Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Tonic Pupil: A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Tropicamide: One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adie Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Schools: Educational institutions.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Presbyopia: The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)MississippiCriminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Awards and PrizesNobel PrizeAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Great BritainAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (1/769)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (2/769)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements. (3/769)

Reflectometric techniques estimate the directionality of the retinal cones by measuring the distribution of light at the pupil plane of light reflected off the bleached retina. The waveguide-scattering model of Marcos et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012 (1998)] predicts that the shape of this intensity distribution is determined by both the waveguide properties of the cone photoreceptors and the topography of the cone mosaic (cone spacing). We have performed two types of cone directionality measurement. In the first type, cone directionality estimates are obtained by measuring the spatial distribution of light returning from the retina with a single-entry pupil position (single-entry measurements). In the second type, estimates are obtained by measuring the total amount of light guided back through the pupil as a function of entry pupil position (multiple-entry measurements). As predicted by the model, single-entry measurements provide narrower distributions than the multiple-entry measurements, since the former are affected by both waveguides and scattering and the latter are affected primarily by waveguides. Measurements at different retinal eccentricities and at two different wavelengths are consistent with the model. We show that the broader multiple-entry measurements are not accounted for by cone disarray. Results of multiple-entry measurements are closer to results from measurements of the psychophysical Stiles-Crawford effect (although still narrower), and the variation with retinal eccentricity and wavelength is similar. By combining single- and multiple-entry measurements, we can estimate cone spacing. The estimates at 0- and 2-deg retinal eccentricities are in good agreement with published anatomical data.  (+info)

Human dynamic closed-loop accommodation augmented by sympathetic inhibition. (4/769)

PURPOSE: A ciliary alpha-adrenoceptor accommodative effect has been proposed, caused by a small population of alpha1-inhibitory receptors in excised human ciliary muscle. This study was intended to investigate the effect on the closed-loop dynamic accommodative process of modulating alpha1-adrenoceptor activity by topical instillation of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine hydrochloride. METHODS: A group of 10 visually normal subjects viewed a photopic (30 candela/m2) high-contrast Maltese cross, which was modulated sinusoidally (0.05-0.6Hz) and stepwise over a 2-D range (2-4 D). Monocular temporal accommodation responses were measured using a continuously recording dynamic tracking infrared optometer under two trial conditions: after instillation of saline control solution and 50 minutes subsequent to the instillation of 0.27 microl 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride and 0.27 microl 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride. Pupil size and accommodative amplitude were measured at 90-second intervals for 50 minutes after drug instillation. All accommodative measurements were recorded through a fixed 4-mm pupil. RESULTS: A significant reduction in accommodative amplitude (11%; P < 0.05) was recorded, whereas pupil size showed a significant increase (33%; P < 0.05). No significant change in step-response dynamics was observed. However, phenylephrine hydrochloride caused a significant increase in accommodative gain in the low and midtemporal frequency ranges compared with the effect of a saline control treatment. No significant variation in phase lag was observed. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in humans, this study shows that augmentation of the alpha1-inhibitory sympathetic contribution results in increased accommodative gain at low and midtemporal frequencies, which is consistent with findings in animal studies.  (+info)

The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements. (5/769)

The depth-of-field (DOF) measured through psychophysical methods seems to depend on the target's characteristics. We use objective and subjective methods to determine the DOF of the eye for different pupil diameters and wavelengths in three subjects. Variation of image quality with focus is evaluated with a double-pass technique. Objective DOF is defined as the dioptric range for which the image quality does not change appreciably, based on optical criteria. Subjective DOF is based on the accuracy of focusing a point source. Additional DOFs are obtained by simulation from experimental wavefront aberration data from the same subjects. Objective and subjective measurements of DOF are only slightly affected by pupil size, wavelength and spectral composition. Comparison of DOF from double-pass and wavefront aberration data allows us to evaluate the role of ocular aberrations and Stiles-Crawford effect.  (+info)

S-cone contribution to pupillary responses evoked by chromatic flash offset. (6/769)

On a green or red background, the action spectrum of the pupillary responses evoked following the offset of chromatic test flashes shows a prominent short-wavelength lobe and suggests the contribution from photoreceptors other than the previously inferred M- and L-cones (Kimura & Young, Vision Research (1996). 36, 1543-1550), most likely from S-cones. Systematic changes in the shape of the intensity versus amplitude functions with test wavelengths and in the shape of the short-wavelength lobe with response amplitude criteria suggest an antagonistic interaction involving the short- and longer-wavelength photoreceptors.  (+info)

Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging. (7/769)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether corneal wavefront aberrations vary with aging. METHODS: One hundred two eyes of 102 normal subjects were evaluated with videokeratography. The data were decomposed using Taylor and Zernike polynomials to calculate the monochromatic aberrations of the cornea for both small (3-mm) and large (7-mm) pupils. RESULTS: For a 3-mm pupil, the amount of total aberrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.145; P = 0.103) and spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = -0.068; P = 0.448) did not change with aging, whereas comalike aberrations exhibited a weak but statistically significant correlation with age (r(s) = 0.256; P = 0.004). For a 7-mm pupil, total aberrations (r(s) = 0.552; P < 0.001) and comalike aberrations (r(s) = 0.561; P < 0.001) significantly increased with aging, but spherical-like aberrations showed no age-related changes (r(s) = 0.124; P = 0.166). Simulated pupillary dilation from 3 mm to 7 mm caused a 38.0+/-28.5-fold increase in the total aberrations, and the extent of increases significantly correlated with age (r(s) = 0.354; P < 0.001). Pupillary dilation influenced the comalike aberrations more in the older subjects than in the younger subjects (r(s) = 0.243; P = 0.006), but such age dependence was not found for spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = 0.141; P = 0.115). CONCLUSIONS: Comalike aberrations of the cornea correlate with age, implying that the corneas become less symmetrical along with aging. Spherical-like aberrations do not vary significantly with aging. Pupillary dilation markedly increases wavefront aberrations, and those effects are more prominent in older subjects than in younger subjects.  (+info)

Pupillographic findings in neglect. (8/769)

OBJECTIVES: Unilateral sensory neglect has been attributed to various defects, including a hemispatial attention-arousal deficit. However, support for this hypothesis has only been indirect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further test the hemispatial attentional-arousal hypothesis by measuring pupillary response as an index of arousal. METHODS: There were two experimental subjects with neglect and six matched controls. Stimuli (Arabic numbers) were presented on the right, left, and centre of a screen. The subjects were asked to look at the number in the centre, on the right, or left of the screen while their pupil diameter was measured. RESULTS: Unlike the control subjects, the subjects with neglect, who were aware of the left sided stimuli, did not show a pupillary dilatation when they looked at the stimulus on the left. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study provides support for the hemispatial attention-arousal hypotheses of neglect, it does not preclude the possibility that other mechanisms may also be important.  (+info)

  • What are some methods for reversing pupil dilation? (reference.com)
  • As of 2012, there are no products sold in the United States that reverse pupil dilation, according the New York Times. (reference.com)
  • Some eye doctors used dapiprazole to reverse pupil dilation, but the product is no longer available. (reference.com)
  • Pupil dilation in reaction to seeing negative emotional faces appears to predict the risk for experiencing a relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD), according to a new study at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (psychcentral.com)
  • Specifically, really high or really low pupil dilation to angry faces was linked to an increased risk for depression relapse, whereas only low dilation to sad faces was associated with risk. (psychcentral.com)
  • For the study, researchers at Binghamton University, led by Ph.D. student Anastacia Kudinova, aimed to determine whether physiological reactivity to emotional stimuli, assessed through pupil dilation, could be used as a biological marker of risk for depression recurrence among individuals who are known to be at a higher risk due to having previous history of depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers recorded the change in pupil dilation in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. (psychcentral.com)
  • Specifically, really high or really low pupil dilation to angry faces was associated with increased risk whereas only low dilation to sad faces was associated with risk (high dilation to sad faces was actually protective)," said Brandon Gibb, professor of psychology at Binghamton University and director of the Mood Disorders Institute and Center for Affective Science. (psychcentral.com)
  • Light enters through the pupils and the dilation and constriction of pupils primarily depends on the exposure of light. (healthool.com)
  • The Pupil Premium grant is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for free school meals at any point in the last six years (known as 'Ever 6 FSM'), Looked After Children, children adopted from care or who have left care, and children of service personnel (known as 'Ever 5 service). (google.com)
  • You will be aware that nationally there is a significant gap between the achievement of pupils entitled to free school meals (FSM) and those that pay for their meals. (lns.org.uk)
  • Pupil Premium was introduced in April 2011, and paid by means of a specific grant based on school census figures for pupils registered as eligible for Free School Meals in Year's 7 - 11. (lns.org.uk)
  • With greater scrutiny from Ofsted on how the money is spent, it is essential to choose the right interventions and demonstrate their impact on raising attainment of disadvantaged pupils, or risk being judged inadequate at inspection. (pr.com)
  • The term exit pupil is also sometimes used to refer to the diameter of the virtual aperture. (wikipedia.org)
  • By moving the card closer to or further away from the eyepiece, the disc of light will be minimized when the card is at the exit pupil, and the bright disc then shows the diameter of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a telescope, the diameter of the exit pupil can be calculated by dividing the focal length of the eyepiece by the focal ratio (f-number) of the telescope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion of Zernike expansion coefficients was lower when calculated by the scaling method for a pupil diameter of 3 mm as compared to the one introduced when only the central 3 mm of the Shack - Hartmann image was evaluated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An astronomical telescope requires a large pupil because it is designed to be used for looking at dim objects at night, while a microscope will require a much smaller pupil since the object will be brightly illuminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of 7×50 binoculars has an exit pupil just over 7.1 mm, which corresponds to the average pupil size of a youthful dark-adapted human eye in circumstances with no extraneous light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maximum pupil size of a human eye is typically 5-9 mm for individuals below 25 years old, and decreases slowly with age as shown as an approximate guide in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the pupil is controlled by muscles . (wikipedia.org)
  • The light makes the pupil change its size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupils that are a normal size are called "regular. (wikipedia.org)
  • If both pupils change size at the same time, but the change happens slowly, the pupils are called "sluggish. (wikipedia.org)
  • If only one pupil changes size, there is usually a problem with the brain, or with the optic nerve (the nerve that runs from the brain to the eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical Xpress) -- University of Kansas researchers have found larger resting pupil size and lower levels of a salivary enzyme associated with the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in children with autism spectrum disorder. (medicalxpress.com)
  • But Anderson and Colombo also see pupil size and sAA levels as biomarkers that could be the physiological signatures of a possible dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They found two potential biological markers or biomarkers of ASD: larger resting pupil size and altered levels of a salivary enzyme associated with the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in children with the disorder. (ku.edu)
  • Collecting sAA levels with a small sponge swab under a child's tongue and the measurement of pupil size are painless, non-invasive procedures that have the potential for pediatricians to screen children for ASD much earlier and with relatively little expense, said Anderson. (ku.edu)
  • Beyond the exciting possibility of usefulness for early screening, the researchers see pupil size and sAA levels as possible physiological signatures of dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system. (ku.edu)
  • We compared the variance of individual Zernike expansion coefficients as determined by the aberrometer with the variance of coefficients calculated using a mathematical method for scaling the expansion coefficients to reconstruct wavefront aberration for a reduced-size pupil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Funding is specifically allocated to raise the attainment of these groups of pupils and to close the gap in attainment and progress between them and other children in their year group both within the school and nationally. (qehs.net)
  • The funding will be used to narrow and close the gap between the achievement of these pupils and their peers locally and nationally. (lns.org.uk)
  • A Top Up grant has been added for pupils coming into year 7 who did not reach L4 in either reading or mathematics by the end of year 6, additional funding is also available for summer school to support transition of prior lower attainers into secondary school. (lns.org.uk)
  • Wavefront aberration exhibits a marked variance of the order of 0.45 microns near the edge of the pupil whereas the central part appears to be measured more consistently. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such problems are often connected to the slower development of basic skills such as reading and mathematics, poor learning motivation, ineffective working methods in learning situations and problems in the teacher-pupil relationship. (jyu.fi)
  • Metsäpelto believes that the new curriculum, which is based on comprehensive phenomenon-based learning, may also offer new opportunities to individualise teaching and select working methods flexibly, and thus support the learning motivation of all pupils as well as their commitment to school's learning situations. (jyu.fi)
  • The brainstem-the part of the brain that controls our most basic involuntary or autonomic responses including salivation and pupil response-is where researchers Christa Anderson and John Colombo are looking for biological characteristics and the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder. (ku.edu)
  • A clear vial of milky fluid can also be used to visualize the light rays, which appear as an hourglass shape converging and diverging as they exit the eyepiece, with the smallest cross-section (the waist of the hourglass shape) representing the exit pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • When more light is needed, the pupil is made larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • In brighter light, the pupil is made smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it is darker, the pupils will dilate (get bigger) because they need to allow more light into the eye to see. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason why it has no colour is because the light that travels through the pupil is absorbed by the tissues in the inside of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a light is shined in one pupil, both pupils should get smaller at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the light is taken away, both pupils should get bigger at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is called being "light-reactive" (the pupils are reacting to changes in light). (wikipedia.org)
  • If neither pupil changes shape when light is shined in it, the pupils are called "fixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pupil constricts if the light is bright. (healthool.com)
  • However, a condition called pinpoint pupil is possible if the pupil remains constricted irrespective of the exposure to light. (healthool.com)
  • A normal pupil dilates and constricts depending on the exposure to light and darkness. (healthool.com)
  • If you are suspecting pinpoint pupils, then you have to create a dark environment and then slowly expose the person to light. (healthool.com)
  • We will ensure that the additional funding reaches the pupils who need it most and that it makes a significant impact on their education and lives. (lns.org.uk)
  • Externalising behaviour problems are often considered difficult in school classes and often manifest in pupils as overactive, restless and inattentive behaviour, defiance, difficulty in following rules, and aggressiveness towards other pupils. (jyu.fi)
  • During the study, it was also observed that externalising behaviour problems may be negatively reflected in the relationship between the teacher and the pupil. (jyu.fi)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine how these differences develop during primary education, with a special emphasis on the development of the performance of pupils in need of support for their studies. (helsinki.fi)
  • This was done by following three different samples of primary school pupils in two municipalities: In Helsinki a sample of 608 pupils was followed from the beginning of the first grade to the end of the sixth grade, and in Vantaa two full cohorts (N≈2000 in each) were assessed in the first/third grade and again in the third/sixth grade. (helsinki.fi)
  • At the same time the differences between pupils and in the capital area also the differences between schools have increased, and girls usually outperform boys in most assessed domains. (helsinki.fi)
  • Externalizing problems observed in the fourth year of school predicted the continuation of conflicts in the teacher-pupil relationship in the sixth year. (jyu.fi)
  • The results showed that whereas girls were evaluated by their teachers as being slightly better readers already when they came to school, there was no gender difference in pupils performance in the learning preparedness test. (helsinki.fi)
  • In the beginning of the first grade the pupils took a learning preparedness test, and teachers evaluated their initial reading skills. (helsinki.fi)
  • At the turn of the third and fourth grade the pupils completed the Finnish learning to learn scales, which addressed a wide scope of cognitive competences and learning-related attitudes. (helsinki.fi)
  • The gap between pupils with support needs and others, however, increased from the beginning of the fourth grade to the end of the sixth grade in both municipalities. (helsinki.fi)
  • Reduced time investment and higher levels of detrimental attitudes also provided a partial explanation as to why pupils with identified support needs did not reach their expected level of performance in the sixth grade assessment. (helsinki.fi)