The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.
Educational institutions.
Color of the iris.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of sulfite to sulfate along with the reduction of FERROCYTOCHROME C to FERRICYTOCHROME C.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (1/769)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (2/769)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements. (3/769)

Reflectometric techniques estimate the directionality of the retinal cones by measuring the distribution of light at the pupil plane of light reflected off the bleached retina. The waveguide-scattering model of Marcos et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012 (1998)] predicts that the shape of this intensity distribution is determined by both the waveguide properties of the cone photoreceptors and the topography of the cone mosaic (cone spacing). We have performed two types of cone directionality measurement. In the first type, cone directionality estimates are obtained by measuring the spatial distribution of light returning from the retina with a single-entry pupil position (single-entry measurements). In the second type, estimates are obtained by measuring the total amount of light guided back through the pupil as a function of entry pupil position (multiple-entry measurements). As predicted by the model, single-entry measurements provide narrower distributions than the multiple-entry measurements, since the former are affected by both waveguides and scattering and the latter are affected primarily by waveguides. Measurements at different retinal eccentricities and at two different wavelengths are consistent with the model. We show that the broader multiple-entry measurements are not accounted for by cone disarray. Results of multiple-entry measurements are closer to results from measurements of the psychophysical Stiles-Crawford effect (although still narrower), and the variation with retinal eccentricity and wavelength is similar. By combining single- and multiple-entry measurements, we can estimate cone spacing. The estimates at 0- and 2-deg retinal eccentricities are in good agreement with published anatomical data.  (+info)

Human dynamic closed-loop accommodation augmented by sympathetic inhibition. (4/769)

PURPOSE: A ciliary alpha-adrenoceptor accommodative effect has been proposed, caused by a small population of alpha1-inhibitory receptors in excised human ciliary muscle. This study was intended to investigate the effect on the closed-loop dynamic accommodative process of modulating alpha1-adrenoceptor activity by topical instillation of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine hydrochloride. METHODS: A group of 10 visually normal subjects viewed a photopic (30 candela/m2) high-contrast Maltese cross, which was modulated sinusoidally (0.05-0.6Hz) and stepwise over a 2-D range (2-4 D). Monocular temporal accommodation responses were measured using a continuously recording dynamic tracking infrared optometer under two trial conditions: after instillation of saline control solution and 50 minutes subsequent to the instillation of 0.27 microl 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride and 0.27 microl 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride. Pupil size and accommodative amplitude were measured at 90-second intervals for 50 minutes after drug instillation. All accommodative measurements were recorded through a fixed 4-mm pupil. RESULTS: A significant reduction in accommodative amplitude (11%; P < 0.05) was recorded, whereas pupil size showed a significant increase (33%; P < 0.05). No significant change in step-response dynamics was observed. However, phenylephrine hydrochloride caused a significant increase in accommodative gain in the low and midtemporal frequency ranges compared with the effect of a saline control treatment. No significant variation in phase lag was observed. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in humans, this study shows that augmentation of the alpha1-inhibitory sympathetic contribution results in increased accommodative gain at low and midtemporal frequencies, which is consistent with findings in animal studies.  (+info)

The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements. (5/769)

The depth-of-field (DOF) measured through psychophysical methods seems to depend on the target's characteristics. We use objective and subjective methods to determine the DOF of the eye for different pupil diameters and wavelengths in three subjects. Variation of image quality with focus is evaluated with a double-pass technique. Objective DOF is defined as the dioptric range for which the image quality does not change appreciably, based on optical criteria. Subjective DOF is based on the accuracy of focusing a point source. Additional DOFs are obtained by simulation from experimental wavefront aberration data from the same subjects. Objective and subjective measurements of DOF are only slightly affected by pupil size, wavelength and spectral composition. Comparison of DOF from double-pass and wavefront aberration data allows us to evaluate the role of ocular aberrations and Stiles-Crawford effect.  (+info)

S-cone contribution to pupillary responses evoked by chromatic flash offset. (6/769)

On a green or red background, the action spectrum of the pupillary responses evoked following the offset of chromatic test flashes shows a prominent short-wavelength lobe and suggests the contribution from photoreceptors other than the previously inferred M- and L-cones (Kimura & Young, Vision Research (1996). 36, 1543-1550), most likely from S-cones. Systematic changes in the shape of the intensity versus amplitude functions with test wavelengths and in the shape of the short-wavelength lobe with response amplitude criteria suggest an antagonistic interaction involving the short- and longer-wavelength photoreceptors.  (+info)

Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging. (7/769)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether corneal wavefront aberrations vary with aging. METHODS: One hundred two eyes of 102 normal subjects were evaluated with videokeratography. The data were decomposed using Taylor and Zernike polynomials to calculate the monochromatic aberrations of the cornea for both small (3-mm) and large (7-mm) pupils. RESULTS: For a 3-mm pupil, the amount of total aberrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.145; P = 0.103) and spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = -0.068; P = 0.448) did not change with aging, whereas comalike aberrations exhibited a weak but statistically significant correlation with age (r(s) = 0.256; P = 0.004). For a 7-mm pupil, total aberrations (r(s) = 0.552; P < 0.001) and comalike aberrations (r(s) = 0.561; P < 0.001) significantly increased with aging, but spherical-like aberrations showed no age-related changes (r(s) = 0.124; P = 0.166). Simulated pupillary dilation from 3 mm to 7 mm caused a 38.0+/-28.5-fold increase in the total aberrations, and the extent of increases significantly correlated with age (r(s) = 0.354; P < 0.001). Pupillary dilation influenced the comalike aberrations more in the older subjects than in the younger subjects (r(s) = 0.243; P = 0.006), but such age dependence was not found for spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = 0.141; P = 0.115). CONCLUSIONS: Comalike aberrations of the cornea correlate with age, implying that the corneas become less symmetrical along with aging. Spherical-like aberrations do not vary significantly with aging. Pupillary dilation markedly increases wavefront aberrations, and those effects are more prominent in older subjects than in younger subjects.  (+info)

Pupillographic findings in neglect. (8/769)

OBJECTIVES: Unilateral sensory neglect has been attributed to various defects, including a hemispatial attention-arousal deficit. However, support for this hypothesis has only been indirect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further test the hemispatial attentional-arousal hypothesis by measuring pupillary response as an index of arousal. METHODS: There were two experimental subjects with neglect and six matched controls. Stimuli (Arabic numbers) were presented on the right, left, and centre of a screen. The subjects were asked to look at the number in the centre, on the right, or left of the screen while their pupil diameter was measured. RESULTS: Unlike the control subjects, the subjects with neglect, who were aware of the left sided stimuli, did not show a pupillary dilatation when they looked at the stimulus on the left. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study provides support for the hemispatial attention-arousal hypotheses of neglect, it does not preclude the possibility that other mechanisms may also be important.  (+info)

A thin slit-lamp beam illuminating the pupil margin produces clearly visible pupil oscillations. These oscillations can be timed with a stopwatch, thus producing a measurement of the edge-light pupil cycle time. The pupil cycle time is remarkably stable in various testing situations and is repeatable within about +/- 3% over extended periods of time. Expected normal distribution and 95% confidence intervals are given in Table 3. When the iris muscles are normally innervated and responsive, the pupil cycle time is dependent on the speed of nerve conduction and the number and strength of optic nerve impulses. Only 5% of normal persons aged 12 to 50 years are expected to have a pupil cycle time in either eye longer than 954 ms or a difference in pupil cycle time between the two eyes longer than 70 ms. ...
Fisheyes and wide angles A number of fisheye and wide lenses show strong entrance pupil shift (See the animations on the web page by Pierre Toscani!!) by angle from center. The Nikon 10.5 and 16mm fisheyes entrance pupil shifts by around 15mm, the ideal LPP point for panoramas is therefore a bit of a compromise, depending on the amount of image overlap and I dont know what else. The Nikon 14mm f2.8D and other wide angles do this too Internal vignetting I recently noticed some peoples measurements conflicted with mine, I am however quite confident in the accuracy of my measurement setup now. The reason I found is that entrance pupil sometimes shifts with the aperture wide open to to internal vignetting away from the aperture, I now always measure by observing the aperture from the front and with the lens stopped down. Measurements made with the lens wide open (Especially with the parallax method) may therefore differ from mine. This means the ideal NPP could differ slightly if you shoot wide ...
To calculate the Entrance pupil distance add the Tripod Mount Length (L1) from the camera and the Entrance Pupil Length (L2) from the lens. So for example for a Canon 300d and a 10-22mm at 10mm, the total Entrance pupil distance from the tripod mount is 40mm + 66mm = 106mm If you use a SLR lens on a mirrorless camera, you also just have to add the adapter thickness (Flange to focal plane difference). For Nikon F mount lenses on a Z camera: 30.5mm; similarly for Canon EF lens on a EOS-R camera: 24.0mm. The principle is the same for mounting any other type lens on a camera when an adapter can be used. ...
Why are the implicit times of the fundamental component in the RETeval system longer for larger pupil sizes even after adjustments were made to deliver the same flash retinal illuminance? We do not have a simple explanation for this question, but we suggest that at least two factors may be involved. The first factor is the Stiles-Crawford effect of the cone system. It is known that the response of cone photoreceptors is different when the angle of light stimulating the cones is changed.20,21 Because of this Stiles-Crawford effect, the effective retinal illuminance to the cone system is not simply the product of luminance × pupil area for large pupil areas. Paupoo et al.22 reported that when the pupil is fully dilated, the effective retinal illuminance of the cone system may be calculated by taking the pupil area to be approximately 20 mm2. McCulloch and Hamilton23 also showed that the rays of light entering 2.5 mm away from the pupil center have approximately one-half the effectiveness of those ...
The aim of this study was to use a Shack-Hartmann clinical aberrometer (COAS, Wavefront Sciences Ltd) to evaluate the variability of low- and higher-order aberration measurement of the eye. Using the wave aberration polynomial determined for a full-size pupil we compared the Zernike expansion coefficients for a smaller, 3 mm pupil derived by two methods: first, by re-calculating the wave aberration coefficients to the reduced sampled points corresponding to that pupil (direct method), and, second, by using a matrix method to reconstruct a new set of coefficients appropriate for the reduced pupil (scaling method) (see figure 1).. Our results suggest that, for full-size pupil, the efficiency of the measurements varies across x and y pupil position: where the wavefront is larger, measurement variance is higher, especially near the margins of the pupil, where increased standard deviation results to higher wave-aberration error. Some of this increased variance may have been due to poorer image ...
Pupil Information (Pilot Schools only): Published pupil information forms can be downloaded on a per-pupil basis from the Pupil Information screen if your school is using this feature.. Primaries: When a pupil has a complete Pupil Information form, please open their form, see the pupil name has switched from black to blue and will be clickable to generate a per pupil report. This can be dowloaded or printed as required.. Secondaries: When a pupil has a complete Pupil Information form, you will see their name has switched from black to blue in the grid and will be clickable to generate a per pupil report. This can be dowloaded or printed as required.. This feature may be useful for primary schools to use for end of year reviews with parents, or for secondaries to help prepare using a detailed overview of pupil information.. Please note, downloading and sharing confidential pupil information is done at your own risk. Please ensure you abide by your schools data sharing processes. ...
We studied the color-match-area effect and the Stiles-Crawford effect in 10 observers with age-related macular changes. Observers were graded on a scale of I to IV according to the Sarks classification, which correlates fundus appearance and visual acuity with the severity of postmortem histological changes in Bruchs membrane. Observers in group II showed subtle abnormalities of color matching; those in groups III and IV showed more-severe abnormalities. The Stiles-Crawford effect was abnormal in 9 of 10 eyes tested. Only one observer showed a Stiles-Crawford effect that had a well-defined peak near the center of the pupil and a near-normal bandpass. The results suggest that early age-related changes visible in the fundus can be revealed by psychophysical tests of photoreceptor architecture.. © 1988 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Define entrance pupil: the stop in an optical instrument or the virtual image of the stop that determines the angular diameter of the bundle of rays …
If the patients pupil appeared to be very small it could indicate the presence of injury as the result from consuming opiate.. Normal Pupil Size. People with normal pupil will show 2 mm until 4 mm size in the bright light, while in the dark the size will turns to 4 mm until 8 mm. Generally, pupils are equal in size for Perrla eyes. Pupils tend to constrict when there is a direct illumination or direct response. Other reason that causes the pupil to constrict is when the eye focused on a near object. This response is called an accommodative response. On the other hand, pupils will dilate when you are in a dark place. When pupils do not constrict or dilates in the previous condition, it can be assumed that there is an abnormality on the pupil. Other important thing about the pupil size normal and assessment is that it can decrease according to age due to senile miosis.. Read also Important Matters of Pupillary Examination. ...
Infrared television pupillometry was performed on 34 insulin-treated diabetic patients and 55 healthy subjects. Sixteen of the diabetic patients had pupils that failed to dilate normally in darkness. The occurrence of a small pupil was associated with cardiac vagal dysfunction and somatic sensory loss. The small pupil was found to be supersensitive to the mydriatic effect of topical 2% phenylephrine but normally sensitive to 0.5% hydroxyamphetamine eyedrops. It is concluded that the failure of the pupil to dilate in darkness in some diabetic patients is due to neuropathy of the sympathetic innervation. ...
Purpose : The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) knockout mouse exhibits retinal degeneration and profound myopia. We hypothesized that developmental differences would extend to other responses of the eye. Here we tested for additional ocular differences in the IRBP knockout mouse by measuring pupil dilation in response to induced mydriasis. Methods : Pupil diameters of 90 day old, male IRBP knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J (WT) mice, were measured using a custom photorefraction device. Following an initial measurement in the awake state, mydriasis was induced via topical application of tropicamide, followed 2 minutes later by ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Pupil diameters were then measured at 2.5 minute intervals for 30 minutes post-mydriatic application. Unpaired t-tests with Welchs correction and a 2-way ANOVA (genotype and time points as two factors) were used to assess significance between KO and WT groups, as well as time points following mydriatic application. Results : ...
Me lations asureme hips !medications, and variables, such as the patients concentrations leading to more profound effects wakefulness, level of ambient light, and time of on pupil dilation. Several studies have utilized day that a procedure is performed, may alter pupillometry to demonstrate the aforementioned pupillometry data collection. In order to validate effects of opioids. the dependency of these methods, clinicians must consider that pupil size and pupillary response to pain are influenced by various pupillometry to study the pharmacodynamic factors besides pain. effects of tramadol, an opioid-like drug, on PLR. In the study, the polymorphism of CYP2D6, a In this paper, we will discuss the effects member of the cytochrome P450 enzymes of certain medication classes on pupillary light involved in the metabolism of drugs, was reflexes, focusing mostly on opiates and analyzed in each participant (n=26) because this sedatives. Based on a review of literature enzyme mediates the active ...
The pupil is the opening in the centre of the eye. Light enters through the pupil and goes through the lens, which focuses the image on the retina.[1] The size of the pupil is controlled by muscles. There is a circular group, which squeezes the iris smaller, and another group which pulls the iris wider. When more light is needed, the pupil is made larger. In brighter light, the pupil is made smaller. The pupil can be compared with the aperture of a camera. It is surrounded by the iris which is the colored part of the eye. The lens changes its shape depending on how far away the eye focuses. The focus point is where the eye is focusing on. The light makes the pupil change its size. When it is darker, the pupils will dilate (get bigger) because they need to allow more light into the eye to see. When it is bright, the pupil will constrict (get smaller) to restrict the amount of light there is getting into the eye so we can see. The pupil is normally black in most animals, but in some reptiles, it ...
If you would like more information on how to apply for Free School Meals, please use the following link: Free School Meals Letter 2020-21. Pupils eligible for Pupil Premium funding make up 5.2% of the schools population.. In 2020-21 the school is expecting to receive £26,715.. In schools, the Pupil Premium funding is utilised to close learning gaps by supporting pupil outcomes in relation to targets, supporting equal entitlement in school community and raising aspiration & access to experiences otherwise inaccessible to this group of pupils.. It is for schools to decide how to use and spend the Pupil Premium allocation, as they are best placed to assess what provision should be made for the individual pupils within their responsibility.. At Ermysteds Grammar School, we have produced a Pupil Premium Strategy that illustrates how we will spend the Pupil Premium funding. We have designed our Pupil Premium Strategy to support ambitious teaching, learning, care and aspirations of this group of ...
We have used a modified double-pass apparatus with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes to measure the optical transfer function in the human eye and have applied the technique to three different problems. First, we confirm that in the eye the double-pass spread function is the cross correlation of the input spread function with the output spread function [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195 ( 1995)]. Consequently, when entrance and exit pupil sizes are equal, phase information is lost from the double-pass images. Second, we show that in double-pass measurements the eye behaves like a reversible optical system. That is, when entrance and exit pupils are equal, the double-pass image results from two passes through an optical system having a transfer function that is the same in both directions. To test for reversibility in the living eye we have used a double-pass apparatus with different exit and entrance pupil sizes (one of them small enough to consider the eye diffraction limited), so that the ...
Pupil dynamics serve as a physiological indicator of cognitive processes and arousal states of the brain across a diverse range of behavioral experiments. Pupil diameter changes reflect brain state fluctuations driven by neuromodulatory systems. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been used to identify global patterns of neuronal correlation with pupil diameter changes; however, the linkage between distinct brain state-dependent activation patterns of neuromodulatory nuclei with pupil dynamics remains to be explored. Here, we identified four clusters of trials with unique activity patterns related to pupil diameter changes in anesthetized rat brains. Going beyond the typical rs-fMRI correlation analysis with pupil dynamics, we decomposed spatiotemporal patterns of rs-fMRI with principal component analysis (PCA) and characterized the cluster-specific pupil-fMRI relationships by optimizing the PCA component weighting via decoding methods. This work shows that pupil dynamics are tightly coupled with ...
Pupil dynamics serve as a physiological indicator of cognitive processes and arousal states of the brain across a diverse range of behavioral experiments. Pupil diameter changes reflect brain state fluctuations driven by neuromodulatory systems. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been used to identify global patterns of neuronal correlation with pupil diameter changes; however, the linkage between distinct brain state-dependent activation patterns of neuromodulatory nuclei with pupil dynamics remains to be explored. Here, we identified four clusters of trials with unique activity patterns related to pupil diameter changes in anesthetized rat brains. Going beyond the typical rs-fMRI correlation analysis with pupil dynamics, we decomposed spatiotemporal patterns of rs-fMRI with principal component analysis (PCA) and characterized the cluster-specific pupil-fMRI relationships by optimizing the PCA component weighting via decoding methods. This work shows that pupil dynamics are tightly coupled with ...
Since the eyes pupil varies in diameter with viewing conditions, the ideal exit pupil diameter depends on the application.[1] An astronomical telescope requires a large pupil because it is designed to be used for looking at dim objects at night, while a microscope will require a much smaller pupil since the object will be brightly illuminated. A set of 7×50 binoculars has an exit pupil just over 7.1 mm, which corresponds to the average pupil size of a youthful dark-adapted human eye in circumstances with no extraneous light. The emergent light at the eyepiece then fills the eyes pupil, meaning no loss of brightness at night due to using such binoculars (assuming perfect transmission). In daylight, when the eyes pupil is only 4 mm in diameter, over half the light will be blocked by the iris and will not reach the retina. However, the loss of light in the daytime is generally not significant since there is so much light to start with. By contrast, 8×32 binoculars, often sold with emphasis on ...
d) A school counselor, teacher, instructor, administrator, or aide may not, on the basis of the sex of a pupil, offer vocational or school program guidance to a pupil of one sex that is different from that offered to a pupil of the opposite sex or, in counseling a pupil, differentiate career, vocational, or higher education opportunities on the basis of the sex of the pupil counseled. Any school personnel acting in a career counseling or course selection capacity to a pupil shall affirmatively explore with the pupil the possibility of careers, or courses leading to careers, that are nontraditional for that pupils sex. The parents or legal guardian of the pupil shall be notified in a general manner at least once in the manner prescribed by Section 48980, in advance of career counseling and course selection commencing with course selection for grade 7 so that they may participate in the counseling sessions and decisions ...
Pupil Premium. What is Pupil Premium?. The Pupil Premium was introduced in April 2011 and is allocated to schools to improve the achievement of pupils who have been registered for free school meals at any point in the last six years (known as Ever 6 FSM). Schools also receive funding for children who have been looked after continuously for more than six months, and children of service personnel.. Why has it been introduced?. The Government believes that the Pupil Premium, which is additional to main school funding, is the best way to address the current underlying inequalities between children eligible for free school meals (FSM) and their peers by ensuring that funding to tackle disadvantage reaches pupils who need it most.. Who decides how the money is spent?. In most cases the Pupil Premium is paid directly to schools, allocated to them for every pupil who receives free school meals. Schools decide how to use the funding, as they are the best placed to assess what their pupils ...
As of 2012, there are no products sold in the United States that reverse pupil dilation, according the New York Times. Some eye doctors used dapiprazole to reverse pupil dilation, but the product is...
We have a system of termly progress meetings where teachers meet individually with the Assistant Head teacher to discuss pupil progress and attainment. It is in the context of these challenging meetings that if it is identified that a pupil is not likely to make upper quartile progress, additional advice or interventions or support will be discussed and put in place.. At Manor Green Primary, Pupil Premium is allocated straight to us and is clearly identifiable in our budget. It is up to us to decide how the Pupil Premium, allocated per FSM pupil, service children and children in care is spent, since we are best placed to assess what additional provision should be made for the individual pupils within our school. Although we are free to spend the Pupil Premium as we see fit, we are held accountable as to how we have used the additional funding to support pupils from low-income families, service children and children in care.. ...
Pupils who did or did not participate in school gardening and their self-assessment towards their sustainable knowledge. In the present study, only the self-assessment of the pupils sustainability knowledge was asked for and not their actual knowledge on sustainability. School gardening leads, for pupils who participated in it, to be able to better assess their own sustainability knowledge. These pupils attained a more substantial and differentiated self estimation of their knowledge through the participation in school gardening than pupils who did not. This result can be seen positively, because the participation in school gardening makes them recognize more sustainability relevant correlations between nutrition and sustainability than pupils who did not participate. The pupils knowledge of sustainability can positively influence their nutritional behavior. In the following study Baldivia et al. (2014) showed that before participation in school gardening programs pupils were not familiar ...
The main focus of the Schools spending in Pupil Premium is to improve outcomes for our most vulnerable pupils and therefore narrow the gap between these pupils and the rest of the school. We are currently focussing specifically on our pupils achieving expected levels of progress in English and Mathematics. We also spend a considerable amount currently on alternative provision for those pupils who are unable to access the curriculum within school for a range of reasons, but all achieve qualifications that enable them to access further study post 16. Please click here for the details relating to the schools use of Pupil Premium funding for the 2019/2020 Academic Year. The Pupil Premium Strategy for 2020/2021 can be viewed here. The Pupil Premium Strategy for 2021/2022 will be reviewed in July 2021.. Hard copies of any of the documents listed can be obtained from the school Reception or requested via our admin email address: [email protected] ...
Airedale Academy receives additional funding of £955 per pupil, per year for pupils who are entitled to free school meals. This additional money is called the pupil premium. We encourage all parents/carers on low incomes to check their eligibility for free school meals by contacting the school office for an application form, as a successful application will increase the pupil premium funding the school receives. Children eligible for Pupil Premium receive a free school meal. Our cashless catering system means that no one else will know that your child is receiving free school meals, as the money is added to their account automatically each day and can be spent in the usual way.. A report on the amount of pupil premium received, how it has been spent, and the impact of the spending can be viewed by clicking on the Pupil Premium Impact Report link. Our strategy for how the Academy plans to spend the current years allocation can be downloaded from the link below. Click on the link below to view ...
The Pupil Premium was introduced in 2011 and is believed to be the best way to address the current underlying inequalities by ensuring that funding to tackle disadvantage reaches the pupils who need it most. It is aimed at closing the attainment gap between children from vulnerable families and their peers. It is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for free school meals at any point in the last six years (known as Ever 6 FSM). Schools also receive funding for pupils from families who are members of the armed services or children who have been looked after continuously for more than six months.. We would encourage you to investigate if your child is eligible for the free meal, and the Pupil Premium funding that comes with this.. Please click here for more information.. Headteachers and school leaders should decide how to use the Pupil Premium to meet the particular needs of their pupils, and will also be held accountable for the difference it makes.. To learn how ...
The brainstem-the part of the brain that controls our most basic involuntary or autonomic responses including salivation and pupil response-is where researchers Christa Anderson and John Colombo are looking for biological characteristics and the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder.. They found two potential biological markers or biomarkers of ASD: larger resting pupil size and altered levels of a salivary enzyme associated with the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in children with the disorder.. The levels of the enzyme, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were higher in general across the day and much less variable for children with ASD compared to typically-developing children.. What this says is that the autonomic system of children with ASD is always on the same level, said Anderson. They are in overdrive.. Collecting sAA levels with a small sponge swab under a childs tongue and the measurement of pupil size are painless, non-invasive procedures that have the potential for pediatricians to ...
Do allergy eye drops make the pupil larger - Do allergy eye drops make the pupil larger? Should Not. They should not cause pupil dilation unless you are using a vasoconstricting agent (visine) when the drug wears off it can cause pupil dilation.
Serious injuries may produce pupils that are unequal in size. Dilated and fixed pupils, as well as pupils of unequal size, are the most worrisome symptoms. In some cases, dilated pupils may be a symptom of a life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting. Seek immediate medical care call if you, or someone you are with, have any of these life-threatening symptoms including:. Change in mental status or sudden behavior change, such as confusion, delirium, lethargyhallucinations and delusions.. Garbled or slurred speech or inability to speak. Loss of sensation numbness. Severe headache. Sudden change in visionloss of vision, or eye pain.. Dilated pupils not resulting from a normal response to low light are typically caused by drugs, medications, poisons, or brain injury or disease. A number of therapeutic medications, as well as illicit drugs, may cause dilated pupils including:.. A number of biological or chemical toxins and poisons can lead to dilated ...
During the last decade, Finnish pupils performance in educational assessment studies has steadily declined. At the same time the differences between pupils and in the capital area also the differences between schools have increased, and girls usually outperform boys in most assessed domains. The aim of the present study was to examine how these differences develop during primary education, with a special emphasis on the development of the performance of pupils in need of support for their studies. This was done by following three different samples of primary school pupils in two municipalities: In Helsinki a sample of 608 pupils was followed from the beginning of the first grade to the end of the sixth grade, and in Vantaa two full cohorts (N≈2000 in each) were assessed in the first/third grade and again in the third/sixth grade. In the beginning of the first grade the pupils took a learning preparedness test, and teachers evaluated their initial reading skills. At the turn of the third and ...
Overview of Pupil Premium. The Pupil Premium grant is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for free school meals at any point in the last six years (known as Ever 6 FSM), Looked After Children, children adopted from care or who have left care, and children of service personnel (known as Ever 5 service). The funding is not ring-fenced per student and can be used for initiatives that include, but are not limited to, pupil premium students. The funding is available for students in Year 7 to 11.. · £935 for each Ever 6 FSM pupil. · £1900 for each Looked -after Child (LAC). · £1900 for each Post Looked after Care Child. · £300 for each Ever 5 Service Pupil. The full report on our PPG strategy can be viewed by clicking this link.. Below is a summary of PPG students and funding and key academic outcome headlines. ...
Pupil Premium was introduced in April 2011, and paid by means of a specific grant based on school census figures for pupils registered as eligible for Free School Meals in Years 7 - 11. This entitlement has now been extended to the Ever6. For looked after children the pupil premium was calculated using the Looked After Children data returns (SSDA903). A premium has also been introduced for children whose parents are currently serving in the armed forces. This service premium is designed to address the emotional and social well‐being of these pupils. A Top Up grant has been added for pupils coming into year 7 who did not reach L4 in either reading or mathematics by the end of year 6, additional funding is also available for summer school to support transition of prior lower attainers into secondary school. The pupil premium is additional to main school funding and it will be used by this school to address any underlying inequalities between children eligible by ensuring that funding reaches ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain stem blood flow, pupillary response, and outcome in patients with severe head injuries. AU - Ritter, Ann M.. AU - Muizelaar, J. Paul. AU - Barnes, Tom. AU - Choi, Sung. AU - Fatouros, Panos. AU - Ward, John. AU - Bullock, Ross. PY - 1999/5/1. Y1 - 1999/5/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Acute pupillary dilation in a head-injured patient is a neurological emergency. Pupil dilation is thought to be the result of uncal herniation causing mechanical compression of the IIIrd cranial nerve and subsequent brain stem compromise. However, not all patients with herniation have fixed and dilated pupils, and not all patients with nonreactive, enlarged pupils have uncal herniation. Therefore, we have tested an alternative hypothesis that a decrease in brain stem blood flow (BBF) is a more frequent cause of mydriasis and brain stem symptomatology after severe head injury. We determined the relation of BBF to outcome and pupillary response in patients with severe head injuries. METHODS: One hundred ...
Hess and Polt (1960)[28] presented pictures of semi-naked adults and babies to adults (four men and two women). Pupils of both sexes dilated after seeing pictures of people of the opposite sex. In females, the difference in pupil size occurred also after seeing pictures of babies and mothers with babies. This examination showed that pupils react not only to the changes of intensity of light (pupillary light reflex) but also reflect arousal or emotions. In 1965 Hess, Seltzer and Shlien[29] examined pupillary responses in heterosexual and homosexual males. Results showed a greater pupil dilation to pictures of the opposite sex for heterosexuals and to pictures of the same sex for homosexuals . According to T.M. Simms (1967),[30] pupillary responses of males and females were greater when they were exposed to pictures of the opposite sex.[31] In another study, Nunnally and colleagues (1967)[32] found that seeing slides rated as very pleasant was associated with greater pupil dilation as seeing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of pupil dilation on biometric measurements and intraocular lens power calculations in schoolchildren. AU - Wang, Xiaogang. AU - Dong, Jing. AU - Tang, Maolong. AU - Wang, Xiaoliang. AU - Wang, Haitao. AU - Zhang, Suhua. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Purpose To investigate the effect of pupil dilation on ocular biometric parameters and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in schoolchildren using the Lenstar LS 900. Methods One hundred forty eyes of 140 healthy schoolchildren were included in the analysis. Axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), aqueous depth (AD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), flat keratometry (K), steep K, astigmatism, white-to-white (WTW), and iris/pupil barycenter distance were measured, before and after pupil dilation. Anterior segment length (ASL) was defined as the sum of ACD and LT, and lens position (LP) was defined as ACD plus half of the LT. The relative lens position (RLP) was defined as LP divided by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Pupil Dilation Response During Speech Perception in Dark and Light. T2 - The Involvement of the Parasympathetic Nervous System in Listening Effort. AU - Wang, Yang. AU - Kramer, Sophia E.. AU - Wendt, Dorothea. AU - Naylor, Graham. AU - Lunner, Thomas. AU - Zekveld, Adriana A.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Recently, the measurement of the pupil dilation response has been applied in many studies to assess listening effort. Meanwhile, the mechanisms underlying this response are still largely unknown. We present the results of a method that separates the influence of the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system on the pupil response during speech perception. This is achieved by changing the background illumination level. In darkness, the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system on the pupil response is minimal, whereas in light, there is an additional component from the parasympathetic nervous system. Nineteen hearing-impaired and 27 ...
Background: The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim of this study was to examine how age and in vivo measured lens transmission of blue light might affect pupil light responses, in particular, mediated by the ipRGC.. Methods: Consensual pupil responses were explored in 44 healthy subjects aged between 26 and 68 years. A pupil response was recorded to a continuous 20 s light stimulus of 660 nm (red) or 470 nm (blue) both at 300 cd/m2 intensity (14.9 and 14.8 log photons/cm2/s, respectively). Additional recordings were performed using four 470 nm stimulus intensities of 3, 30, 100 and 300 cd/m2. The baseline pupil size was measured in darkness and results were adjusted for the baseline pupil and gender. The main outcome parameters were ...
Results Thirty patients were enrolled. Each point change on a 10 cm visual analogue pain intensity scale was associated with a statistically significant mean change of 0.11 mm/s in maximum pupil constriction velocity, and of approximately 0.4% in pupil diameter. As expected, there was an association between total opioid dose (expressed as morphine equivalents) and pupil diameter. Age, sex and baseline anxiety scores did not correlate significantly with pupillary response.. ...
Pupil Premium is an allocation of additional funding provided to schools to support specific groups of children who are vulnerable to possible underachievement. These include pupils who are entitled to free school meals, those looked after by the local authority and children of armed service personnel. The intended effect of this funding is to accelerate progress and raise attainment.. It is for schools to decide how the Pupil Premium, allocated to schools per eligible pupil, is spent, since they are best placed to assess what additional provision should be made for the individual pupils within their responsibility. We consider research evidence from organisations such as the Sutton Trust and the Education Endowment Foundation when we plan how to spend our Pupil Premium funding allocation.. In making provision for socially disadvantaged pupils we recognise that not all pupils who receive free school meals will be socially disadvantaged. We also recognise that not all pupils who are socially ...
BACKGROUND Patients assess their own pain with a numerical rating scale (NRS). In the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU), NRS helps to determine and monitor analgesic administration, but is useless in patients who are unable to communicate. In non-PACU patients, acute pain increases pupillary diameter and pupillary light reflex amplitude (PLRA), the difference between pupillary diameter before and after light stimulation. OBJECTIVES To study the association between postopera-tive pain (NRS) and pupillary diameter or PLRA in PACU patients after routine anaesthetic care. DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris. PATIENTS One hundred and forty-five patients undergoing planned surgery under general anaesthesia. INTERVENTIONS NRS, pupillary diameter and PLRA were measured on arrival in the PACU. When NRS was more than 4, intravenous morphine titration was started and a second measurement performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association between NRS and pupillary diameter or
The Pupil Premium is an allocation of additional funding provided to schools to support specific groups of children who are vulnerable to possible underachievement. These include pupils who are entitled to free school meals (FSM), those looked after by the local authority and children of armed service personnel. The intended effect of this funding is to accelerate progress and raise attainment.. It is for schools to decide how the Pupil Premium, allocated to schools, is spent since they are best placed to assess what additional provision should be made for the individual pupils within their responsibility. We reserve the right to allocate the Pupil Premium funding to support any pupil or groups of pupils the school has legitimately identified as being socially disadvantaged. For further information please visit https://www.gov.uk/guidance/pupil-premium-information-for-schools-and-alternative-provision-settings. Our aims in deciding how to allocate Pupil Premium funding are:. ...
In one embodiment, a portable pupillometer including a testing compartment, at least one ocular disposed on the testing compartment, two or more light sources disposed in the testing compartment and forming a plurality of visual stimuli for a subject looking through the at least one ocular, at least one camera configured to capture images of a pupil of the subject via infrared detection, the images indicating pupillary responses to the two or more light sources, and an interface for connection with a computing device external to the pupillometer, the interface adapted to (i) provide, to the computing device, images from the at least one camera, and (ii) receive, from the computing device, control signals for controlling the plurality of light sources.
In addition to controlling the amount of light that enters the eye, the pupillary light reflex provides a useful diagnostic tool. It allows for testing the integrity of the sensory and motor functions of the eye.[1] Under normal conditions, the pupils of both eyes respond identically to a light stimulus, regardless of which eye is being stimulated. Light entering one eye produces a constriction of the pupil of that eye, the direct response, as well as a constriction of the pupil of the unstimulated eye, the consensual response. Comparing these two responses in both eyes is helpful in locating a lesion.[1][11] For example, a direct response in the right pupil without a consensual response in the left pupil suggests a problem with the motor connection to the left pupil (perhaps as a result of damage to the oculomotor nerve or Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the brainstem). Lack of response to light stimulation of the right eye if both eyes respond normally to stimulation of the left eye indicates ...
The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the
Looking for online definition of afferent pupil sign in the Medical Dictionary? afferent pupil sign explanation free. What is afferent pupil sign? Meaning of afferent pupil sign medical term. What does afferent pupil sign mean?
The summer term is traditionally seen as the dog end of the school year for many pupils - when hot classrooms, a desire to play in the sunshine and inevitable post-Sats relaxation might be expected to slow academic progress.. But new Government research has found the opposite is true. Key stage 2 and 3 pupils make most progress during the summer term and least during the longer autumn term.. The Department for Education study analysed teacher assessments made at the end of each term for 37,000 pupils in more than 340 schools. The records, for five different cohorts of pupils over three years, showed the same pattern of progress - in national curriculum levels of achievement - between autumn, spring and summer terms in reading, writing and maths.. The researchers linked the smaller increase in the autumn term to the long summer break requiring pupils to retain their learning from the previous academic year over several weeks away from school.. They also noted that most primary pupils would be ...
According to a dual mechanism account (Fernandez-Duque & Posner, 1997), two separate noradrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms modulate, respectively, the alerting and orienting effects. However, Corbetta and colleagues (2008) proposed that LC phasic activity may also be involved in orienting effect through its functional relationship with the ventral attentional network. We recruited seventy-five healthy Norwegian participants to perform a Posner cueing task. Both behavioral and pupillary responses revealed the alerting effect. Also, both behavioral and pupillary responses indicated that cued attention is affected by age. Behavioral responses also revealed orienting effect However, we found no TEP differences between valid, invalid, and neutral conditions, suggesting that TEP effects were driven by the alerting effect of cue presentation. Moreover, both behavioral and pupillary estimates of alertness and orienting were uncorrelated. Finally, individual differences in general cognitive abilities ...
The pupil is the circular opening in the center of the eye that allows light to pass through. The pupil expands when there is little light present, and contracts when there is a greater amount of light present. Anisocoria refers to an unequal pupil size.
To monitor progress on attainment, new measures will be included in the performance tables that will capture the achievement of students covered by the Pupil Premium. At The Dartmoor Federation Primaries, the usual cycle of half- termly data collection and the monitoring and tracking of the cohorts attainment, will be used to inform childrens progress and enable the early identification of need, support and appropriate intervention. The Senior Leadership Team, Pupil Premium Champion and Governors are accountable for the impact on the pupils of the spending of the Pupil Premium; all staff are responsible for ensuring that an inclusive, proactive, reflective and holistic approach are consistently used to support and maximise the opportunities for all pupils ...
Description of disease Pupil - white spots. Treatment Pupil - white spots. Symptoms and causes Pupil - white spots Prophylaxis Pupil - white spots
List of 206 causes for Back tingling/ paresthesias and Dysarthria and Gait disorder and Pupillary changes, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Slight differences in pupil sizes are found in up to 1 in 5 healthy people. Most often, the diameter difference is less than 0.5 mm, but it can be up to 1 mm.. Babies born with different sized pupils may not have any underlying disorder. If other family members also have similar pupils, then the pupil size difference could be genetic and is nothing to worry about.. Also, for unknown reasons, pupils may temporarily differ in size. If there are no other symptoms and if the pupils return to normal, then it is nothing to worry about.. Unequal pupil sizes of more than 1 mm that develop later in life and do NOT return to equal size may be a sign of an eye, brain, blood vessel, or nerve disease. ...
Several cross-national studies, which monitor the quality of education in many countries across the world, have been conducted over the recent years. The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), founded in 1958 by a group of European and American researchers (Grisay and Griffin, 2004), wanted to measure the achievement of comparable samples of students in various subjects and in diverse school systems, with the view of investigating the relationships between possible differences in achievement and differences in inputs, processes and educational contexts. Since Mozambiques independence in 1975 there have been many small research studies undertaken by the Ministry of Education and universities, which have not been nationally representative. One exception is a nationally representative study conducted under the auspices of the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) implemented in 2000 and comprising 15 systems of ...
The study explored gender differences in response to motor skill training on curbing activity restriction of dressing by pupils with cerebral palsy in a special school in Kisumu, Kenya. Mixed method approach was adopted within which a Sequential Explanatory design was used. The sample size was 6 pupils with cerebral palsy, 6 parents of pupils with cerebral palsy, 3 teachers in charge of pupils with cerebral palsy, and 2 physiotherapists. Interviews and observational checklists were used for data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics with the use of Mann Whitney U Test. The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings of the study indicated that male participants had slightly higher rank than their female counterparts in the performance of dressing ability after training. However, the ability of their performance depended much on the severity of their disability rather than gender. The study recommends that the Kenyan ...
Hi, I am a 33 yrs old male. A few months back I noticed that the size of my right pupil is more than double the size of my left pupil or I should say my left pupil is really smaller than my right one. ...
Elementary school students who dont speak English have a lot of services, because Texas mandates certain programs for pre-kindergarten through fifth grade, said MayDell Jenks, the districts director of languages other than English. The pupils take five core classes: science, reading, math, social studies and language arts, plus electives like physical education, art and music. The difference lies in class size, and how fast the material is taught. Because classes at the center average 15 pupils per teacher versus 25 pupils per teacher at other schools, pupils learn at their own pace. The students come here, and they have a loving, secure environment, said Mary Endress, an instructional specialist for the district.
The Northern abolitionists, the 24 pupils in teacher Jean Edholms fifth-grade class at Neely-OBrien Elementary School, carefully considered the wording of their letter to President Lincoln as they worked through a writing exercise with her one recent morning. The class on persuasive letter writing is one of 15 lessons in a program called Writing Northwest that aims to foster the writing skills of K-12 pupils. The proprietary program was developed 27 years ago by James Sabol, an adjunct professor at Seattle Pacific University, which offers classes for training teachers in Writing Northwest techniques through the university course catalog. The courses count toward the professional development requirement for continued state teacher certification or as credits toward a degree. Pupils taught by graduates of the program have registered striking increases in scores on the Kent schools annual writing assessment, compared with the scores of pupils at the same grade level who were taught by the teachers
The PK-12 (DPI #80) license permits the holder to serve as the Director of Special Education and Pupil Services for any school district in the State of Wisconsin.. This licensure program is aligned with the Director of Special Education and Pupil Services Content Guidelines (WCG).. If you presently have an administrative license, Viterbo University requires an additional four three-credit courses to become licensed as a Director of Special Ed. and Pupil Services.. It you do not have an administrative license there are eleven three-credit courses that must be completed. All administrative licenses in WI require a masters degree.. The seven core courses are listed on the principal licensure page and the following four courses are required to obtain your Director of Special Education and Pupil Services License.. EDUL 654 Diverse Learner ...
Secondary education; pupils in Mauritius was last measured at 127123 in 2012, according to the World Bank. Secondary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Secondary education - pupils in Mauritius.
Secondary education; pupils in Kyrgyzstan was last measured at 683249 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Secondary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Secondary education - pupils in Kyrgyzstan.
Year 5 Mental Arithmetic Pupil Book Maths KS2 by Paul Broadbent | Buy Books at Lovereading4kids.co.uk Pupils can quickly get to grips with KS2 mental arithmetic using questions that become progressively more challenging.Fully in line with the new National Curriculum.* Clear explanations and worked examples ensure pupils grasp concepts quickly.* `How did you do? checks at the end of each topic allow pupils to self-evaluate their...Find out more
Posted on 07/22/2009 10:10:13 PM PDT by Steelfish. Teacher suspended for calling pupils ugly and fat A secondary school teacher called his pupils ugly and fat in lessons and asked if their mothers were attractive when planning parents evening, a tribunal heard. By Matthew Moore 22 Jul 2009 James Cairney, who taught food technology, also made inappropriate physical contact with students while demonstrating restraint techniques. The General Teaching Council found that Mr Cairney caused distress to his teenage pupils by making public judgements on their appearances. He described three students as ugly, fat and a scumbag, while praising ones good looks and calling another beautiful. When one student apologised for being late for a lesson at The Causeway School, Eastbourne, East Sussex, he replied: Its OK, I dont think youre pregnant. He also asked pupils whether their mother was fit while making appointments for parents evening. Allegations that Mr Cairney inappropriately ...
Thinking Science, the Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) curriculum, is a program designed for 11-14 year olds (in the first two years of secondary school) which encourages them to reflect on their own thinking and to develop their reasoning power in tackling novel problems. This study presents results that represent the first large-scale long-term test of the process of raising standards in schools by concentrating on a thinking skill approach. Overall, about 4,500 pupils in the CASE schools have been featured in the data in this report. Seventeen schools data have been compared with added-value data from a greater number of control schools. Results indicate that the CASE methodology, even when tried for the first time, produced an average increase on the order of half as much gain in the percentage of pupils obtaining C-grade and above at the GCSE examination (an increase from a National average of 44% to 63% for science in 1996, and an increase from 43% to 57% in ...
Multiple sclerosis can sometimes cause the impairment of the pupil reflex known as a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), or Marcus Gunn pupil.
Only moderate inter-rater reliability in pupillary assessments using standard clinical approach i.e. torch and subjective assessment: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381281. Good inter-rater reliability for pupillometry. Big difference between standard assessment v pupillometry: https://t.co/MSwD9JG7RI. Quantitative devices also much better at diagnosing pupillary asymmetry (L v R) and therefore highlighting deterioration quicker. In cardiac arrest, during CPR - possible to detect recovery of light reflex with pupillometry. Linked to survival v no reflex: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659054. Awaiting larger cohort study post-arrest - 288 patients included and hoping to present next year at LIVES 2017. Also of potential benefit in acute TBI - predicting uncal herniation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12546375. ...
List of 5 disease causes of Bilateral pupillary dilation, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Bilateral pupillary dilation.
This bill would require a school operated by a school district or a county office of education, the California School for the Deaf, the California School for the Blind, and a charter school to provide, only if there is at least one lactating pupil on the school campus, reasonable accommodations to a lactating pupil on a school campus to express breast milk, breast-feed an infant child, or address other needs related to breast-feeding. The bill would require that these reasonable accommodations include, but are not limited to, access to a private and secure room, other than a restroom, to express breast milk or breast-feed an infant child, permission to bring onto a school campus any equipment used to express breast milk, access to a power source for that equipment, and access to a place to safely store expressed breast milk. The bill would also require that a lactating pupil on a school campus be given a reasonable amount of time to accommodate the need to express breast milk or breast-feed an ...
An auction to raise funds for a fun day for St Leonards School pupils and a memorial for Bradley (9) and Ellen (6) Livingstone opens today. Organiser Tim Foley said the more than 80 auction items included a walk-on role on the television programme Shortland Street, a retreat for four people in Hanmer Springs and the chance to meet the cast of the television programme 7 Days at Forsyth Barr Stadium. Mr Foley said the money raised would fund a fun-filled day to return the smiles to pupils after the double homicide of their classmates earlier this month. A day not to think of the hard stuff. Some of the funds would go to a memorial initiated by the school for Bradley and Ellen. Mr Foley was blown away by the auction items given by former pupils, businesses, sporting organisations and St Leonards residents. Other auction items included original art, an electric bike, a chance to hijack a radio show, a ride in a Porsche GT3 race car and a cricket bat signed by the Black Caps. The ...
The goal of VIENTOS project is to analyze pupil innovative systems that could be used in the new generation of instruments for the large telescopes. This study tries to identify the current scientific needs, to understand why some of them have not been fulfilled yet (due to pre-conceived technical ideas or to managerial reasons) and to propose opto-mechanical solutions for these pupil elements that could produce a qualitative leap in the performance of the instruments to operate in the large telescopes. VIENTOS is currently on-going as a collaborative project between FRACTAL and the University Complutense of Madrid (UCM) and is being partially funded by a CDTI grant under the program Industry for Science. CDTI is the Development and Industrial Transfer Center from the Minister of Science and Innovation (Spain). Among the different innovative systems that we have carried out, our team has explored potential solutions for narrow band Imaging with tunable filters in the near-IR and a novel pupil ...
RYANSeerpa-th, a Grade 12 pupil at Phoenix Secondary, is still on cloud nine after being picked for the KZN Under 17 Schools Cricket team about a month ago.. The left-arm medium pace bowler caught the eye of the selectors during three days of gruelling trials held at the Glenwood High, DHS and DHS Old Boys Cricket Grounds where the cream of under 17 schoolboys displayed their talents.. Ryan, 17, represente-d the Durban and Districts Cricket Unions developmen-t team.. According to KZN High Schools Cricket president Vee Lala, who was especially pleased that a Phoenix pupil had made the team, Ryan has become the first pupil from the area to make a KZN schools representa-tive side in the past decade.. His selection will motivate other youngsters from this community to pursue their cricket ambitions, said Lala.. Small wonder the selectors dubbed him the find of the week, his tight lines and the innate ability to trouble batsmen by bringing the ball back into righthande-rs (his stock delivery) from ...
The Pupil Premium is allocated to schools to address the current underlying inequalities between financially disadvantaged children and their peers. It is allocated for children eligible for free school meals, children who have been looked after continuously for more than six months, children whose parents are currently serving in the armed forces and children who are in receipt of a pension under the Armed Forces Compensation Scheme or the War Pensions Scheme. From 2012/2013, this has included pupils eligible for FSM at any point in the last six years.. Schools are free to decide how the Pupil Premium is spent but are required to publish online information about how the premium has been used and the impact that it has had on childrens progress.. The application form for free school meals can be obtained from the school office or accessed via the following link: www.norfolk.gov.uk/education-and-learning/schools/school-meals-and-milk. ...
Mr Belfield, 45, a Cambridge maths graduate who became head in 2010, has previously criticised pathetic children for being ill and female pupils for wearing short skirts, it has been reported.. The school held a sixth-form casino night on Saturday where pupils dressed up, with girls in little black dresses, according to its website.. Mr Belfield was unavailable to talk to Sky News on Wednesday as he was dining with 72 parents in Hong Kong, the school said. Just under two thirds of the pupils at Ruthin are from overseas.. In an email to parents regarding relationships, seen by Sky News, he said that all students, staff and parents were aware of his strict views on behaviour and this is one reason why parents choose Ruthin School.. He continued: Unlike many other schools in the UK, the young people at Ruthin School have exceptionally good behaviour and they are focused on their study and their goal of entering top universities. The students know how proud I am of them. ...
A straight teacher is claiming he suffered sexual discrimination after repeatedly being called gay and a poof by pupils.. James Campbell, 62, told a tribunal yesterday that pupils at Denny High School, Stirlingshire, Scotland, subjected him to crude and offensive comments suggesting he was gay. He said he hates kids because of what happened to him, after they called him names including perv, gay, poof, and weirdo.. Campbell, the former art teacher at the school, had already lost a disability claim after pupils mocked his baldness, and an unfair dismissal case after he claimed unruly kids forced him into early retirement, the Scottish Daily Record reported.. Married Campbell told the tribunal in Glasgow: At one stage theyd call me baldy. At another stage theyd call me poof. It shouldnt have happened. Nobody should have called me all these things. Surely there should be some retribution for this.. Somebody has called me all these names. I think it is just and equitable that the ...
An attitude scale developed by Dutton, Petrie, and Adams was administered by classroom teachers to 850 pupils in grades 4-6 in 10 schools in one school system in September and again in May. The scale had two parts, a 15-item section assessing feelings toward mathematics and another part that asked the child to rank-order the subjects liked, best to least. In grade 4, mathematics was a liked subject in both testings. Pupils in grade 5 indicated a positive attitude toward mathematics, and it ranked in the top three subjects except in one school, with little change from beginning to end of the year. In grade 6, pupils for the most part ranked mathematics as a liked subject in September, but it was ranked lower in half the schools in May. Fear of word problems was cited at all three levels as a reason for disliking mathematics. Children liked mathematics because they considered it important and fun. (MNS)
Saxophone Basics Series is a landmark method for beginner saxophone players by one of the leading figures in saxophone education, Andy Hampton. Comprising pupils tutor book, teachers book with accompaniment parts and an array of online resources. Saxophone Basics Pupils book starts at absolute beginner level and progresses to about Grade 2. There are 22 stages, each section includes a wonderful variety of concert pieces from the great composers, traditional tunes and fun, original exercises, finger gyms and warm ups to help establish a sound technique, factfiles and quizzes to teach notation and general musicianship, helpful, clear fingering charts and rhythm boxes and great illustrations. Also available, is the Pupils book edition with a CD accompaniment for an enhanced learning experience. Included in this edition: || a wide range of classical, jazz and pop repertoire, including One Mint Julep, and the theme from Red Dwarf || warm ups, fun original exercises
Notable former pupils[edit]. See also: Category:People educated at St Edmund's School, Canterbury ... Senior School (ages 13-18) boarding fees for the academic year 2019/20 are £36,881 per annum and £21,132 for day pupils. The ...
Pupil of Stick[edit]. Main article: Stone (Chaste). Mutant[edit]. Main article: Stone (Mutant) ...
Dilation of the pupil[edit]. Main article: Dilated fundus examination. To allow for better inspection through the pupil, which ... The pupil is a hole through which the eye's interior will be viewed. Opening the pupil wider (dilating it) is a simple and ... Recent developments like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy can make good quality images through pupils as small as 2 millimeters, ... Therefore, dilation of the pupil (mydriasis) is often accomplished with medicated eye drops before funduscopy. However, ...
Pupils of his entered the University of Edinburgh in 1789, and Barclay became an assistant there to John Bell the anatomist, ... Barclay supported his former pupil William Dick when he established his Dick Veterinary School. ...
Pupils[edit]. During its developmental years, the first pupils to join the Denishawn school played a large role in building it ... Some pupils who had their beginnings in the Denishawn school went on to make names for themselves , and their presence at the ... Author and former Denishawn pupil Jane Sherman recalls an everyday class, laden with ballet terminology:. "A typical Denishawn ... Each pupil danced alone a series of pas de basques: the Denishawn version, the ballet, the Spanish, and the Hungarian. The ...
It was not until the late 1950s that he accepted his first pupil, Dubravka Tomšič Srebotnjak. Other pupils of Rubinstein ... Pupils[edit]. For Rubinstein's notable students, see List of music students by teacher: R to S § Arthur Rubinstein. ... As a student of Barth, Rubinstein inherited a renowned pedagogical lineage: Barth was himself a pupil of Liszt, who had been ... taught by Czerny, who had in turn been a pupil of Beethoven.[2] ...
Pupils were left distraught after the theft as a core team of pupils had been trained to handle him.[17] ... School, Field and Reckitt all have facilities for day and boarding pupils. Fryer pupils can board in the senior houses. ... Each senior house has around 100 pupils, and the junior house has approximately 120 pupils. The houses are integral to school ... Leighton Park School is a co-educational independent school for both day and boarding pupils in Reading in South East England. ...
Past pupils[edit]. *Charlie Brooker, journalist, screenwriter and TV presenter. *Matt Rodda, politician and Member of ...
The school has around 50 boarders, about 7% of the number of pupils.[23] The boarders form an integral part of the school and ... Former pupils[edit]. See also: Category:People educated at St George's School, Edinburgh ... the vast majority of pupils will stay on to complete Highers at 17 (typically studying five subjects) and Advanced Highers at ...
Pupils' houses[edit]. House names[edit]. There are six houses at Magdalen, named after former prefects who died in the two ... At the end of the L4th, pupils are allowed to take part in Combined Cadet Force (CCF), although this is optional until the end ... Almost all of the school's pupils go on to universities, and about a third of them to Oxford or Cambridge.[7] ... Each house also has a Head of House who is an Upper Sixth pupil appointed by the Housemaster, two house prefects, and three ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. See also: List of Old Juddians. Former pupils notable for their military careers are Neville Duke ... which pupils take aged 10 or 11, depending on their date of birth. Provision was made for pupils to enter aged 13 or 14, for ... The Judd School opened as a day school for local pupils living with their parents, between the ages of eight and 16.[11][60] ... In 2013, The Sunday Times newspaper ranked The Judd School as the 12th best state secondary school (for pupils aged 11-16, with ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. *Natalia Paruz - musician. References[edit]. *^ "Matthew Arnold School - GOV.UK". get-information- ... The school contains around 1,100 pupils from years 7 to 13. Previously a community school administered by Oxfordshire County ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. *Sir Alexander Robert Badcock (1844-1907), army officer.[8] ... The school's sports day is the focus of a pupil's summer term. ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... The move was complicated by the outbreak of the Second World War, and the subsequent evacuation of the pupils to Repton School ... Commissioned by Sir Paul Ruddock, a former pupil of the school, the facility was officially opened by the Rt Hon Michael Gove ... The Drama Society at KES/KEHS performs a junior play, senior play or musical, and syndicate play (organised solely by pupils) ...
Pupils are banded in the way which best enables each individual to learn fully and achieve highly, and within each band ... We are committed to celebrating diversity; promoting harmony and tolerance; creating a learning community for pupils, staff and ... Pupils are not entered early for English and maths increasing their chances to achieve the highest grades. The school has not ... All pupils in state funded community schools are required to follow the National Curriculum that was recently revised in 2014. ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. *Paul Tonkinson, TV presenter. Northallerton Grammar School[edit]. *Robert Allison, Vice- ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. West Bromwich Grammar School[edit]. *Madeleine Carroll, actress, popular in the 1930s and 1940s. ... and demand for places was falling by the 1990s as many pupils living in the catchment area chose to attend other schools. ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. Pixie Lott performing at the school in 2010. ...
... which would allow the school to begin taking in pupils at reception and upwards, thus increasing pupil numbers by 150 by 2024. ... Most pupils enter aged 7 ("7+" for the Prep School), 11 ("11+"), or 16 ("16+", for Sixth Form), although casual vacancies arise ... The school's capacity is roughly 680 pupils. As its success rises, applications to the school continue to climb with new ...
The Mount School Annual reports (annual lists of pupils 1919-1940).. *Old York Scholars Association Annual reports, 1887-1901. ... Pupils also remain to complete their homework. Boarding[edit]. After activities girls may stay for supper. Boarders are ... At GCSE level, 100% of pupils achieved a good GCSE grade in seven or more subjects. Five students gained one of the top five ... Notable former pupils[edit]. See also: Category:People educated at The Mount School, York ...
Pupil population is just under 1,400, including over 300 in the sixth form. Of the school roll, 15 per cent receive free school ... Notable former pupils[edit]. *Allison Pearson (born 1960), novelist and newspaper columnist ... It was established in 1974, taking over the pupils and many of the staff of the older Lincoln Grammar School and Christ's ...
Notable former pupils[edit]. See also: Category:People educated at Reading Blue Coat School ... On Remembrance Day 2014, 100 years after the outbreak of the First World War, a 13-year-old pupil, Harry Hayes, who is a member ... The RAB also contains a Common Room for Middle School pupils (aged 13-16). The building has a light and airy feel thanks to an ... for technology and computing were added in the 1980s in response to rising educational expectations and growing pupil numbers. ...
SHS admits pupils aged 11-18, all of whom are required to pass an 11+ exam. There are approximately 1,000 staff and students at ... Notable former pupils[edit]. See also: Category:People educated at Spalding High School, Lincolnshire ... In a typical year group at SHS there are five forms of approximately 30 pupils. Each form is a member of a house. There are ...
... and offers GCSEs and BTECs as programmes of study for pupils. Ribblesdale High School was also previously awarded specialist ...
Bourne, Kelly (4 February 1989). "Star pupil". TV Week. No. 32. p. 21. Hopwood, Clive (1990). The Official Neighbours Annual ...
"Apt Pupil". Allmovie. Retrieved November 29, 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) https://www.allmovie.com/movie/blade ...
Colors: background, black; eye, orange and lemon yellow; cat, black with yellow outlines; eyeball, yellow; pupil, green; ...
"What is a Womanist?". Progressive Pupil. Progressive Pupil. Retrieved 16 April 2018. Maparyan, Layli (2012). The Womanist Idea ...
Pupil round. Head, body and limbs are light brown and light grey dorsally. There are five irregular cloud-like black bands on ...
Pupil round. Head, body and limbs are orange-brown dorsally. There are five faded, irregular brown on trunk with seven to eight ...
Overview of Pupil Premium. The Pupil Premium grant is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for ... pupil premium students. The funding is available for students in Year 7 to 11. ...
We use our pupil premium funding to ensure equity of opportunities for all our pupils and ensure that our disadvantaged pupils ... Pupil Premium funding was introduced in April 2011 and is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for ... Please see the Pupil Premium Archive for previous years reports and information. ...
Apt Pupil (1998) R , 1h 51min , Crime, Drama, Thriller , 23 October 1998 (USA) ... Apt Pupil distances itself from The Shawshank Redemption and Stand by Me in that it isnt as accomplished, most notably when it ... Stephen Kings Apt Pupil, which is part of the novella collection Different Seasons (alongside the stories that inspired The ...
The Pupil Premium policy sees schools receive money for each of their students who partake in the Free School Meals scheme and ... Nick Clegg MP will announce the overall winners of the Pupil Premium Awards in a special London ceremony on Monday 8 July. ... At Barnfield West Academy, the Pupil Premium is used for a variety of purposes to enhance the learning experience of our ... The awards offer cash prizes to schools across the country which are making the best use of Pupil Premium money. ...
... the pupil. In a dark room, a persons pupils are large, perhaps 8 mm (0.3 inch) or more in diameter. When the room is lighted, ... This is bilateral, so that even if only one eye is exposed to the light, both pupils contract to nearly the same extent. After ... The pupil: The amount of light entering the eye is restricted by the aperture in the iris, ... there is an immediate constriction of the pupils, the light reflex. ...
Pupils. Impact was mixed for participating pupils. In part this can be explained by the different levels of participation, ... Pupil selection. Many participating staff believed that the success of Pupil Power rested on the selection of students. All ... In our research for this report we found that several pupils saw Pupil Power as a good opportunity to articulate their ... Appendix C Responses to pupil surveys. Tables 4 and 5 summarise responses to the pupil surveys administered over the pilot. P ...
... the pupils are reexamined, and if Adie is present, the affected pupil (dilated pupil) will constrict more than the normal pupil ... Adie tonic pupil. Go to Academy Store Learn more and Purchase. Diagnostic features of tonic pupils include sluggish, segmental ... Tonic pupils are unilateral in 80% of cases, although the second pupil may later become involved (4% per year). Holmes-Adie ... Patients with tonic pupils may have accommodative symptoms or photophobia, but just as often they have no symptoms and report ...
A Thai teacher faces prosecution after mobile phone footage showed him beating a pupil and slamming the boys head into a ... A Thai teacher faces prosecution after mobile phone footage showed him beating a pupil and slamming the boys head into a ...
Apt Pupil runs into bad luck. "Apt Pupil" runs into bad luck - Bryan Singer talks about all the setbacks for the film based ... When director Bryan Singer (The Usual Suspects) begins shooting his adaptation of Kings novella Apt Pupil in February, it will ... Shooting proceeded for 10 weeks; then Granat Releasing, the production company financing the film, ran out of money and Pupil ... Apt Pupil was published in 1982s Different Seasons - the same collection that spawned the films Stand by Me and The Shawshank ...
Pupils are in charge of how much light goes into your eye. ... Pupil. Say: pyoo-pul. Pupils are in charge of how much light ... You can use a small flashlight to test how your pupils, or your friends pupils, change when the amount of light near them ... Thats why your pupils get larger in the dark (to let more light in) and smaller in the light (to keep some light out). ... Its all in a days work for the incredible, shrinking, growing pupil. ...
White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. ... The pupil of the human eye is normally black. In flash photographs the pupil may appear red. This is called the "red reflex" by ... If you see a white pupil, call your provider right away. Well-child exams routinely screen for a white pupil in children. A ... This may often occur before the pupil appears to be white. Detecting a white pupil is especially important in infants. Babies ...
A PIETERMARITZBURG pupil who hijacked a car last year to get money for a dance was expelled from Linpark High School in terms ... made staff and pupils feel vulnerable, and created a situation where other pupils believed that the department did not regard ... A PIETERMARITZBURG pupil who hijacked a car last year to get money for a dance was expelled from Linpark High School in terms ... In May this year the high court granted authority to Vryheid High to expel a Grade 12 pupil who stabbed a school-mate on the ...
Listen to songs from the album December - EP, including December, December (DbyM Remix), December (Minnaar Remix) and many more. Buy the album for R29.99. Songs start at R9.99. Free with Apple Music subscription.
But he had swapped it for a grey Japan blazer by the time he went to share a high-five, fist-bump and hug with his star pupil ... emotionally torn over his compatriots loss for his pupils win. ...
Special needs pupil exclusion to be tackled. Measures to tackle the "disproportionate" number of children with special needs ... He outlined various reforms to the special education system including trialling easier ways of assessing pupils with special ... New guidance on behaviour will "make tackling exclusions of SEN pupils a priority", Mr Balls said. ... that some parents can find it hard to access the right support for their child and that pupils with SLD (severe learning ...
The extension of the funding, worth £1,900 per pupil, will help to close the attainment gap and transform pupils future life ... 20m of additional Pupil Premium money to get the support they need to thrive at school - helping around an extra 10,000 pupils ... attracted the Pupil Premium for the first time. The Pupil Premium has now been extended to cover all children adopted from care ... Press release pupil premium + adop register july2014 * 1. £20 MILLION TO GIVE CHILDREN ADOPTED FROM CARE THE BEST START IN LIFE ...
1991) Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects. Ophthalmology 98:485-495, discussion 495- ... and the pupil slowly adapts to the actual physical intensity of the light. In other words, the pupils reflect almost ... On average, the pupils appear to slightly dilate from baseline (Fig. 2, Lower Left, and Fig. 3). In contrast, the analysis on ... Changes in mean pupil diameters (in mm) for each of the four types of illusions, averaged over a 4-s epoch from onset. Bars ...
... what estimate her Department has made of how many infant pupils (a) are eligible to receive pupil premium and... ... Pupil premium final allocations for the financial year 2015-16 will be based on pupil data gathered through the forthcoming ... A smaller proportion of pupils attract the pupil premium on the basis of being looked after, or having left care through ... the Department estimates that 430,350 pupils in reception, year 1 and year 2 will attract pupil premium funding on the basis of ...
John the pupil. [D L Flusfeder] -- A medieval road movie, recounting the journey taken from Oxford to Viterbo in 1267 by John ... in character of John the Pupil, a richly comical and engaging hero ... Learned, funny and strikingly original, this is a hugely ... http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/888951945> # John the pupil. a schema:Book, schema:CreativeWork ;. library:oclcnum "888951945" ;. ... schema:about ; # John the pupil. schema:dateModified "2017-12-23" ;. void:inDataset < ...
Staff and pupils had held a minutes silence for Eve and were offered emotional support on Thursday and again yesterday. ... Mr Hodgkinson said Eve had been a pupil at the school since she was 5, and would be missed greatly. ... Lakeview School principal Ed Hodgkinson said staff and pupils had been left shocked by the news. ...
... deployed to pupil referral units (PRUs) in England. ... SIPs and pupil referral units. Essential Briefing. This ... Maximising progress: Ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN. *School Improvement Partners (SIPs) e-newsletter: Autumn 2009 ... IDP Primary and Secondary: Teaching and supporting pupils on the autism spectrum ... guidance is primarily designed to assist School Improvement Partners (SIPs) deployed to pupil referral units (PRUs) in England ...
Pupil Testing Plan Is Set. Special to The New York Times.. MARCH 25, 1958. ... A version of this archives appears in print on March 25, 1958, on Page 25 of the New York edition with the headline: Pupil ...
An overwhelming majority of teachers in a survey for a teaching union said pupils were imitating poor behaviour seen on ... Ninety per cent of teachers say some pupils are imitating the language and behaviour of reality television stars, a survey for ... Three quarters also think pupils are behaving more aggressively as a consequence, the survey found. ...
A boy who suffered an asthma attack at a Stockport school died of natural causes contributed to by neglect, an inquest jury rules.
Chinese pupils had the lowest exclusion rate of 0..2, followed by Indian children at 0.5, Bangladeshi at 0.8 and Pakistani at ... Even with the best efforts to improve provision for excluded pupils, the continued existence of the exclusion gap means black ... The report states that 1,000 black pupils are permanently excluded from school each year and 30,000 for fixed periods. ... compared with around 1.3 for white British pupils. However, the rate for black African children was similar to the white ...
This System Is Designed To Manually Dilate A Small Pupil With Greater Safety And Efficacy. The Bimanual Technique Maximizes ... Fukasaku Small Pupil Irrigating Nucleus Chopper. 9. Super Pupil XL. 10. TOPCON PD-5 Pupilometer. 11. TOPCON PD-2 Pupilometer. ... Pupil Stretching Is Also Maximized, With The Pupil Dilator (8-09133-A) Introduced Through The Phaco Incision And Stretching The ... The Side Port Pupil Dilator (8-09133-B), Introduced Through The Paracentesis, Then Pushes The Iris To The Opposite Side Of The ...
... is an expansion device for small and medium sized pupils which allows expansion of the pupil to 8mm ... Perfect Pupil Injectable was designed to provide the surgeon with an optimal work area and reduce the risk of surgical ... Perfect Pupil Injectable is an expansion device for small and medium sized pupils which allows expansion of the pupil to 8mm ... Perfect Pupil Injectable was designed to provide the surgeon with an optimal work area and reduce the risk of surgical ...
Glossary of terms for the photographic industry Exit pupil An image of the iris diaphragm formed on the back surface of a ... Exit pupil An image of the iris diaphragm formed on the back surface of a compound lens by the elements behind the aperture. ...
Nottingham City Council is a democratic organisation, with 55 Councillors representing electors in the 20 electoral wards in the City of Nottingham. Nottingham City Council, Loxley House, Station Street Nottingham, NG2 3NG Telephone: 0115 915 5555
Animals with non-circular pupils A goat with horizontal rectangular pupils A stingray with crescent pupils A crocodile with ... Anisocoria Adies pupil Argyll Robertson pupil Light-near dissociation Marcus Gunn Pupil Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. (1990) ... In humans, the pupil is round, but its shape varies between species; some cats, reptiles, and foxes have vertical slit pupils, ... In optical terms, the anatomical pupil is the eyes aperture and the iris is the aperture stop. The image of the pupil as seen ...
  • This System Is Designed To Manually Dilate A Small Pupil With Greater Safety And Efficacy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The dilator pupillae, innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion, cause the pupil to dilate when they contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the pupil will dilate if a person sees an object of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why did your pupils dilate when you saw me topless? (yourdictionary.com)
  • Notice that it takes longer for your pupil to dilate than it does to contract. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Pupils dilate to indicate sexual interest. (livescience.com)
  • The sequence of pupils dilating, mouth shutting and dog freezing is generally an indicator that the dog is "deciding" whether or not he or she needs to bite - in other words, the pupils dilate during the moment a canine makes the decision between fight and flight. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As a result, a person with Adie's pupil is even less able to dilate their pupil than to focus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some research suggests that as the person ages, the ability to dilate gradually lessens to the point that the eye may have a smaller (constricted) pupil almost all the time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pupils tend to become bigger (dilate) in low-light situations. (healthline.com)
  • Certain drugs can dilate pupils while others constrict them. (healthline.com)
  • According to the Kellogg Eye Center at the University of Michigan, they can slightly dilate pupils. (healthline.com)
  • The pupils (the black centers of the eyes which dilate or constrict in response to light) are inspected for size, equality, and regularity. (healthcentral.com)
  • Did you know that the pupils will constrict or dilate when you look at objects far or near? (healthcentral.com)
  • When the doctor quickly moves the light to my right eye (the "bad" eye), my pupils begin to dilate since the brain thinks that less light is coming in. (healthcentral.com)
  • What is interesting is that my neurologist told me that my right pupil will even continue to dilate somewhat. (healthcentral.com)
  • In my case, my right pupil continues to dilate and becomes larger than the left. (healthcentral.com)
  • In the dark, your pupils get bigger (dilate). (healthline.com)
  • Atropine , by paralyzing the nerve supply, causes dilation of the pupil and paralysis of accommodation ( cycloplegia). (britannica.com)
  • citation needed] If the drug pilocarpine is administered, the pupils will constrict and accommodation is increased due to the parasympathetic action on the circular muscle fibers, conversely, atropine will cause paralysis of accommodation (cycloplegia) and dilation of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilation of the pupil is mydriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under normal circumstances, brightness and accommodation for near vision will result in contracture of the ciliary body and the pupil, whereas darkness and accommodation for distance normally results in a relaxation of the ciliary body and dilation of the pupil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology , pupils generally range in size from 2 to 8 mm. (healthline.com)
  • When the room is lighted, there is an immediate constriction of the pupils, the light reflex . (britannica.com)
  • Certain drugs cause constriction of the pupils, such as opioids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, application of a drug such as pilocarpine to the cornea will cause a constriction of the pupil and a spasm of accommodation. (britannica.com)
  • A cloudy cornea or cataract may be mistaken for a white pupil, but usually a white pupil is due to infection or disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the cornea, which is normally clear, becomes cloudy, it may look similar to a white pupil. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different from those of a white pupil or white reflex, these problems also need medical attention right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A child that develops a white pupil or cloudy cornea needs immediate attention, preferably from an eye specialist. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contact your provider if you notice any color changes in the pupil or cornea of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The image of the pupil as seen from outside the eye is the entrance pupil, which does not exactly correspond to the location and size of the physical pupil because it is magnified by the cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook, light travels through the sclera, cornea, pupil and lens before stopping at the retina, respectively. (reference.com)
  • The pupil itself, which lens designers would call the aperture , is in a slightly different location because the image is magnified by the cornea . (wikipedia.org)
  • The entrance pupil of the eye is the image of the anatomical pupil as seen through the cornea . (wikipedia.org)
  • The entrance pupil is the image of the physical aperture, as seen through the front of the lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparent location of the anatomical pupil of a human eye (black circle) is the eye's entrance pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outside world appears to be seen from the point at the center of the entrance pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop , as 'seen' through the front of the lens system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The geometric location of the entrance pupil is the vertex of the camera's angle of view [1] and consequently its center of perspective , perspective point , view point , projection centre [2] or no-parallax point . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] [5] Panoramic photographers often incorrectly refer to the entrance pupil as a nodal point , which is a different concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • In photography, the size of the entrance pupil (rather than the size of the physical aperture itself) is used to calibrate the opening and closing of the diaphragm aperture . (wikipedia.org)
  • The f-number ("relative aperture"), N , is defined by N = f/E N , where f is the focal length and E N is the diameter of the entrance pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Increasing the focal length of a lens (i.e., zooming in) will usually cause the f-number to increase, and the entrance pupil location to move further back along the optical axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entrance pupil of the human eye , which is not quite the same as the physical pupil , is typically about 4 mm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • To use an optical instrument, the entrance pupil of the viewer's eye must be aligned with and be of similar size to the instrument's exit pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAY 21, 2019 - The amount spent per pupil for public elementary and secondary education (prekindergarten through 12th grade) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia increased by 3.7% to $12,201 per pupil during the 2017 fiscal year, compared to $11,763 per pupil in 2016, according to new tables released today by the U.S. Census Bureau. (census.gov)
  • What does it mean if the pupils look abnormally small and do not change as expected? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because this type of headache affects nerves in the face, the pupil on the affected side can become abnormally small (called miosis) during the headaches. (healthline.com)
  • Pupils that are abnormally small under normal lighting conditions are called pinpoint pupils. (healthline.com)
  • But he had swapped it for a grey Japan blazer by the time he went to share a high-five, fist-bump and hug with his star pupil to celebrate his win. (reuters.com)
  • some cats, reptiles, and foxes have vertical slit pupils, goats have horizontally oriented pupils, and some catfish have annular types. (wikipedia.org)
  • For ambush predators with vertical-slit pupils, the authors noted the importance of accurately gauging the distance animals would need to pounce on their prey. (eurekalert.org)
  • The pupils react naturally to changing light levels, controlling how much light gets into the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Not only does the pupil react to emotional stimuli, it is itself an emotional stimulus. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The way people's pupils react when they see other people is an effective way to assess sexual orientation, according to a new study. (livescience.com)
  • Hey I Know This Probably Sounds Like A Stupid Question We Are Learning About Pupillary Reactions Perla How Will The Pupils React To Light If Someone Is Blind In One Eye? (allnurses.com)
  • My second pt was legally blind and the RN going off said 'I didn't do pupil checks, he's legally blind,they don't react. (allnurses.com)
  • Another term for the constriction of the pupil is miosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical term for pinpoint pupils is miosis or myosis, from an ancient Greek word muein , meaning "to close the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In May this year the high court granted authority to Vryheid High to expel a Grade 12 pupil who stabbed a school-mate on the sports field, and to Northern Park Primary school to expel a pupil said to have shown violent behaviour towards a teacher and serious forms of misconduct. (news24.com)
  • Borain said the fact that Buthelezi was still attending school without any sanction on him created uncertainty as far as the governance of the school was concerned, made staff and pupils feel vulnerable, and created a situation where other pupils believed that the department did not regard such violent behaviour as serious enough to do something about it. (news24.com)
  • New guidance on behaviour will "make tackling exclusions of SEN pupils a priority", Mr Balls said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Ninety per cent of teachers say some pupils are imitating the language and behaviour of reality television stars, a survey for a teaching union suggests. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The attempt to encourage pupils to behave themselves in class is the idea of Charlie Taylor, the government's Expert Adviser on Behaviour for schools in England. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The research - A Mass Observation Study of Student and Teacher Behaviour in British Primary Classrooms - was based on the proportion of pupils who were 'on-task' (following the teacher's directions) or 'off-task' (not following the teacher's directions). (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • And at this year's annual conference of the Nasuwt teachers' union, delegates heard that bad behaviour from pupils is the biggest cause of stress for teachers. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Adjustments of the size of the eye's pupil occur automatically in response to changes in the intensity or energy of light ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In simple words, the eye's pupil should not be prepared to respond to any other visual property than the sheer amount of physical light energy entering the eye at a particular moment. (pnas.org)
  • Since the eye's pupil varies in diameter with viewing conditions, the ideal exit pupil diameter depends on the application. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergent light at the eyepiece then fills the eye's pupil, meaning no loss of brightness at night due to using such binoculars (assuming perfect transmission ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In daylight, when the eye's pupil is only 4 mm in diameter, over half the light will be blocked by the iris and will not reach the retina . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, we look at the definition and causes of pinpoint pupils, as well as possible treatment options. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What are common causes of pinpoint pupils? (healthline.com)
  • In a dark room, a person's pupils are large, perhaps 8 mm (0.3 inch) or more in diameter. (britannica.com)
  • The size of a person's pupils can give another person a strong impression of sympathy or hostility. (exploratorium.edu)
  • the new study showed that, indeed, a person's sexuality is evident in their pupils' responses. (livescience.com)
  • Shining a light in one eye of a normal subject causes both pupils to constrict equally. (allnurses.com)
  • No Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect: Both pupils constrict equally without evidence of pupillary re-dilation with the "swinging flashlight test," except possibly for "hippus. (healthcentral.com)
  • By moving the card closer to or further away from the eyepiece, the disc of light will be minimized when the card is at the exit pupil, and the bright disc then shows the diameter of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientists found a significant increase in the diameter of the pupil at the instant preceding the perceptual switch. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The pupil is a black hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light goes through the pupil to reach the retina, which is sensitive to light. (reference.com)
  • An example of the pupil is the center part of the eye that gets smaller when you are exposed to very bright light in order to limit light exposure to the retina. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The examinations can determine if any of the muscles of the eye or retina, which is linked to the pupil, have any problems that could relate to the tadpole pupil condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilated Pupillary Exam: special drops expand the pupil, which then allows doctors to examine the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the bright light of a camera flash shines directly through the pupil, it can reflect off the choroid , which supplies red blood to the retina (the light-sensitive lining at the back of your eye), and bounce right back out through the pupil. (exploratorium.edu)
  • With this arrangement, the light from the flash goes through the pupil at an angle, illuminating a part of the retina not captured by the camera lens. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The iris grows to make the pupil shrink when the light increases. (reference.com)
  • However, some medical conditions and the use of certain drugs can cause the pupils to shrink to a pinpoint size. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Software calculates how quickly the pupils shrink and recover, compares this response against pupil records stored in a database, and gauges within seconds whether the subject has taken drugs or alcohol during the past several weeks. (technologyreview.com)
  • Episodic segmental iris mydriasis was first described and termed "tadpole pupil" in 1912 by HS Thompson The primary symptom is pupillary distortion (changing of the size or shape of the pupil). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Julie Finkel, an anesthesiologist and pain specialist who is affiliated with the Children's National Medical Center in Washington, D.C., is working to develop a tool, AlgometRx, that can measure changes in the pupil. (wpr.org)
  • It works by measuring changes in the pupil that are triggered by a nerve signal traveling along a pathway to both the pupil and the pain centers of the brain. (wpr.org)
  • A smaller proportion of pupils attract the pupil premium on the basis of being looked after, or having left care through adoption or under a Special Guardianship, Residence or Child Arrangements Order. (parliament.uk)
  • Rejecting the stereotypes of disrupted lessons and deteriorating discipline, Mr Apter says that the proportion of pupils who are 'on task' during lessons has been steadily rising. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Pupil Stretching Is Also Maximized, With The Pupil Dilator (8-09133-A) Introduced Through The Phaco Incision And Stretching The Pupil Into A Cat's Eye Shape When The Push/Pull Mechanism Is Opened. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Side Port Pupil Dilator (8-09133-B), Introduced Through The Paracentesis, Then Pushes The Iris To The Opposite Side Of The Eye, Achieving An Equilateral Triangle And Maximal Three-Point Stretching. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Contractions of the iris dilator muscle, a smooth muscle of the eye running radially in the iris, can cause irregular distortion of the pupil, thus making the pupil look tadpole shaped and giving this condition its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupil size is governed by the tone of the pupillary sphincter (parasympathetic) and the pupillary dilator muscles (sympathetic) in response to ambient light, adrenergic tone, and local pharmacologic or pathophysiologic conditions. (allnurses.com)
  • In optical terms, the anatomical pupil is the eye's aperture and the iris is the aperture stop. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 25 years of age, the average pupil size decreases, though not at a steady rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of 7×50 binoculars has an exit pupil just over 7.1 mm, which corresponds to the average pupil size of a youthful dark-adapted human eye in circumstances with no extraneous light. (wikipedia.org)
  • If, after shining a light in one eye, the light is quickly switched to the other eye, the response will be an initial constriction of both pupils followed by an equivalent re-dilation. (allnurses.com)
  • Mild Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect: The affected pupil shows a weak initial constriction, followed by dilation to a greater size. (healthcentral.com)
  • A Thai teacher faces prosecution after mobile phone footage showed him beating a pupil and slamming the boy's head into a whiteboard for forgetting his textbook, officials and reports said Tuesday. (smh.com.au)
  • Because this pathway in the bird involves the same molecule, it's possible that, for the pupil, meeting the right teacher serves as its own reward. (eurekalert.org)
  • But the pupil soon found his teacher to be but a charlatan, and betook himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and the Almagest. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The key to this improvement was the teacher, said Mr Apter, and their constant verbal engagement with pupils - which he says has been described as the 'motor mouth' approach. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The Pupil Premium grant is allocated to schools to work with pupils who have been registered for free school meals at any point in the last six years (known as 'Ever 6 FSM'), Looked After Children, children adopted from care or who have left care, and children of service personnel (known as 'Ever 5 service). (google.com)
  • The Leagrave High Street Academy has been named as regional winner of the Secondary School of the Year for the East of England in the shortlist for the Pupil Premium Awards - run by Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, the Department for Education and TES. (prweb.com)
  • The Pupil Premium policy sees schools receive money for each of their students who partake in the Free School Meals scheme and aims to improve results of children from deprived backgrounds. (prweb.com)
  • It provides a conceptual framework for how to treat pupils in school and how to provide more empowering opportunities. (demos.co.uk)
  • Friends of Sciennes School (FSS) is a registered charity (Scottish Registered Charity Number SC029465) which was set up to support the school and its pupils. (justgiving.com)
  • A PIETERMARITZBURG pupil who hijacked a car last year to get money for a dance was expelled from Linpark High School in terms of a high court order granted yesterday. (news24.com)
  • 1. £20 MILLION TO GIVE CHILDREN ADOPTED FROM CARE THE BEST START IN LIFE ADOPTION REGISTER TO GIVE PARENTS MORE ACTIVE ROLE All schoolchildren adopted from care are to benefit from £20m of additional Pupil Premium money to get the support they need to thrive at school - helping around an extra 10,000 pupils. (slideshare.net)
  • Extending the Pupil Premium to all children adopted will mean they get support they need from day one at school, no matter what their starting point in life. (slideshare.net)
  • To ask the Secretary of State for Education, what estimate her Department has made of how many infant pupils (a) are eligible to receive pupil premium and (b) have been registered to receive pupil premium in the school year 2014-15. (parliament.uk)
  • Pupil premium funding is allocated to state-funded schools for each financial year rather than by school year, primarily on the basis of the number of pupils recorded in the January school census as having been registered for free school meals (FSM) at any point in the last 6 years. (parliament.uk)
  • Final allocations for 2014-15 will be published later in the year, based on pupil data gathered through the January 2014 school census and the spring 2014 children looked after data return (and also the October 2014 school census, for adopted and other previously looked after pupils who were not recorded as such in the January 2014 school census). (parliament.uk)
  • Pupil premium final allocations for the financial year 2015-16 will be based on pupil data gathered through the forthcoming January 2015 school census and the spring 2015 children looked after data return. (parliament.uk)
  • Lakeview School principal Ed Hodgkinson said staff and pupils had been left shocked by the news. (stuff.co.nz)
  • This guidance is primarily designed to assist School Improvement Partners (SIPs) deployed to pupil referral units (PRUs) in England. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The report states that 1,000 black pupils are permanently excluded from school each year and 30,000 for fixed periods. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Exclusively for senior high school chemistry and biology courses: A half‑day site tour for the pupils, including a tour of the exhibition. (basf.com)
  • The Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics analysed test data of more than two million pupils in England for the research. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The study also finds pupils' ranking in primary school has more of an impact on boys than on girls. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Only five of Clara Schumann's pupils left recordings: Fanny Davies, Ilona Eibenschutz and Adelina de Lara (the three women represented here), Nathalie Janotha (whose four primitive disks, made about 1904, are reported to be execrable) and Carl Friedberg, later an important professor at the Juilliard School and probably the finest artist of the group. (nytimes.com)
  • Junior is among 35 physically impaired children who have joined the other 600 pupils at Twain this school year, according to Principal Debra Rose. (chicagotribune.com)
  • While the number of pupils suspended represents only 2 per cent of the 7,000 preschool and kindergarten students in Fairfax, the suspensions were the most graphic examples yet of Washington-area school officials' efforts to prevent an epidemic like the measles that many students contracted during the last school year. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Assin-Bereku (C/R), Apr 29, GNA - Abraham Sam, a 13-year-old pupil of the D/A Primary School at Assin-Bereku, has been electrocuted by an electric pole. (modernghana.com)
  • Who has ultimate responsibility for pupil health and safety depends on the type of school your child goes to. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Schools need to be able to cope with emergencies, and school management have a responsibility to help pupils take advantage of any medical or dental inspections arranged by the Department of Health. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • The definition of a pupil is a student in school. (yourdictionary.com)
  • A first grader attending elementary school is an example of a pupil. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Charging school fees is illegal, and so is sorting pupils into ability groups by streaming or setting. (yourdictionary.com)
  • In accordance with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), the department has compiled the per-pupil expenditures data on behalf of Florida school districts and schools. (fldoe.org)
  • This per-pupil expenditure data is based on program cost data submitted by school districts and is provided for federal, state and local funds, disaggregated by source of funds. (fldoe.org)
  • The Service Pupil Premium (SPP) was introduced by The Department for Education (DfE) in 2011 to enable schools within England to provide additional, mainly pastoral, support to Service children on the school roll. (raf.mod.uk)
  • If a school is not aware that a child has a parent in HM Forces they will not be able to claim SPP, reducing the support the school is able to provide for Service pupils. (raf.mod.uk)
  • Other than the contribution they make to linking pupil records across different data sets, the school will not itself make any use of pupil names. (raf.mod.uk)
  • Schools currently receive £300 per eligible Service pupil and the funds are paid to the school through the normal channels as part of their annual budget. (raf.mod.uk)
  • It is up to the school and their governors to determine how best to spend the funds to support the needs of Service pupils. (raf.mod.uk)
  • An 80-year-old former school principal of a rural school in Co Clare has been found guilty of indecently assaulting eleven former pupils at his school over a 21 year period from 1964 to 1985. (rte.ie)
  • Pat Barry of Well Road, Kilkee and a former principal of Moyasta National School in West Clare, had denied 67 charges of indecently assaulting the eleven women when they attended the school as pupils. (rte.ie)
  • If, despite additional support provided by the school, a pupil continues to make less progress than expected, the school (or the parents) can ask the local authority to carry out an Education, Health and Care (EHC) needs assessment of the pupil's needs. (parliament.uk)
  • Several teachers at Roosevelt Middle School told The Philadelphia Inquirer they had seen intentional violations of rules while pupils took the test in the past few years, the newspaper reported. (upi.com)
  • Primary school pupils are better behaved within the classroom than in the 1970s, says a long-term study by educational psychologists. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The Department of Education are understood to be looking at at least three Wexford town sites to accommodate a brand new 1,000 pupil co-educational post-primary community school. (independent.ie)
  • To see the top 10 school districts by current spending per pupil, see the graphic Top 10 Largest School Districts by Enrollment and Per Pupil Current Spending . (census.gov)
  • It meant they effectively went back to primary school, as the pupils were gathered in large groups under teams of teachers, which the RSA warned could be noisy and forced staff into a 'new and challenging way of working. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • There was a calmer atmosphere in the school and staff had to spend less time dealing with indiscipline, while relationships with pupils were less 'heavy-handed. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • At St John's School and College in Marlborough, Wilts, national test maths, English and science results achieved by pupils included in the experiment were 15% higher than those gained by the ones who were not. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • A long battle to build a middle school in the Mount Washington section of Baltimore appears to have been unsuccessful, and city school administrators have said they are proposing rezoning that would allow middle school pupils there to attend classes in nearby Roland Park. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Parents of Mount Washington Elementary School pupils had persuaded the board last year to add a sixth grade this school year and to ask the state for school construction money to pay for an addition to the elementary building to house the middle school. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Over the next three years, Smolarz said, Roland Park's middle school enrollment would probably drop by about 120 pupils, a welcome development for a school that is bulging at the seams with 900 children. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Another elementary school move would shift pupils who attend Lafayette Elementary School, which the board has voted to close this year, to vacant space at nearby Calverton Middle School in Rosemont. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A site for the new school, which would offer educational facilities to rival the top schools in the country, has yet to be decided but will be well placed for both sets of pupils. (redorbit.com)
  • The council and the Government are also committed to improving the quality of secondary school provision for pupils in north Birkenhead. (redorbit.com)
  • Peter Bennett, headteacher of Rock Ferry High School, said: "Under these proposals, Rock Ferry High School pupils will continue to enjoy a first-rate education. (redorbit.com)
  • Only the best is good enough for the pupils of Rock Ferry High School. (redorbit.com)
  • School Standards Minister Nick Gibb said: "Mandarin Chinese is the most spoken language in the world, so this programme plays a crucial role in helping these pupils achieve the fluency they need to succeed in an increasingly global economy. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Patients with tonic pupils may have accommodative symptoms or photophobia, but just as often they have no symptoms and report that anisocoria was first noticed by a friend or relative. (aao.org)
  • Adie's pupil is a neurological condition of unknown origin with an unusual, asymmetric presentation known as anisocoria, an inequality in the size of the pupils of the eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anisocoria is a condition in which one pupil is wider than other. (healthline.com)
  • This is the "dynamic anisocoria" (where pupils become different sizes) and is called the Marcus Gunn Pupil. (healthcentral.com)
  • Anisocoria is a condition in which the pupils are of different sizes at all times. (healthcentral.com)
  • iris sphincter (pupil) injury About 4 1/2 weeks ago, I had blunt trauma to eye in a sporting event. (medhelp.org)
  • Staff and pupils had held a minute's silence for Eve and were offered emotional support on Thursday and again yesterday. (stuff.co.nz)
  • The programme was introduced in September 2016 and the results from the first year show that the majority of pupils achieved over 80 per cent in reading, writing, listening and speaking tests, which shows their quick progress and the advanced understanding of the language. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Both legal opioids (like prescription oxycodone) and illegal (heroin) can constrict pupils. (healthline.com)
  • A pupil in an eye that is blind because of ocular or optic nerve disease, and that contracts in response to light only when the normal eye is stimulated with light. (dictionary.com)
  • Some of these nerve impulses go from the optic nerve to the muscles that control the size of the pupil. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Part of the optic nerve from one eye crosses over and couples to the muscles that control the pupil size of the other eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • In the swinging light test, the difference in pupil response gives the "relative" indication of functioning of each eye and optic nerve. (healthcentral.com)
  • One possible drawback: some legitimate medications, such as antiseizure drugs, affect pupil response and could cause false positives. (technologyreview.com)
  • My 9 yr old cat suddenly has a difference in the size of his pupils. (medhelp.org)
  • Pupils of different size can sometimes be an indication of a serious problem. (medhelp.org)
  • Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sphincter pupillae contract, the iris decreases or constricts the size of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in any human age group there is considerable variation in maximal pupil size. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reverse is true, so control of pupil size is controlled by differences in contraction intensity of each muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is Normal Pupil Size? (reference.com)
  • The normal range for pupil size is between 2 and 5 millimeters, although the lighting plays a large part in that spectrum. (reference.com)
  • In normal conditions, the pupils change size to let in the right amount of light. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The maximum pupil size of a human eye is typically 5-9 mm for individuals below 25 years old, and decreases slowly with age as shown as an approximate guide in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your pupil changes size to control how much light enters your eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • You can watch the pupil of your eye change size in response to changes in lighting. (exploratorium.edu)
  • You can also experiment to determine how light shining in one eye affects the size of the pupil in your other eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Observe how your pupil changes size. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Observe changes in the size of one pupil while you, or a partner, shine a light into and away from the other eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The size of your pupils actually reflects the state of your body and mind. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Pupil size can change because you are fearful, angry, in pain, in love, or under the influence of drugs. (exploratorium.edu)
  • What's Normal Pupil Size and When Do Pupils Change? (healthline.com)
  • We'll look at when and why your pupils change size. (healthline.com)
  • A fully dilated pupil is typically in the 4 to 8 millimeters in size, while a constricted pupil is in the 2 to 4 mm range. (healthline.com)
  • Pupil size also changes based on whether you are looking at something close or far away. (healthline.com)
  • The size of your pupils isn't something you can consciously control. (healthline.com)
  • While your two pupils will usually be roughly the same size, pupil size overall can fluctuate. (healthline.com)
  • A variety of factors can influence pupil size, and not all of them have to do with light and distance. (healthline.com)
  • Moderate Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect: The affected pupil shows a stable or unchanged level of constriction, followed by dilation to a greater size. (healthcentral.com)
  • Severe Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect: The affected pupil shows an immediate dilation to a greater size. (healthcentral.com)
  • The size of the investment will offer incredible opportunities, both to pupils and to staff. (redorbit.com)
  • Other than lighting, pupils can change size in reaction to other stimuli. (healthline.com)
  • To ensure we have the best estimates, we are working with primary schools and local authorities so that registration rates for benefits-related FSM are maintained for pupils in reception, year 1 and year 2 classes. (parliament.uk)
  • The appearance of a white pupil is never a normal condition and requires immediate evaluation by specialists trained in ophthalmology. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are many different causes of white pupil or white reflex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other conditions also can mimic white pupil. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most causes of white pupil will cause decreased vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Detecting a white pupil is especially important in infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you see a white pupil, call your provider right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Well-child exams routinely screen for a white pupil in children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some patients who demonstrate tadpole pupil symptoms also experienced Horner's syndrome or Adie's tonic pupil Tadpole pupil symptoms occur in episodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although women generally have the tadpole pupil, men are not unaffected by this disease and some have been reported to experience the symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • MS Signs & Symptoms: What is a Marcus Gunn Pupil? (healthcentral.com)
  • The awards offer cash prizes to schools across the country which are making the best use of Pupil Premium money. (prweb.com)
  • This report presents the findings of our evaluation of the pilot, known to schools as Pupil Power. (demos.co.uk)
  • The report covers both our 'impact' findings - measurable changes seen in the pupils and staff who participated, and any wider impacts in the four schools - and also 'process' findings, relating to how successfully the pilot was implemented and the lessons for other practitioners interested in the approach. (demos.co.uk)
  • While coproduction is related to 'student voice' initiatives already going on in schools, it is more than just listening to what pupils think. (demos.co.uk)
  • This was the second time this year that the high court has intervened to enable provincial public schools to expel problem pupils. (news24.com)
  • Borain said the head of the KZN Education Department, Sishi, whose duty it was to consider recommendations by schools to expel pupils in terms of the SA Schools Act, failed to make a decision in the matter. (news24.com)
  • putting a new legal duty on all councils to tell adopters about the assistance and support available to them - including access to priority schools admissions for their children, the Pupil Premium Plus, and fifteen hours of free early years education for two year olds. (slideshare.net)
  • Schools can add to the health and safety policy to reflect their particular circumstances - so that it covers, for example, what their pupils do in science and PE lessons. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Schools are also encouraged to use the curriculum to help pupils develop the skills and knowledge to keep themselves safe. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • The percentage of foreign pupil in Swiss schools was stable at 24 per cent. (swissinfo.ch)
  • Under the SEND Code of Practice all maintained schools are required to identify the special educational needs of pupils, including those with autism. (parliament.uk)
  • Where any pupil makes less progress than expected, schools should assess the pupil's needs, put in place suitable support to meet those needs and review it regularly to ensure it continues to be appropriate. (parliament.uk)
  • UCL has been engaging with schools in Newham, with the aim of inspiring pupils from the borough to consider higher education as a viable option, and applications to UCL from students living in Newham have risen by 31% in the past year. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 50 pupils join the scheme each year from five different Newham schools. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In the past 12 months we have worked with over 600 pupils in 15 Newham schools and colleges. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Pupils at six schools were taught to develop 'competences,' under a three-year experiment run by the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA). (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Over 100 pupils were this week praised by Education Secretary Justine Greening and Schools Standards Minister Nick Gibb on their high levels of achievements studying under the Mandarin Excellence Programme. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • They all felt this was a great opportunity to see the Foreign Office, to meet pupils from other schools and to realise that they are participating in a prestigious national DfE programme which is considered of significant importance to both the UK and China. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The celebration event, which took place today, was held at the Foreign Office and was attended by over 130 pupils from 14 schools who are part of the scheme. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Adie's pupil primarily affects women from 20 to 40 years of age. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For a person with Adie's pupil, however, nerve signals arriving at the ciliary body of one eye are weaker than to the other eye, believed to be a result of damage to or degeneration of the ciliary ganglion or the ciliary body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Diagnostic features of tonic pupils include sluggish, segmental pupillary responses to light and better response to near effort followed by slow redilation. (aao.org)
  • Tadpole pupil, also known as episodic segmental iris mydriasis, is an ocular condition where the muscles of the iris begin to spasm causing the elongation, or lengthening, of parts of the iris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corresponding image of the aperture as seen through the back of the lens system is called the exit pupil . (wikipedia.org)
  • the exit pupil is the light area in the middle of the lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exit pupil appears as a white disc on the eyepiece lens of these 8×30 binoculars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just behind the iris and pupil lies the lens, which helps focus light on the back of your eye . (webmd.com)
  • Light projects through your pupil and lens to the back of the eye. (webmd.com)
  • The amount of light entering the eye is restricted by the aperture in the iris , the pupil . (britannica.com)
  • This is bilateral, so that even if only one eye is exposed to the light, both pupils contract to nearly the same extent. (britannica.com)
  • After a time, the pupils expand even though the bright light is maintained, but the expansion is not large. (britannica.com)
  • The function of the pupil is clearly that of controlling the amount of light entering the eye, and hence the light reflex. (britannica.com)
  • Pupils are in charge of how much light goes into your eye . (kidshealth.org)
  • That's why your pupils get larger in the dark (to let more light in) and smaller in the light (to keep some light out). (kidshealth.org)
  • You can use a small flashlight to test how your pupils, or your friend's pupils, change when the amount of light near them changes. (kidshealth.org)
  • One type of response, named the pupillary light reflex, is mediated by the parasympathetic system and protects the retinal receptors by constricting the pupil and reducing excessive light energy. (pnas.org)
  • The view that fast pupillary adjustments to light reflect the operation of a separate subcortical neural network would seem supported by the clinical observation that in patients whose visual cortex is completely damaged and who have lost all conscious visual perception, the pupils continue to respond to sudden changes in room illumination ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Based on such a classic view, one could be led to expect that reflexive adjustments of the pupil to light should be impervious to our subjective sense of luminance. (pnas.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Pupil Reaction to Light in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The pupil is the aperture through which light passes into the eye and is created by the circular ring of thin muscles known as the iris. (utah.edu)
  • It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pupil gets wider in the dark and narrower in light. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition is typified by chronically widened pupils due to the decreased ability of the optic nerves to respond to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clear vial of milky fluid can also be used to visualize the light rays, which appear as an hourglass shape converging and diverging as they exit the eyepiece, with the smallest cross-section (the waist of the hourglass shape) representing the exit pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic text on eye physiology put forward the theory, generally accepted, that slit-shaped pupils allow for different musculature and a greater range in the amount of light entering the eye. (eurekalert.org)
  • For species that are active both night and day, like domestic cats, slit pupils provide the dynamic range needed to help them see in dim light yet not get blinded by the midday sun," said Banks. (eurekalert.org)
  • When stretched horizontally, the pupils are aligned with the ground, getting more light in from the front, back and sides. (eurekalert.org)
  • Shine a light into the pupil of one eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The pupil is an opening that lets light into your eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Since most of the light entering your eye does not escape, your pupil appears black. (exploratorium.edu)
  • In dim light, your pupil expands to allow more light to enter your eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • More light creates more impulses, causing the muscles to close the pupil. (exploratorium.edu)
  • That's why the pupil of one eye can change when you shine the light into your other eye. (exploratorium.edu)
  • The pupil, which is about 2 mm wide in bright light, dilated by as much as 1 mm at that moment-a change that, in theory, could be noticeable to a casual observer. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The pupil is not only there to regulate light, but is linked to our emotional state. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Under normal conditions, the pupils remain equal at all times in all levels of light. (allnurses.com)
  • When there's a lot of bright light, your pupils will become smaller (constrict). (healthline.com)
  • Dilated pupils tend to be sensitive to bright light, such as sunlight, and can cause blurry vision. (healthline.com)
  • Factors that cause your pupils to become bigger or smaller are light (or the lack of it), certain medications and disease, and even how mentally interesting or taxing you find something. (healthline.com)
  • The doctor asks you to look ahead then shines a penlight first toward one eye, then the other, alternating quickly to observe your pupils' response to light. (healthcentral.com)
  • More importantly, each pupil should constrict quickly and equally during exposure to direct light and to light directed at the other pupil (the consensual light reflex). (healthcentral.com)
  • Normally, the pupil constriction does not change as the light is swung from eye to eye. (healthcentral.com)
  • When the light is moved quickly from eye to eye, both pupils should hold their degree of constriction. (healthcentral.com)
  • The Afferent Pupillary Defect (APD) or Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD) is an abnormal and unequal response in the pupils of the eyes when exposed to light. (healthcentral.com)
  • When the doctor shines the light in my left eye (the "good" eye), both pupils will constrict. (healthcentral.com)
  • Marcus Gunn Pupil or Marcus Gunn Sign is the term given to the relative afferent pupillary defect in which the affected pupil paradoxically dilates to the light stimulus. (healthcentral.com)
  • The pupil is the part of your eye that controls how much light gets in. (healthline.com)
  • In bright light, your pupils get smaller (constrict) to limit the amount of light that enters. (healthline.com)
  • When a doctor shines a light into your eyes after an injury or illness, it's to see if your pupils are reacting normally to light. (healthline.com)
  • In adults, pupils normally measure between 2 and 4 millimeters in bright light. (healthline.com)
  • Pupil is defined as a dark circular opening in the center of the iris in the eye. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circular pupils were linked to "active foragers," or animals that chase down their prey. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, the vertical slits of domestic cats and geckos undergo a 135- and 300-fold change in area between constricted and dilated states, while humans' circular pupils undergo a mere 15-fold change. (eurekalert.org)
  • When the object is far away, your pupils widen. (healthline.com)
  • Parts of the brain that help us feel and decode emotion as well as mentally focus can make pupils widen. (healthline.com)
  • After a few weeks, a tonic pupil constricts to near effort with a slow, tonic movement and redilates just as slowly, whereas a normal pupil redilates promptly ( Fig 10-6 ). (aao.org)
  • Pilocarpine drops (0.1%) can be used to demonstrate this, as the normal pupil will constrict slightly, if at all. (aao.org)
  • After 60 minutes, the pupils are reexamined, and if Adie is present, the affected pupil (dilated pupil) will constrict more than the normal pupil ( Fig 10-7 ). (aao.org)
  • The normal appearance of the pupil of the human eye is black. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sometimes, the pupil of the eye may appear white, or the normal red reflex may appear to be white. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As soon as the swelling goes down, the pupils return to normal. (medhelp.org)
  • Did this pupil recover back to normal for you? (medhelp.org)
  • Relative to the opposite, unaffected eye, in normal daylight the pupil of the affected eye will be larger whereas, in a quickly darkened room, the affected eye will be smaller. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One symptom is bigger-than-normal pupils. (healthline.com)
  • According to research in the Emergency Medicine Journal , the pupil is typically smaller than normal. (healthline.com)
  • Pupils of differing sizes is a condition known as 'Horner's Syndrome', and it's important to remember that it is not a disease in and of itself, it is a symptom of some other underlying cause. (medhelp.org)
  • When photophobia from a dilated pupil is a problem, topical dilute pilocarpine (0.1%) may be helpful. (aao.org)
  • The exit pupil is the image of the aperture stop in the optics that follow it. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tonic pupil is caused by postganglionic parasympathetic pupillomotor damage. (aao.org)
  • Perfect Pupil Injectable was designed to provide the surgeon with an optimal work area and reduce the risk of surgical complications during cataract and retinal surgery. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The eyes might be the window to the soul, but it turns out your pupils are a peek into your pain centers. (wpr.org)
  • Figures published by the department last summer showed that the rate of permanent exclusions for Afro-Caribbean children was four in 10,000, compared with around 1.3 for white British pupils. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Why do some animals have horizontally elongated pupils? (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast, those with horizontally elongated pupils are extremely likely to be plant-eating prey species with eyes on the sides of their heads. (eurekalert.org)
  • To explain why horizontally elongated pupils, with few exceptions(are there any explanations for the exceptions? (eurekalert.org)
  • White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even with the best efforts to improve provision for excluded pupils, the continued existence of the exclusion gap means black pupils are disproportionately denied mainstream education and the life chances that go with it. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The pupil is that black circle in the center of your eye, in the middle of the colored section, which is called the iris. (reference.com)
  • Notice the white of your eye, the colored disk of your iris, and your pupil, the black hole in the center of your iris. (exploratorium.edu)
  • Pupils are the black center of the eye. (healthline.com)