgery (SIPS). In the summer of 1781, ...
It is an immunochromatographic test which detects the presence of antibodies against H. Pylori in whole-blood samples. This ... helicoCARE direct is a Helicobacter pylori whole-blood antibody test that was introduced worldwide in 2006. It is manufactured ...
Genta RM (January 1997). "The immunobiology of Helicobacter pylori gastritis". Seminars in Gastrointestinal Disease. 8 (1): 2- ...
Although the exact role of Helicobacter pylori infection in PA remains controversial, evidence indicates H. pylori is involved ... Less commonly, H. pylori and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may cause a form of nonautoimmune gastritis that can lead to pernicious ... Antibodies produced by the immune system can be cross-reactive and may bind to both H. pylori antigens and those found in the ... Desai HG, Gupte PA (December 2007). "Helicobacter pylori link to pernicious anaemia". The Journal of the Association of ...
Thus H. pylori-induced ROS appear to be the major carcinogens in stomach cancer because they cause oxidative DNA damage leading ... August 2007). "Helicobacter pylori infection induces oxidative stress and programmed cell death in human gastric epithelial ... Other infectious organisms which cause cancer in humans include some bacteria (e.g. Helicobacter pylori) and helminths (e.g. ... Chronic gastritis (inflammation) caused by H. pylori is often long-standing if not treated. Infection of gastric epithelial ...
The pylorus is one component of the gastrointestinal system. Food from the stomach, as chyme, passes through the pylorus to the ... The word pylorus comes from Greek πυλωρός, via Latin. The word pylorus in Greek means "gatekeeper", related to "gate" (Greek: ... The pylorus (/paɪˈlɔːrəs/ or /pɪˈloʊrəs/), or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum. The pylorus is considered as ... Pyloric tumors Pyloric gland adenoma Stomach Dissection showing the stomach and pylorus in a cadaver. The antrum of the pylorus ...
Background Some background information regarding pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), also commonly referred to ... encoded search term (Pylorus-Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD)) and Pylorus-Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) ... Pylorus-Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Updated: Sep 15, 2022 * Author: Roshni L Venugopal, MD, MS; Chief Editor: ... Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) is indicated for the following benign conditions:. * Benign periampullary ...
H pylori infection is the most common cause of peptic ... H pylori) is a type of bacteria that infects the stomach. It is ... Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a type of bacteria that infects the stomach. It is very common, affecting about two thirds of ... If H pylori are present, the bacteria turn the urea into carbon dioxide. This is detected and recorded in your exhaled breath ... H pylori infection is the most common cause of peptic ulcers. However, the infection does not cause problems for most people. ...
Warren and Marshall first cultured and identified the organism as Campylobacter pylori in 1982. ... Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a gram-negative bacillus responsible for one of the most common infections found in humans ... H pylori colonizes the stomach, induces inflammatory cytokines, and causes gastric inflammation. Individuals with H pylori- ... The incidence of H pylori gastritis in patients with RAP is not significantly higher than the incidence of H pylori infection ...
... pylori) is a contagious bacteria that can infect the stomach and lead to more serious conditions. You can get it though kissing ... H. pylori is a common bacterium that may cause you no symptoms or complications. An H. pylori infection can be serious, but ... Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a very common - and yes, contagious - type of bacteria that infects the digestive tract. ... H. Pylori is highly contagious. H. pylori infection can be spread through kissing, oral sex, and contaminated food or drinking ...
H. pylori is recognized as one of the most common chronic bacterial infections worldwide, and about two-thirds of the worlds ... H. pylori diagnosis can be made through fecal antigen assay, urea breath test, rapid urease test, or histology of a biopsy ... H. pylori is believed to be transmitted mainly by fecal-oral route, but also possibly by oral-oral. ... Short-term travelers appear to be at low risk of acquiring H. pylori through travel, but expatriates and long-stay travelers ...
WebMD tells you the causes, symptoms, and treatments for H. pylori. ... pylori and never get sick. Others will have painful ulcers and a higher risk of cancer from infection with the bacteria. ... Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. These germs can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After ... Treatment for H. pylori. If you have ulcers caused by H. pylori, youll need treatment to kill the germs, heal your stomach ...
Browse a full range of H pylori Testing products from leading suppliers. Shop now at Fisher Scientific for all of your ... H pylori Testing. H pylori Testing. Supplies used for the clinical diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections. Products ... H. PYLORI QUIK CHEK™ Stool Antigen Test test detects H. pylori antigens in human stool and provides accurate results within 30 ... The H. PYLORI CHEK™ Stool Antigen ELISA Test detects H. pylori specific antigen in human stool and provides excellent ...
... and 1989 from adults and children were screened for Helicobacter pylori by Western blot analysis. Results showed that H. pylori ... The cohort effect and Helicobacter pylori J Infect Dis. 1993 Jul;168(1):219-21. doi: 10.1093/infdis/168.1.219. ... By studying seropositivity by year of birth, the magnitude of a cohort effect of H. pylori seropositivity was estimated. The ... A total of 631 serum samples collected in 1969, 1979, and 1989 from adults and children were screened for Helicobacter pylori ...
Helicobacter pylori (HP1). English Text: Helicobacter pylori (HP1). Target: Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or ... More recent evidence has suggested that chronic H. pylori infection as well as early age of H. pylori-acquisition is a critical ... Helicobacter pylori (HP1) (HP_01_R) RDC Only Data File: HP_01_R.xpt First Published: April 2013. Last Revised: NA Due to ... Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be the causative agent in chronic-active gastritis, and evidence has almost completely ...
... Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Feb;23(2): ...
Helicobacter pylori antigen testing is FDA approved for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test of H pylori infection and as a ... H pylori antigen testing is FDA approved for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test of H pylori infection and as a test to ... H pylori antigen is a protein constituent of the H pylori bacterium, which is shed in human stool. This bacterium finds its way ... 6] Thus, H pylori antigen testing has strong implications. It is approved for use in the diagnosis of H pylori infection and to ...
PYLORI, Village, GREVENA Map & Distances. Distances:. 25 Kilometers West (W) the prefectural capital GREVENA Town, MAKEDONIA ...
One such cause for these annoying symptoms can be H. pylori infection (or ah pylori as its fondly called), which is not-so- ... Its not just gastric cancers being associated with H.pylori, Some lymphomas have favorable associations with H.pylori ... What is ah pylori infection?. 23 Apr, 2023 by Dane Raynor Ah, the joys of stomach pains, nausea and vomiting- things we all ... H.Pylori and Stomach Cancer - A Direct Link?. Psst, Are getting fevers, stomach pains and cramps commonly ringing bells? Sorry ...
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately 50% of all humans. With its universal ... pylori strains alone. This is best exemplified with the reconstruction of the 5300-year-old H. pylori genome of the Iceman, a ... Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Ancient DNA, Evolution, Iceman, Ancient gut contents, Coprolites Core tip: The molecular ... Helicobacter pylori in ancient human remains Frank Maixner, Kaisa Thorell, Lena Granehäll, Bodo Linz, Yoshan Moodley, Thomas ...
Sera from H. pylori-infected persons neutralized the cytotoxins produced by multiple H. pylori strains, but failed to ... pylori-infected persons. As a group, sera from 29 H. pylori-infected patients neutralized the activity of the purified ... Serum neutralizing antibody response to the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori.. T L Cover, P Cao, U K Murthy, M S ... Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori isolates produce a cytotoxin in vitro that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. To ...
H pylori. I had it in June and it really ate my stomach up to the point where I needed two pints of blood. The doctor said had ... H pylori. I had it in June and it really ate my stomach up to the point where I needed two pints of blood. The doctor said had ... I just got over a bout of h. pylori myself a few weeks ago and the cure is as bad as the disease. But keep in mind its only two ... pylori. Not sure what the others symptoms were, but I was bleeding heavily in my stomach, lost enough blood that I was slurring ...
H. pylori attaches and colonizes to the human epithelium using some of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). HomB and HomA are ... Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes chronic inflammations in the stomach area and is involved in ... the most studied OMPs from H. pylori as they play a crucial role in adherence, hyper biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance ... H. pylori is estimated to infect 50% of the worlds population2,3,4. The long-term persistence of H. pylori can stimulate a ...
Pylorus Matlab in Punjabi Pylorus (ਪਾਇਲੋਰਸ) = ਉਦਰ ਤੋਂ ਅੰਤੜੀਆਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਜਾਣ ਦਾ ਰਾਹ ... Pylorus Meaning in Punjabi. Leave a Comment / By pawansingla / October 25, 2020 ...
Non-H. pylori chronic gastritis (J Gastroenterol 2010;45:131, Virchows Arch 2018;473:533): *No organisms seen on H. pylori ... H. pylori immunohistochemistry may be used to help in diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis in which of the following scenarios? * ... For confirmation of H. pylori organisms that are clearly identifiable on H&E *In every case to rule out H. pylori infection in ... To distinguish between H. pylori and H. heilmannii organisms *When the clinician requests to rule out H. pylori despite no ...
Helicobacter Pylori. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid ... What Causes H. pylori?. Researchers do not yet know what causes certain people to develop H. pylori-related symptoms or ulcers. ... What Are the Symptoms of H. pylori?. The following are the most common symptoms of H. pylori-related for ulcers. However, each ... How Is H. pylori Treated?. Specific treatment will be determined by your childs physician based on the following:. *Your ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Pretreatment evaluation included endoscopy with biopsies for histology and culture for ,i,H pylori,/i, infection. Treatment ... Helicobacter pylori,/i, in patients who have failed at least one course of PPI-based triple therapy.METHODS: The present study ... Rescue Therapy Using a Rifabutin-Based Regimen is Effective for Cure of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Sander Veldhuyzen van ... Pretreatment evaluation included endoscopy with biopsies for histology and culture for H pylori infection. Treatment consisted ...
More than 13 percent of Americans have an H. pylori infection, although rates ... The spiral-shaped bacteria Helicobacter pylori are common and troublesome. ... The spiral-shaped bacteria Helicobacter pylori are common and troublesome.. More than 13 percent of Americans have an H. pylori ... Bacteria Dance the Twist in Our Stomachs: H. pylori Gets Its Groove On. May 12, 2023. Florida State University ...
Helicobacter pylori 26695). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
... recovery and follow-up care for Helicobacter pylori infection. ... Learn about Helicobacter pylori infection, find a doctor, ... Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a type of bacteria that infects the stomach. It is very common, affecting about two thirds of ... If H pylori are present, the bacteria turn the urea into carbon dioxide. This is detected and recorded in your exhaled breath ... H pylori infection is the most common cause of peptic ulcers. However, the infection does not cause problems for most people. ...
... pylori is a bacteria that can cause infections in your stomach or small intestine. Its the most common cause of peptic ulcer ... Can H. pylori spread from person to person?. Yes, H. pylori can spread from person to person. H. pylori are found in saliva, ... What is an H. pylori infection?. H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) are bacteria that can cause an infection in the stomach or ... Can H. pylori infection be prevented?. You can lower your risk of H. pylori infection if you:. *Drink clean water and use clean ...
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  • Besides ulcers, H pylori bacteria can also cause a chronic inflammation in the stomach (gastritis) or the upper part of the small intestine (duodenitis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • By the early-to-mid 1990s, further evidence supported a link between chronic gastritis of H pylori infection in adults and malignancy, specifically gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Although usually asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastritis worldwide, which often present as gnawing or burning epigastric pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be the causative agent in chronic-active gastritis, and evidence has almost completely satisfied Koch's postulates for this organisms' pathogenicity in primary duodenal ulcers. (cdc.gov)
  • H pylori causes chronic gastritis by manipulating the host's immune system to cause an inflammatory response that predisposes to malignant transformation. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic gastritis is the major cause of human gastric cancer caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori . (nature.com)
  • investigated pathogenesis and immunological response caused by HomB protein in clinical patients and 190 H. pylori strain isolated from patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or gastritis were evaluated for the clinical importance of homB . (nature.com)
  • Soon after being infected with H. pylori, most people develop gastritis - an inflammation of the stomach lining. (luriechildrens.org)
  • H. pylori is a bacteria that can cause peptic ulcer disease and gastritis. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • H. pylori can also inflame and irritate the stomach lining ( gastritis ). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • As H. pylori multiply, it eats into stomach tissue, which leads to gastritis and/or gastric ulcer . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori increases the risk of gastric disorders, including atrophic gastritis which can be diagnosed based on levels of serum biomarkers like Gastrin and Pepsinogen. (scirp.org)
  • We therefore examined the efficacy of a serological-based method namely GastroPanel Blood kit, in diagnosing and scoring gastritis associated to Helicobacter pylori infection. (scirp.org)
  • These results suggest that diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and H. pylori infection obtained with an optional serological method (GastroPanel) is in a strong agreement with the biopsy findings, and thus can be a useful non endoscopic assessment of stomach mucosal atrophy in patients with dyspepsia. (scirp.org)
  • Kokkola, A., Rautelin, H. and Puolakkainen, P. (1998) Positive result in serology indicates active Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with atrophic gastritis. (scirp.org)
  • 2005) Invasive and non invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis: A comparative study. (scirp.org)
  • Studies have indicated that H. pylori detection is associated with a variety of gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, non-ulcer dyspepsia, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. (rapidtest.com)
  • Formation of H. pylori cell surface-bound plasmin may be important to provide a powerful proteolytic mechanism for gastric tissue penetration in type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, since plasmin degrades not only fibrin but also extracellular matrix proteins such as various collagens and fibronectin. (lu.se)
  • Helicobacter pylori evolution during progression from chronic atrophic gastritis to gastric cancer and its impact on gastric stem cells. (medscape.com)
  • Aanpreung P. Suggestive parameters for eradication therapy in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. (medscape.com)
  • Blood test -- measures antibodies to H pylori in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Wampole Laboratories (Wampole) H. pylori IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) is intended for the detection and qualitative determination of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in human serum. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, we sought to detect cytotoxin-neutralizing antibodies in sera from H. pylori-infected persons. (jci.org)
  • The presence of cytotoxin-neutralizing antibodies in sera from H. pylori-infected persons indicates that the cytotoxin is synthesized in vivo. (jci.org)
  • If you have a strong family history of stomach cancer and other cancer risk factors, even though you may not have symptoms of a stomach ulcer, your healthcare provider may recommend being tested for H. pylori antibodies. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A specific ELISA test was used for the detection of H. pylori IgG antibodies. (scirp.org)
  • Serologic tests are employed to detect antibodies as human immune response to H. pylori. (rapidtest.com)
  • H pylori infection is the most common cause of peptic ulcers . (medlineplus.gov)
  • But doing so gives you the best chance for getting rid of the H pylori bacteria and preventing ulcers in the future. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CagA in situ expression is increased in children with H pylori infection who have peptic ulcers and may play a role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) . (medscape.com)
  • Although H. pylori infections are typically harmless, they're responsible for most ulcers in the stomach and digestive tract . (healthline.com)
  • Research has also found that H. pylori may lead to a range of serious health problems, including certain types of gastric cancers and gastric ulcers . (healthline.com)
  • While untreated ah pylori infection can lead to ulcers and stomach cancer ( wait , what? (dane101.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes chronic inflammations in the stomach area and is involved in ulcers, which can develop into gastric malignancies. (nature.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid secretion) damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing inflammation and peptic ulcers. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Researchers do not yet know what causes certain people to develop H. pylori-related symptoms or ulcers. (luriechildrens.org)
  • The following are the most common symptoms of H. pylori-related for ulcers. (luriechildrens.org)
  • H-pylori-caused ulcers are commonly treated with combinations of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • H. pylori -caused ulcers are treated with a combination of antibiotics and an acid-reducing proton pump inhibitor. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. (rcsb.org)
  • H. pylori can also lead to painful peptic ulcers in the stomach lining or duodenum. (nccid.ca)
  • Nearly all gastric cancer cases and duodenal ulcers are related to H. pylori infection. (nccid.ca)
  • The latest study found that the bacterium H. pylori(Helicobacter pylori) the cause of most stomach ulcers was also linked to higher levels of blood sugar, the diagnostic hallmark of diabetes. (acsh.org)
  • They found that adults who had H. pylori infections, even if they had no symptoms of stomach ulcers, were more likely to have higher blood sugar levels than those who were not infected with the bacteria. (acsh.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract is a contributor to the formation of gastric ulcers, gastric cancer, and a unique lymphoma involving the gut mucosa (mucosal-associated lymphatic tissue lymphoma). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • 1 It is also established that H pylori is a primary cause of gastric ulcers, and longstanding infection can lead to noncardia gastric cancer. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of your stomach lining and ulcers (sores) in your stomach or intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori ) is a type of bacteria that infects the stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • H pylori bacteria are most likely passed directly from person to person. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If H pylori are present, the bacteria turn the urea into carbon dioxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • H pylori organisms are spiral-shaped gram-negative bacteria that are highly motile because of multiple unipolar flagella. (medscape.com)
  • H. pylori is a contagious type of bacteria that may spread through saliva or contaminated food or water. (healthline.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is a very common - and yes, contagious - type of bacteria that infects the digestive tract . (healthline.com)
  • A 2014 study in the Central European Journal of Urology suggests that as many as 90 percent of people with an H. pylori infection may carry the bacteria in their mouth and saliva. (healthline.com)
  • If you have H. pylori , the bacteria will change the urea in your body into carbon dioxide, and lab tests will show that your breath has higher than normal levels of the gas. (webmd.com)
  • you guessed it - Helicobacter pylori bacteria that screws up the inner lining of your stomach or small intestine. (dane101.com)
  • Although you might feel like you've been personally victimized 😉 by H.pylori, know that millions suffer worldwide from these mouthful bacteria-infected tumors (one reason why I'm never sharing my water bottle again). (dane101.com)
  • Think back on all those gross unidentifiable dinner leftovers you ate outta hunger and consider picking a healthier option because feeding your gut bacteria with residual left overs can play a massive part in how H.pylori is contracted. (dane101.com)
  • HomB protein contributes to the colonization and persistence of H. pylori , and the presence of homB genes affects the number of bacteria adhering to the host cells. (nature.com)
  • The spiral-shaped bacteria Helicobacter pylori are common and troublesome. (scienceblog.com)
  • H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori ) are bacteria that can cause an infection in the stomach or duodenum (first part of the small intestine ). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • H. pylori bacteria are present in some 50% to 75% of the world's population. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In the U.S., H. pylori bacteria are found in about 5% of children under the age of 10. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • H pylori antigen is a protein constituent of the H pylori bacterium, which is shed in human stool. (medscape.com)
  • The bacterium Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infects the stomachs of approximately 50% of all humans. (wjgnet.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic curved or S-shaped bacterium that infects the inner lining of the stomach. (nccid.ca)
  • Helicobacter pylori is a spiral bacterium cultured from human gastric mucosa identified by Marshall in 1982. (rapidtest.com)
  • Children differ from adults with respect to H pylori infection in terms of the prevalence of the infection, the complication rate, the near-absence of gastric malignancies, age-specific problems with diagnostic tests and drugs, and a higher rate of antibiotic resistance. (medscape.com)
  • As common as H. pylori is, evidence suggests its prevalence may be falling , primarily in developed nations and in children. (healthline.com)
  • H. pylori prevalence differs by ethnicity in the U.S. (pathologyoutlines.com)
  • The following is a summary of " Global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection between 1980 and 2022: a systematic review and meta-analysis ," published in the June 2023 issue of Gastroenterology & Hepatology by Li et al. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Limited research has been conducted to investigate the temporal patterns of Helicobacter pylori prevalence on a global scale. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Researchers' objective was to ascertain the alterations in the worldwide prevalence of H pylori infection from 1980 to 2022. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The purpose was to identify observational studies about the prevalence of H pylori infection, published from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2022. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The analysis focused on the prevalence of H pylori and its temporal trend concerning various factors, including the WHO region, World Bank income level, WHO universal health coverage service coverage index, patient's sex and age, study type, and diagnostic method. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The estimated worldwide prevalence of H. pylori infection declined from 58.2% (95% CI 50.7-65.8) during the 1980-1990 timeframe to 43.1% (40.3-45.9) during 2011-2022. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Research studies utilizing serological diagnostic methods consistently demonstrated a higher prevalence of H. pylori compared to studies employing non-serological techniques (53.2% [49.8-56.6] vs. 41.1% [38.1-44.2]), with less variability observed over time. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • What is the prevalence of H. pylori in Canada? (nccid.ca)
  • Sera from H. pylori-infected persons neutralized the cytotoxins produced by multiple H. pylori strains, but failed to neutralize trimethylamine-induced cell vacuolation. (jci.org)
  • With the agreement of these studies, hom B can be considered as a virulence marker of H. pylori virulent strains. (nature.com)
  • In clinical trials testing these treatment regimens, investigators found an eradication rate of 85% using the triple pak and an eradication rate of 79% using the dual pak in patients with sensitive strains of H pylori. (consultantlive.com)
  • Clinical evidence suggests that infection with H. pylori cagA + strains dramatically increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 3 Paradoxically, some strains of H pylori may protect people from developing gastric cancer arising in the cardia of the stomach while increasing the likelihood of cancer of the body or antrum of the stomach. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • In some cases, H pylori can't be cured with any therapy, though the symptoms may be able to be reduced. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Read on to learn how you can get H. pylori , what the symptoms are, and how it's treated. (healthline.com)
  • Most people with H. pylori don't have symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • If you don't have symptoms of an ulcer, your doctor probably won't test you for H. pylori . (webmd.com)
  • This assay is intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in persons with gastrointestinal symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • What Are the Symptoms of H. pylori? (luriechildrens.org)
  • One of the main challenges in treating the disease is that it does not have specific gastrointestinal symptoms associated with it and up to 90% of patients with H pylori infections are asymptomatic. (consultantlive.com)
  • Most people infected with H. pylori do not show any symptoms. (nccid.ca)
  • The most common symptoms of H. pylori infection include an upset stomach, nausea, or vomiting. (nccid.ca)
  • The symptoms of H. pylori infection may be caused by other stomach problems, and provider confirmation is needed for diagnosis. (nccid.ca)
  • Take the antibiotic, if the symptoms go away, you had H. pylori. (chapala.com)
  • Diagnostic Automation offers H. pylori IgG ELISA kit for evaluating the serologic status to H. pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. (rapidtest.com)
  • Most people who are infected with H. pylori have no symptoms and are unaware of the infection. (acsh.org)
  • 12 Mastic gum has been used traditionally in Greece and Turkey as a remedy for gastric symptoms, and research has shown its antimicrobial activity against H pylori . (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Doctors suspect H. pylori infection from your symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Supplies used for the clinical diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections. (fishersci.com)
  • If you're looking for a diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori existence then you need to have an endoscopy and a biopsy. (chapala.com)
  • A total of 631 serum samples collected in 1969, 1979, and 1989 from adults and children were screened for Helicobacter pylori by Western blot analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The first developed was an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which uses polyclonal anti- H pylori capture antibody absorbed to microwells. (medscape.com)
  • Serum neutralizing antibody response to the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. (jci.org)
  • H. pylori elisa testing the presence of H. pylori specific IgG antibody, is the technique of choice for serologic tests because of its accuracy and simplicity. (rapidtest.com)
  • Diluted patient serum is added to wells and H. pylori IgG specific antibody, if present, binds to the antigen. (rapidtest.com)
  • Negative: H. pylori M Index of 0.90 or less are seronegative for IgG antibody to H. pylori. (rapidtest.com)
  • ABSTRACT In this study, endoscopy patients with and without chronic liver disease (CLD) were examined and tested for Helicobacter pylori infection by detecting the presence of serum and salivary anti-H. pylori antibody. (who.int)
  • Salivary anti-H. pylori antibody positivity showed low sensitivity (36.6%) and high specificity (75.8%) in CLD patients. (who.int)
  • A 2018 report in the journal Gastroenterology notes another concern: Worldwide resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics may be growing dramatically. (healthline.com)
  • If you're taking antibiotics to treat H. pylori , you're still contagious until tests show the infection is gone. (healthline.com)
  • Well through a breath test and a blood test I found out that I tested positive for H Pylori, a stomach infection that can be treated with antibiotics and strong Prilosec type meds. (cancer.org)
  • Ten years ago I had H.pylori verified by test and treated with antibiotics. (chapala.com)
  • pylori requires a several-week course of three antibiotics, ACSH s Dr. Gilbert Ross explains. (acsh.org)
  • Current treatments to eradicate H pylori include antibiotics, which bring some risk of untoward effects. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • 9 Repeated courses of antibiotics, especially the combination antibiotics required for standard H pylori therapy, have an increasing potential for harm because each antibiotic has its unique potential for side effects. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Overall, nonprescription therapy gives patients and physicians another option when faced with H pylori infection, and it has the benefit of helping to promote the balance of intestinal flora while having potentially fewer side effects than antibiotics. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • H. pylori diagnosis can be made through fecal antigen assay, urea breath test, rapid urease test, or histology of a biopsy specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • Helicobacter pylori antigen testing is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a noninvasive diagnostic test for H pylori infection and as a test to determine eradication after treatment. (medscape.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing has 3 distinct forms. (medscape.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing uses one fresh random stool sample. (medscape.com)
  • H pylori antigen testing is not typically performed within a laboratory panel but as a standalone test. (medscape.com)
  • Purified H. pylori antigen is coated on the surface of microwells. (rapidtest.com)
  • A chemiluminescent assay for the qualitative determination of Helicobacter pylori antigen in human stool. (meridianbioscience.com)
  • Plasminogen binding to H. pylori seems to be independent of culture media and independent of the presence of the cytotoxin-associated CagA antigen. (lu.se)
  • One important factor that promotes the colonization of the upper digestive system of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is its helical cell shape. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. (medscape.com)
  • More recent evidence has suggested that chronic H. pylori infection as well as early age of H. pylori -acquisition is a critical precursor to gastric carcinoma. (cdc.gov)
  • H. pylori produces a urease enzyme which neutralizes stomach acids and produces chronic inflammation on the stomach lining. (nccid.ca)
  • Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a gram-negative bacillus responsible for one of the most common infections found in humans worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Ah Pylori is one of the most common bacterial infections found in humans. (dane101.com)
  • Who gets H. pylori infections? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A pair of treatment regimens recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infections are showing promise bringing up the cure rate for infected patients. (consultantlive.com)
  • However, in May the FDA approved 2 new treatments for adult patients with H pylori infections. (consultantlive.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections are commonly associated with abdominal pain, bloating, and acidity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In summary, the researchers conclude that through this study, they were able to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in gastric carcinogenesis induced by H. pylori, gain insights into the role of the Wnt/PCP pathway in carcinogenesis, and propose it as a potential target for clinical interventions against H. pylori cagA + infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Helicobacter pylori - Medscape - Jan 20, 2022. (medscape.com)
  • Questions must be addressed in a carefully considered manner that combines systematic, demographic epidemiology with the knowledge of H. pylori positivity or negativity. (cdc.gov)
  • Fallone CA. Epidemiology of the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Canada. (medscape.com)
  • The pylorus is one component of the gastrointestinal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atsushi Takahashi-Kanemitsu, The Helicobacter Pylori CagA Oncoprotein Disrupts Wnt/PCP Signaling and Promotes Hyperproliferation of Pyloric Gland Base Cells, Science Signaling (2023). (medicalxpress.com)
  • H. pylori is present in about 60 percent of the world's population . (healthline.com)
  • article{647bc080-7535-4010-966a-3d1fad12c300, abstract = {{The binding of iodine-labelled plasminogen to Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 was characterized. (lu.se)
  • H pylori enters the mucus layer of the stomach and attaches to the stomach lining. (medlineplus.gov)
  • H pylori inhabits the mucus adjacent to the gastric mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • H. pylori multiply in the mucus layer of the stomach lining and duodenum. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Figure 1 10 g/L agarose gel electrophoresis of cagA DNA fragment amplified by PCR from coccoidal H pylori . (wjgnet.com)
  • Lane 2: Amplifi-cation cagA gene from coccoid H pylori genome DNA by PCR. (wjgnet.com)
  • A specialized protein delivered by H. pylori to the host, oncoprotein "CagA," has been shown to interact with multiple host proteins and promote gastric carcinogenesis (transformation of normal cells to cancer cells ). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Corresponding author Masanori Hatakeyama, Laboratory Head, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Microbial Chemistry Research Foundation, says, "Perturbation of Wnt/PCP signaling by the H. pylori CagA-VANGL interaction induces hyperplastic changes, along with impaired cell differentiation in gastric pyloric glands. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A 2010 Government of Canada Safety Data Sheet for H. pylori states that a combination of recombinant urease (rUrease), a parenteral vaccine containing H. pylori antigens (CagA, VacA, NAP), and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant may be effective against infection. (nccid.ca)
  • This test looks for evidence of H. pylori in a stool sample. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Between November 2008 and November 2013, we analyzed 1209 patients' stool samples using DNA probe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect H pylori organisms (GI Effects® Comprehensive Stool Profile, Metametrix, Palm Harbor, Florida). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Stool PCR testing is not validated as a reliable sole measure in the diagnosis of H pylori , despite the accuracy of it. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • The efficacy of H pylori treatments has waned in recent years, largely because of clarithromycin resistance. (consultantlive.com)
  • The still today, the most commonly prescribed regimen for H pylori infection in the US and much of Europe is so called traditional triple therapy, which comprises a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin or sometimes a PPI, metronidazole or clarithromycin. (consultantlive.com)
  • THURSDAY, May 7, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- A novel rifabutin-based triple therapy (RHB-105) is effective for eradication of Helicobacter pylori , with eradication rates unaffected by resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole, according to a study published online May 5 in the Annals of Internal Medicine . (healthday.com)
  • Annual change of primary resistance to clarithromycin among Helicobacter pylori isolates from 1996 through 2008 in Japan. (medscape.com)
  • Levofloxacin-based and clarithromycin-based triple therapies as first-line and second-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomised comparative trial with crossover design. (medscape.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori eradication with a capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus clarithromycin-based triple therapy: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Warren and Marshall first cultured and identified the organism as Campylobacter pylori in 1982. (medscape.com)
  • H. pylori attaches and colonizes to the human epithelium using some of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). (nature.com)
  • Our study provides essential structural information of unexplored proteins of the Hom family that can help in a better understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H. pylori play a crucial role in the host-pathogen interaction, virulence and pathogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Recent work characterizing cell shape mutants of Helicobacter pylori revealed a novel mechanism for the generation of a twisted helix from a rod, including PG-modifying enzymes as well as additional proteins such as the bactofilin homolog CcmA or the membrane proteins Csd5 and Csd7. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Functional analysis of the Helicobacter pylori flagellar switch proteins. (medscape.com)
  • About 10% to 15% of people infected with H pylori develop peptic ulcer disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have a peptic ulcer and an H pylori infection, treatment is recommended. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer in the duodenal bulb. (medscape.com)
  • Hom (Helicobacter outer membrane) family of OMPs in H. pylori consists of four members (HomA, B, C and D). In the H. pylori genome jhp 0870 open-reading frame (ORF) that codes for HomB outer membrane protein is associated with many stomach diseases and is a novel co-marker for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) 9 , 10 . (nature.com)
  • H. pylori infection is one of the main causes of gastric (stomach) cancer and duodenal peptic ulcer disease (PUD). (nccid.ca)
  • H. pylori is a major cause of gastric cancer and duodenal peptic ulcer disease. (nccid.ca)
  • FACP, AGAF, FACG, FCP, Hyman Professor Medicine and Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, explained how there is now a great need for H pylori treatments. (consultantlive.com)
  • Many people get H. pylori during childhood, but adults can get it, too. (webmd.com)
  • It is currently estimated that approximately 30% of adults in the US are infected with H pylori. (consultantlive.com)
  • In H. pylori, cross-linking relaxation or trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides affects the helical cell shape. (rcsb.org)
  • The LPS outer membrane of H pylori is a less potent inducer of the host complement cascade. (medscape.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection revealed by endoscopy (nodular gastropathy). (medscape.com)
  • Pretreatment evaluation included endoscopy with biopsies for histology and culture for H pylori infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Moodley et al estimated that H pylori is approximately as old as modern humans and that migration out of Africa occurred in several waves, the first one 60,000 years ago and the second 52,000 years ago. (medscape.com)
  • A population-based epidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with systemic inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 50% of Helicobacter pylori isolates produce a cytotoxin in vitro that induces vacuolation of eukaryotic cells. (jci.org)
  • 1993) Apparent reversal of early gastric mucosal atrophy after triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori. (scirp.org)
  • The long-term persistence of H. pylori can stimulate a severe immune response that can damage the mucosal lining. (nature.com)
  • Salivary H. pylori positivity was significantly associated with older age. (who.int)
  • Neutralization of cytotoxin activity by human or immune rabbit sera was associated with immunoblot IgG recognition of an 87-kD H. pylori protein. (jci.org)
  • If you live with someone with H. pylori , help make sure they complete their treatment program as prescribed by their physician. (healthline.com)
  • ACG clinical guideline: treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. (cdc.gov)
  • It's not just gastric cancers being associated with H.pylori, Some lymphomas have favorable associations with H.pylori eradication treatment options proving beneficial in many studies. (dane101.com)
  • Treatment of H pylori is evolving," Howden said. (consultantlive.com)
  • First-line regimens should not be repeated in the second-line treatment of H pylori . (medscape.com)
  • Learn more about H pylori treatment regimens. (medscape.com)
  • Moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection: effect of treatment duration and antibiotic resistance on the eradication rate. (medscape.com)
  • Here, the crystal structure of H. pylori Csd4 (HP1075 in strain 26695) is reported in three different states: the ligand-unbound form, the substrate-bound form and the product-bound form. (rcsb.org)
  • Two methods appear to be of great interest regarding their use in H. pylori routine serology, namely the ELISA and the Western immunoblot because they offer the most versatility in regards to immunoglobulin specificity and relative ease of use. (rapidtest.com)
  • Total of 347 patient samples were used to evaluate specificity and sensitivity of this H. pylori elisa test. (rapidtest.com)
  • However, the risk of developing severe complications from H. pylori is low. (nccid.ca)
  • But mainly, one commonly gets "helicobacter pylori" by getting directly or indirectly exposed to fecal matter or contaminated food and water (I know. (dane101.com)
  • Additional treatments for H pylori are under investigation . (medscape.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Dans cette étude, des patients soumis à une endoscopie et souffrant ou non d'une pathologie hépatique chronique (PHC) ont fait l'objet d'un examen et d'une recherche d'infection à Helicobacter pylori par détection de la présence d'anticorps anti-H. pylori dans le sérum et la salive. (who.int)