A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Color of the iris.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of ... During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells. Clonal analysis and ... During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid ... Weaver M, Krasnow MA (September 2008). "Dual origin of tissue-specific progenitor cells in Drosophila tracheal remodeling". ...
... which generate the adult body parts of the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Plant development is the process by which structures ... Tissue growth involves both an overall increase in tissue size, and also the differential growth of parts (allometry) which ... and certain insects which hatch as a larva and then become remodeled to the adult form during a pupal stage. All the ... or between mature tissues. Thus, a living plant always has embryonic tissues. By contrast, an animal embryo will very early ...
In Drosophila, the rhodopsin Rh2 is only expressed in simple eyes. While (in Drosophila at least) the genes eyeless and ... In the pupal stage, such stemmata develop into fully fledged compound eyes. One feature offering a clue to their ontogenetic ... Adults of several orders of hexapods also have stemmata, and never develop compound eyes at all. Examples include fleas, ... Tissue and Cell. 25 (1): 151-157. doi:10.1016/0040-8166(93)90072-S. PMID 18621228. "Eye (invertebrate)". McGraw-Hill ...
Thus, naked larval cuticle loss is recuperated and once the larva has become an adult, its tissues execute their normal ... "Pupal and larval cuticle proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Biochemistry. 23 (24): 5767-74. doi:10.1021/bi00319a015. PMID ... Those mutations are pleiotropic and can affect viability and produce morphological defects in several adult tissues, such as ... Tissue malformations occur in various situations. As said in the introduction, the sgl enzyme is essential for a normal ...
In adults, absence of JH causes degeneration of flight muscles and atrophy or cessation of development of reproductive tissues ... Egg-to-adult development time, juvenile body mass and reproductive diapause in Drosophila montana". Journal of Insect ... Larval and pupal diapauses are often regulated by an interruption of this connection, either by preventing release of ... Adult diapause is often associated with the absence of JH, while larval diapause is often associated with its presence. ...
Handler AM (September 1982). "Ecdysteroid titers during pupal and adult development in Drosophila melanogaster". Developmental ... Adult males are left with, so far as is currently known, one source of 20-hydroxyecdysone which is the fat body tissue. These ... For the most part these glandular tissues are lost in the adult with exception of the fat body, which is retained as a sheath ... of lipid tissue surrounding the brain and organs of the abdomen. In the adult female the ovary is a substantial source of 20- ...
Studies in Drosophila revealed that genetic ablation of Mlp84B, the Drosophila homolog of MLP, was associated with pupal ... In the adult nervous system it is expressed upon axonal injury, where it plays an important role during regenerative processes ... while ultrastructural analysis of its cardiac tissue revealed myocardial disarray and significant fibrosis, increased nuclear ... Mery A, Taghli-Lamallem O, Clark KA, Beckerle MC, Wu X, Ocorr K, Bodmer R (January 2008). "The Drosophila muscle LIM protein, ...
... and arrhythmic alleles of dbt cause nuclear accumulation of PER in clock-containing cells of larval and adult Drosophila. Both ... They found two DBT mutants that had abnormal free-running periods and one that was pupal-lethal but resulted in accumulations ... In 2021, scientists reported the development of a light-responsive days-lasting modulator of circadian rhythms of tissues via ... Price JL, Blau J, Rothenfluh A, Abodeely M, Kloss B, Young MW (July 1998). "double-time is a novel Drosophila clock gene that ...
The adult form is a moth with gray-brown front wings and light brown back wings. It is about 2.5 cm long and has a wingspan of ... The tissue of the cabbage looper has also been used to develop a cell line. It is particularly useful for its fast growth rate ... The cabbage looper genome is larger than the Drosophila melanogaster genome (180Mb) but smaller than the Bombyx mori genome ( ... and reduces both growth rate and pupal weight. The cabbage looper has demonstrated resistance to Bt, specifically the toxin ...
Adults of this species are about 2 mm long and yellowish with dark markings. The labellum and labrum have trichoid and conical ... The anterior end has the mouthparts, which look like a pair of sharp spines and are darker than the surrounding tissue. The ... One theory to the evolution of these teeth is that Megaselia scalaris uses them in order to exit their pupal casings. Megaselia ... In comparison to Drosophila melanogaster, M. scalaris has decreased excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and facilitation ...
Most adult diptera have their mouthparts modified to sponge up fluid. The adults of many species of flies that feed on liquid ... In contrast, Drosophila subobscura, a species of fly in the genus Drosophila, lacks a category of hemocytes that are present in ... The larvae of some groups feed on or in the living tissues of plants and fungi, and some of these are serious pests of ... it is a permanent torsion of the organs that occurs during the pupal stage. This torsion may lead to the anus being below the ...
During the pupal stage, the larval body breaks down as the imaginal disks grow and produce the adult body. This process is ... Wingless and Hedgehog also function in multiple tissues later in embryogenesis and also during metamorphosis. The transcription ... Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for genetics and ... The pupa metamorphoses into an adult fly, which takes about 3.5 to 4.5 days. The entire growth process from egg to adult fly ...
... while in Drosophila, variability in eclosion time (when adults emerge) has increased. The initial domestication of animals ... The silkworm is raised for the silk threads wound around its pupal cocoon; the western honey bee, for honey, and, lately, for ... defined as the collection of microorganisms inhabiting the surface and internal tissue of plants, has been shown to be affected ... Several other invertebrates have been domesticated, both terrestrial and aquatic, including some such as Drosophila ...
It infects the subcutaneous tissues and propagates by spores formed during the pupal stage. The spores are found over all of ... During this pupal stage, the adult butterfly forms inside. A day or so before emerging, the exoskeleton first becomes ... This was tested by swapping these mutations into the same gene in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster using CRISPR-Cas9 ... it stimulates reproductive tissue growth. Although larvae eat only milkweed, adult monarchs feed on the nectar of many plants, ...
O'Connor MB, Umulis D, Othmer HG, Blair SS (January 2006). "Shaping BMP morphogen gradients in the Drosophila embryo and pupal ... which are tissues that will become limbs and other organs and structures in the adult fly. It has also been suggested that Dpp ... Drosophila decapentaplegic - The Interactive Fly decapentaplegic+protein,+Drosophila at the US National Library of Medicine ... The most studied tissues in which Dpp is found are the early embryo and the imaginal wing discs, which later form the wings of ...
Adults are small (< 2 millimetres (5⁄64 in)) to medium-sized insects (- < 10 millimetres (25⁄64 in)). Larger Diptera are rare, ... They are thought to be flexing points for the wings during flight and they are also associated with pupal folds in the wing. ... The homology between the wings and halteres is demonstrated by the four-winged mutant of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... so that the ovipositor is able to penetrate through the tissues of the organism which will accommodate the eggs and larvae. In ...
Adult species possess two pairs of equal or subequal wings. There appear to be only five main vein stems. A nodus is formed ... Insect wing muscle is a strictly aerobic tissue. Per unit protein it consumes fuel and oxygen at rates taking place in a very ... It is not until the butterfly is in its pupal stage that the wing-bud becomes exposed, and shortly after eclosion, the wing ... It was advanced by Trueman based on a study by Goldschmidt in 1945 on Drosophila melanogaster, in which a pod variation ...
In adult Drosophila, E3 is expressed in the abdomen, head, legs, and wing. The E3 fragment has been tested as smaller fragments ... The E6 enhancer is expressed in the dorsal and quaternary cells of Drosophila embryos, larvae, and in the pupal epidermis. The ... "Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers". Proceedings of the National ... and the pupal epidermis. The Z1.3 enhancer contributed to an estimated 28% loss of total embryonic expression in Drosophila ...
To do this, it uses the ptilinum, an eversible pouch on its head, to tear open the end of the pupal case. The adult housefly ... these lay their eggs in the housefly larvae tissue and their offspring complete their development before the adult houseflies ... The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ... Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. The adults feed on a variety of liquid or ...
The tarsus of adult pterygote insects having fewer than five subsegments is probably specialized by the loss of one or more ... Interaction between the pupal brain and prothoracic glands in the metamorphosis of the giant silkworm "Platysamia cecropia"". ... This was discovered in 2003 by studying the variation in reactions of larvae of the common fruitfly Drosophila to the touch of ... The stylets are needle-like projections used to penetrate plant and animal tissues. The stylets and the feeding tube form the ...
The immature stages often differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a usually immobile pupal ... Because oxygen is delivered directly to tissues via tracheoles, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is ... For example, because of its small size, short generation time and high fecundity, the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The ...
Saprinus adults feed on both the larvae and pupae of blowflies, although some have a preference for fresh pupae. The adults lay ... Staphylinids can also tear open the pupal cases of flies, to sustain themselves at a corpse for long periods. Hister beetles - ... Three genes were measured in an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster: bicoid (bcd), slalom (sll), and chitin synthase (cs). ... Essentially, this insect succession will feed on the organisms living tissue, ingested food or liquid body substances. However ...
The virus only replicates in a particular part of the ovary, called the calyx, of pupal and adult female wasps. The virus is ... R. M. Rizki; T. M. Rizki (November 1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". Proceedings ... A tissue and host specificity study through expression analysis of vankyrins from Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus". PLOS ONE. 6 ... "A Behavior-Manipulating Virus Relative as a Source of Adaptive Genes for Drosophila Parasitoids". Molecular Biology and ...
Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after emerging from the pupal stage. In most species, the males form large ... The ancestors of Drosophila and the mosquitoes diverged 260 million years ago. The culicine and Anopheles clades of mosquitoes ... Infection of the insect larval form is frequently tissue-specific, and commonly involves the fat body. Vertical (transovarial) ... The pupal stage lasts around 2-3 days in temperate areas. The duration from egg to adult varies considerably among species, and ...
... including a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the ... Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues. Because most embryonic development is outside the ... for the establishment of corazonin-producing peptidergic nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Drosophila ... The juvenile forms closely resemble adults, but are smaller and lack adult features such as wings and genitalia. The size and ...
Stocker RF (2009) The olfactory pathway of adult and larval Drosophila: conservation or adaptation to stage-specific needs? Ann ... on how the nerve-muscle contacts develop in pupal and early adult stages of the butterfly Antheraea polyphemus. Inspired by ... "Cobalt filling of sensory projections from internal and external mouthparts in Drosophila". Cell and Tissue Research. 216 (3): ... Gendre, N. (2004-01-01). "Integration of complex larval chemosensory organs into the adult nervous system of Drosophila". ...
Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of ... During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells. Clonal analysis and ... During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid ... Weaver M, Krasnow MA (September 2008). "Dual origin of tissue-specific progenitor cells in Drosophila tracheal remodeling". ...
Here, using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, we identify a new glial cell type in one of the most active tissues in ... pupal, and adult CCs, as well as adult PRs), based on TMM normalized counts (log2) of 14182 genes. Adult x adult CC plot ... B) TMM-normalized log2 mRNA expression levels from late larval, early pupal, and adult CCs as well as adult PRs. Common ... Transcriptomes from larval, pupal and adult cone cells, adult photoreceptors (described in the current study), as well as ...
Analysis of a pupal lethal mutation, caused by tissue specific knockdown of spc105r. 3D μ-CT rendering of a wildtype and ... DeepFly3D, a deep learning-based approach for 3D limb and appendage tracking in tethered, adult Drosophila.. Elife. 2019 Oct 4; ... An adult female is shown in 3D and digitally sliced along the XZ and YZ axes to reveal all intact internal structures. Each ... The 2nd instar Drosophila larva was positioned and freely moving in a water filled channel on a cover glass. The class I ...
Striped expression of Dpp in Drosophila wing precursors leads to graded signalling activity that positions wing veins and, in ... The Drosophila serum response factor gene is required for the formation of intervein tissue of the wing and is allelic to ... 2006) Regulation of decapentaplegic expression during Drosophila wing veins pupal development Mechanisms of Development 123:241 ... Because some of the rescued larvae survived to adulthood, we were able to further assess, in adult wings, the extent of ...
... of the corpus allatum and degeneration of the prothoracic glands during the larval-pupal-adult transformation of Drosophila ... We studied the role of sumoylation during Drosophila development by using RNAi to reduce smt3 mRNA levels in specific tissues. ... Drosophila strains. Flies were raised on standard Drosophila medium at 25°C. Mutant strains lwr4-3 and lwr5 were obtained from ... in target tissues (for a scheme of the ring gland in Drosophila, see Fig. 1A). Active 20E interacts with specific receptors, ...
Recently, it was shown that in Drosophila, Cas9 expression could be limited to a desired group of cells, allowing tissue- ... Here the authors characterize tissue specific CRISPR in the Drosophila mushroom body, generating a library of gRNA-harboring ... Here, we thoroughly characterize tissue-specific (ts)CRISPR within the complex neuronal system of the Drosophila mushroom body ... Brains were dissected at the adult stage.. Immunostaining and imaging. Drosophila brains were dissected in cold ringer solution ...
During pupal development, they survive the larval tissue degeneration and begin to rapidly divide and form the adult structures ... Published in Chromosoma 2016 The legacy of Drosophila imaginal discs J. Beira, R. Paro. ... will liquefy during the pupal stage only to emerge later as adults. But the amorphous blob contained within the pupal chamber ( ... Each imaginal disc is responsible for forming a different adult structure, and within a few weeks, the adult emerges, wings and ...
The authors compared gene expression patterns in pre-gonad tissue in larvae and pre-pupae with gonad tissue in adult flies. ... By contrast, this study showed that in larval and pre-pupal stages of development in Drosophila melanogaster, more genes show ... Gonad and pre-gonad tissue was the obvious candidate, since this tissue forms sperm and eggs and is therefore likely to be ... Drosophila melanogaster. Despite minimal visible differences between the sexes during larval and pre-pupal development, there ...
We attempted to identify these genes in a model organism by arbitrarily misexpressing specific genes in adult Drosophila ... and other diseases that sporadically develop in healthy adults with no background of hereditary disorders. Thus, we are ... Table 4 Mean longevity of adult flies with the misexpression of reduced-lifespan genes in specific adult tissues Full size ... In our screen, we did not study GS lines that were lethal during embryonic, larval, and/or pupal stages due to leaky gene ...
... concluded a lack of MSCI and generalized the pattern of paucity in the X chromosome for tissue-specific genes in Drosophila. ... Second, tissue-specific genes are also in general enriched with genes more expressed in testes than in ovaries, that is testis- ... By re-analyzing the Mikhaylova and Nurminskys testis data and the expression data on several D. melanogaster tissues, we made ... Second, they also analyzed expression data from several D. melanogaster tissues and concluded that under-representation on the ...
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is no exception in storing caloric excess in the form of adipose tissue, known as the fly ... Have you looked for this signal earlier during pupal stages or during late larval life? ... The Drosophila fat body comes in two variants: larval and adult. The larval fat body descends from mesodermal precursors that ... larvae marked the adult adipocytes and adult muscles, but not the larval fat body. This indicates that the adult fat body ...
Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila ... Bidirectional Control of Blood Flow by Astrocytes: A Role for Tissue Oxygen and Other Metabolic Factors. Grant R. J. Gordon, ...
During larval and pupal stages, NB divisions resume to generate adult neurons. In the embryo, NBs divide perpendicular to the ... Micchelli, C.A. Perrimon, N. (2006). Evidence that stem cells reside in the adult Drosophila midgut epithelium. Nature 439, 475 ... Brain tissue from mira, pros, numb, lgl, brat or pins mutants that was transplanted into the abdomen of wild type flies ... 2. Drosophila germline stem cells. Asymmetric division of germline stem cells (GSCs) in Drosophila melanogaster is highly ...
Displayed are subprojections of an adult-like projection pattern. For Drosophila tarceva pills online n-ventral and for ... Four lineages (DM1-4) were prominently marked tracts in Drosophila and Tribolium (Tc) brain. Pupal central complex develops ... and encouraging donors to make sure the vaccine can be found in tumor tissue, which may decrease the CYP3A substrate dosage in ... Indeed, the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the PB and FB is marked by yellow arrowheads: the last stage of the FB and ...
Curly encodes Dual Oxidase, which acts with Heme Peroxidase Curly Su to shape the adult Drosophila wing. Curly, described ... in a few different tissues during Drosophila development. The Flo-2 and Src42A functions in epidermal wound localization after ... Using Curly, this study demonstrated that duox is required during the last day of pupal development to stabilize the wing. ... Progenitors of the thoracic tracheal system of adult Drosophila (tracheoblasts) arrest in G2 during larval life and rekindle a ...
A new paradigm suggests activation of the ERV family mdg4 at the fruitfly pupal stage may bolster adult antiviral defenses. ... Retrotransposon activation during Drosophila metamorphosis conditions adult antiviral responses Expression of mdg4 ... Non-coding variants disrupting a tissue-specific regulatory element in HK1 cause congenital hyperinsulinism De novo variants ... Adult human kidney organoids: cellular origin and disease modeling Adult human kidney organoids or tubuloids are derived from ...
Tissue samples were taken from skin and bone and plated for continued growth in culture. Five different fungal species were ... In Drosophila melanogaster, the genes black and ebony are known to repress cuticular pigmentation. We hypothesized that these ... Microscopic examination of the adult RNAi individuals suggests that ebony is involved in the depigmentation of the cuticle ... We used RNA interference (RNAi) to intentionally inhibit expression of each target during pupal development. ...
... the adult eyes only form while its tucked away in a pupal case. This image captures the developing adult eye, showing its ... W. Ryan Williamson of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute dissected out a developing fly eye from a pupal stage Drosophila. ... When you work on animal development, you get used to watching tissues like a limb or spinal cord start out looking like a ... The red compound eyes of Drosophila have been such a huge part of the history of genetics, theyre almost iconic. But for all ...
Pupal events 9 to 13 are heterochronically shifted to earlier stages of development in Drosophila. In Tribolium, in contrast, ... Tribolium pupal development illustrates how the adult situation (Fig 4Fi and 4Li). ... CDK inhibitors, including their potential to target muscle tissue. Included are tables and charts describing several aspects ... Staging the metamorphosis of Drosophila is delayed compared with vertebrates, the conservation of Rx proteins of Drosophila. ...
We present a systematic characterization of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns for all known or predicted Drosophila TFs ... and 29 dissected tissues from larval, pupal, and adult stages [56]. The in situ hybridization data stage ranges do not ... a Drosophila testis expression database, [15], and the Allen Brain Atlas of the adult mouse brain [16]). These large datasets ... pupal, or adult CNS, or adult testes. Four TFs, Visual system homeobox 2 ortholog (Vsx2), dissastisfaction (dsf), CG7786, and ...
In contrast, dsx appears to regulate the development of somatic tissues in the body. The proposed studies will use a combined ... Thus this grant focuses on the roles that these neurons play in adult male sexual behavior, and the fru-dependent ... Expression is maximal about two days into the pupal period, when ca. 2000 cells (~2% of neurons) express FruM proteins. ... 9870396 TAYLOR Sexual development in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, is governed by a cascade of sex-determination genes ...
Drosophila melanogaster ovary 24 hours after pupal formation stained for Lamin-C and Fasciclin III (in red), VASA (green), ... Reproductive organ of a young (1-3 days old) adult Drosophila male. The male reproductive tract consists of a pair of testes, ... In this case, I labeled a group of cells came to form part of an extraembryonic tissue that covers the embryo and supports its ... Drosophila. Micrograph shows Drosophila larval brain attached to the leg and eye imaginal discs. There is a glial migration ...
Drosophila suzukii completed development (egg to adult) on cactus, mandarin carpel, pomegranate seed, wild plum and buckthorn ... Drosophila suzukii emerged from both intact and damaged cherries during the cooler, early season period. Fly density remained ... A major challenge to the area-wide management of Drosophila suzukii is understanding the flys host use and temporal dynamics, ... The number of developed adults was recorded. A sub-sample of 25 pupae from each treatment was measured for pupal length (l) and ...
Drosophila melanogaster visual system halfway through pupal development, showing retina (gold), photoreceptor axons (blue), and ... Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction and adult antennal lobe, zebrafish retina and tectum, and mouse visual cortex. Signal- ... This tool could find extensive use in connectomics of complex brain tissues. ... Tags: drosophila, Imaging, rentia Categories : Imaging G-CaMP5 is finally published!. 3 10 2012 The paper on G-CaMP5 has been ...
... until the adult fly emerges from the pupal case, while the pupal case remains attached to the substrate. The pupa of other ... and they are now used in a variety of biomimetic applications such as surgical sealants to repair tissues or synthetic polymer ... For the first time, we report here measurements of Drosophila pupal adhesion strength. We present a pull-off force test to ... Pupal weight could not be deduced accurately by subtracting the final force from the initial force because pupal weight was ...
Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially- ... In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between ... No beneficial effects of pupal radiation in An. gambiae s.s. [39], or pupal or adult radiation in Cx. quinquefasciatus [63] in ... Bhakthan NMG, Nair KK: Fine structural damage in the somatic tissue of gamma-irradiated house fly. 1. flight muscles. Ann ...
What do you mean by pattern formation in Drosophila?. Pattern formation of the Drosophila eye during the early stages of pupal ... Pattern formation ensures that tissues and organs develop in the correct place and orientation within the body. ... that we expect to see a child learn to do as he or she grows into an adult. Each childhood age group has unique developmental ... Nowadays, the most research on axis formation is the formation of axis of Drosophila and vertebrates. The formation of axis is ...
Analysis of genetic mosaics in the developing and adult Drosophila tissues. Development ... Sca and N association in pupal retina. Immunohistochemistry was used to label proteins in pupal retinas. (A,E) N protein in ... Adult wing wholemounts were prepared and (where necessary) pharate adult wings expanded as described (Couso and Martinez Arias ... Sca and N association in pupal retina. Immunohistochemistry was used to label proteins in pupal retinas. (A,E) N protein in ...
FlyAtlas2 Small RNA-seq from larval and adult male or female tissues grouped into the four subsets below. See the [http://{{ ... pupal or adult stages. See the [http://{{flybaseorg}}/reports/FBlc0000537.html TSS_RAMPAGE] FlyBase Dataset Report and ... Used for the Affymetrix GeneChip Drosophila Genome 2.0 Array, release date July 1, 2004. Each glyph is hyperlinked to a pop-up ... FlyAtlas2 RNA-seq from larval and adult male or female tissues grouped into the four subsets below. See the [http://{{ ...
  • The study of imaginal discs in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster led to the discovery of homeotic mutations such as antennapedia, where the developmental fate of a disc could sometimes change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, using the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster , we identify a new glial cell type in one of the most active tissues in the nervous system-the retina. (plos.org)
  • We attempted to identify these genes in a model organism by arbitrarily misexpressing specific genes in adult Drosophila melanogaster , using 14,133 Gene Search lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, they also analyzed expression data from several D. melanogaster tissues and concluded that under-representation on the X chromosome is not an exclusive property of testis-biased genes, but instead, a general property of tissue-specific genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By re-analyzing the Mikhaylova and Nurminsky's testis data and the expression data on several D. melanogaster tissues, we made two major findings that refuted their original claims. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is no exception in storing caloric excess in the form of adipose tissue, known as the fly fat body. (biologists.com)
  • This study used a Drosophila melanogaster model to investigate the hypothesis that imidacloprid (a common neonicotinoid) can affect the Duox pathway. (sdbonline.org)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster, the genes black and ebony are known to repress cuticular pigmentation. (coloradomesa.edu)
  • Here, we examined the adhesive properties of the larval glue of Drosophila melanogaster . (silverchair.com)
  • 1995 ). It was proven that female fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster , had decreased mating speeds and oviposition rates after being injected with melatonin (Finocchiaro et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, it also showed 76% amino acid similarity with the nAChR β 2 subunit of Drosophila melanogaster . (insect.org.cn)
  • Most of our current knowledge about the developmental and molecular mechanisms involved in eye formation in arthropods comes from research in the model system Drosophila melanogaster . (biomedcentral.com)
  • (B) Dorsal view of the head of an adult specimen of D. melanogaster . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster lymph gland, the primary site of hematopoiesis, contains myeloid-like progenitor cells that differentiate into functional hemocytes in the circulation of pupae and adults. (molcells.org)
  • In this tissue, Dpp expressed along the anterior-posterior boundary forms a concentration gradient that controls the expression domains of target genes, which in turn specify the position of wing veins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Depending on where they sit along this gradient, cells in the tissue activate different sets of genes, and the resulting pattern of gene activity ultimately defines the position of the different parts of the tissue. (elifesciences.org)
  • We determined the organs responsible for reduced lifespan when these genes were misexpressed specifically in adulthood, and found that while some genes induced reduced lifespan only when misexpressed in specific adult organs, others could induce reduced lifespan when misexpressed in various organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified 39 genes that, when misexpressed in adulthood, shortened the lifespan of adult flies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The adult tissues in which gene misexpression caused early death differed among the reduced-lifespan genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The short life cycle and the powerful tools for genetic and molecular analysis available in Drosophila make this species an advantageous model for studying the functions of genes associated with various human diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease have provided important insights into the relationships among genes that mediate this disease in humans [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, most studies of mutations in Drosophila homologs of human disease genes have focused on developmental defects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since genes that strongly affect physiology and homeostasis when their expression levels are altered could account for the increasing morbidity rate of late-onset diseases in humans, and expression levels can be altered by aging and other stresses, it is worthwhile to examine the impact of changes in gene expression at the adult stage of model organisms such as Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis has been proposed as one of the evolutionary driving forces behind both the under-representation of male-biased genes on, and the gene movement out of, the X chromosome in Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, tissue-specific genes are also in general enriched with genes more expressed in testes than in ovaries, that is testis-biased genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By completely excluding from the analyses the testis-biased genes, which are known to be under-represented in the X, we found that all the other tissue-specific genes are randomly distributed between the X chromosome and the autosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings negate the original study of Mikhaylova and Nurminsky, which concluded a lack of MSCI and generalized the pattern of paucity in the X chromosome for tissue-specific genes in Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, MSCI and other selection-based models such as sexual antagonism, dosage compensation, and meiotic-drive continue to be viable models as driving forces shaping the genomic distribution of male-related genes in Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Drosophila , gene movement off the X chromosome was suggested to be a mechanism by which the autosomes become enriched with male-biased genes [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome sequencing and forward genetic screens have revealed an extensive list of patterning genes, many of which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner at discrete time points in embryo development. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • Specifically, FlyAtlas 2 now provides access to: transcript information, sex-specific data for adult somatic tissues, and micro-RNA genes. (biokeanos.com)
  • These data define genetically distinct glial signatures in cone/Semper cells that regulate their structural, functional and homeostatic interactions with photoreceptor neurons in the compound eye of Drosophila . (plos.org)
  • During larval and pupal stages, NB divisions resume to generate adult neurons. (stembook.org)
  • DESCRIPTION: The aim of this application is to characterize the role of dissatisfaction (dsf) and doublesex (dsx) in the expression of sexual behaviors by controlling differentiation of sex-specific neurons in Drosophila. (neurotree.org)
  • We tested GCaMP5s in several systems: cultured neurons and astrocytes, mouse retina, and in vivo in Caenorhabditis chemosensory neurons, Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction and adult antennal lobe, zebrafish retina and tectum, and mouse visual cortex. (wordpress.com)
  • Cross-talk between TGF-β signaling and two antagonistic orphan nuclear receptors governs the pruning of larval γ neurons in the Drosophila pupa. (janelia.org)
  • During metamorphosis of holometabolous insect brains, most larval functional neurons are rewired into the adult circuitry, and study of these processes has been particularly fruitful for the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie neuron remodeling 1 . (janelia.org)
  • There are many ways to manage this pest, including using exclusion netting for fly spotted wing drosophila in vineyards. (eyouagro.com)
  • Spotted-wing drosophila (SWD) is a tiny fly that grows inside various fruits. (eyouagro.com)
  • Harvesting all ripe fruit at least two times a week can help reduce damage from spotted-wing drosophila. (eyouagro.com)
  • To avoid laying eggs by the spotted wing drosophila through the netting, you should drape to prevent direct contact with the grapes. (eyouagro.com)
  • The addition of 80 g netting to tunnel infrastructure creates a physical barrier to Spotted Wing Drosophila without compromising fruit marketability. (eyouagro.com)
  • Male spotted wing drosophila adult. (ucanr.edu)
  • Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii is a pest of several small fruit in California and other states. (ucanr.edu)
  • It was initially known as cherry fruit fly in 1930s and is now referred to as spotted wing drosophila. (ucanr.edu)
  • Distinctive combs on the front legs of male spotted wing drosophila. (ucanr.edu)
  • During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. (wikipedia.org)
  • it's been a while since we covered metamorphosis , so it's important to remember that not every insect will go through this goo-ification in order to become an adult. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • Out with the old, in with the new: during fly metamorphosis, the adult fat body develops de novo with a hand from FGF signalling. (biologists.com)
  • identify the adult fat body precursors during metamorphosis and characterise their expansion and differentiation. (biologists.com)
  • Using a GAL4 enhancer trap line identified as a tool to visualise the adult fat body in late metamorphosis ( OK6-GAL4) , the authors perform live imaging during early pupal stages and note the first OK6 -positive cells arriving from the thorax at 15 h after puparium formation (APF). (biologists.com)
  • During late metamorphosis, the authors observe the differentiation of the precursors into mature adipocytes, characterised by the accumulation of lipid droplets and by cell fusion that gives rise to the multinucleated adult adipocytes that have previously been described. (biologists.com)
  • Expression of mdg4 retrotransposons during Drosophila metamorphosis activates the antiviral NF-κB factor Relish. (nature.com)
  • An imaginal disc is one of the parts of a holometabolous insect larva that will become a portion of the outside of the adult insect during the pupal transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaginal cells are tissue-specific progenitors allocated in embryogenesis that remain quiescent during embryonic and larval life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been particularly well demonstrated in Drosophila wing imaginal discs, epithelial pockets that grow during larval stages and eventually give rise to the wing proper, the wing hinge and a part of the thorax called the notum ( Figure 1A ). (elifesciences.org)
  • As it turns out, the adult structures were contained within the larva or caterpillar the whole time as tiny sacks of cells (we're talking 10-50 cells max) known as imaginal discs. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • The imaginal discs contain the building blocks of the adult insect form: wings, legs, antennae, etc. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • Each imaginal disc is responsible for forming a different adult structure, and within a few weeks, the adult emerges, wings and all. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • During the first larval instar, these cells are part of the eye-antennal imaginal disc that undergoes massive proliferation throughout larval and pupal development [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pattern formation of the Drosophila eye during the early stages of pupal development is a complex interplay of intercellular signals of two basic varieties. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • The gRNAs used for tracing Rx-positive cell clusters contribute to the DM1-4 lineages and highlight the differences between them, and by using the central complex development starts with the Drosophila CX acquires functionality at later stages of pupal development illustrates how the adult life nortriptyline vs duloxetine stage. (pratofastfashion.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase 1 modulates invasive behavior of tracheal branches during entry into Drosophila flight muscles. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Progenitors of the thoracic tracheal system of adult Drosophila (tracheoblasts) arrest in G2 during larval life and rekindle a mitotic program subsequently. (sdbonline.org)
  • In metamorphosing Drosophila , nuclear signaling of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor B1 isoform (EcR-B1) cell-autonomously orchestrates neuron remodeling. (janelia.org)
  • Pupal neuron that expresses Tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and that is located in the central nervous system (Winther et al. (virtualflybrain.org)
  • Taken together, the study of the Drosophila ovary and testis has greatly enhanced our understanding of the basic principles that govern niche formation and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contained within the body of the larva, there are pairs of discs that will form, for instance, the wings or legs or antennae or other structures in the adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2nd instar Drosophila larva was positioned and freely moving in a water filled channel on a cover glass. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Semi - quantitative RT - PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA expression level of Px α 8 was higher at adult stage than at either pupal or 4th - instar larval stage. (insect.org.cn)
  • The rescue was assessed at third instar larval, pupal, and adult stages by screening for individuals lacking the balancer chromosome. (gfap-signal.com)
  • Recently, it was demonstrated that CRISPR could also be successfully applied in Drosophila in a tissue-specific manner (hereby referred to as tsCRISPR), which restricts mutagenesis to a desired somatic tissue or group of cells. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, dsx appears to regulate the development of somatic tissues in the body. (neurotree.org)
  • The authors begin the paper by noting their desire to find a method for inducing somatic cells of patients to return to a pluripotent state, a state from which the cell can differentiate into any type of tissue but cannot form an entire organism. (asu.edu)
  • During embryonic patterning, genetic programs are precisely coordinated to create complex tissues and organs. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • Further, we find that specific factors critical for glial function in other species are also critical in cone cells to support Drosophila photoreceptor activity. (plos.org)
  • Drosophila species have sensors and mouthparts sensitive to ripe or dented fruit scents. (eyouagro.com)
  • A major challenge to the area-wide management of Drosophila suzukii is understanding the fly's host use and temporal dynamics, which may dictate local movement patterns. (mdpi.com)
  • During the larval stage, the cells in the growing disc appear undifferentiated, but their developmental fate in the adult is already determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of differentiated cells to a multipotent state, even within a single tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, it was shown that in Drosophila , Cas9 expression could be limited to a desired group of cells, allowing tissue-specific mutagenesis. (nature.com)
  • Combined with transgenic expression of a guide-RNA (gRNA) targeting the gene of interest, this results in tissue-specific biallelic gene disruption within a WT environment (Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
  • Several lines of evidence associate misregulated genetic expression with risk factors for diabetes, Alzheimer's, and other diseases that sporadically develop in healthy adults with no background of hereditary disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the result, there was a significant induction of Duox, AMPs and its transcription factor expression in both aged and Drosophila models of AD which was in accordance with the increase in the number of vacuoles in the brain section of Drosophila models of AD. (sdbonline.org)
  • We used RNA interference (RNAi) to intentionally inhibit expression of each target during pupal development. (coloradomesa.edu)
  • We present a systematic characterization of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns for all known or predicted Drosophila TFs throughout embryogenesis, the first such comprehensive study for any metazoan animal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue development and organ morphogenesis programs require tight spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression levels of neuropeptides were highly expressed at the feeding stage and the initiation of the wandering stage and less expressed at the prepupal stage and the initiation of the pupal stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to study the mechanism of immunity of serpin - 6 from B. mori , we performed the tissue expression and detected the immunity response. (insect.org.cn)
  • It is therefore necessary to determine the mechanisms that pattern EcR-B1 expression to understand how developmental neuronal remodeling is programmed in Drosophila . (janelia.org)
  • We studied the role of sumoylation during Drosophila development by using RNAi to reduce smt3 mRNA levels in specific tissues. (biologists.com)
  • Using RNAi against srp they show that srp i flies develop a fat body, but a much reduced one, showing that srp is involved in the amplification rather than the specification of adult adipocytes. (biologists.com)
  • Microscopic examination of the adult RNAi individuals suggests that ebony is involved in the depigmentation of the cuticle surrounding the photic organ of female fireflies, while black is suspected to be involved in pigmentation patterning of the ventral thorax and appendages. (coloradomesa.edu)
  • DRSC Functional Genomics Resources (DRSC-FGR) began as the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center (DRSC), founded by Prof. Norbert Perrimon in 2003, and the Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP), founded by Prof. Perrimon in 2008. (biokeanos.com)
  • During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micro-computed tomography as a platform for exploring Drosophila development. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Decades worth of studies into how limbs develop in animals from mice to fruit flies have revealed common principles of morphogen gradients that regulate the development of tissue patterns. (elifesciences.org)
  • During pupal development, they survive the larval tissue degeneration and begin to rapidly divide and form the adult structures. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • Despite often being found in the same sentence as "excess", and before "how to lose", adipose tissue, or fat, plays essential roles in energy storage and release, highlighted by the development of insulin resistance or other metabolic complications in the absence of functional adipocytes. (biologists.com)
  • identify the GATA-like transcription factor Serpent (Srp), that is known to be necessary for larval fat body development, as essential for adult fat body as well. (biologists.com)
  • Here, we focus on the Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell niche and review recent studies that have begun to reveal how intricate crosstalk between various signaling pathways regulates stem cell maintenance, how the extracellular matrix modulates the signaling output of the niche and how epigenetic programming influences cell development and function both inside and outside the niche to ensure proper tissue homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, how the morphogens regulate tissue size and what role their gradients play in this process remain topics of intense debate in the field of developmental biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • smt3 knockdown in the prothoracic gland, which controls key developmental processes through the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids, caused a 4-fold prolongation of larval life and completely blocked the transition from larval to pupal stages. (biologists.com)
  • Whilst the particular mechanisms that induce these adjustments remain unknown, relevance of protein palmitoylation is highlighted by its potential role in glucose transport and its modulation in adipose tissue of obese insulin resistant mice. (gfap-signal.com)
  • While one of the major strengths of Drosophila as a model organism is its high suitability for genetic screens, common screening methods hold various limitations. (nature.com)
  • Dpp, a member of the BMP family, is a morphogen that specifies positional information in Drosophila wing precursors. (elifesciences.org)
  • They denote these cells as the adult fat body precursors. (biologists.com)
  • Here, we thoroughly characterize tissue-specific (ts)CRISPR within the complex neuronal system of the Drosophila mushroom body. (nature.com)
  • These are the insects that have a larval, pupal and adult stage. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • So yes, it's true that all holometabolous insects (not just butterflies) will liquefy during the pupal stage only to emerge later as adults. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • A new paradigm suggests activation of the ERV family mdg4 at the fruitfly pupal stage may bolster adult antiviral defenses. (nature.com)
  • Silencing of mdg4 or Relish at the pupal stage leads to an inability to clear exogenous viruses in adulthood. (nature.com)
  • Enlarge / Dr. W. Ryan Williamson of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute dissected out a developing fly eye from a pupal stage Drosophila. (arstechnica.com)
  • In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The level of E increases at the initiation of the wandering stage, rises to a high level during the prepupal stage and decreases to a low level at the initiation of the pupal stage [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phenotype of a population that is the death of all animals in that population at some stage or stages before the end of the pupal stage. (virtualflybrain.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that the two groups of hemocytes survive to the adult stage with the ratio of primitive to definitive blood cells being approximately 3:2. (molcells.org)
  • Nowadays, the most research on axis formation is the formation of axis of Drosophila and vertebrates. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • This finding suggests that tissue-specific dysfunction may be involved in reduced lifespan related to gene misexpression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pattern formation ensures that tissues and organs develop in the correct place and orientation within the body. (scienceoxygen.com)
  • Stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis, particularly in organs that exhibit high rates of cellular turnover such as the skin, intestine and hematopoietic system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The red compound eyes of Drosophila have been such a huge part of the history of genetics, they're almost iconic. (arstechnica.com)
  • The molecular distinction of the two visual systems is similar to the one described for compound eyes and ocelli in Drosophila , suggesting that a unique core determination network for median and lateral eyes, respectively, might have been in place already in the last common ancestor of spiders and insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modulated through signaling pathways and protein interactions, TFs set up the transcriptional programs that ultimately specify cell fates and coordinate tissue and organ formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our pathways have been adult and producer students to take you be on integration and prevent out of email sooner. (cutechabeads.com)
  • Many of the mechanistic insights into how niches regulate stem cell maintenance have been obtained using invertebrate models such as Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insects produce a variety of adhesives for diverse functions such as locomotion, mating, and egg or pupal anchorage to substrates. (silverchair.com)
  • As the titer of E rises, the old tissues of insects are separated and degraded, and new tissues are formed [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In fact, after dietary administration of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone, knockdown larvae formed pupal cases. (biologists.com)
  • Finally, the authors probe the physiological roles of the adult fat body, by analysing flies where this tissue is reduced, after knockdown of srp or htl under OK6-GAL4 . (biologists.com)
  • First proposed by Schofield in 1978 [ 3 ], the niche hypothesis posits that specific locations or microenvironments within tissues prevent the maturation of resident stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous experiments focused on the self differentiation of individual tissues in birds, but Waddington wanted to study induction in greater detail. (asu.edu)
  • Tracing with Mef2 in first instar (L1) larvae marked the adult adipocytes and adult muscles, but not the larval fat body. (biologists.com)
  • Drosophila females have two ovaries typically comprised of 16 to 21 tube-like structures called ovarioles [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Know the facts about HIV-to learn how you can take steps to keep in mind, older adults who survive a stay in the summer. (projectretailx.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent role of Aβ42 and tau on the inflammatory pathway in the Drosophila models of AD and investigating the potential modulating effect of M2000 (β-D-mannuronic acid) as a novel NSAIDs in those flies. (sdbonline.org)
  • Charlton-Perkins MA, Sendler ED, Buschbeck EK, Cook TA (2017) Multifunctional glial support by Semper cells in the Drosophila retina. (plos.org)
  • TD adults, the EWA-DL provided the highest model evidence in both phases of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the. (mgedata.com)
  • In the developing wing of a fruit fly, a morphogen called Dpp is expressed in a thin stripe located in the centre and spreads to the rest of the tissue to form a gradient. (elifesciences.org)
  • External fruit damage, such as soft spots or scar tissue on the skin, droopy skin, and fallen fruit areas, can clearly show infestation. (eyouagro.com)
  • Such netting must be in place before the ripening of fruit, which attracts adult SWD. (eyouagro.com)
  • Adults feed on fallen fruit but lay their eggs under the skin of intact fruit. (ucanr.edu)
  • Softening and collapse of the tissue results from larval feeding inside the fruit. (ucanr.edu)
  • The biology of Lonchoptera is largely unknown though adults may sometimes be found in large numbers in humid habitats (Petersen 1987). (fieldofscience.com)
  • Our data show that a single ingestion of a non-lethal dose of 1 μg mL −1 AgNPs by adult female beetles does not affect overall gut microbial activity but results in shifts in the gut microbial community composition towards pathogens including Alcaligenes , Morganella , and Pseudomonas . (springeropen.com)
  • Repeated ingestion of AgNPs over several weeks led to a decrease in survival of adult beetles, suggesting that more environmentally realistic exposure scenarios can directly affect the success of carcass-feeding animals. (springeropen.com)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of melatonin on the copulatory and locomotor behaviors of brachypterous and macropterous adult planthoppers by exposing them to melatonin, luzindole (a melatonin receptor antagonist), or a combination of melatonin and luzindole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using cell-restricted transcriptome analysis, here we show that the ommatidial cone cells (aka Semper cells) in the Drosophila compound eye are enriched for glial regulators and effectors, including signature characteristics of the vertebrate visual system. (plos.org)
  • Morphogens are substances that are produced by groups of cells and spread to the rest of the tissue to form a gradient. (elifesciences.org)
  • the goo is the remnants of digested larval tissue cells, and once they break down, they cannot be reconstructed. (missoulabutterflyhouse.org)
  • However, the origins of the adult fat body are much less clear: does it come from the persisting larval cells or is there de novo adult adipogenesis? (biologists.com)
  • This indicates that the adult fat body diverges at L1 and shares a common progenitor with muscle cells. (biologists.com)
  • Subsequently, asymmetric cell divisions play a critical role in maintaining adult stem cell populations, while at the same time generating an adequate number of differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. (stembook.org)
  • This image captures the developing adult eye, showing its array of light-sensitive cells in (of course) red. (arstechnica.com)
  • Without the self-renewing capacity of stem cells, these tissues quickly cease to function properly, leading to various conditions including infertility, anemia and immunodeficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overproliferation of stem cells is equally undesirable and can disrupt normal tissue homeostasis, possibly contributing to tumor formation and growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty years following Schofield's seminal publication, Xie and Spradling provided compelling experimental evidence that a cellular niche supports the maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila adult ovary [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The download in reckless hands : skinner v. oklahoma and the near triumph percent( ' Drosophila control ') is an beta earth for Experiencing figure cells, Mendel's memories, ERE, Punnett years, and valid fragments of families. (richmondstudio.com)
  • Under long-standing coding and billing rules, sepsis would be the top layer of skin cancer increased five times more cavities in permanent disfigurement, tissue necrosis (death of cells in living tissue), and can be republished for lowest price nortriptyline free (details). (pratofastfashion.com)