Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.D-Aspartate Oxidase: An FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme, this catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-ASPARTATE to OXALOACETATE and AMMONIA using oxygen as electron acceptor.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type I: A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins that also transport organic ANIONS. They are low affinity phosphate transporters.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sideritis: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains isoscutellarein-7-O-(allosyl(1-2)glucoside).Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type II: A family of sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins with eight transmembrane domains. They are present primarily in the KIDNEY and SMALL INTESTINE and are responsible for renal and small intestinal epithelial transport of phosphate.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Picolinic AcidsNeural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.PyruvatesCrystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Prostaglandins A: (13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.MalatesCalcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.HexosesSubcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.CitratesImage Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLFurosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.PhlorhizinParathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.SepharoseGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.CreatinineDetergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
I. Purification and properties of the enzyme from pig kidney cortex". J. Biol. Chem. 247: 4480-4485. PMID 4402936.. ... Tabakoff, B. & Erwin, V.G. (1970). „Purification and characterization of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- ...
... purification and characterization of a distinct matrix-degrading metalloproteinase in rat kidney cortex and its identification ... 1995). "Purification of meprin from human kidney and its role in parathyroid hormone degradation". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. ... Kumar JM, Bond JS (2001). "Developmental expression of meprin metalloprotease subunits in ICR and C3H/He mouse kidney and ... Meprins are multidomain zinc metalloproteases that are highly expressed in mammalian kidney and intestinal brush border ...
... purification and characterization of a distinct matrix-degrading metalloproteinase in rat kidney cortex and its identification ... Kumar JM, Bond JS (2001). "Developmental expression of meprin metalloprotease subunits in ICR and C3H/He mouse kidney and ... alpha and beta subunits in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells". Eur. J. Biochem. 247 (3): 920-32. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997. ...
... of prostaglandin E 9-ketoreductase and types I and II 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in swine kidney medulla and cortex ... Purification and partial characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (6): 2315-8. PMID 1117007. Lee SC, Levine L (1975). " ... Anggaard E, Samuelsson B (1966). "Purification and properties of a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase from swine lung". ...
"Control of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortex slices." Biochemistry Journal 104 (1967). 300-305. Web. Fischer ... "Purification and characterization of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from the ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis: enzyme ... Donahue JL, Bownas JL, Niehaus WG, Larson TJ (Oct 2000). "Purification and characterization of glpX-encoded fructose 1, 6- ... Fujita Y, Freese E (Jun 1979). "Purification and properties of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase of Bacillus subtilis". The Journal ...
Robinson B, Hunsaker LA, Stangebye LA, Vander Jagt DL (December 1993). "Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex ... Tanimoto T, Ohta M, Tanaka A, Ikemoto I, Machida T (1991). "Purification and characterization of human testis aldose and ... identification and characterization in rat liver and kidney cortex". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. ... AKR1A1 gene is found highly expressed in kidney and liver, and moderately expressed in cerebrum, small intestine and testis. ...
... plays a role in the promotion of urinary calcium transport in the epithelial cells of kidney cortex. Overexpression ... Fujita T, Uchida K, Maruyama N (April 1992). "Purification of senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) and its androgen-independent ... Thus, regucalcin plays a multifunctional role in the regulation of cell functions in liver, kidney cortex, heart and brain. ... The disorder of regucalcin expression has been proposed to be induced cancer, brain function, heart injury, kidney failure, ...
MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding protein from horse (equine) renal cortex. ... "A cadmium protein from equine kidney cortex". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 79 (17): 4813-4814. doi:10.1021/ ... In the human body, large quantities are synthesised primarily in the liver and kidneys. Their production is dependent on ... Studies have found increased expression of MTs in some cancers of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, skin (melanoma), lung, ...
The gene is highly expressed in the brain (Cerebral Cortex). The KIAA1211L protein is located in many different tissue types, ... including the brain, the hippocampus, the lung, breast carcinoma, the islets of Langerhans, the pancreas, the kidney, and 38 ... tandem affinity purification, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, protein kinases assay, two hybrid, and confocal ... It is highly expressed in the brain (Cerebral Cortex). Furthermore, it is localized to the microtubules and the centrosomes and ...
Kidney biopsy shows the presence of LECT2-based amyloid predominantly in the renal cortex interstitium, glomeruli, and ... 1997). "Purification and primary amino acid sequence of a novel neutrophil chemotactic factor LECT2". Immunol. Lett. 52 (1): 9- ... For example, autopsy studies find that up to 3.1% of Hispanics have these deposits in their kidneys but no history of signs or ... They may have histological evidence of LECT2 amyloid deposition in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, and adrenal glands of ...
In addition to liver, GNMT activity has been found in a number of other tissues including pancreas and kidney. GNMT is most ... GNMT is also expressed in various neurons presented in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. The ... Ogawa H, Fujioka M (1982). "Purification and properties of glycine N-methyltransferase from rat liver". The Journal of ... The GNMT proteins located in tissues that are actively in secretion, such as the proximal kidney tubules, the submaxillary ...
It is found in the microsomal fraction of the procine kidney cortex. It exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer that is ... Satoh S, Keida Y, Konta Y, Maeda M, Matsumoto Y, Niwa M, Kohsaka M (Jun 1993). "Purification and molecular cloning of mouse ... The protein itself is made of 411 amino acid residues and is only transcribed in kidney cells.. Although disulfide linkages in ... Adachi H, Kubota I, Okamura N, Iwata H, Tsujimoto M, Nakazato H, Nishihara T, Noguchi T (Jun 1989). "Purification and ...
Expressed in the adrenal cortex and may act as the "androgenic" 17β-HSD in ovarian thecal cells. Also expressed in the prostate ... A convenient purification and demonstration of multiple molecular forms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 252 (11): 3775- ... Expressed in the ovaries, testes, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and other tissues. HSD17B9: Also known as retinol dehydrogenase 5 ( ... Talalay P, Dobson MM (December 1953). "Purification and properties of a beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase". The Journal of ...
She described the purification and kinetic properties of vasopressin-sensitive adenylate cyclase from rat renal medulla. It ... Neer, EJ (Mar 10, 1978). "Size and detergent binding of adenylate cyclase from bovine cerebral cortex". The Journal of ... still at Guidotti's lab Eva undertook independent research on the biochemical mechanisms of vasopressin's action on kidney's ... Some of her most cited research findings include: Purification and properties of free and membrane-bound adenyalate cyclase ( ...
... s are mainly expressed in liver and in kidney with lesser amounts found in heart, adipose tissue, spleen, ... Horuk R, Wright DE (May 1983). "Partial purification and characterization of the glucagon receptor". FEBS Letters. 155 (2): 213 ... thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, cerebral cortex, and gastrointestinal tract. The 3D crystallographic structures of the seven ...
PEPCK-C activity is increased upon the secretion of both cortisol from the adrenal cortex and glucagon from the alpha cells of ... PEPCK-C is most abundant in the liver, kidney, and adipose tissue. A collaborative study between the U.S. Environmental ... Aich S, Imabayashi F, Delbaere LT (October 2003). "Expression, purification, and characterization of a bacterial GTP-dependent ... Cortisol on the other hand, when released by the adrenal cortex, passes through the lipid membrane of liver cells (due to its ...
Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1992). "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of ... Expression can be seen in the retina, the CNS, motor neurons, the kidneys, and the prostate. Exercise has been shown to ... In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and basal forebrain - areas vital to learning, memory, and ... hippocampus and cortex) more factors determine cell fate, including neural activity and neurotransmitter input. Neurotrophins ...
Polycystic kidney disease 9. RDH5. HSD17B9. 318. 12q13.2. ER. Retinoids. NADH/NAD+. Reduction / oxidation. Retina, liver, ... A convenient purification and demonstration of multiple molecular forms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 252 (11): 3775- ... Expressed in the adrenal cortex and may act as the "androgenic" 17β-HSD in ovarian thecal cells. Also expressed in the prostate ... Liver, testis, lung, spleen, brain, ovary, kidney, adrenal, prostate. Selectively distributed. ? 7. HSD17B7. SDR. 341. 1q23.3. ...
While there are reports that EPO receptors are found in a number of other tissues, such as heart, muscle, kidney and peripheral ... In adults, EPO is synthesized mainly by interstitial cells in the peritubular capillary bed of the renal cortex, with ... page needed] Miyake T, Kung CK, Goldwasser E (1977). "Purification of human erythropoietin". The Journal of Biological ... ESAs are used in the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease, anemia in myelodysplasia, and in anemia from cancer ...
... exhibits diverse expression patterns in a cell/tissue-specific manner, which has been found in liver, kidney, lung, ovary ... Protein Expression and Purification. 32 (1): 95-103. doi:10.1016/S1046-5928(03)00211-0. PMID 14680945. Purcell NH, Darwis D, ... pancreas, prostate, stomach, colon, cortex, and in particular, the heart. However, its expression in some immune-related ... "Transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor FHL2 by p53 in human kidney and liver cells". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e99359. doi: ...
EAAT2 knockout mice were more prone to lethal and spontaneous seizures and acute brain injuries among the cortex. These effects ... The technique for protein sequence determination relied upon the purification, sequencing, and cloning of the transporter ... examined reuptake inhibitor selectivity among the rat serotonin reuptake protein (SERT) expressed in human embryonic kidney ...
Cross SH, Charlton JA, Nan X, Bird AP (Mar 1994). "Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column". Nature ... Males treated with OXT showed increases in Avpr1a in the ventral palladium, lateral septum, and cingulate cortex, while females ... kidney, and vasculature. V1AR is also known as: V1a vasopressin receptor antidiuretic hormone receptor 1A SCCL vasopressin ... but not cortex. Human AVPR1A is situated on chromosome 12q14-15, and the promoter region does not have repeat sequences ...
It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and kidney failure. Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ... who then developed an improved purification process. Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his ... the number of dendritic branches and spines present on neurons involved with the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex areas ... Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Benzoylecgonine can be detected in urine ...
"The purification and specificity of a neutral endopeptidase from rabbit kidney brush border". Biochem J. 137: 477-488. doi: ... has been involved in neuronal migration during the cortex formation in human embryo (lissencephaly) and neurite outgrowth in ... Purification of the enzyme and determination of specificity with synthetic and natural peptides". Eur J Biochem. 135: 81-88. ...
Purification[edit]. Purification of the receptor further verified its existence. The first attempt to purify the receptor ... "Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasm a membrane fraction of rat cerebral cortex". Acta ... of the cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway Contributes to the Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a ...
Some people who have developed TTP due to quinine have gone on to develop kidney failure.[28] It can also cause serious ... Treimer JF, Zenk MH (November 1979). "Purification and properties of strictosidine synthase, the key enzyme in indole alkaloid ... Cortex Cinchonæ Archived 11 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ... Mizukami H, Nordlöv H, Lee SL, Scott AI (August 1979). "Purification and properties of strictosidine synthetase (an enzyme ...
Two forms of gamma-glutamyltransferase from human brain cortex microvessels were partially purified by gel permeation and ion- ... γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase of sheep-kidney cortex. Isolation, catalytic properties and dissociation into two polypeptide chains ... Human Brain Borate Brain Cortex Partial Purification Relative Molecular Mass This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Purification and properties of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase from bovine parotid gland. Int. J. Biochem. 13:681-692.PubMedGoogle ...
I. Purification and properties of the enzyme from pig kidney cortex". J. Biol. Chem. 247: 4480-4485. PMID 4402936.. ... Tabakoff, B. & Erwin, V.G. (1970). „Purification and characterization of a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- ...
I. Purification and properties of the enzyme from pig kidney cortex. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4480-4485. [PMID: 4402936]. 2. ... Purification, characterization, and gene cloning. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 24989-24994. [PMID: 1460002]. [EC 1.1.1.14 created ... 1. Purification and properties. Acta Chem. Scand. 7 (1953) 1081-1089.. 3. Pauly, H.E. and Pfleiderer, G. D-Glucose ... Partial purification and properties of sorbitol dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 211 (1983) 81-90. [PMID: 6870831]. 6. Ng, K., Ye, R ...
4887195 - Acceleration of gluconeogenesis from propionate by dl-carnitine in the rat kidney cortex.. ... 7236205 - Purification of an nadh-(dichlorophenol-indophenol) oxidoreductase from bacillus stearo.... ...
My project entitled "Purification and comparative fingerprinting of glutathione transferases from kidney cortex and medulla" ...
Stat1 mRNA was not present in the kidney cortex of Stat1-/- mice (Figure 9A). STAT1 protein was also absent from the kidney ... permitting purification. A 6× His tag was added to facilitate purification. Because the initial recombinant protein identified ... The left kidney was harvested for histological and immunohistochemical analyses, and the right kidney cortex was harvested for ... Treatment of Stat1+/+ mice with κ2 FLC promotes an increase in ITGB6 and p-SMAD2/3 in the kidney cortex. (A) Both doses of the ...
Protein was isolated from cultured cell extracts or kidney cortex and homogenized in lysis buffer (150 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl ... Immunoblot analysis was used to assess the adequacy of nuclear purification by measuring fibrillarin (a nuclear protein) and β- ... Kidney cortex and harvested cultured cells were performed as previously described.10 ... Previously characterized human kidney proximal tubule cells (HK-2) in which endogenous HSP72 is readily detected was used as an ...
... purification and characterization of a distinct matrix-degrading metalloproteinase in rat kidney cortex and its identification ... 1995). "Purification of meprin from human kidney and its role in parathyroid hormone degradation". Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler. ... Kumar JM, Bond JS (2001). "Developmental expression of meprin metalloprotease subunits in ICR and C3H/He mouse kidney and ... Meprins are multidomain zinc metalloproteases that are highly expressed in mammalian kidney and intestinal brush border ...
... purification and characterization of a distinct matrix-degrading metalloproteinase in rat kidney cortex and its identification ... Kumar JM, Bond JS (2001). "Developmental expression of meprin metalloprotease subunits in ICR and C3H/He mouse kidney and ... alpha and beta subunits in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells". Eur. J. Biochem. 247 (3): 920-32. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997. ...
Purification and characterization of a distinct matrix-degrading metalloproteinase in rat kidney cortex and its identification ... Craig SS, Reckelhoff JF, and Bond JS (1987) Distribution of meprin in kidneys from mice with high-and low-meprin activity. Am J ... Li C, and Hersh LB (1995) Neprilysin: Assay methods, purification, and characterization. Methods Enzymol 248: 253-263PubMed ... Bond JS, Beynon RJ, Reckelhoff JF, and David CS (1984) Mep-1 gene controlling a kidney metalloendopeptidase is linked to the ...
... and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI), ... and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI), ... Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of ... Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of ...
... compared with total kidney cortex, and it is known to be expressed by the smooth muscle cells of the developing kidney ... Isolation of Renin Cells, RNA Purification, and Target Amplification. Renin-expressing cells were isolated by FACS from kidneys ... Ctx, total kidney cortex; Ad, adult renin cells; P0, newborn renin cells; Cap, adult captopril-treated renin cells. See also ... ChIP was performed as described previously4 using chromatin from adult kidney cortex and skeletal muscle for the phopsho-Creb ...
... high-yield isolation and purification of total RNA and protein from cells and tissue. ... In detail: cortex of kidney, medulla tissue, liver tissue, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, macrophages, HeLa, HEK 293, MCF-7, D14 ... Native Purification with TALON Resin Imidazole Elution Protocol-At-A-Glance * Native Purification with TALON Resin pH Elution ... NucleoSpin RNA/Protein-Isolation and Purification of RNA & Protein from ONE Lysate. NucleoSpin RNA/Protein is a complete mini ...
Partial Characterization of the Enzyme from Rat Kidney Cortex. Eur. J. Biochem. 73, 485 (1977).Google Scholar ... Subramanian, V., T.-N. Liu, W. K. Yeh, and D. T. Gibson: Toluene Dioxygenase: Purification of an Iron-Sulfur Protein by ... Koontz, W. A., and R. Shiman: Beef Kidney 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Oxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 251, 368 (1976).Google Scholar ... Axcell, B. C., and P. C. Geary: Purification and some Properties of a Soluble Benzene-oxidizing System from a Strain of ...
Kinne, R., Schmitz, J. E., Kinne-Saffran, E.: The localization of the Na+−K+-ATPase in the cells of rat kidney cortex. A study ... De Santo, N. G., Hierholzer, K.: Plasma cell membranes of the rat kidney. I. Purification and properties of cell membrane ... Chignell, C. F., Titus, E.: Effect of adrenal steroids on a Na+- and K+-requiring adenosine triphosphatase from rat kidney. J. ... Jørgensen, P. L.: Regulation of the (Na++K+)-activated ATP hydrolyzing enzyme system in rat kidney. I. The effect of ...
PURIFICATION OF ALBUMIN FROM SHEEP KIDNEY CORTEX  Bilbis, L.S; Shehu, R.A; Abubakar, M.K (Nigerian Journal of Basic and ... Albumin from sheep kidney cortex was Isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity by 5 steps procedure. This molecule was ...
1. Meigs, R.A. and Ryan, K.J. 16-α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of rat kidney. Purification, assay, and properties. J. Biol. ... 3. Neville, A.M., Orr, J.C. and Engel, L.L. Δ5-3β-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activities of bovine adrenal cortex. Biochem. J ... Purification and partial characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 250 (1975) 2315-2318. [PMID: 1117007]. 3. Lee, S.-C. and Levine, L. ... 1. Aspen, A.J. and Jakoby, W.B. L-Threonic acid dehydrogenase: purification and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 710-713. ...
Cortex dissections were made from the kidneys of age-matched, male WT (129/sv) or Per1 KO mice. Gene expression was measured ... 19 DNA affinity purification assays using mpkCCDc14 nuclear extracts were performed to investigate Per1 interaction with these ... ELISA was used to measure ET-1 peptide levels in the inner medulla (A; n=4) and cortex (B; n=6) of Per1 KO and wild-type (WT) ... ET-1 levels were higher in the inner medulla and cortex of Per1 KO versus WT mice (Figure 5A and 5B). Interestingly, and ...
Cortex (Ctx), Hippocampus (Hip), Olfactory bulb (Olf), Hind Brain (Brn), Heart (Ht), Lung (Lg), Kidney (Kid), Liver (Lv), ... a) Representative immunoblots of proteasomes purified out of neuronal cultures using capped-26S (26S IP) or 20S purification ... e) Media collected from neurons following radiolabeling was subjected to size exclusion purification, with or without ... Media collected from neurons following radiolabeling was subjected to size exclusion purification, with or without Proteinase K ...
... cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, or cerebellum), spinal cord, pituitary gland, stomach, pancreas, kidney, liver, gonad, ... Next, purification of phosphorylated peptides was attempted. 0.1 mL of PHOS-SELECT (produced by Sigma) gel as one type of IMAC ... A separation (purification) method using an immobilized metal carrier or a titania carrier which will be described later in the ... Sodium chloride did not have any effect on the purification or non-specific adsorption of the phosphorylated proteins. In order ...
... and kidney [41,50]. More specifically, PREPL expression was already described in pyramidal neurons of the temporal cortex and ... Protein Expression and Purification. 2.1.1. α-Synuclein. A general cloning plasmid carrying the human wild-type α-Syn ... The details of the α-Syn purification are described elsewhere [52]. Additionally, after dialysis, the purified α-Syn-containing ... the α-Syn purification was pursued by (1) acidification of the crude extract to precipitate contaminants, followed by ...
HS-142-1 inhibited [125I]-rANP binding to its receptor in rabbit kidney cortex membranes with an IC50 of 0.3 μg/ml and ... Isolation and Purification of HS-142-1, a Novel Nonpeptide Antagonist for the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Receptor, from ...
The kidneys were removed, and the dissected cortex was homogenized. This homogenate was subjected to a low-speed spin (2,400 g ... After purification, each of the polyclonal antibodies (named Rab63, Rab64, Rab65) was stored in 50% glycerol/PBS at −20°C. ... Mouse kidney membranes were prepared in a similar fashion except that both cortex and medulla were included in the homogenate. ... Double-labeling of NHE8 with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and NHE8 with megalin in rat kidney cortex. A-D: 1 set of ...
The kidney cortex was dissected from individual kidneys, minced, and homogenized in 0.31 M sucrose, 15 mM HEPES, 8.5 μM ... Albumin affinity purification of cubilin. (a) Eluted fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie stained. Lane 1: 0.1 μg ... Localization of cubilin (a and b) and megalin (c and d) in kidney cortex of normal (a and c) and affected (b and d) dogs. ... Both the IF-B12 and albumin affinity purified cubilin, as well as a similar band in rat kidney cortex, were recognized by the ...
Lane 1: Cortex. Lane 2: Cortex X Medulla. Immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence staining of SLC12A3 in rat kidney with SLC12A3 ... Affinity purification. *Recommend Usage:. *Immunofluorescence. Western Blot (1:1000). The optimal working dilution should be ... 1 ug/mL of PAB28759 was sufficient for detection of SLC12A3 ,~160kDa, in 10ug of rat kidney tissue lysate by colorimetric ... Western blot analysis of SLC12A3 in rat kidney with SLC12A3 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB28748) at 1:1000 dilution. ...
  • Also available for immunohistochemical and neuropathologic examination were formalin-fixed postmortem samples of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum from the patient and from other persons without encephalitis or brain inflammation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Radial glial cells in the cerebral cortex serve as progenitors for neurons and glia and guide the migration of cortical neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we challenge this view and demonstrate that β1 integrins in migrating neurons are not essential for the formation of cell layers in the cerebral cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that β1 integrins in radial glia are required for the proper development of the cerebral cortex, whereas β1 integrins in migrating neurons are not essential for glial-guided migration and reelin signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mature cerebral cortex consists of cell layers containing distinct neuronal subtypes that are formed by series of well orchestrated cell specification and migration events. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been found that neudesin is expressed in the mouse embryonic cerebral cortex and the neural precursor cells where it significantly promotes neuronal differentiation but inhibits astrocyte differentiation. (biovendor.com)
  • The symptoms range from general symptoms such as tiredness, fatigue, fever, paleness and severe thirst, body aches, flank pain, spasmodic pain in the kidney( colic) via vomiting, high blood pressure with headache, to hematuria( blood in the urine) with a small amount of urine. (youth2all.com)
  • Urine collects in the renal pelvis and then heads out of the kidney through the ureter. (medicalplanet.info)
  • The relative inability of the kidney to produce concentrated urine is compensated for in birds that possess salt glands, which remove excess salt from their bodies. (britannica.com)
  • a human (2,500 mL/day) Fig. How many of the nephrons in the human kidney have loops of Henle that extend deep into the inner Kidneys are vertebrate osmoregulatory organs in which blood pressure forces fluid to filter through the walls of blood capillaries into tubules that process the filtrate into urine. (zonaheal.com)
  • The adipose capsule is extremely important and especially thin people run the risk of floating kidney (nephroptosis) in which the kidney drops possibly kinking the urethra thereby causing urine to back up into the kidney. (detoxandbodycleanse.com)
  • It consists of two kidneys which filter the blood and secrete urine via the urethra which connects to the urinary bladder from where it is passed via the urethra and discharged to the exterior. (detoxandbodycleanse.com)
  • After purification, most of the fluid pulled from the blood plasma is cleaned and returned to the bloodstream and the rest (less than 1 percent, or about 1.5 litres (1.5 quarts)) excreted from the body as urine. (detoxandbodycleanse.com)
  • These kidneys, together with matching urine (n = 18) and blood (n = 24) samples, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the LipL32 gene. (scielo.org.za)
  • Leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 19 (79.2%) out of 24 kidneys, as well as 7 (29.2%) blood and 10 (55.5%) urine samples of cows with white spots in their kidneys. (scielo.org.za)
  • In addition, 14 apparently normal kidneys and associated urine and blood samples were similarly examined by PCR but did not provide any positive results. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study was based on a biological determination of a purified aldosterone fraction obtained after two successive chromatographic purifications of the crude, neutral extract of acidified urine (1). (annals.org)
  • Under conditions of low blood volume or reduced renal perfusion, plasma angiotensin II (angII) and K + levels increase and synergistically stimulate aldosterone secretion from the adrenals thereby promoting Na + and water retention in the proximal tubule and driving sodium-dependent K + secretion in the distal tubule of the kidney ( Palmer, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We have cloned a novel member of the FGF family, designated FGF-18, that is expressed primarily in the lungs and kidneys and at lower levels in the heart, testes, spleen, skeletal muscle, and brain. (asm.org)
  • Large numbers of tubular epithelial cells were vacuolated, exfoliated and necrotic, especially at the edge of cortex (Figure 1d). (nih.gov)
  • ATP release colocalized with Panx1 channels in polarized cells, such as airway epithelia, where ATP is secreted exclusively at the air interface ( 4 ), or the apical membrane of kidney epithelial cells ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 2011). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between white-spotted kidneys with leptospirosis in cattle at an abattoir, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1 ug/mL of PAB28759 was sufficient for detection of SLC12A3 ,~160kDa, in 10ug of rat kidney tissue lysate by colorimetric immunoblot analysis using Goat anti-rabbit IgG:HRP as the secondary antibody. (abnova.com)
  • Western blot analysis of SLC12A3 in rat kidney with SLC12A3 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB28748) at 1:1000 dilution. (abnova.com)
  • Immunofluorescence staining of SLC12A3 in rat kidney with SLC12A3 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB28748) at 1:200 dilution, DAPI merged. (abnova.com)
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  • The kidney is the organ in which a critical concentration of cadmium is first reached as a consequence of the accumulation of this metal. (scirp.org)
  • Cisplatin increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of Glutathione (GSH) in serum and kidney, whereas, WG or FBG administration markedly down-regulated. (omicsonline.org)
  • On the outside is the renal fascia which is a thin layer of dense connective tissue that anchors the kidney to its surroundings. (medicalplanet.info)
  • Dividing a sample into several parts for independent purification procedures is difficult especially for small samples (e.g., biopsy material). (clontech.com)
  • This is a double-sided abacterial inflammation of the kidneys, which is usually triggered by immunological processes after a( streptococcal) infection or in chronic suppurative inflammatory foci. (youth2all.com)
  • The glomerulonephritis can be acute or chronic and often leads to progressive kidney malfunction( chronic renal insufficiency CNI). (youth2all.com)
  • If the acute inflammation of the kidney does not heal or does not cure enough, a chronic pathological inflammatory process develops. (youth2all.com)
  • Chronic glomerulonephritis results in kidney failure and self-poisoning. (youth2all.com)
  • In naturopathy, some medicinal plants are known, which are used in specific composition both for the treatment of acute and chronic forms of kidney inflammation. (youth2all.com)
  • After leptospiraemia in the host, the kidneys are the main tissue for localisation of the organism and the chronic lesion of the disease is focal chronic interstitial nephritis (FCIN) (Yang, Wu & Pan 2001), known as white-spotted kidneys. (scielo.org.za)
  • Gathering Perspectives - Finding Solutions for Chronic and End Stage Kidney Disease. (annals.org)
  • The common unilateral parenchymal diseases include countercurrent kidney disease, chronic pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, renal carcinoma, etc and the common bilateral parenchymal diseases include glomerular diseases, chronic interstitial nephritis, adult PKD , etc. (kidneyfailureweb.com)
  • The deepest layer, called the renal capsule, is a smooth transparent sheet of dense connective tissue that gives the kidney its distinctive shape. (medicalplanet.info)
  • Here we compared the gene expression profiles of renin cells with most cells in the kidney at various stages of development as well as after a physiologic challenge known to induce the transformation of arteriolar smooth muscle cells into renin-expressing cells. (asnjournals.org)