The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.
Educational institutions.
Color of the iris.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Latrunculin-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia in the cynomolgus monkey. (1/769)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of latrunculin (LAT)-A, which binds to G-actin and disassembles actin filaments, on the pupil, accommodation, and isolated ciliary muscle (CM) contraction in monkeys. METHODS: Pupil diameter (vernier calipers) and refraction (coincidence refractometry) were measured every 15 minutes from 0.75 to 3.5 hours after topical LAT-A 42 microg (approximately 10 microM in the anterior chamber [AC]). Refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 0.5 to 1.5 hours after intracameral injection of 10 microl of 50 microM LAT-A (approximately 5 microM in AC), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg pilocarpine HCl (PILO) during the first 15 minutes of measurements. Pupil diameter was measured at 1 and 2 hours, and refraction was measured every 5 minutes from 1 to 2 hours, after intravitreal injection of 20 microl of 1.25 mM LAT-A (approximately 10 microM in vitreous), with intramuscular infusion of 1.5 mg/kg PILO during the first 15 minutes of measurements (all after topical 2.5% phenylephrine), and contractile response of isolated CM strips, obtained <1 hour postmortem and mounted in a perfusion apparatus, to 10 microM PILO +/- LAT-A was measured at various concentrations. RESULTS: Topical LAT-A of 42 microg dilated the pupil without affecting refraction. Intracameral LAT-A of 5 microM inhibited miotic and accommodative responses to intramuscular PILO. Intravitreal LAT-A of 10 microM had no effect on accommodative or miotic responses to intramuscular PILO. LAT-A dose-dependently relaxed the PILO-contracted CM by up to 50% at 3 microM in both the longitudinal and circular vectors. CONCLUSIONS: In monkeys, LAT-A causes mydriasis and cycloplegia, perhaps related to its known ability to disrupt the actin microfilament network and consequently to affect cell contractility and adhesion. Effects of LAT-A on the iris and CM may have significant physiological and clinical implications.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (2/769)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements. (3/769)

Reflectometric techniques estimate the directionality of the retinal cones by measuring the distribution of light at the pupil plane of light reflected off the bleached retina. The waveguide-scattering model of Marcos et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012 (1998)] predicts that the shape of this intensity distribution is determined by both the waveguide properties of the cone photoreceptors and the topography of the cone mosaic (cone spacing). We have performed two types of cone directionality measurement. In the first type, cone directionality estimates are obtained by measuring the spatial distribution of light returning from the retina with a single-entry pupil position (single-entry measurements). In the second type, estimates are obtained by measuring the total amount of light guided back through the pupil as a function of entry pupil position (multiple-entry measurements). As predicted by the model, single-entry measurements provide narrower distributions than the multiple-entry measurements, since the former are affected by both waveguides and scattering and the latter are affected primarily by waveguides. Measurements at different retinal eccentricities and at two different wavelengths are consistent with the model. We show that the broader multiple-entry measurements are not accounted for by cone disarray. Results of multiple-entry measurements are closer to results from measurements of the psychophysical Stiles-Crawford effect (although still narrower), and the variation with retinal eccentricity and wavelength is similar. By combining single- and multiple-entry measurements, we can estimate cone spacing. The estimates at 0- and 2-deg retinal eccentricities are in good agreement with published anatomical data.  (+info)

Human dynamic closed-loop accommodation augmented by sympathetic inhibition. (4/769)

PURPOSE: A ciliary alpha-adrenoceptor accommodative effect has been proposed, caused by a small population of alpha1-inhibitory receptors in excised human ciliary muscle. This study was intended to investigate the effect on the closed-loop dynamic accommodative process of modulating alpha1-adrenoceptor activity by topical instillation of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine hydrochloride. METHODS: A group of 10 visually normal subjects viewed a photopic (30 candela/m2) high-contrast Maltese cross, which was modulated sinusoidally (0.05-0.6Hz) and stepwise over a 2-D range (2-4 D). Monocular temporal accommodation responses were measured using a continuously recording dynamic tracking infrared optometer under two trial conditions: after instillation of saline control solution and 50 minutes subsequent to the instillation of 0.27 microl 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride and 0.27 microl 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride. Pupil size and accommodative amplitude were measured at 90-second intervals for 50 minutes after drug instillation. All accommodative measurements were recorded through a fixed 4-mm pupil. RESULTS: A significant reduction in accommodative amplitude (11%; P < 0.05) was recorded, whereas pupil size showed a significant increase (33%; P < 0.05). No significant change in step-response dynamics was observed. However, phenylephrine hydrochloride caused a significant increase in accommodative gain in the low and midtemporal frequency ranges compared with the effect of a saline control treatment. No significant variation in phase lag was observed. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in humans, this study shows that augmentation of the alpha1-inhibitory sympathetic contribution results in increased accommodative gain at low and midtemporal frequencies, which is consistent with findings in animal studies.  (+info)

The depth-of-field of the human eye from objective and subjective measurements. (5/769)

The depth-of-field (DOF) measured through psychophysical methods seems to depend on the target's characteristics. We use objective and subjective methods to determine the DOF of the eye for different pupil diameters and wavelengths in three subjects. Variation of image quality with focus is evaluated with a double-pass technique. Objective DOF is defined as the dioptric range for which the image quality does not change appreciably, based on optical criteria. Subjective DOF is based on the accuracy of focusing a point source. Additional DOFs are obtained by simulation from experimental wavefront aberration data from the same subjects. Objective and subjective measurements of DOF are only slightly affected by pupil size, wavelength and spectral composition. Comparison of DOF from double-pass and wavefront aberration data allows us to evaluate the role of ocular aberrations and Stiles-Crawford effect.  (+info)

S-cone contribution to pupillary responses evoked by chromatic flash offset. (6/769)

On a green or red background, the action spectrum of the pupillary responses evoked following the offset of chromatic test flashes shows a prominent short-wavelength lobe and suggests the contribution from photoreceptors other than the previously inferred M- and L-cones (Kimura & Young, Vision Research (1996). 36, 1543-1550), most likely from S-cones. Systematic changes in the shape of the intensity versus amplitude functions with test wavelengths and in the shape of the short-wavelength lobe with response amplitude criteria suggest an antagonistic interaction involving the short- and longer-wavelength photoreceptors.  (+info)

Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging. (7/769)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether corneal wavefront aberrations vary with aging. METHODS: One hundred two eyes of 102 normal subjects were evaluated with videokeratography. The data were decomposed using Taylor and Zernike polynomials to calculate the monochromatic aberrations of the cornea for both small (3-mm) and large (7-mm) pupils. RESULTS: For a 3-mm pupil, the amount of total aberrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient r(s) = 0.145; P = 0.103) and spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = -0.068; P = 0.448) did not change with aging, whereas comalike aberrations exhibited a weak but statistically significant correlation with age (r(s) = 0.256; P = 0.004). For a 7-mm pupil, total aberrations (r(s) = 0.552; P < 0.001) and comalike aberrations (r(s) = 0.561; P < 0.001) significantly increased with aging, but spherical-like aberrations showed no age-related changes (r(s) = 0.124; P = 0.166). Simulated pupillary dilation from 3 mm to 7 mm caused a 38.0+/-28.5-fold increase in the total aberrations, and the extent of increases significantly correlated with age (r(s) = 0.354; P < 0.001). Pupillary dilation influenced the comalike aberrations more in the older subjects than in the younger subjects (r(s) = 0.243; P = 0.006), but such age dependence was not found for spherical-like aberrations (r(s) = 0.141; P = 0.115). CONCLUSIONS: Comalike aberrations of the cornea correlate with age, implying that the corneas become less symmetrical along with aging. Spherical-like aberrations do not vary significantly with aging. Pupillary dilation markedly increases wavefront aberrations, and those effects are more prominent in older subjects than in younger subjects.  (+info)

Pupillographic findings in neglect. (8/769)

OBJECTIVES: Unilateral sensory neglect has been attributed to various defects, including a hemispatial attention-arousal deficit. However, support for this hypothesis has only been indirect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further test the hemispatial attentional-arousal hypothesis by measuring pupillary response as an index of arousal. METHODS: There were two experimental subjects with neglect and six matched controls. Stimuli (Arabic numbers) were presented on the right, left, and centre of a screen. The subjects were asked to look at the number in the centre, on the right, or left of the screen while their pupil diameter was measured. RESULTS: Unlike the control subjects, the subjects with neglect, who were aware of the left sided stimuli, did not show a pupillary dilatation when they looked at the stimulus on the left. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study provides support for the hemispatial attention-arousal hypotheses of neglect, it does not preclude the possibility that other mechanisms may also be important.  (+info)

A pupil, in medical terms, refers to the circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part of the eye) that allows light to enter and reach the retina. The size of the pupil can change involuntarily in response to light intensity and emotional state, as well as voluntarily through certain eye exercises or with the use of eye drops. Pupillary reactions are important in clinical examinations as they can provide valuable information about the nervous system's functioning, particularly the brainstem and cranial nerves II and III.

A pupil disorder refers to any abnormality or condition affecting the size, shape, or reactivity of the pupils, the circular black openings in the center of the eyes through which light enters. The pupil's primary function is to regulate the amount of light that reaches the retina, adjusting its size accordingly.

There are several types of pupil disorders, including:

1. Anisocoria: A condition characterized by unequal pupil sizes in either one or both eyes. This may be caused by various factors, such as nerve damage, trauma, inflammation, or medication side effects.

2. Horner's syndrome: A neurological disorder affecting the autonomic nervous system, resulting in a smaller pupil (miosis), partial eyelid droop (ptosis), and decreased sweating (anhidrosis) on the same side of the face. It is caused by damage to the sympathetic nerve pathway.

3. Adie's tonic pupil: A condition characterized by a dilated, poorly reactive pupil due to damage to the ciliary ganglion or short ciliary nerves. This disorder usually affects one eye and may be associated with decreased deep tendon reflexes in the affected limbs.

4. Argyll Robertson pupil: A condition where the pupils are small, irregularly shaped, and do not react to light but constrict when focusing on nearby objects (accommodation). This disorder is often associated with neurosyphilis or other brainstem disorders.

5. Pupillary dilation: Abnormally dilated pupils can be a sign of various conditions, such as drug use (e.g., atropine, cocaine), brainstem injury, Adie's tonic pupil, or oculomotor nerve palsy.

6. Pupillary constriction: Abnormally constricted pupils can be a sign of various conditions, such as Horner's syndrome, Argyll Robertson pupil, drug use (e.g., opioids, pilocarpine), or oculomotor nerve palsy.

7. Light-near dissociation: A condition where the pupils do not react to light but constrict when focusing on nearby objects. This can be seen in Argyll Robertson pupil and Adie's tonic pupil.

Prompt evaluation by an ophthalmologist or neurologist is necessary for accurate diagnosis and management of these conditions.

A tonic pupil, also known as a "Adie's pupil," is a type of abnormal pupillary response named after Sir William John Adie, who first described it in 1932. It is characterized by an initial sluggish or absent reaction to light, followed by a slow and sustained redilation. This condition typically occurs as a result of damage to the ciliary ganglion or short ciliary nerves, which are part of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Tonic pupils can be unilateral (occurring in one eye) or bilateral (occurring in both eyes). They may be associated with other neurological symptoms such as decreased deep tendon reflexes and abnormal sweating patterns, depending on the extent of the damage to the autonomic nervous system.

It is important to note that tonic pupils can also occur as a result of various medical conditions, including viral infections, neurotoxins, trauma, or tumors. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management.

A pupillary reflex is a type of reflex that involves the constriction or dilation of the pupils in response to changes in light or near vision. It is mediated by the optic and oculomotor nerves. The pupillary reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye, improving visual acuity and protecting the retina from excessive light exposure.

In a clinical setting, the pupillary reflex is often assessed as part of a neurological examination. A normal pupillary reflex consists of both direct and consensual responses. The direct response occurs when light is shone into one eye and the pupil of that same eye constricts. The consensual response occurs when light is shone into one eye, causing the pupil of the other eye to also constrict.

Abnormalities in the pupillary reflex can indicate various neurological conditions, such as brainstem injuries or diseases affecting the optic or oculomotor nerves.

Mydriatics are medications that cause mydriasis, which is the dilation of the pupil. These drugs work by blocking the action of the muscarinic receptors in the iris, leading to relaxation of the circular muscle and constriction of the radial muscle, resulting in pupil dilation. Mydriatics are often used in eye examinations to facilitate examination of the interior structures of the eye. Commonly used mydriatic agents include tropicamide, phenylephrine, and cyclopentolate. It is important to note that mydriatics can have side effects such as blurred vision, photophobia, and accommodation difficulties, so patients should be advised accordingly.

Tropicamide is a muscarinic antagonist, which is a type of drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine in the body. In particular, it blocks the muscarinic receptors found in the eye, which results in pupil dilation (mydriasis) and paralysis of the ciliary muscle (cycloplegia).

Tropicamide is commonly used in ophthalmology as a diagnostic aid during eye examinations. It is often instilled into the eye to dilate the pupil, which allows the eye care professional to more easily examine the back of the eye and assess conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal disorders. The cycloplegic effect of tropicamide also helps to relax the accommodation reflex, making it easier to measure the refractive error of the eye and determine the appropriate prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses.

It is important to note that tropicamide can cause temporary blurring of vision and sensitivity to light, so patients should be advised not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of the medication have worn off.

Mydriasis is a medical term that refers to the dilation or enlargement of the pupil, which is the black circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part) of the eye. The pupil normally adjusts its size in response to changes in light levels and emotional state. In mydriasis, the pupil becomes widely dilated and less responsive to light. This can occur naturally due to factors such as strong emotions, fear, or physical exertion, but it can also be caused by certain medications, eye drops, or medical conditions like brain injuries or neurological disorders. It is important to note that mydriasis can affect one or both eyes and may have different clinical significance depending on the context.

In medical terms, the iris refers to the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. It is a circular structure composed of thin, contractile muscle fibers (radial and circumferential) arranged in a regular pattern. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and can adjust the size of the pupil in response to changes in light intensity or emotional arousal. By constricting or dilating the iris, the amount of light entering the eye can be regulated, which helps maintain optimal visual acuity under various lighting conditions.

The color of the iris is determined by the concentration and distribution of melanin pigments within the iris stroma. The iris also contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support its structure and function. Anatomically, the iris is continuous with the ciliary body and the choroid, forming part of the uveal tract in the eye.

Anisocoria is a medical term that refers to an inequality in the size of the pupils in each eye. The pupil is the black, circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part of the eye) that allows light to enter and strike the retina. Normally, the pupils are equal in size and react similarly when exposed to light or darkness. However, in anisocoria, one pupil is larger or smaller than the other.

Anisocoria can be caused by various factors, including neurological conditions, trauma, eye diseases, or medications that affect the pupillary reflex. In some cases, anisocoria may be a normal variant and not indicative of any underlying medical condition. However, if it is a new finding or associated with other symptoms such as pain, headache, vision changes, or decreased level of consciousness, it should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Miosis is the medical term for the constriction or narrowing of the pupil of the eye. It's a normal response to close up viewing, as well as a reaction to certain drugs like opioids and pilocarpine. Conversely, dilation of the pupils is called mydriasis. Miosis can be also a symptom of certain medical conditions such as Horner's syndrome or third cranial nerve palsy.

Ocular accommodation is the process by which the eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by the lens of the eye changing shape through the action of the ciliary muscles inside the eye. When you look at something far away, the lens becomes flatter, and when you look at something close up, the lens thickens. This ability to adjust focus allows for clear vision at different distances.

Adie syndrome, also known as Adie's pupil or tonic pupil, is a neurological disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and the eye. It is characterized by a pupil that is dilated and unresponsive to light, but slowly constricts when focusing on nearby objects (a phenomenon called "light-near dissociation"). This occurs due to damage to the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves, which control the size of the pupil.

Additional symptoms of Adie syndrome may include decreased deep tendon reflexes, especially in the ankles, and abnormal sweating patterns. The condition is usually not painful and does not typically affect vision, although some people with Adie syndrome may experience difficulty with reading due to the slow pupillary response.

The exact cause of Adie syndrome is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a viral infection or an autoimmune disorder. It is more common in women than men and typically occurs between the ages of 20 and 40. While there is no cure for Adie syndrome, treatment may include the use of glasses with bifocal lenses or reading glasses, as well as physical therapy to improve muscle tone and reflexes.

Ocular refraction is a medical term that refers to the bending of light as it passes through the optical media of the eye, including the cornea and lens. This process allows the eye to focus light onto the retina, creating a clear image. The refractive power of the eye is determined by the curvature and transparency of these structures.

In a normal eye, light rays are bent or refracted in such a way that they converge at a single point on the retina, producing a sharp and focused image. However, if the curvature of the cornea or lens is too steep or too flat, the light rays may not converge properly, resulting in a refractive error such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism.

Ocular refraction can be measured using a variety of techniques, including retinoscopy, automated refraction, and subjective refraction. These measurements are used to determine the appropriate prescription for corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, ocular refractive errors may be corrected surgically through procedures such as LASIK or PRK.

Aberrometry is a medical diagnostic technique used to measure the amount and type of aberration or distortion in the optical system of the eye. It is often used to evaluate the quality of vision, particularly in cases where traditional methods of measuring visual acuity are not sufficient.

During an aberrometry test, the patient looks into a specialized instrument called a wavefront sensor while a series of light patterns are projected onto the retina. The sensor then measures how the light is distorted as it passes through the eye's optical system, including the cornea and lens. This information is used to create a detailed map of the eye's aberrations, which can help doctors identify any irregularities that may be contributing to visual symptoms such as blurred vision, glare, or halos around lights.

Aberrometry is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests to evaluate patients who are considering refractive surgery, such as LASIK or PRK. By identifying any abnormalities in the eye's optical system, doctors can determine whether a patient is a good candidate for surgery and make more informed decisions about how to proceed with treatment.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

Cyclopentolate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticholinergics. It is primarily used as an eye drop to dilate the pupils and prevent the muscles in the eye from focusing, which can help doctors to examine the back of the eye more thoroughly.

The medical definition of Cyclopentolate is:

A cycloplegic and mydriatic agent that is used topically to produce pupillary dilation and cyclospasm, and to paralyze accommodation. It is used in the diagnosis and treatment of various ocular conditions, including refractive errors, corneal injuries, and uveitis. The drug works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of pupil size and focus.

Cyclopentolate is available as an eye drop solution, typically at concentrations of 0.5% or 1%. It is usually administered one to two times, with the second dose given after about 5 to 10 minutes. The effects of the drug can last for several hours, depending on the dosage and individual patient factors.

While cyclopentolate is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause side effects such as stinging or burning upon instillation, blurred vision, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and dry mouth. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as confusion, agitation, or hallucinations may occur, particularly in children or older adults. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using cyclopentolate, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Refractive errors are a group of vision conditions that include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Myopia is a condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects are clear. This occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Hyperopia, on the other hand, is a condition where close-up objects appear blurry while distant objects are clear. This happens when the eye is too short or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light to focus behind the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition that causes blurred vision at all distances due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens.

Presbyopia is a natural aging process that affects everyone as they get older, usually around the age of 40. It causes difficulty focusing on close-up objects and can be corrected with reading glasses, bifocals, or progressive lenses.

Refractive errors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and are typically corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Corneal topography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique used to create a detailed map of the surface curvature of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. This procedure provides valuable information about the shape and condition of the cornea, helping eye care professionals assess various eye conditions such as astigmatism, keratoconus, and other corneal abnormalities. It can also be used in contact lens fitting, refractive surgery planning, and post-surgical evaluation.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

In the context of ophthalmology and optometry, glare refers to a visual sensation caused by excessive brightness or contrast that interferes with the ability to see comfortably or clearly. It can be caused by direct or reflected light sources that enter the eye and scatter within the eye or on the surface of the eye, reducing contrast and visibility. Glare can lead to discomfort, disability, or both, and it can significantly impact visual performance in various activities such as driving, reading, and using digital devices. There are different types of glare, including direct glare, reflected glare, and veiling glare, each with its own characteristics and effects on vision.

Presbyopia is a age-related eye condition, typically occurring after the age of 40, where the lens of the eye loses its flexibility and makes it difficult to focus on near objects. This results in blurred vision when reading, sewing or focusing on other close-up tasks. It's a natural part of the aging process and is not a disease. Corrective measures such as reading glasses, bifocals, multifocal lenses or contact lenses, or refractive surgery can help manage this condition.

In a medical context, "faculty" most commonly refers to the inherent abilities or powers of a normal functioning part of the body or mind. For example, one might speak of the "faculties of perception" to describe the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. It can also refer to the teaching staff or body of instructors at a medical school or other educational institution. Additionally, it can be used more generally to mean a capability or skill, as in "the faculty of quick thinking."

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that occurs when the cornea or lens has an irregular shape, causing blurred or distorted vision. The cornea and lens are typically smooth and curved uniformly in all directions, allowing light to focus clearly on the retina. However, if the cornea or lens is not smoothly curved and has a steeper curve in one direction than the other, it causes light to focus unevenly on the retina, leading to astigmatism.

Astigmatism can cause blurred vision at all distances, as well as eye strain, headaches, and fatigue. It is often present from birth and can be hereditary, but it can also develop later in life due to eye injuries or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Diagnostic techniques in ophthalmology refer to the various methods and tests used by eye specialists (ophthalmologists) to examine, evaluate, and diagnose conditions related to the eyes and visual system. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Visual Acuity Testing: This is a basic test to measure the sharpness of a person's vision. It typically involves reading letters or numbers from an eye chart at a specific distance.
2. Refraction Test: This test helps determine the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by measuring how light is bent as it passes through the cornea and lens.
3. Slit Lamp Examination: A slit lamp is a microscope that allows an ophthalmologist to examine the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, and retina, in great detail.
4. Tonometry: This test measures the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) to detect conditions like glaucoma. Common methods include applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.
5. Retinal Imaging: Several techniques are used to capture images of the retina, including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). These tests help diagnose conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachments.
6. Color Vision Testing: This test evaluates a person's ability to distinguish between different colors, which can help detect color vision deficiencies or neurological disorders affecting the visual pathway.
7. Visual Field Testing: This test measures a person's peripheral (or side) vision and can help diagnose conditions like glaucoma, optic nerve damage, or brain injuries.
8. Pupillary Reactions Tests: These tests evaluate how the pupils respond to light and near objects, which can provide information about the condition of the eye's internal structures and the nervous system.
9. Ocular Motility Testing: This test assesses eye movements and alignment, helping diagnose conditions like strabismus (crossed eyes) or nystagmus (involuntary eye movement).
10. Corneal Topography: This non-invasive imaging technique maps the curvature of the cornea, which can help detect irregularities, assess the fit of contact lenses, and plan refractive surgery procedures.

An artificial eye, also known as a prosthetic eye, is a type of medical device that is used to replace a natural eye that has been removed or is not functional due to injury, disease, or congenital abnormalities. It is typically made of acrylic or glass and is custom-made to match the size, shape, and color of the patient's other eye as closely as possible.

The artificial eye is designed to fit over the eye socket and rest on the eyelids, allowing the person to have a more natural appearance and improve their ability to blink and close their eye. It does not restore vision, but it can help protect the eye socket and improve the patient's self-esteem and quality of life.

The process of fitting an artificial eye typically involves several appointments with an ocularist, who is a healthcare professional trained in the measurement, design, and fabrication of prosthetic eyes. The ocularist will take impressions of the eye socket, create a model, and then use that model to make the artificial eye. Once the artificial eye is made, the ocularist will fit it and make any necessary adjustments to ensure that it is comfortable and looks natural.

Animals with non-circular pupils A goat with horizontal rectangular pupils A stingray with crescent pupils A crocodile with ... pupils A cat with thick vertical slit pupils The pupil plays a role in eye contact and nonverbal communication. The voluntary ... Anisocoria Adie's pupil Argyll Robertson pupil Light-near dissociation Marcus Gunn Pupil Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. (1990) ... The term "pupil" was coined by Gerard of Cremona. In humans, the pupil is circular, but its shape varies between species; some ...
When the pupil takes on the shape of a tadpole, the condition is called tadpole pupil. Tadpole pupil, also known as episodic ... Tadpole pupil is diagnosed and characterized by the abnormality of the pupil shape. The pupil can disorient itself in different ... Some patients who demonstrate tadpole pupil symptoms also experienced Horner's syndrome or Adie's tonic pupil Tadpole pupil ... For example, the pupil may stretch out to a 7 o'clock position, i.e. the pupil points in the same direction the hour hand on a ...
The pupil function of such an ideal system is equal to one at every point within the pupil, and zero out with it. In case of a ... Sometimes this function is referred to as the generalized pupil function, in which case pupil function only indicates whether ... The complex pupil function P ( u , v ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {P} (u,v)} can be written in polar coordinates using two real ... The pupil function or aperture function describes how a light wave is affected upon transmission through an optical imaging ...
488 per pupil. It increased to £600 per pupil in 2012-13 and eligibility was extended to pupils who have been eligible for free ... the year after the pupil premium was introduced." The Sutton Trust reviewed the impact of the introduction of the pupil premium ... For each pupil who is eligible for free school meals, or has claimed free school meals in the last six years, their school ... The pupil premium is a grant given by the government to schools in England to decrease the attainment gap for the most ...
Exit pupil Transmittance Pupil magnification Hecht, Eugene (2017). "5.3.2 Entrance and Exit Pupils". Optics (5th ed.). Pearson ... The entrance pupil of the human eye, which is not quite the same as the physical pupil, is typically about 4 mm in diameter. It ... The entrance pupil is usually a virtual image: it lies behind the first optical surface of the system. The entrance pupil is a ... ISBN 0-201-11609-X. Stops and Pupils in Field Guide to Geometrical Optics Greivenkamp, John E, 2004 Entrance and exit pupil, RP ...
In 1846, Britain formalized a pupil-teacher system, focusing on training middle-class teachers, in which a senior pupil of at ... Pupil teacher was a training program in wide use before the twentieth century, as an apprentice system for teachers. With the ... In some cases, the pupil teacher system was used as a stepping-stone to provide a basis of payment for secondary education ... Pupil-teachers acted as a teacher of younger children, learning from observation and practical application, while ...
The entrance pupil of the eye is the image of the anatomical pupil as seen through the cornea.) The location of the exit pupil ... Since the eye's pupil varies in diameter with viewing conditions, the ideal exit pupil diameter depends on the application. An ... A set of 7×50 binoculars has an exit pupil just over 7.14 mm, which corresponds to the average pupil size of a youthful dark- ... Good eyepiece designs produce an exit pupil of diameter approximating the eye's apparent pupil diameter and located about 20 mm ...
The pupil is the variable-sized, black opening in the centre of the iris. Pupil may also refer to: Student Pupillage, a trainee ... through the front of a lens system Exit pupil, the image of the aperture stop in the optics that follow it Pupil (band), a ... Look up pupil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1891 short story by Henry James The Pupil (TV series), 2010 ... Singaporean drama series This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Pupil. If an internal link led you ...
A pupil master ('pupilmaster' or 'pupil-master') or, in the case of a female barrister, 'pupil mistress' etc., is the former ... during which the pupil will shadow their pupil master; the second is usually a practising "six", when the pupil, with their ... Occasionally, a pupil barrister may undertake a third "six", extending the training period a further six months. At the end of ... The terms have now been replaced by the term 'pupil supervisor'. Barristers are called to the Bar via one of the four Inns of ...
"Animax Asia - Pupil". "Animax Asia - Pupil Bar None". Archived from the original on May 17, 2007. "Pupil attacks! New single is ... Pupil's launch gig was on July 13, 2005, at the UP Bahay ng Alumni. Pupil also joined Livestock Productions. It was an event ... According to, "aside from being the band's main sound forger, he also takes time and documents Pupil's life on video ... Pupil Yahoo! Groups Pupil PinoyBanda Profile LivELY: Coming Together for Ely Buendia (Webarchive template wayback links, All ...
The pupil magnification of an optical system is the ratio of the diameter of the exit pupil to the diameter of the entrance ... For all symmetric lenses, and for many conventional photographic lenses, the pupils appear the same size and so the pupil ... The pupil magnification is used in calculations of the effective f-number, which affects a number of important elements related ...
"Apt Pupil". 23 October 1998 - via Stephen King, Summer of Corruption: Apt Pupil (published in Different Seasons ... Apt Pupil (1982) is a novella by Stephen King, originally published in the 1982 novella collection Different Seasons, subtitled ... Sony Pictures released a film version of Apt Pupil in 1998. The film was directed by Bryan Singer. Brad Renfro stars as Todd ... This has led some fans to speculate that Apt Pupil is Torrance's play. In the afterword to Different Seasons, King mentions ...
... is a clinical sign in which the pupil on the side of an intracranial mass lesion is dilated and unreactive ... Hutchinson's pupil at Who Named It? v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, All ... Pupils become fixed. This indicates grave prognosis.[citation needed] Dr. Aruj Khurana. "Concussion injuries to the brain". ... In Stage 1, the parasympathetic fibers on the side of injury are irritated, leading to constriction of pupil on that side. In ...
... is a 1940 Our Gang short comedy film directed by Edward Cahn. It was the 190th Our Gang short that was released. ... The New Pupil marked the debut of Billy Laughlin who would play the character "Froggy". He is named "Harold" in this film. This ... The New Pupil at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 1940 films, ... The-New-Pupil". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Baseline & All Movie Guide. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. ...
Pupil size is traditionally measured using a pupil gauge to estimate the diameter in millimeters of the pupil at rest before ... Pupil light reactivity is evaluated by shining a light into a patient's eye to make the pupil constrict in reaction to the ... Pupil reactivity is express numerically so that changes in both pupil size and reactivity can be trended over time, just like ... The pupil should dilate again when the light is moved away. The pupil's reaction is numerically graded, typically on scales ...
In the UK, a Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) (previously known as Pupil Re-integration Unit by some Local Education Authorities) is ... These include: Neurodiverse learning styles which make it challenging for the pupil to engage in mainstream school; A pupil ... preventing the pupil from comfortably attending school; Behavioural issues that have led to other pupils being disrupted in ... "Pupil referral units: converting to alternative provision academies". Pupil referral units: converting to alternative provision ...
The day of pupil The Day of Pupil and the Mission of Pupil Pupil Day, Namely... What day is 13 ... as well as pupils), the quarrel was commenced with tear gas, then by bullets. Eventually, 56 pupils-and a number of other ... and the day of pupil When is Pupil day and why it is named so? (Articles with short description, ... Student Day (Iran) Pupil Day 13 Aban the day of the student's punch to the arrogant mouth 13 Aban: ...
AR pupils are now quite rare. A patient whose pupil "accommodates but does not react" almost always has a tonic pupil, not an ... Argyll Robertson pupils (AR pupils) are bilateral small pupils that reduce in size on a near object (i.e., they accommodate), ... The exact relationship between syphilis and the two types of pupils (AR pupils and tonic pupils) is not known at the present ... tonic) that are necessary to distinguish AR pupils from tonic pupils. Tonic pupils can occur in neurosyphilis. It is not known ...
... the pupil, school and local authority identifiers. With effect from 2010/11, the pupil's UPN (unique pupil number) remained ... Raw pupil level personal data are held in the Department for Education National Pupil Database (NPD). The linked datasets ... "Within the AP census, pupils should be aged between 2 (as at 31 December 2017) and 18 (at 31 August 2017) - those pupils born ... "Pupil Data: national pupil database releases". 18 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015. Jones, Darren ...
"Master and Pupil" is a Danish fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book. It is Aarne-Thompson type 325, "The ... While "Farmer Weathersky" and "The Thief and His Master" include the transformation chase of a pupil from his master, in those ... "Master and Pupil" (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles needing additional references ... Magician and His Pupil". A boy trying to get himself hired is asked by a man if he can read, even though his duties would only ...
The pupil strike was a sizeable strike with thousands of pupils skipping their classes, the size of the strike could be ... The pupil strike was motivated by the demands of the state on schools to fill up the demanded 1040 clock hours they have to ... The Dutch pupil strike in 2007 was a series of student strikes in which students from the Netherlands, upset by demands from ... Pupils throughout the nation joined in the strike and started ignoring lessons that day starting from 11:00 AM. A second strike ...
... was an American rock trio from Atlanta, Georgia that formed in 2001. They often went by the acronym LPD. ... Light Pupil Dilate signs with Lifeforce Records Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., June 19, 2007. ... Kevin Forest Moreau, Light Pupil Dilate Sizes Up its D-I-Y Cred. Creative Loafing, September 25, 2003. Accessed July 2, 2007. ... Cascades (Vert Records, 2003) Snake Wine (Lifeforce Records, 2007) Patrick Stephen Patterson, Lifeforce signs Light Pupil ...
Apt Pupil at IMDb Apt Pupil at Rotten Tomatoes Apt Pupil at Metacritic Apt Pupil at Box Office Mojo (Articles with short ... Apt Pupil': In a Suburb, Echoes of the Third Reich". "Cinema Fearité Presents 'Apt Pupil' - A Darker, More Twisted Stephen King ... "Apt Pupil (1998)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 5, 2009. Ebert, Roger (October 23, 1998). "Apt Pupil". Chicago Sun-Times. ... ISBN 81-7625-598-X. McCarthy, Todd (September 11, 1998). "Apt Pupil". Variety. Retrieved March 4, 2009. "Apt Pupil (1998)". Box ...
Mohsen Hamli: "A Guide to Iris Murdoch's The Philosopher's Pupil" (2003). Review of The Philosopher's Pupil by Christopher ... The Philosopher's Pupil is a 1983 novel by the British writer and philosopher Iris Murdoch. It is set in a small English spa ... George McCaffrey---George, 44 years old, was a pupil of John Robert Rozanov, the philosopher. After changing from philosophy to ...
The Pupil New York Edition text of The Pupil (1908) The Pupil public domain audiobook at LibriVox Author's preface to the New ... The Pupil is a short story by Henry James, first published in Longman's Magazine in 1891. It is the emotional story of a ... The Pupil was adapted into a play, The Magpies, by Michael Dyne and performed as an episode in the ITV Television Playhouse ... Although there is no overt hint of a sexual relationship in the story, tutor and pupil do establish a bond of love and respect ...
"Pupil special edition album launched". Retrieved 1 August 2009. "Special edition album ng Pupil labas na". ... Wild Life (2007) is the second album by Pinoy rock band, Pupil. The album features Wendell Garcia as the band's new drummer. ... "Pupil launches "Wildlife" album, introduces new drummer". Nerisa Almo. Retrieved 29 October 2007. " ...
The Teacher's and Pupil's Cyclopaedia was the original name of an encyclopedia set that was published in the United States in ... In 1910 the New Teacher's and Pupil's Cyclopaedia was published in five volumes. This was expanded to six in 1913, seven in ... which was sold simultaneously with New Teacher's and Pupil's Cyclopaedia. This is brought the publishers into conflict with the ... which clearly stated that it was an amalgamation of International Reference Work and New Teacher's and Pupil's Cyclopaedia. ...
1 George Young joined the cast in Season 2. "The Pupil 2: Pupils Old and New". Channel News Asia. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 30 ... Official website (Season 1) xinmsn website (Season 2) The Pupil Season 1 The Pupil Season 2 (Articles with short description, ... The Pupil is a Singaporean drama series that aired on MediaCorp Channel 5, revolving around the legal profession of Singaporean ...
"Why are school pupils protesting over toilet rule changes? What we know so far". ITV News. 24 February 2023. Archived from the ... Weale, Sally (3 March 2023). "Pupil protests across England and Wales spread by social media, experts say". The Guardian. ISSN ... Fazackerley, Anna (5 March 2023). "Heads warn parents not to back pupil protests spreading via TikTok". The Observer. ISSN 0029 ... The 2023 United Kingdom pupil protests were a series of protests, demonstrations and riots which occurred across secondary ...
His foolish pupil one day found it open and read a spell from it. Beelzebub (a demon) appeared and demanded a task from him, or ... The pupil set him to watering a flower, but Beezlebub went on watering it until the room was filling with water. At that point ... "The Master and His Pupil" is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his English Fairy Tales. A learned man had a ... The full text of The Master and his Pupil at Wikisource v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
Animals with non-circular pupils A goat with horizontal rectangular pupils A stingray with crescent pupils A crocodile with ... pupils A cat with thick vertical slit pupils The pupil plays a role in eye contact and nonverbal communication. The voluntary ... Anisocoria Adies pupil Argyll Robertson pupil Light-near dissociation Marcus Gunn Pupil Cassin, B. and Solomon, S. (1990) ... The term "pupil" was coined by Gerard of Cremona. In humans, the pupil is circular, but its shape varies between species; some ...
... A Word from the Staff. "Already our schools have noticed an improvement in grammar, communication ... And from the Pupils. "If I had to recommend Classics to a friend, I would tell them that Classics is not like any other ... Pupils from Sideney Stringer Academy in Coventry recently took part in an interview with the renowned Classicist Prof. Paul ... "Latin is a wonderful experience for [our pupils] and it sits underneath a lot of other subjects such as science. It gives them ...
In certain instances the pupils may vary in size. Occasionally, differing pupil size is inherited and there is no underlying ... The pupils of an individual are usually very symmetrical in appearance. ... The pupils of an individual are usually very symmetrical in appearance. In certain instances the pupils may vary in size. ... Occasionally, differing pupil size is inherited and there is no underlying disorder. Varying pupil size may also be due to ...
See examples of EXIT PUPIL used in a sentence. ... exit pupil. in a sentence. *. The exit pupil then lies in the ... the ridge of the entrance pupil of an optical system, indicating the place where the pupil of the eye should be placed to view ...
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Mydcombi (Eyenovia) for the dilation of pupils during diagnostic ... Cite this: Eyenovias Mydcombi Gets FDA Nod for Pupil Dilation - Medscape - May 08, 2023. ...
We report, for the first time, that acted laughs elicited higher pupil dilation than authentic ones and, reversely, authentic ... We tentatively suggest the lack of authenticity in others laughs elicits increased pupil dilation through demanding higher ... while simultaneously recording their pupil size, taken as proxy of cognitive effort and arousal. ... cognitive effort; and that, reversely, authenticity in cries increases pupil dilation, through eliciting higher emotional ...
Most answers indicated that the word pupil was archaic and that both in the... ... Some time ago a poster asked whether the words student and pupil are synonymous. ... The term pupil is used by government in the UK. It is also a legal term and is used, as in articled pupil, for someone who is ... Primary/junior school pupils sounds fine but somehow secondary school pupils doesnt really gel, even for me. Maybe its ...
Pupil Personnel Services Credential (SC5). R512. School Social Work. Pupil Personnel Services Credential (SC5). R513. School ... Pupil Personnel Services Credential (SC5). R514*. School Child Welfare and Attendance*. * Note: The child welfare and ... Currently Issued Documents that Authorize Pupil Personnel Services. Credential Type. Authorization Code. Service Area ... Pupil Personnel Services Credential (SC5). R511. School Counseling. ...
Read Pupils unhurt in school fire latest on ITV News. All the Thursday 19th September 2013 news ... Pupils unhurt in school fire A fire has broken out at a school in Andover. ... The first crews to arrive were met with a challenging situation of a confirmed fire plus the evacuation of 500 pupils. ...
... was 17 Ratios. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... Turkey - Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education Ratios - 1971 to 2019. Since 2014, Turkey Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary ... How does Turkey rank in Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education?. #. 171 Countries. Ratios. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... In 2019, the country was number 95 among other countries in Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education with 16.72 Ratios. Turkey ...
... For school leavers who want something different. Do you dream of being able to change society in your professional life ...
Format: SHTML, Dataset: Pupil teacher ratios by school type SHTML 09 February 2010 Not available ... Pupil: teacher ratios in the local authority maintained sector (nursery, primary, secondary and special schools) and ...
... Last Editorial Review: 6/15/2020 ... Pupils and their most common related conditions. ... headache, sensitive to light, small (constricted) pupils ...
Every year, the University of Augsburg offers an information day for high school graduates, where they can find out about the extensive range of courses on offer. Subject representatives provide insights into the individual degree programmes.. Since the event is aimed at high school graduates from the region, it is held in German. You can find more information on the German language version of this homepage ...
... dilated pupils that do not react to light. They are caused by issues with the brain or certain chemical exposure. ... Blown pupil symptoms. The most obvious symptom of blown pupils is having one or both pupils that appear abnormally dilated ( ... pupil is characterized by a pupil that is largely dilated and unresponsive to light. When it occurs, a fixed dilated pupil may ... Blown pupil causes. Fixed, dilated pupils can be caused by several factors. While some causes are non-life threatening and may ...
A novella called Apt Pupil imagined the intellectual and psychological pas de deux of a former SS agent hiding out in a ... has almost too easy a time of it in Apt Pupil. There are ultimately only two pieces to this puzzle, and they both snap right ...
netanyahu with shfaram pupils. (photo credit: GPO). As children across the country shuffled back into classrooms on Tuesday, ... Speaking to pupils earlier in the day in Modiin, Netanyahu was asked by one of the children if he had been excited about being ... Netanyahu urges pupils to embrace Zionism. Sweating in Shfaram, Binyamin Netanyahu promises school an air conditioner to study ... "And we are obligated to strengthen our hold on the land and preserve our independence." The prime minister told the pupils that ...
Hey I Know This Probably Sounds Like A Stupid Question We Are Learning About Pupillary Reactions Perla How Will The Pupils ... His pupils started out equal but became unequal. My second pt was legally blind and the RN going off said "I didnt do pupil ... "Pathophysiology: Pupil size is governed by the tone of the pupillary sphincter (parasympathetic) and the pupillary dilator ... Hey I Know This Probably Sounds Like A Stupid Question We Are Learning About Pupillary Reactions Perla How Will The Pupils ...
Home » DVD » Apt Pupil. Apt Pupil. Reviewed on April 10, 1999 by Guido Henkel in DVD, Reviews // 0 Comments ... Apt Pupil is nevertheless a good film and the only real complaint I could have is that it is portraying the unscrupulous Nazi ... Apt Pupil (1998). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Cast: Brad Renfro, Ian McKellen. Extras: Theatrical Trailer, Featurette, ... Columbia TriStar Home Video has now released Apt Pupil on DVD and it is another entry in their fabulous line of releases. The ...
A project supplying free glasses to pupils with poor eyesight to help improve reading is being expanded to involve thousands ... Pupils are already invited to attend vision screenings in reception classes but schools are not usually given the results. ... However, studies have shown that 30% of pupils who need glasses have not been to an optician, while disadvantaged children are ... A project supplying free glasses to pupils with poor eyesight to help improve reading is being expanded to involve thousands ...
Teachers need to recognise that all pupils are their direct responsibility. They need to draw out pupils understandings, ... are reflected in the quality of their interactions with all pupils and in the pupils self concept. ... Pupils with SEN participate more fully when encouraged to identify their thoughts and assisted to document them, particularly ... Professionals, policy-makers, parents and pupils will all benefit from an understanding of how staff can maximise the ...
Pupil Slicer share bass play-though for Momentary Actually. 7/10/2023. Employed To Serve to tour the UK this Fall with Pupil ... Pupil Slicer. News 11/26/2023. Pupil Slicer part ways with bassist Luke Fabian and live guitarist Alex Brown. ... Pupil Slicer announce sophomore album, share new single. 2/1/2022. Pupil Slicer debut new track feat. Cara Drolshagen of The ... Pupil Slicer release new single, share music video. 3/16/2023. ... Pupil Slicer issue new song and video. Features 6/13/2023. Luke ...
In those categories, per pupil calculations are limited to the pupils enrolled at the district. An in-district per pupil ... FY18-FY22 Per Pupil Expenditures, All Funds. The per pupil expenditure report includes expenditure data from fiscal years 2018- ... In-District and Out-of-District Spending and Pupils. Most school spending goes toward educating local resident pupils in local ... A pupil who arrives on November 1 and is still enrolled at the end of the year, for example, would be assigned full-time ...
iv - Number of pupils in P1-S4 (i.e. 5-16) with less than 10 openings in the week (SEEMIS). 2018-19 - 120. 2019-20 - 193. 2020- ... FOI Request - Pupil Numbers Scotland. Request 101002799961. Can you tell me for each of the academic years 2018-19, 2019-20, ... ii - Number of pupils in P1-S4 (i.e. 5-16) (SEEMIS). 2018-19 - 10712. 2019-20 - 10803. 2020-21 - 10894 ...
NFER CEO Carole Willis will be giving a keynote address on how to enhance engagement to drive school improvement and narrowing the achievement gap.
pupils : Deutsch - Englisch Übersetzungen und Synonyme (BEOLINGUS Online-Dictionary, TU Chemnitz) ... pupils : German - English translations and synonyms (BEOLINGUS Online dictionary, TU Chemnitz) ... to question a pupil/student einen Sch ler drannehmen {vt} to move up a pupil [Br.]; to promote a student [Am.]. einen Sch ler ( ... violin pupils. Geigensch ler {pl}; Geigensch lerinnen {pl}. grammar school pupil [Br.]; high school student [Am.]; high ...
Rutherglen pupils turning area into a battleground. RIVAL gangs from Rutherglen and Cambuslangs three major secondary schools ... Pupils from Stonelaw, Cathkin and Trinity schools are squaring up to each other during lunch hours. ... teachers of all three secondary schools in the area continue to work well together to ensure good communication between pupils ...
With the project, we want to add to the knowledge about how teachers should strategize in order to make pupils mobile device ... The objective of this project, is to make pupils usage of mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets) visible with regard to ... In what ways do pupils usage of mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets) support their schoolwork within the school subject ... Pupils usage of mobile devices in technology education. Published Aug 06, 2014 ...
Scottish pupils set a new record pass rate for Higher exams as results are delivered to 160,000 students across the country. ... Scottish pupils have set a new record pass rate for Higher examinations. ... About 35,000 students opted to find out their results by text and e-mail a day early on Wednesday, but all pupils will receive ... This was still higher than the 74.3% pass rate in 2006, with the number of pupils sitting Advanced Highers also increasing by ...
  • citation needed] If the drug pilocarpine is administered, the pupils will constrict and accommodation is increased due to the parasympathetic action on the circular muscle fibers, conversely, atropine will cause paralysis of accommodation (cycloplegia) and dilation of the pupil. (
  • Dilation of the pupil is mydriasis. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Mydcombi (Eyenovia) for the dilation of pupils during diagnostic procedures. (
  • Cite this: Eyenovia's Mydcombi Gets FDA Nod for Pupil Dilation - Medscape - May 08, 2023. (
  • We report, for the first time, that acted laughs elicited higher pupil dilation than authentic ones and, reversely, authentic cries elicited higher pupil dilation than acted ones. (
  • and that, reversely, authenticity in cries increases pupil dilation, through eliciting higher emotional arousal. (
  • In other words, mydriasis is a temporary dilation of the pupils in response to light. (
  • After 25 years of age, the average pupil size decreases, though not at a steady rate. (
  • In England, the average pupil missed 8.4 of the 195 scheduled days in the 2018/19 academic year. (
  • We find that an increase in the private-school share by 10 percentage points increases average pupil achievement by almost 1 percentile rank point. (
  • Primary/junior school pupils' sounds fine but somehow 'secondary school pupils' doesn't really gel, even for me. (
  • A partial return of all secondary school pupils to the classroom from Monday was "politically motivated", as the Scottish Government was seeking a "good news story", a senior teaching union official has claimed. (
  • The remaining primary pupils, P4-P7, all return on that date, with secondary school pupils making a partial return to the classroom through a blended learning model also involving home schooling. (
  • Data tables showing selected outputs on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption from a survey of secondary school pupils in England in years 7 to 11 (mostly aged 11 to 15), which is currently run every other year. (
  • The dilator pupillae, innervated by sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion, cause the pupil to dilate when they contract. (
  • Furthermore, the pupil will dilate if a person sees an object of interest. (
  • For instance, when you enter a dark room, your pupils will naturally dilate (get larger) to adjust to a low-light environment. (
  • Pupils get larger (dilate) in dim light and smaller (constrict) in bright light. (
  • The most obvious symptom of blown pupils is having one or both pupils that appear abnormally dilated (large) and do not react to light. (
  • Certain conditions and medications can alter the function of these muscles and lead to abnormally dilated or constricted pupils. (
  • The per pupil expenditure report includes expenditure data from fiscal years 2018-2022 . (
  • The image of the pupil as seen from outside the eye is the entrance pupil, which does not exactly correspond to the location and size of the physical pupil because it is magnified by the cornea. (
  • the ridge of the entrance pupil of an optical system, indicating the place where the pupil of the eye should be placed to view the object. (
  • Unilateral cases, where only one pupil is dilated and fixed, is known as anisocoria , meaning unequal pupil size. (
  • You have pupils of unequal size (one pupil is larger/smaller than the other). (
  • Unequal pupil size is called anisocoria. (
  • If pupil sizes are very unequal, a person may notice the discrepancy. (
  • More often, unequal pupils are noticed only during a doctor's examination. (
  • Unequal pupils themselves usually cause no symptoms, but occasionally a person may have trouble focusing on near objects. (
  • These more noticeable symptoms are often the reason people seek medical care rather than the unequal pupils. (
  • Eye disorders that cause unequal pupils include birth defects and eye injury. (
  • Inflammation of the iris (iritis) and certain types of glaucoma cause unequal pupils, but this finding is usually overshadowed by severe eye pain. (
  • Physiologic anisocoria is pupils that are naturally different in size. (
  • Ibrahim Islam, pupil at Allerton Grange School, Leeds. (
  • Lily Baxter, pupil at Allerton Grange School, Leeds. (
  • Arghya Chakrabarty, pupil at Allerton Grange School, Leeds. (
  • Most answers indicated that the word pupil was archaic and that both in the UK and in the US the term student applied from primary school up to university. (
  • I see being a student as a choice, but you have to be a school pupil whether you like it or not. (
  • Also, and again in the U.S., the term 'student' is commonly used to refer to 'school children' as is 'pupil' depending on context. (
  • Mdevhane High School pupils during a visit to Air Force Base Swartkop. (
  • In what ways do pupils' usage of mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets) support their schoolwork within the school subject technology? (
  • The objective of this project, is to make pupils' usage of mobile devices (mobile phones and tablets) visible with regard to the support of their schoolwork within the school subject of technology. (
  • A look at the empirical evidence on the strength of the relationship between school absence and pupil achievement. (
  • School absence occurs when a pupil does not attend school when it would usually be open. (
  • First, pupils can fail to turn up to school on a day that the school is open. (
  • Achievement is most negatively affected if pupils are tested soon after their return to school. (
  • New arrival pupils may arrive at your school at any time of the year and you need to have a good induction procedure in place in order to support the pupil and family right from the start. (
  • Many new arrival pupils need a lot of emotional and language support so that they can settle down in the new school environment and become effective learners in as short a time as possible. (
  • In many local school markets, this reform led to a significant increase in the quantity of such schools as well as in the share of pupils attending them. (
  • The pupil welfare services include the services of a psychologist and school social worker as well as health care services. (
  • The personal services provided to pupils in pre-primary education include the health care services provided by child welfare clinics and psychologist and school social worker services. (
  • Nicola Sturgeon announced on March 2 that all pupils would have some time in school from March 15. (
  • Scottish Conservative education spokesman Jamie Greene said: "It is startling to hear a senior teaching union official effectively accuse Nicola Sturgeon of using Scotland's school pupils for political distraction. (
  • Swinney told the same programme: "We were concerned about wellbeing of S1 to S3 pupils, who might feel excluded from the return to school if we didn't give them some opportunity for face-to-face learning before the Easter holidays. (
  • An "inappropriate" school survey that would ask Edinburgh pupils as young as 14 about their personal sexual experiences should be halted, a councillor has said. (
  • That information includes names, postcodes, ethnicity, records on absence, reasons for exclusion, types of disability, and whether the pupil is a recipient of free school meals. (
  • Controversially, the DfE has extended its use to include information on pupils nationality collected through the school census from this September. (
  • But in two separate Parliamentary Questions in July, Nick Gibb, minister for School Standards, gave assurances that no other departments would be granted access to the data on pupils' nationality. (
  • When your child starts school, your school may also ask you to share information relating to the EYPP so that they can claim Pupil Premium. (
  • The baseline report, which focused on 24 schools and was compiled by the Human Sciences Research Council, found that pupils aged 10-13 experience more violence than high school pupils. (
  • Over the course of the project, the team is investigating whether ethnic disproportionality in the teaching workforce makes a difference to pupils' attainment and other school outcomes. (
  • The school reported an improvement in concentration levels and socialisation between pupils following this move, which it said contributed to improved exam results. (
  • Title : Nutritional Status Of Primary School Pupils In Baltimore Personal Author(s) : Saratsiotis, J. B.;Gordon, J. (
  • The discrimination is shown through the access to school for the pupils. (
  • There are also tabs with the complete 5-year dataset, both expenditures and pupils, to support additional analysis. (
  • Often, the larger pupil is unable to constrict normally. (
  • John Swinney said the Government's 'sole motivation' was ensuring pupils' wellbeing. (
  • The UK government's National Pupil Database has already been used to combat "abuse of immigration control" - despite ministerial assurances that the collection of pupils' nationality will not be passed to the border officials. (
  • However, this masks wide variation in the number of days missed, with 10.9% of pupils absent for more than 10 days (DfE, 2020). (
  • some cats, reptiles, and foxes have vertical slit pupils, goats have horizontally oriented pupils, and some catfish have annular types. (
  • In contrast, horizontally elongated pupils are nearly always found in grazing animals, which have eyes on the sides of their head. (
  • So, vertically elongated pupils help ambush predators capture their prey and horizontally elongated pupils help prey animals avoid their predators. (
  • Is the pupil no longer horizontally aligned with the ground? (
  • Pre-primary education pupils have the right to pupil welfare, i.e. the care of the child's overall well-being as an individual and as part of a group. (
  • Pupil welfare means promoting and maintaining the child's good learning, balanced mental and physical health and social well-being as well as their prerequisites in the pre-primary education community. (
  • A pupil in pre-primary education is entitled to pupil welfare, i.e. care for the child's holistic wellbeing both as an individual and as part of a group. (
  • Pupil welfare services in pre-primary education are implemented by wellbeing services county authorities in collaboration with the child's parents or guardians and the child. (
  • The key difference between blown pupils and mydriasis is pretty simple: One is a natural, normal response and the other is not. (
  • But look at their eyes - where wolves have rounded pupils like humans, foxes instead have a thin vertical line. (
  • Already our schools have noticed an improvement in grammar, communication and the confidence of the pupils involved…it is thrilling to see pupils engage with Classics - history, literature and language - and see it as meaningful, relevant, exciting and a real opportunity to take! (
  • Teachers who see themselves responsible for the learning of all promote higher order interactions and engage in prolonged interactions with pupils with SEN, while teachers who see others (e.g. support staff) as primarily responsible engage in non-academic and low level nature interactions. (
  • In any case, the magnitude of this effect will likely depend on what kind of educational activities pupils engage in during the closure. (
  • Scottish pupils have set a new record pass rate for Higher examinations. (
  • Why are my pupils so naturally large? (
  • One or both of your pupils do not react to light properly. (
  • In such people, both pupils react normally to light and darkness and there are no symptoms. (
  • Goats, sheep, horses, domestic cats, and numerous other animals have pupils which vary from fully circular in faint light to narrow slits or rectangles in bright light. (
  • We found that eyes of goats, deer, horses, and sheep rotate as they bend their head down to eat, keeping the pupil aligned with the ground. (
  • Putting data in a geographical context, they showed how the ethnicity of teaching staff matched up to pupils' ethnicity across England's regions and local authorities. (
  • Pupils are segregated and put into specific schools after their ethnicity. (
  • As a negative consequence, the pupils of different ethnicity backgrounds are enrolled in specific schools and are not offered the opportunity to integrate into social life and activities with children of the ethnic majority. (
  • On the inner edge lies a prominent structure, the collarette, marking the junction of the embryonic pupillary membrane covering the embryonic pupil. (
  • This report should be cited as: Rix J, Hall K, Nind M, Sheehy K, Wearmouth J (2006) A systematic review of interactions in pedagogical approaches with reported outcomes for the academic and social inclusion of pupils with special educational needs. (
  • This national guidance is intended to help schools plan how they will most effectively invest their Pupil Equity Funding allocation to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by poverty. (
  • Like the pupil premium available in Hampshire schools for children in Reception year up to Year 11, the Early Years Pupil Premium (EYPP) will provide nurseries, pre-schools and childminders with extra funding to support children in achieving the best early years outcomes. (
  • However, in any human age group there is considerable variation in maximal pupil size. (
  • We estimate the impact of this increase in private enrolment on the average achievement of all pupils using within-municipality variation over time, and controlling for differential pre-reform municipality trends. (
  • The aim of pupil welfare is to create a healthy and safe learning and growth environment for children, support their learning, alleviate and prevent learning obstacles and difficulties, protect mental health, and prevent exclusion. (
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate the levels of communication of an adolescent pupil with deafblindness to program, fortify and implant communication forms. (
  • However, schools participating in the project can see the results of the tests, enabling them to identify which pupils and families to support. (
  • There is also some evidence of sorting of pupils along socioeconomic and ethnic lines. (
  • Our researchers found that ethnic minority pupils in the North East of England may never be taught by someone of the same heritage. (
  • This is due to the capital's exceptionally high ethnic minority pupil numbers. (
  • In 2019, the country was number 95 among other countries in Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education with 16.72 Ratios. (
  • As children across the country shuffled back into classrooms on Tuesday, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu was busy touring a number of schools, beginning in Modi'in and ending in the north of the country, where he welcomed pupils back after the summer break and encouraged them to strengthen their connection to the Land of Israel. (
  • Glasses in Classes, which was developed in Bradford schools through a partnership including Leeds academics, has received government funding to reach a further 9,000 pupils in at least 225 schools. (
  • Pupils are already invited to attend vision screenings in reception classes but schools are not usually given the results. (
  • They also include payments for local resident pupils who are being educated in schools outside the district. (
  • In addition to showing the overall cost per pupil, they provide detail about how much schools spend in specific functional areas such as administration, teaching, and maintenance. (
  • Pupils from Stonelaw, Cathkin and Trinity schools are squaring up to each other during lunch hours. (
  • A spokesman for South Lanarkshire Council said: "Head teachers of all three secondary schools in the area continue to work well together to ensure good communication between pupils and staff, and all schools will continue to work in partnership with the local police. (
  • Recognizing the challenges and the resources needed to continue to provide safe and effective pupil transportation, the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) provides fiscal and technical support to Ohio schools. (
  • Guidance to help schools plan how they will most effectively spend their Pupil Equity Funding (PEF) allocation. (
  • Pupil Equity Funding ( PEF ) is additional funding allocated directly to schools and targeted at closing the poverty-related attainment gap. (
  • The survey will be completed by pupils during class time and, although they will not be asked to type in their name, pupils will be have to provide their SCN number which schools and the council could use to identify and offer support if responses flag concern. (
  • Pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 are the most vulnerable to high levels of violence, including sexual violence, in Khayelitsha schools, according to a new report. (
  • Latin is a wonderful experience for [our pupils] and it sits underneath a lot of other subjects such as science. (
  • The word is Latin and means pupil. (
  • Each day of individual pupil absence results in around 0.3-0.4% of a standard deviation reduction in achievement. (
  • Equivalently, eight days of absence (the average in England) would move a pupil one place down a ranking of 100 pupils (e.g. from 50th to 51st). (
  • Pupils from low-income households see a larger negative effect from each day of absence. (
  • So we rechecked the data on animals with frontal eyes and vertical pupils and found that 82% are what is considered "short" (which we defined as having a shoulder height of less than 42cm) compared with only 17% of animals with circular pupils. (
  • citation needed] The size of the pupil is controlled by the iris, and varies depending on many factors, the most significant being the amount of light in the environment. (
  • Light enters the eye through the pupil, and the iris regulates the amount of light by controlling the size of the pupil. (
  • When the sphincter pupillae contract, the iris decreases or constricts the size of the pupil. (
  • When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil. (
  • The reverse is true, so control of pupil size is controlled by differences in contraction intensity of each muscle. (
  • In certain instances the pupils may vary in size. (
  • Occasionally, differing pupil size is inherited and there is no underlying disorder. (
  • Varying pupil size may also be due to infection, tumors, disease or trauma. (
  • In this work, we asked participants to rate the authenticity of authentic and acted laughs and cries, while simultaneously recording their pupil size, taken as proxy of cognitive effort and arousal. (
  • People who notice a sudden, unexplained change in pupil size should see an eye care provider, especially if only one pupil is affected. (
  • You notice a sudden, unexplained change in pupil size. (
  • The pupil size is closely regulated by muscles in the iris. (
  • Usually both pupils are about the same size and respond to light equally. (
  • In Tiina's dissertation work, she looks for ways in which to design pedagogical strategies with the objective to make pupils' mobile device usage supportive. (
  • The constriction of the pupil and near vision are closely tied. (
  • This second review expands the focus of the previous year to investigate the nature of the interactions between teachers, support staff and pupils. (
  • As a rule, pupil welfare is carried out as preventive measures that support the entire pre-primary education community. (
  • When your child becomes eligible for early years education funding, the childcare provider will need to ask you some additional questions to support them to apply for Early Years Pupil Premium. (
  • In addition, children are entitled to individual pupil welfare. (
  • Pre-primary education pupil welfare is provided through multidisciplinary cooperation with the Education Services and Social and Health Services in such a way that it ensures a functional and coherent approach. (
  • Pupil welfare is carried out in cooperation with the child and guardians, taking into account the age and prerequisites of the child. (
  • In pre-primary education, pupil welfare is the responsibility of the pre-primary education community personnel and the employees in charge of the pupil welfare services. (
  • The involvement of children and guardians is essential in community-based pupil welfare and it promotes well-being. (
  • Individual pupil welfare work is always started in cooperation with the pre-primary education personnel and the guardian. (
  • With the project, we want to add to the knowledge about how teachers should strategize in order to make pupils' mobile device usage more supportive. (
  • Students are said to be supportive of the new policy, with one pupil stating they were 'apprehensive' at the thought of being without a phone at first but are now happy to follow the rules. (
  • Coordinated absences lasting for several weeks can have small long-run negative effects on pupil achievement. (
  • Reducing pupil absences will have a positive effect on achievement and is likely to reduce achievement gaps between high and low income pupils. (
  • These pathways carry nerve impulses to the pupil and to the muscles that control the eye and eyelid. (
  • When it occurs, a fixed dilated pupil may be present in one or both eyes. (
  • For instance, a domestic cat can change its pupil area by a factor of 135 from fully dilated to fully constricted, whereas humans, with a round pupil, can only change area by a factor of 15. (
  • Treatment for fixed, dilated pupils depends solely on the cause. (
  • Jen Persson, coordinator of privacy group defenddigitalme, said: "Data in the National Pupil Database is not being used as the minister said, solely for internal Departmental use for the analytical, statistical and research purposes, but for matching lists of named people, in back-room data dealings, without any public transparency. (
  • Some time ago a poster asked whether the words student and pupil are synonymous. (
  • Singer, who built such an intricate puzzle in his first movie, The Usual Suspects , has almost too easy a time of it in Apt Pupil . (
  • and asks pupils about the first time they had sex. (
  • The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. (
  • In optical terms, the anatomical pupil is the eye's aperture and the iris is the aperture stop. (
  • The iris is a contractile structure, consisting mainly of smooth muscle, surrounding the pupil. (
  • If it's determined that the blown pupil(s) are a side effect of medication or chemical exposure, your eye care provider will likely want to monitor your condition for a day or two to make sure no other symptoms, such as ptosis , appear. (
  • Since 2014, Turkey Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education fell by 2.9% year on year. (
  • How does Turkey rank in Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Primary Education? (
  • By clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the workbook, there are additional reports showing a 3-year trend by major functional areas, and a summary showing per pupil expenditures for all districts. (
  • Per pupil expenditures are calculated from information provided on each district's End of Year Financial Report (EOYR). (
  • The DfE's database now contains records of 20 million pupils , dating from the year 2000. (
  • Teachers need to recognise that all pupils are their direct responsibility. (
  • He added: "I've listened to young people directly myself who are concerned about the effects on their own wellbeing of the loss of social interaction with their peers and with their teachers, so that's why all secondary pupils are returning for some elements of education and face-to-face learning in the forthcoming few weeks. (
  • The mission of the Ohio Department of Education's Pupil Transportation Office is to provide guidance, assistance and training to all pupil transportation personnel and to provide programs directed toward achieving the highest level of safety, efficiency and compliance. (
  • The scheme has received Opportunity Area funding, meaning pupils in disadvantaged areas in Doncaster, Derby, Durham, Norwich and Breckland, and the North Yorkshire Coast, will benefit from being involved in the project. (
  • In a new study published in the journal Science Advances , colleagues from Durham, Berkeley and I explain why these pupil shapes have developed. (
  • We produced a computer model of eyes which simulates how images appear with different pupil shapes, in order to explain how orientation could benefit different animals. (
  • Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome affects one side of the face, causing the eyelid to droop, the pupil to become small (constricted), and sweating to decrease. (
  • About 35,000 students opted to find out their results by text and e-mail a day early on Wednesday, but all pupils will receive their certificates through the letterbox in the traditional manner on Thursday. (