A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
In invertebrate zoology, a lateral lobe of the FOREBRAIN in certain ARTHROPODS. In vertebrate zoology, either of the corpora bigemina of non-mammalian VERTEBRATES. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1329)
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Color of the iris.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Sexual activities of animals.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of ... During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells. Clonal analysis and ... During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid ... Weaver M, Krasnow MA (September 2008). "Dual origin of tissue-specific progenitor cells in Drosophila tracheal remodeling". ...
... which generate the adult body parts of the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Plant development is the process by which structures ... Tissue growth involves both an overall increase in tissue size, and also the differential growth of parts (allometry) which ... and certain insects which hatch as a larva and then become remodeled to the adult form during a pupal stage. All the ... or between mature tissues. Thus, a living plant always has embryonic tissues. By contrast, an animal embryo will very early ...
Thus, naked larval cuticle loss is recuperated and once the larva has become an adult, its tissues execute their normal ... "Pupal and larval cuticle proteins of Drosophila melanogaster". Biochemistry. 23 (24): 5767-74. doi:10.1021/bi00319a015. PMID ... Those mutations are pleiotropic and can affect viability and produce morphological defects in several adult tissues, such as ... Tissue malformations occur in various situations. As said in the introduction, the sgl enzyme is essential for a normal ...
In Drosophila, the rhodopsin Rh2 is only expressed in simple eyes. While (in Drosophila at least) the genes eyeless and ... In the pupal stage, such stemmata develop into fully fledged compound eyes. One feature offering a clue to their ontogenetic ... Adults of several orders of hexapods also have stemmata, and never develop compound eyes at all. Examples include fleas, ... Tissue and Cell. 25 (1): 151-157. doi:10.1016/0040-8166(93)90072-S. PMID 18621228. "Eye (invertebrate)". McGraw-Hill ...
A. M. Handler (1982). "Ecdysteroid titers during pupal and adult development in Drosophila melanogaster". Developmental Biology ... Adult males are left with, so far as is currently known, one source of 20-hydroxyecdysone which is the fat body tissue. These ... For the most part these glandular tissues are lost in the adult with exception of the fat body, which is retained as a sheath ... of lipid tissue surrounding the brain and organs of the abdomen. In the adult female the ovary is a substantial source of 20- ...
In adults, absence of JH causes degeneration of flight muscles and atrophy or cessation of development of reproductive tissues ... Egg-to-adult development time, juvenile body mass and reproductive diapause in Drosophila montana". Journal of Insect ... Larval and pupal diapauses are often regulated by an interruption of this connection, either by preventing release of ... Adult diapause is often associated with the absence of JH, while larval diapause is often associated with its presence. ...
Studies in Drosophila revealed that genetic ablation of Mlp84B, the Drosophila homolog of MLP, was associated with pupal ... In the adult nervous system it is expressed upon axonal injury, where it plays an important role during regenerative processes ... while ultrastructural analysis of its cardiac tissue revealed myocardial disarray and significant fibrosis, increased nuclear ... Mery A, Taghli-Lamallem O, Clark KA, Beckerle MC, Wu X, Ocorr K, Bodmer R (January 2008). "The Drosophila muscle LIM protein, ...
The adult form is a moth with gray-brown front wings and light brown back wings. It is about 2.5 cm long and has a wingspan of ... The tissue of the cabbage looper has also been used to develop a cell line. It is particularly useful for its fast growth rate ... The cabbage looper genome is larger than the Drosophila melanogaster genome (180Mb) but smaller than the Bombyx mori genome ( ... and reduces both growth rate and pupal weight. The cabbage looper has demonstrated resistance to Bt, specifically the toxin ...
While (in Drosophila at least) the genes eyeless and dachshund are both expressed in the compound eye but not the simple eye, ... Adults of several orders of hexapods also have stemmata, and never develop compound eyes at all. Examples include fleas, ... They can possess a considerable degree of acuity and sensitivity, and can detect polarized light.[20] In the pupal stage, such ... Amer Tissue & Cell. 25:: 151-157.. ... In Drosophila, the rhodopsin Rh2 is only expressed in simple ...
Most adult diptera have their mouthparts modified to sponge up fluid. The adults of many species of flies that feed on liquid ... In contrast, Drosophila subobscura, a species of fly in the genus Drosophila, lacks a category of hemocytes that are present in ... The larvae of some groups feed on or in the living tissues of plants and fungi, and some of these are serious pests of ... it is a permanent torsion of the organs that occurs during the pupal stage. This torsion may lead to the anus being below the ...
During the pupal stage, the larval body breaks down as the imaginal disks grow and produce the adult body. This process is ... Wingless and Hedgehog also function in multiple tissues later in embryogenesis and also during metamorphosis. The transcription ... Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for genetics and ... The pupa metamorphoses into an adult fly, which takes about 3.5 to 4.5 days. The entire growth process from egg to adult fly ...
O'Connor MB, Umulis D, Othmer HG, Blair SS (January 2006). "Shaping BMP morphogen gradients in the Drosophila embryo and pupal ... which are tissues that will become limbs and other organs and structures in the adult fly. It has also been suggested that Dpp ... Drosophila decapentaplegic - The Interactive Fly decapentaplegic+protein,+Drosophila at the US National Library of Medicine ... The most studied tissues in which Dpp is found are the early embryo and the imaginal wing discs, which later form the wings of ...
Adults are small (< 2mm) to medium-sized insects (- < 10mm), larger Diptera are rare, only certain families of Diptera Mydidae ... They are thought to be flexing points for the wings during flight and they are also associated with pupal folds in the wing. ... The homology between the wings and halteres is demonstrated by the four-winged mutant of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... so that the ovipositor is able to penetrate through the tissues of the organism which will accommodate the eggs and larvae. In ...
Adult species possess two pairs of equal or subequal wings. There appear to be only five main vein stems. A nodus is formed ... Insect wing muscle is a strictly aerobic tissue. Per unit protein it consumes fuel and oxygen at rates taking place in a very ... It is not until the butterfly is in its pupal stage that the wing-bud becomes exposed, and shortly after eclosion, the wing ... It was advanced by Trueman based on a study by Goldschmidt in 1945 on Drosophila melanogaster, in which a pod variation ...
To do this, it uses the ptilinum, an eversible pouch on its head, to tear open the end of the pupal case. The adult housefly ... these lay their eggs in the housefly larvae tissue and their offspring complete their development before the adult houseflies ... The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made ... Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. The adults feed on a variety of liquid or ...
... of pupal and adult female wasps. The virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host ... Tissue tropism. Entry details. Release details. Replication site. Assembly site. Transmission. Ichnovirus. Parasitoid wasps ( ... R. M. Rizki et T. M. Rizki, (November 1990). "Parasitoid virus-like particles destroy Drosophila cellular immunity". ... "Multigenic families in Ichnovirus: A tissue and host specificity study through expression analysis of vankyrins from Hyposoter ...
... while in Drosophila, variability in eclosion time (when adults emerge) has increased. The initial domestication of animals ... The silkworm is raised for the silk threads wound around its pupal cocoon; the western honey bee, for honey, and, lately, for ... used to transfer genes to cultivated crops by interspecific hybridization involving modern methods of embryo rescue and tissue ... Several other invertebrates have been domesticated, both terrestrial and aquatic, including some such as Drosophila ...
The immature stages often differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in ... Because oxygen is delivered directly to tissues via tracheoles, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is ... For example, because of its small size, short generation time and high fecundity, the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages. The ...
The tarsus of adult pterygote insects having fewer than five subsegments is probably specialized by the loss of one or more ... Interaction between the pupal brain and prothoracic glands in the metamorphosis of the giant silkworm "Platysamia cecropia"". ... This was discovered in 2003 by studying the variation in reactions of larvae of the common fruitfly Drosophila to the touch of ... The stylets are needle-like projections used to penetrate plant and animal tissues. The stylets and the feeding tube form the ...
First, adult cells de-differentiate into progenitor cells which will replace the tissues they are derived from. Second, these ... although the cost of said regeneration is a delayed pupal stage. Arachnids, including scorpions, are known to regenerate their ... and DNA synthesis during imaginal disc regeneration in Drosophila". Developmental Biology. 127 (1): 197-208. doi:10.1016/0012- ... The new tissue is not the same as the tissue that was lost. After the repair process has been completed, there is a loss in the ...
... including a pupal or resting stage between the larval and adult forms. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the ... Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues. Because most embryonic development is outside the ... for the establishment of corazonin-producing peptidergic nervous system during embryogenesis and metamorphosis in Drosophila ... The juvenile forms closely resemble adults, but are smaller and lack adult features such as wings and genitalia. The size and ...
Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after emerging from the pupal stage. In most species, the males form large ... The ancestors of Drosophila and the mosquitoes diverged 260 million years ago. The culicine and Anopheles clades of mosquitoes ... Infection of the insect larval form is frequently tissue-specific, and commonly involves the fat body. Vertical (transovarial) ... The pupal stage lasts around 2-3 days in temperate areas. The duration from egg to adult varies considerably among species, and ...
Stocker RF (2009) The olfactory pathway of adult and larval Drosophila: conservation or adaptation to stage-specific needs? Ann ... on how the nerve-muscle contacts develop in pupal and early adult stages of the butterfly Antheraea polyphemus. Inspired by ... "Cobalt filling of sensory projections from internal and external mouthparts in Drosophila". Cell and Tissue Research. 216 (3): ... Gendre, N. (2004-01-01). "Integration of complex larval chemosensory organs into the adult nervous system of Drosophila". ...
... s that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.[7] The ... For example, because of its small size, short generation time and high fecundity, the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... This is because inside the chorion two additional membranes develop from embryonic tissue, the amnion and the serosa. This ... The immature stages often differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in ...
The moth - the adult phase of the lifecycle - is not capable of functional flight, in contrast to the wild B. mandarina and ... The larvae then prepare to enter the pupal phase of their lifecycle, and enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk ... Researchers at Tufts developed scaffolds made of spongy silk that feel and look similar to human tissue. They are implanted ... Adult Bombycidae have reduced mouth parts and do not feed, though a human caretaker can feed them. ...
Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of ... During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells. Clonal analysis and ... During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid ... Weaver M, Krasnow MA (September 2008). "Dual origin of tissue-specific progenitor cells in Drosophila tracheal remodeling". ...
A mutation which abolishes this isoform results in pupal and adult lethality. Reporter genes containing different Grainyhead ... Tissue-specific splicing and functions of the Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead.. A E Uv, E J Harrison, S J Bray ... Tissue-specific splicing and functions of the Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead. Message Subject (Your Name) has ... We have examined the structure and function of mRNAs from the Drosophila grainyhead gene and demonstrated that alternate ...
Dissection of Larval Zebrafish Gonadal Tissue, Dissection and Immunohistochemistry of Larval, Pupal and Adult Drosophila ... Dissection of Oenocytes from Adult Drosophila melanogaster, Dissection and Mounting of Drosophila Pupal Eye Discs, Homarus ... and Analysis of Xenopus laevis Embryonic Retinal Tissue, Ex vivo Culture of Drosophila Pupal Testis and Single Male Germ-line ... Dissection of Adult Mouse Utricle and Adenovirus-mediated Supporting-cell Infection, Dissection and Staining of Drosophila ...
During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. Pupal and adult tissues form from imaginal cells, tissue-specific ... Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of ... The adult Drosophila wing is formed by an epithelial sheet, which differentiates into two non-neural tissues, vein or intervein ... Dual origin of tissue-specific progenitor cells in Drosophila tracheal remodeling SCIENCE Weaver, M., Krasnow, M. A. 2008; 321 ...
... and retina of Drosophila and to cause tissue degeneration and early death of its adult host. The dynamics of its growth, rapid ... 2). Remarkably, the bacteria are present in low numbers during development through the embryonic, larval, and pupal stages. ... The adult flies, when newly hatched, have fairly well-formed brains and other tissues, but EM reveals the presence of ... Proliferation of the Wolbachia popcorn strain in the adult Drosophila brain. (A) One-day-old fly carrying popcorn. Note ...
In the Drosophila pupal abdomen, larval epidermal cells (LECs) are replaced by adult progenitor cells (histoblasts). Previous ... Tissue mechanical properties modulate cell extrusion in the Drosophila abdominal epidermis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Here, we identify a population of LECs that extrudes independently of the presence of histoblasts during late pupal development ... Our work reveals a developmental switch in the cell extrusion mechanism that correlates with changes in tissue mechanical ...
We found that a shift to 25° at 1 day (embryonic shift) or 12 days (pupal shift) resulted in a loss of adults (Figure 4A), ... which are ultimately responsible for generating adult tissues. In particular, we surmised that mutations in Top2 might ... as Top2m1/Top2m2 adults were generated, which we call Top2-complementing adults. Crosses producing Top2-complementing adults ... Drosophila stocks and culture conditions. Flies were maintained at 25° at 70% humidity on standard Drosophila cornmeal, yeast, ...
... through the end of pupal development. In adults, alpha 85E mRNA has been unequivocally identified only in testes. In the ... The results demonstrate a spatially restricted expression pattern of the alpha 85E gene that includes tissues of both ... of protein accumulation during pupal development suggests that alpha 85E tubulin is involved in the construction of the adult ... Three of the four alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster are temporally regulated. mRNA from one of these genes, alpha ...
Lethal doses of dietary AgNPs caused developmental delays and profound lethality in developing animals and young adults. In ... Importantly, AgNPs mechanistically resulted in tissue-wide accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated the Nrf2 ... In this study, we used a powerful in vivo platform Drosophila melanogaster to explore a wide spectrum of adverse effects ... contrast, exposure to sublethal doses, while not deadly to developing animals, shortened the adult lifespan and compromised ...
Testes are typically isolated from adult males 0-3 days after eclosion from the pupal case. The testes of wild-type flies are ... A protocol for isolating testes from the abdomen of adult males and preparing slides of live tissue for analysis by phase- ... Ex vivo Culture of Drosophila Pupal Testis and Single Male Germ-line Cysts: Dissection, Imaging, and Pharmacological Treatment ... In short, our approach can obtain intact eye tissues and has been successfully utilized to study tissue-specific expression ...
... and functional analyses suggest that Tribolium has a somewhat larger inventory of core component genes than Drosophila, perhaps ... However, Drosophila, the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another ... Some tissues in Drosophila adults (including oocytes) [35, 36, 45] seem to be capable of taking up dsRNA; however, the systemic ... silA and silB expression level is uniform through the larval to adult stages, while silC has peak expression at the pupal stage ...
... (crol) mutants die during pupal development with defects in adult head eversion and leg morphogenesis. crol ... difficult to predict since the role of juvenile hormone is not well understood during pre-adult Drosophila development (DAvino ... resulting in each cell acquiring a specific fate in the adult fly. Morphogenesis and differentiation of imaginal tissues, ... crol mutants die during two stages of pupal development. The first lethal phase occurs at the beginning of pupal development, ...
We also found Yellow expressed in a few central neurons from the second larval instar to adult stages, including a subset of ... We found Yellow expressed in the pupal epidermis in patterns prefiguring black pigmentation. ... which allowed us to precisely describe Yellow expression pattern at the tissue and cellular levels throughout development. ... We generated a protein-tagged yellow allele m the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, ...
In a drosophila HD model, the expression of this anti-HD intrabody rescued fly survival through the larval and pupal stages to ... Adult personality. and behaviour. Personality disorder · Passive-aggressive behavior · Kleptomania · Trichotillomania · ... has been shown to reduce mHtt aggregate formation and increase turnover of the mHtt fragments in tissue culture models of HD.[ ... Trials and research are conducted on Drosophila fruit flies and mice that have been genetically modified to exhibit HD, before ...
Rhopr-IGF transcript is present in a variety of tissues, with greatest expression in the fat body, the dorsal vessel, and the ... and this treatment resulted in shorter adults, with shorter and narrower wings, when compared to controls. The results suggest ... Rhopr-IGF transcript is present in a variety of tissues, with greatest expression in the fat body, the dorsal vessel and the ... and this treatment resulted in shorter adults, with shorter and narrower wings, when compared to controls. The results suggest ...
Northern blot analysis detected a major SCML1 transcript of approximately 3-kb in all human adult and fetal tissues tested [5]. ... 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Most mammalian PcG genes have Drosophila homologs [11, 12]. Compared to Drosophila, the mammalian PcG genes ... Most of the PcG genes are expressed throughout embryonic, larval and pupal development, and are required continuously to ... For tissue expression analysis in rhesus macaques, a total of 12 tissue types (1-2 year old male macaques) were analyzed ...
In Drosophila, heat shock (HS) during the pupal stage chronically hinders adult locomotor performance by disrupting wing ... Raw potato tuber tissue strips were either heated for 30 min up to 100 degrees C or frozen-thawed. Some ... ... Relationship between the electrical and rheological properties of potato tuber tissue after ... ... of 1-1000 kHz and dynamic bending storage modulus measured by the vibrating reed method were compared for potato tuber tissue, ...
Adult brains, eyes, and eye-lamina complexes as well a pupal brains and eye-brain complexes were dissected as reported ... 200 µl of this solution was placed onto the prepared tissue, and an image was acquired within 5 min, as recommended by the ... Preparation of developing and adult Drosophila brains and retinae for live imaging. J. Vis. Exp. 10.3791/1936 [PMC free article ... Lysotracker is a membrane-permeable compound that can be added to the bath of a live Drosophila larval or pupal eye-brain ...
D) At pupal stages, fly tissues are translucent and are amenable to wounding and dynamic imaging, but only after a window has ... At all stages of development, from embryo to adult, Drosophila can and has been used as a wound-healing model. Wounded areas ... Drosophila does not scar, as mammals do, because flies have a different connective tissue arrangement. However, Drosophila does ... Investigating how infection impacts on tissue repair. A great deal is known about how Drosophila combats the threat of invading ...
Xu, T. and Rubin, G. M. (1993). Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues. Development 117, 1223- ... Tissue polarity genes of Drosophila regulate the subcellular location for prehair initiation in pupal wing cells. J. Cell Biol. ... Drosophila INTRODUCTION. The adult cuticular surface of Drosophila is decorated with large numbers of polarized structures such ... C) A wing from a fry6/fry6 pharate adult. Note the strong fry mutant phenotype. (D) A confocal image of a fry6/fry6 pupal wing ...
These mutants are invariably pupal lethal and show pleiotropic effects in adult tissues. The predominant headcase loss of ... Headcase promotes cell survival and niche maintenance in the Drosophila testis. At the apical tip of the Drosophila testis, ... Perhaps some of these genes, such as headcase and IMP-L2, are involved in differentiation of adult-specific tissues (White, ... Weaver, T.A. and White, R.A. (1995). headcase, an imaginal specific gene required for adult morphogenesis in Drosophila ...
A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity. Cell 2000. 102:437- ... Tissue in situ hybridization. To examine the distribution of hypnos-2 transcript in the fly head, in situ hybridization was ... From late embryonic to early pupal stages, this gene is expressed at a low level (data not shown). To confirm the results from ... This gene encodes a Drosophila pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase (dADAR) and is expressed almost exclusively in the adult central ...
The adult germ lines transcribe hsp27 gene while no transcript is detected in the late pupal and adult brain. These results ... Tissue-specific expression of the heat shock protein HSP27 during Drosophila melanogaster development. D Pauli, D Pauli ... D Pauli, C H Tonka, A Tissieres, A P Arrigo; Tissue-specific expression of the heat shock protein HSP27 during Drosophila ... no more hsp27 is observed in the disc-derived adult organs. In adults, hsp27 is still present in some regions of the central ...
... a critical non-cell-autonomous regulator of Drosophila blood progenitor maintenance. ... Unlike the adult eye or wing, analysis of internal larval tissues such as the lymph gland requires laborious dissection and ... an organ dedicated to the development of blood cells that normally contribute to the pupal and adult stages (Rizki, 1978; ... 5b) Related to this, when using Hml-GAL4 or another driver active in both the LG and tissue hemocyte populations, the authors ...
... and during the pupal stages all of the larval tissues,. 00:03:19.20 or most of the larval tissues are re-absorbed and adult ... Obviously we do a lot of fixed tissue work.. 00:06:45.19 And then, we are using Drosophila, so we are using genetics.. 00:06: ... If we do this in the adult,. 00:22:06.29 then the adult cells will start to differentiate,. 00:22:10.14 and we will lose all ... 00:04:35.23 Those are the cells that will be maintained in the adult throughout the adults life.. 00:04:42.02 And there is ...
Mutant strains lacking either JmjC or PHD domain activity are adult viable, suggesting that delayed development and pupal ... Drosophila kdm5 was originally named lid based on the size of tissues in kdm510424 homozygous mutant larvae (Gildea et al. 2000 ... Drosophila encodes a single kdm5 gene, also known as little imaginal discs (lid), that is broadly expressed in all tissues ... 2014 Detecting apoptosis in Drosophila tissues and cells. Methods 68: 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2014.02.033. ...
Heartbeat patterns were monitored in the living bodies of decapitated adult flies using several electrocardiographic methods ( ... CURTIS N.J., RINGO J.M. & DOWSE H.B. 1999: Morphology of the pupal heart, adult heart and associated tissues in the fruit fly, ... Physiology of heartbeat reversal in adult Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Karel SL MA. Institute of ... DULCIS D. & LEVINE R.B. 2005: Glutamatergic innervation of the heart initiates retrograde contractions in adult Drosophila ...
Analyses of a developmentally regulated Drosophila myofiber remodeling program provide insight into induced autophagy required ... Pharate adults were removed from the pupal case and mounted without dissection. IOMs were observed from dorsal side through the ... 1) It has been shown that autophagic cell death plays a pivotal role in larval tissues degeneration during Drosophila ... In Drosophila, a set of larval body wall muscles that persist as viable pupal abdominal muscles, called dorsal internal oblique ...
GAL80ts adult organisms by expressing E180A at either larval, pupal, or adult stages. D, Quantitative measurement (qPCR) of ... 2003) Tissue-specific developmental requirements of Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms. Genesis 35:260-269, doi:10.1002/ ... pupal, and adult; N = 30). For adult expression, the flies were transferred to 29°C immediately after eclosion. As controls, ... suggesting stage-specific control of SOCE during pupal stages of neural circuit maturation. Pupal neurons in Drosophila also ...
... expressed EcRs during the prepupal pulse but survived into the pupal stage under all conditions tested. To test the hypothesis ... The metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster is accompanied by elimination of obsolete neurons via programmed cell death (PCD ... A prolonged pupal pulse beginning at approximately 24 h-APF drives the remaining development of the adult fly. As adult ... Cherbas L, Hu X, Zhimulev I, Belyaeva E, Cherbas P: EcR isoforms in Drosophila: testing tissue-specific requirements by ...
  • Reporter genes containing different Grainyhead binding sites exhibit tissue-specific patterns of expression that correlate with the Grainyhead isoforms, suggesting that the alternate splicing serves to alter the repertoire of target genes controlled in the neuroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Three of the four alpha-tubulin genes in Drosophila melanogaster are temporally regulated. (nih.gov)
  • mRNA from one of these genes, alpha 85E-tubulin, first appears in 6- to 8-hr embryos and persists, with marked fluctuations, through the end of pupal development. (nih.gov)
  • Altered expression of EcR and E74B (Ecdysone-induced protein 74EF) during the pupal period suggests that these genes are potential targets of Crol (D'Avino, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • The identification of other secondary-response genes that are regulated by crol and expressed in leg imaginal discs should provide a better understanding of crol function in this tissue (D'Avino, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • Both phylogenetic and functional analyses suggest that Tribolium has a somewhat larger inventory of core component genes than Drosophila , perhaps allowing a more sensitive response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the PcG genes are expressed throughout embryonic, larval and pupal development, and are required continuously to maintain restricted homeotic expression in Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • then searched for the Drosophila genes involved in generating new blood cells in the lymph gland-particularly those involved in equilibrium signaling. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, in vivo imaging of muscles in Drosophila metamorphosis in combination with genetics promises to be a model for studies of human genes that regulate skeletal muscle mass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the long-running assumption that sex-biased gene expression should not be prevalent in juveniles, the results of this study indicated that most genes show sex-bias in at least one pre-adult stage! (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Venn diagrams of the number and percentage of genes showing sex-biased gene expression in larvae, pre-pupae, and adults. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In the majority of previous studies have found that more genes show male-bias in adults. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • By contrast, this study showed that in larval and pre-pupal stages of development in Drosophila melanogaster , more genes show female-biased gene expression. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It is crucial to have the ability to conditionally manipulate the activity of genes, be it to overcome embryonic lethality of null mutants to study later roles of a given gene, distinguish between cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms, or to study tissue-specific gene functions. (g3journal.org)
  • The polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (TrxG) genes were originally identified in Drosophila , where the products of these genes are intimately involved in the segmentation of the embryo ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we present the identification, expression, and tissue localization of eight genes encoding insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in upstream genes such as frizzled did not show an adult arista phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sheer tractability of Drosophila may therefore help to accelerate the search for genes in pheromone-responsive pathways that regulate female reproduction, including potentially any that are preserved with modification to regulate worker sterility in response to queen pheromones in eusocial taxa. (frontiersin.org)
  • Secondly, Drosophila 's powerful Gal4/UAS expression system can complement the pheromone assay by driving target gene expression into living tissue, which could be well-applied to the functional testing of genes presumed to drive ovary activation or de-activation in the honey bee or other eusocial taxa. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tissue expression analysis showed that these genes had a tissue-specific expression pattern. (deepdyve.com)
  • The recent discoveries of microRNA (miRNA) genes and characterization of the first few target genes regulated by miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have set the stage for elucidation of a novel network of regulatory control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Application to the D. melanogaster , Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae genomes identifies several hundred target genes potentially regulated by one or more known miRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe a general strategy for producing such collections and its implementation, which so far has generated a set of cDNAs corresponding to over 40% of the genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we present a strategy that has so far allowed us to obtain such clones for over 40% of all Drosophila genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • A comparison with the 13,600 genes predicted from the genomic sequence indicates that these ESTs represent 8900 different genes, 65% of all Drosophila genes ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This test set consists of the 9% of all Drosophila genes for which a cDNA clone having the full-length ORF exists in GenBank (see Fig. 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For instance, the model genetic organism, Drosophila melanogaster , has 22 chitinase and chitinase-like genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Aside from doublesex, which is a central factor in the regulation of sex determination, Drosophila possesses three different dmrt genes that are of unknown function. (tmc.edu)
  • Because the association with sexual differentiation and reproduction is not universal and some DMRT proteins have been found to play other developmental roles we chose to further characterize one of these Drosophila genes. (tmc.edu)
  • These genes have been studied in many species, but with more detail in two of them, Drosophila melanogaster and mouse. (hindawi.com)
  • These genes are highly conserved in evolution, and there is a correspondence between particular Hox genes in Drosophila and mouse (and other species) [ 11 , 12 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As in Drosophila , one of the main functions of Hox genes in the mouse is to establish the A/P axis, thus specifying the development of different elements of the axial skeleton, although there is also an important function of Hox genes in limb development [ 15 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis has been proposed as one of the evolutionary driving forces behind both the under-representation of male-biased genes on, and the gene movement out of, the X chromosome in Drosophila . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Second, they also analyzed expression data from several D. melanogaster tissues and concluded that under-representation on the X chromosome is not an exclusive property of testis-biased genes, but instead, a general property of tissue-specific genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Second, tissue-specific genes are also in general enriched with genes more expressed in testes than in ovaries, that is testis-biased genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • By completely excluding from the analyses the testis-biased genes, which are known to be under-represented in the X, we found that all the other tissue-specific genes are randomly distributed between the X chromosome and the autosomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our findings negate the original study of Mikhaylova and Nurminsky, which concluded a lack of MSCI and generalized the pattern of paucity in the X chromosome for tissue-specific genes in Drosophila . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, MSCI and other selection-based models such as sexual antagonism, dosage compensation, and meiotic-drive continue to be viable models as driving forces shaping the genomic distribution of male-related genes in Drosophila . (beds.ac.uk)
  • As revealed by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, expression of Hippo pathway genes is particularly enriched in several mitotic tissues, including the ovary, testis, and wing disc. (umm.ac.id)
  • Developmental profiles of Hippo pathway genes are generally similar (with the exception of Yorkie) within each organ, but vary greatly in different tissues showing nearly opposing expression patterns in the wing disc and the posterior silk gland (PSG) on day 2 of the prepupal stage. (umm.ac.id)
  • Importantly, the reduction of Yorkie expression by RNAi downregulated Yorkie target genes in the ovary, decreased egg number, and delayed larval-pupal-adult metamorphosis. (umm.ac.id)
  • In contrast, baculovirus-mediated YorkieCA overexpression upregulated Yorkie target genes in the PSG, increased PSG size, and accelerated larval-pupal metamorphosis. (umm.ac.id)
  • As such, we tested the genetic interaction of Rho1 with a set of genes known to regulate E−cadherin stability at AJs, Rho GTPase activity, and vesicular trafficking and analyzed their ability to rescue the AJ defect in Rho1−depleted pupal eyes. (wustl.edu)
  • Our aim is to study these issues in Drosophila melanogaster , with a special focus in the analysis of Hox genes. (uam.es)
  • In a similar analysis, we would like to know the mechanisms whereby Hox genes regulate different proliferation in the histoblasts, cells that give rise to the abdomen, or in the imaginal discs, since the former divide only during pupal stages and the latter mainly during the larval period. (uam.es)
  • We want to study how these genes regulate the elimination of this segment at a certain time in pupal development (video 1). (uam.es)
  • Detailed analysis of the role of candidate genes in adult muscles using confocal and electron microscopy showed that while muscle architecture was largely maintained after gene knockdown, maintenance of sarcomere length was disrupted. (ubc.ca)
  • Most of these genes either increase or decrease during the larval-to-pupal transition (Fig 1F). (biologists.com)
  • Part C shows the genes whose expression changes over time in wild type wing discs during the larval-to-pupal transition. (biologists.com)
  • Not all of the genes found with RNA-seq to vary during the larval-to-pupal transition are bound by EcR - suggesting that there are both direct and indirect effects of ecdysone. (biologists.com)
  • Using developmental stage-specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, we tested the 2 hypotheses by comparing the rates of evolution of 7,180 genes obtained from 6 species of the Drosophila melanogaster group with respect to ontogeny, and sex and reproduction-related functions in gonadal tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We noted that the accelerated divergence of genes in the adult stage is explained by those expressed specifically in the male gonads, whose divergence is driven by positive selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to other Pax genes, the functional conservation of eyg in species other than Drosophila has not yet been explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During Drosophila metamorphosis, most larval cells die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final manifestation of this pattern into adult structures is dependent on pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone during metamorphosis, which trigger disc eversion, elongation and differentiation. (sdbonline.org)
  • The metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster is accompanied by elimination of obsolete neurons via programmed cell death (PCD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metamorphosis of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , entails the transformation of a crawling, feeding larva into an adult capable of flight and reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endocrine events during Drosophila metamorphosis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Metamorphosis in insects transforms the larval into an adult body plan and comprises the destruction and remodeling of larval and the generation of adult tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Developmental biology also encompasses the biology of regeneration, asexual reproduction, metamorphosis, and the growth and differentiation of stem cells in the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate whether hindgut enterocytes of Drosophila migrate into the midgut during metamorphosis by G-TRACE (Gal4 technique for real-time and clonal expression) which is a new genetic technique. (insect.org.cn)
  • Broad relays hormone signals to regulate stem cell differentiation in Drosophila midgut during metamorphosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neuroendocrine regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis requires TGFbeta/Activin signaling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a 2-day period at the outset of metamorphosis, which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Our findings strongly suggest that Laccase 2 is crucial for Anopheles cuticle construction and melanization immune responses to pathogen infections during pupal metamorphosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Drosophila tracheal system is extensively remodeled during metamorphosis by a small number of airway progenitors. (biologists.com)
  • To understand the coordination of proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis of tubular organs, we analyzed the remodeling of Drosophila airways during metamorphosis. (biologists.com)
  • 1. Drosophila larvae molt twice before metamorphosis. (weebly.com)
  • Metamorphosis is carried out by specialized tissues inside the larva that assemble together to form the pupa. (weebly.com)
  • We also found Yellow expressed in a few central neurons from the second larval instar to adult stages, including a subset of neurons adjacent to the clock neurons marked by the gene Pdf. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In this Primer article, we review the progress made by a number of research groups that have begun to model the main aspects of mammalian tissue repair through studying Drosophila at various stages of development, from embryo to adult ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • 00:03:02.07 In Drosophila this is followed by three larval instars where each time the larval molts, 00:03:10.28 and then a pupae is generated, and during the pupal stages all of the larval tissues, 00:03:19.20 or most of the larval tissues are re-absorbed and adult tissues emerge, 00:03:24.21 and that gives us another male and female. (ibiology.org)
  • Only cells in the nervous system and the imaginal cells that generate the adult body divide during larval stages, with larval tissues growing by increasing ploidy rather than cell number. (mit.edu)
  • Thus, most mutants perturbing mitosis or the cell cycle do not manifest a phenotype until the adult body differentiates in late larval and pupal stages. (mit.edu)
  • The cell lineage was traced at the larval and pupal stages, respectively. (insect.org.cn)
  • For pupal stage tracing, eggs were cultured at 18℃ after egg-laying by the parental generation, pupae were shifted to 30℃ at different stages, and adult guts were detected after eclosion. (insect.org.cn)
  • Additionally, the expression pattern of two elav-GAL4 drivers was determined with GFP in different developmental stages in different tissues. (uta.fi)
  • Closer inspection of the expression pattern of elav-GAL4 drivers revealed that both of them drive the expression of UAS transgenes also in thoracic muscles at pupal and adult stages. (uta.fi)
  • Peak expression observed during early pupal stages, in adult male stages. (ncbs.res.in)
  • We first constructed oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries from high-quality RNA isolated from a variety of developmental stages and tissues using well-established methods ( 2 ) ( Table 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, I examined the expression of several putative testis-specific miRNAs in different tissues and developmental stages of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. (oatd.org)
  • Expression of sex-specific fru mRNAs in the CNS of males analyzed from the earliest pupal stages indicated that sex-specific alternative splicing is not the exclusive mechanism regulating expression of fruitless transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • During larval and pupal stages, NB divisions resume to generate adult neurons. (stembook.org)
  • We think this difference may be implemented by changes in the extracellular matrix in early pupal stages regulated by Ultrabithorax . (uam.es)
  • Although histoblasts are present in the A7 during the larval period, they are extruded in pupal stages, as the larval cells are, and for this process it is required the activity of the Abdominal-B Hox gene and of sex-determination pathway. (uam.es)
  • The authors of this preprint start addressing this question by profiling gene expression changes and genome-wide binding of the steroid hormone receptor in the Drosophila wing during the transition from larval to pupal life stages - the fly's puberty, if you will. (biologists.com)
  • After all, the salivary glands die after larval stages, while "imaginal" tissues like the wing undergo dramatic morphogenesis to make adult structures. (biologists.com)
  • It also shows a striking co‐localization with PCP proteins during all pupal wing stages in Drosophila . (embopress.org)
  • In addition, accelerated gonadal gene divergence occurs only in the adult stage, suggesting that the effects of selection are observed primarily at the stages during which they are expected occur. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Imaginal cells are tissue-specific progenitors allocated in embryogenesis that remain quiescent during embryonic and larval life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell division. (mit.edu)
  • PS integrins are required for adhesion of embryonic muscles to their body wall attachments, and for adhesion between the two surfaces of the pupal wing blade. (arizona.edu)
  • The observation that Notch is expressed in an epithelial sheet in the Drosophila embryo and continuously required for embryonic development after cell fate decision has led to speculation that Notch is involved in cell adhesion [5] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Although embryonic tissues are shaped in a specific manner in different species, the fundamental process always involves the rearrangement of cell layers and the movement of cells from one location to another. (biologists.org)
  • In the Actn Δ233 mutant, α-actinin was detected not only in muscle tissue, but also in embryonic epidermal cells and in certain follicle cell populations in the ovaries. (helsinki.fi)
  • However, the tissue in which shd is expressed does not appear to be important for developmental function because misexpression of shd in the embryonic mesoderm instead of the epidermis, the normal embryonic tissue in which shd is expressed, rescues embryonic lethality. (pnas.org)
  • The embryonic fins and the tip of adult fins of teleost fish are supported by rows of straight, unmineralized fibrils called actinotrichia. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However, Drosophila , the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In insects, IGFs produced by the fat body induce cell division during the molt cycle, regulate adult body size, and have metabolic effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to assess the role of Rhopr-IGF in post-feeding growth, double stranded IGF-injected insects were followed through ecdysis, and this treatment resulted in shorter adults, with shorter and narrower wings, when compared to controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • The backward oriented, retrograde heartbeat recorded in other insects, has a lower frequency (1 to 2 Hz), occurs in Drosophila only sporadically and usually in the form of individual or twinned systolic peaks of large amplitude. (eje.cz)
  • The adult cuticular surface of insects is covered with hairs, sensory bristles, ridges, scales and other structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aim】 Drosophila is one of holometabolous insects. (insect.org.cn)
  • MiRNAs -9, -34, -100, -124, and -219 were all expressed in the testes of the two insects, but some differences in their expression in other tissues were observed. (oatd.org)
  • Adult insects achieve their final form shortly after adult eclosion by the combined effects of specialized behaviors that generate increased blood pressure, which causes cuticular expansion, and hormones, which plasticize and then tan the cuticle. (biologists.org)
  • These insects show a delay between the emergence of the adult from the puparium and the onset of wing expansion with its accompanying cuticular tanning and melanization. (biologists.org)
  • Unlike many insects, Drosophila larvae are mosaic in terms of their sensitivity to JH. (biologists.org)
  • Adult structures in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila are generated by groups of imaginal cells dedicated to the formation of different organs. (biologists.com)
  • Unlike dib and sad , shd is not expressed in the ring gland but is expressed in peripheral tissues such as the epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body, i.e., tissues known to be major sites of E20MO activity in a variety of insects. (pnas.org)
  • The larvae of Drosophila melanogaster respond to immune induction with the production of special effector blood cells, the lamellocytes, which encapsulate and subsequently kill the invader. (sdbonline.org)
  • including some of the researchers involved in the 2011 work-used various genetic techniques to create Drosophila larvae in which the tissues that become blood cells are made visible with fluorescent proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • The authors compared gene expression patterns in pre-gonad tissue in larvae and pre-pupae with gonad tissue in adult flies. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • When expression is restricted to motor neurons, both larvae and adult flies have motor deficits. (elsevier.com)
  • Sex-specific mRNAs and male-specific proteins were first observed in mature larvae and peaked in their apparent abundances during the first half of the pupal period. (nih.gov)
  • 1) Extract messenger RNA (mRNA) from heads of codling moth larvae, pupae and adults. (wsu.edu)
  • Heads of thousands of codling moth larvae, pupae and adults were dissected and used to isolate mRNA for transcriptome sequencing and analysis. (wsu.edu)
  • Here, we describe a genetic screen that generated novel alleles of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 ( Top2 ). (genetics.org)
  • Drosophila has been used to model genetic aspects of numerous human pathologies, and is being used increasingly to gain insight into the molecular and genetic aspects of tissue repair and inflammation, which have classically been modelled in mice or cultured cells. (biologists.org)
  • Applying gene conversion, mutational analysis, and a candidate based genetic interaction screen, this study investigated the role of Headcase (Hdc) , the homolog of the tumor suppressor HECA in the hematopoiesis of Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Since the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , is extraordinarily tolerant to O 2 deprivation, we have performed a genetic screen in the Drosophila to search for loss-of-function mutants that are sensitive to low O 2 . (jci.org)
  • We uncovered an essential role for autophagy in T-tubule remodeling with genetic screens of a developmentally regulated remodeling program in Drosophila abdominal muscles. (elifesciences.org)
  • The remodeling of larval into adult muscles promises to be a genetic model for human atrophy since it is associated with dramatic alteration in cell size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our methodology can easily be scaled up for genome-wide genetic screens using readily available resources for RNAi based gene silencing in Drosophila and other animal models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • present a whole-brain electron microscopy image dataset of an adult fruit (or vinegar) fly, Drosophila melanogaster, sufficient to trace the synaptic connectivity of any selected brain circuit in this genetic model organism. (drosophila-images.org)
  • The midgut of adult Drosophila has emerged as a premier genetic model for stem cell biology. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Using the powerful genetic tools available in Drosophila will greatly accelerate this understanding. (elsevier.com)
  • Jan YN, Jan LY (1982) Genetic and immunological studies of the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. (springer.com)
  • Reproductive characteristics of the flower breeding Drosophila hibisci bock (drosophilidae) in Eastern Australia: genetic and environmental determinants of ovariole number. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We chose a molecular genetic approach to understand the changes that characterize the final phase of adult eclosion, studying the behavior in wild-type Drosophila and in rickets ( rk ) mutants that do not complete the post-ecdysial expansion behaviors. (biologists.org)
  • I also discuss the organization of genetic cascades leading to the development of new organs, mainly using Drosophila melanogaster as the model to analyze Hox function. (hindawi.com)
  • The Hippo pathway, which was identified from genetic screens in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a major size-control function in animals. (umm.ac.id)
  • Drosophila has long been a favorite model for studying hormone signaling, and (for once) it wasn't because of the fly's genetic tractability (at least not at first). (biologists.com)
  • Subsequent to identification of Orai as the SOCE channel in nonexcitable cells, investigation of Orai function in neurons demonstrated a requirement for SOCE in Drosophila flight. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we describe a new function for SOCE in the regulation of neurotransmitter levels in Drosophila flight neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • EM reconstruction of Drosophila neurons by the Full Adult Fly tracing community. (drosophila-images.org)
  • We are using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model to understand the function of TDP- 43 in neurons and the consequences of aberrant expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Valles AM, White K (1986) Development of serotonin-containing neurons in Drosophila mutants unable to synthesize serotonin. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we performed extensive structure-function analysis of the Drosophila 7-TM cadherin Flamingo (Fmi) and investigated the activities of individual mutant forms mostly in dendritogenesis of dendritic arborization (da) neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of GAL4-driven GFP reporter expression indicates that the dmrt93B promoter activity is highly specific to neurons in the suboesophageal and proventricular ganglion in larva and adult of both sexes suggesting a possible role in digestive tract function. (tmc.edu)
  • Wound healing is an essential homeostatic mechanism that maintains epithelial barrier integrity after tissue damage. (biologists.org)
  • All three approaches demonstrate that vari is required for the patterning and morphogenesis of adult epithelial hairs and bristles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EGFR/Ras/MAPK signaling mediates adult midgut epithelial homeostasis and regeneration in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here I have investigated an epithelial remodeling process in the Drosophila eye in which two primary pigment cells (PPCs) with a characteristic 'kidney' shape enwrap and eventually isolate a group of cone cells from inter-ommatidial cells (IOCs). (prolekare.cz)
  • We have used the Drosophila wing epithelium to demonstrate that cell-ECM interactions mediated by integrins also regulate the changes in cell shape that underly epithelial morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • The developing Drosophila wing provides an excellent system to investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the changes in cell shape associated with rearrangement of epithelial sheets during organogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • During the remainder of pupal development, an additional round of division and further flattening of the epithelial layers accompanies the increase in the surface area of the wing. (biologists.org)
  • During development, epithelial tissues undergo extensive morphogenesis based on coordinated changes of cell shape and position over time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • An epithelial tissue is a sheet of cells that acts as a barrier, separating, for instance, the outside and the inside of a multicellular organism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Epithelial maintenance is indispensable for the integrity of tissues, and misregulation can lead to developmentally catastrophic events during gastrulation and adult pathologies such as cancer. (wustl.edu)
  • In epithelial cells, the establishment of the plasma membrane specialized areas and of corresponding junctions at the border of these areas is accompanied by cytoskeletal organization of the subapical area to withstand tissue stresses and to anchor the microvilli of the apical pole. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • For that, we focus on the role of the Crumbs and Par6/aPKC complex in the establishment and maintenance of the apical pole in epithelial cells of the human intestine (enterocytes) and of the pupal wing Drosophila. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • The results demonstrate a spatially restricted expression pattern of the alpha 85E gene that includes tissues of both ectodermal and mesodermal origins. (nih.gov)
  • These effects on gene expression provide a molecular basis for understanding the defects in adult head eversion seen in crol mutants. (sdbonline.org)
  • The reduced expression of E74B in crol mutant prepupae thus provides one means of interpreting the effect of crol mutations on adult head development. (sdbonline.org)
  • We generated a protein-tagged yellow allele m the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which allowed us to precisely describe Yellow expression pattern at the tissue and cellular levels throughout development. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Rhopr-IGF transcript is present in a variety of tissues, with greatest expression in the fat body, the dorsal vessel, and the CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tissue-specific expression of the heat shock protein HSP27 during Drosophila melanogaster development. (rupress.org)
  • The disc expression seems restricted to the beginning of their differentiation since it disappears during the second half of the pupal stage: no more hsp27 is observed in the disc-derived adult organs. (rupress.org)
  • REGULATED gene expression is essential for growth and cell fate decisions that are critical to development and to the maintenance of tissues and organs during adulthood. (genetics.org)
  • Here, by analysis of an Orai mutant and by controlled expression of a dominant-negative Drosophila Orai transgene, we show that Orai-mediated SOCE is required in dopaminergic interneurons of the flight circuit during pupal development. (jneurosci.org)
  • A recent paper by GEE academics Professor Judith Mank and Dr Peter Harrison, and Dr Jennifer Perry (University of Oxford) investigated gene expression patterns during larval development in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster . (ucl.ac.uk)
  • By using a single tissue, the authors hoped to gain a clearer picture of gene expression in relation to sex and development, as tissue-specific gene expression can cloud the picture. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Gonad and pre-gonad tissue was the obvious candidate, since this tissue forms sperm and eggs and is therefore likely to be under strong selection for sex-biased gene expression. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In particular, we found that Gal4-mediated expression of UAS-Cas9 in the Drosophila prothoracic gland (PG) was not a suitable strategy to disrupt gene expression, since Cas9 alone caused widespread lethality. (g3journal.org)
  • However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERK D334N , which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. (biologists.org)
  • Muscle degeneration and apoptosis of myonuclei in all fibers are correlated with the expression of only EcR-A just before pupal ecdysis and then with the expression of low levels of both EcR-A and EcR-B1 shortly after pupation. (jneurosci.org)
  • A second GeneSwitch driver, under the control of the daughterless promoter, which gave much lower and more tissue-restricted transgene expression, exhibited only mild bristle abnormalities in the presence of high levels of RU486. (g3journal.org)
  • Tissue-specific drivers such as the neuron-specific elav-GS enable transgene expression in just one tissue, but again at a level and timing that can be manipulated over a wide range. (g3journal.org)
  • We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes -specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The confocal image shows the expression of Dscam2 isoform B expression in the Drosophila optic lobe during mid-pupal development. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Over-expression of any of three naturally occurring isoforms of TBPH in all tissues is early larval lethal. (elsevier.com)
  • CmABCG1 had signifi- cantly higher expression in the haemolymph and head compared to the other tissues. (deepdyve.com)
  • The developmental stage expression analysis showed that CmABCG1, CmABCG4, CmABCC2 and CmABCC3 were mainly expressed in adults. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, we created a genome-wide expression dataset representing the FDA tissue panel across 35 tissue types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several distinct types of baseline gene expression data exist: tissue, cancer or development profiles (usually absolute expression values), perturbations and diseases (relative values) and time courses and dose responses (absolute or relative values), or a combination of these spatial, temporal and response profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tissue-specific expression showed that the highest expression was in the integument, followed by the fat body and other tissues. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, α-actinin expression, regulation and function in this tissue were further analysed. (helsinki.fi)
  • By re-analyzing the Mikhaylova and Nurminsky's testis data and the expression data on several D. melanogaster tissues, we made two major findings that refuted their original claims. (beds.ac.uk)
  • decapentaplegic (dpp), the Drosophila ortholog of BMP 2/4, directs ventral adult head morphogenesis through expression in the peripodial epithelium of the eye-antennal disc. (nih.gov)
  • C) Wild-type adult head compared to a (D) dpp head capsule mutant head induced by expression of dppRNAi33767 in the lateral peripodial domain using dpphc-Gal4. (nih.gov)
  • We focus on this lateral peripodial dpp expression, which arises in late 2nd instar eye-antennal discs and persists throughout the pupal period. (nih.gov)
  • The association between the phenotype and the expression profile of Anopheles sinensis Laccase 2 ( AsLac2 ) was assessed from pupation to adult eclosion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the dominant expression period, knockdown of AsLac2 in pupae caused the cuticle to be unpigmented, and produced thin and very soft cuticles, which further impeded the eclosion rate of adults as well as their fitness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these results provide direct in vivo evidence of muscle protein turnover and identify possible roles for this process by uncovering specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal. (ubc.ca)
  • While this model provided an influential framework for hormone-induced gene expression, it remained unclear how tissue-specific responses are elicited. (biologists.com)
  • Part D and F indicate how the expression pattern changes between wild type and EcR-depleted wing discs either before (D) or after (F) the larval-to-pupal transition. (biologists.com)
  • Expression of BmFTZ-F1 mRNA is intermittent, being high during larval molting and both the larval-pupal and the pupal-adult transformations. (elsevier.com)
  • An unexpected shift in expression patterns emerged soon after adult eclosion, with diploid male patterns diverging from those of queens to resemble those of haploid males, a pattern retained in older adults. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Moreover, ploidy level is associated with gene dosage regulation and endopolyploidization that would presumably affect gene expression in many tissues and thus influence overall developmental trajectories [ 17 - 22 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Due to the evolutionary conservation of the regulation of hematopoiesis, Drosophila provides an excellent model organism to study blood cell differentiation and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. (sdbonline.org)
  • Being that these hormones are hydrophobic, they traverse lipid membranes and permeate the tissues of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • One fundamental question in developmental biology is how the zygote acquires the complex shape of the adult organism. (biologists.org)
  • In this thesis, the roles of twinfilin and α-actinin in development were examined using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. (helsinki.fi)
  • Using the adult flight muscles of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, I confirmed that the sarcomeric cytoskeleton undergoes turnover throughout the life of the organism. (ubc.ca)
  • The study of imaginal discs in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster led to the discovery of homeotic mutations such as antennapedia, where the developmental fate of a disc could sometimes change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of Ash2 cause homeotic transformations in many segments of Drosophila and, additionally, result in a variety of pattern formation defects ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Null mutations in the Drosophila orthologue of TDP-43, named TBPH, are pupal lethal and show larval motor defects. (elsevier.com)
  • We could recapitulate UPR in two different Drosophila models for carriers of GD mutations: flies heterozygous for the endogenous mutant GBA orthologs and flies expressing the human N370S or L444P mutant GCase variants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fruit fly geneticists rely on a handful of dominant mutations that modify adult morphology in a way that is easy to spot, like changing the shape of the fly's wings, eyes or bristles. (prolekare.cz)
  • Since then, Curly has become a ubiquitous second chromosomal marker used by Drosophila geneticists on a daily basis to follow and track mutations. (prolekare.cz)
  • 9 ) found that the bacteria from the mosquito Aedes albopictus , transferred by injection into uninfected embryos of Drosophila simulans , confer complete CI on the adults. (pnas.org)
  • Studies of wound re-epithelialisation in Drosophila embryos have enabled live imaging of the actin machineries that drive wound closure. (biologists.org)
  • ChIP-on-chip protocol for genome-wide analysis of transcription factor binding in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. (antibodypedia.com)
  • When shd is transfected into Drosophila S2 cells, extensive conversion of E to 20E is observed, whereas in sorted homozygous shd embryos, no E20MO activity is apparent either in vivo or in vitro . (pnas.org)
  • Embryos of varied species are therefore more similar than adults due to exposure to very similar fetal environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mutation which abolishes this isoform results in pupal and adult lethality. (asm.org)
  • Lethal doses of dietary AgNPs caused developmental delays and profound lethality in developing animals and young adults. (nature.com)
  • For instance, simple tissue-specific or global overexpression of Cas9 can cause significant lethality or developmental delays even in the absence of gRNAs. (g3journal.org)
  • The TrxG gene ash2 ( absent, small , or homeotic discs 2 ) was discovered in a screen for lethality during the late larval/early pupal stage of Drosophila development with imaginal disc defects ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Culture of Drosophila expressing the steroid-dependent GeneSwitch transcriptional activator under the control of the ubiquitous α -tubulin promoter was found to produce extensive pupal lethality, as well as a range of dysmorphic adult phenotypes, in the presence of high concentrations of the inducing drug RU486. (g3journal.org)
  • Analysis of the knock-in mutation as well as a small deletion removing all dmrt93B sequence demonstrate that loss of function causes partial lethality at the late pupal stage. (tmc.edu)
  • Human dhCer desaturase rescues ifc‐ KO larval lethality in Drosophila and rapamycin reverses defects caused by dhCer accumulation in human neuroblastoma cells, suggesting evolutionarily conserved functions. (embopress.org)
  • The homozygous semilethal mutation of Drosophila asp causes abnormal spindles, frequent polyploid cells, and cytokinesis failure ( 6 ), leading to arrest of neuroblasts in metaphase ( 7 , 8 ) and larval-pupal lethality ( 6 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Drosophila imaginal cells that produce epidermal hairs, the shafts of sensory bristles and the lateral extensions of the arista are attractive model systems for studying the morphogenesis of polarized cell extensions. (biologists.org)
  • We now report the identification and characterization of furry , an essential Drosophila gene that is involved in maintaining the integrity of these cellular extensions during morphogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Varicose is involved in scaffold assembly at the SJ and has a role in patterning and morphogenesis of adult epithelia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and tissue morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue growth involves both an overall increase in tissue size, and also the differential growth of parts (allometry) which contributes to morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of PS integrins in Drosophila embryo and wing morphogenesis. (arizona.edu)
  • The follicular epithelium in the Drosophila ovary is a well characterised model system for studies on patterning and morphogenesis. (helsinki.fi)
  • This study identified Headcase (Hdc) and Unkempt (Unk) as two NR-specific tumor suppressor proteins that form a complex to restrict cell cycle progression and tissue growth in response to NR in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • DMRT (Doublesex and Mab-3 related transcription factor) proteins generally associated with sexual differentiation in many organisms share a common DNA binding domain and are often expressed in reproductive tissues. (tmc.edu)
  • To uncover which cytoskeletal components are specifically required to maintain adult muscle function I performed an RNAi-meditated knockdown screen in adult D. melanogaster targeting the entire fly "cytoskeletome", the set of known cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins. (ubc.ca)
  • In this study, pathological effects of mitochondrial diseases were simulated in Drosophila melanogaster by neural specific cytochrome c oxidase knockdown. (uta.fi)
  • During the pupal stage, many larval structures are broken down, and adult structures, including the discs, undergo rapid development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although quiescent during the fly's development, it begins massive proliferation in the adult, causing widespread degeneration of tissues, including brain, retina, and muscle, culminating in early death. (pnas.org)
  • Previous work showed that interactions between histoblasts and LECs result in apoptotic extrusion of LECs during early pupal development. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we identify a population of LECs that extrudes independently of the presence of histoblasts during late pupal development. (biologists.org)
  • Inter se crosses between six strains carrying Top2 missense alleles generated morphologically normal trans -heterozygous adults, which showed delayed development and were female sterile. (genetics.org)
  • The timing of protein accumulation during pupal development suggests that alpha 85E tubulin is involved in the construction of the adult as well as the larval musculature. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila imaginal discs undergo extensive pattern formation during larval development, resulting in each cell acquiring a specific adult fate. (sdbonline.org)
  • Rhodnius prolixus is a hematophagous hemipteran that requires gorging on a blood meal to initiate growth and development into the next instar or adult. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Drosophila, heat shock (HS) during the pupal stage chronically hinders adult locomotor performance by disrupting wing development and cellular and/or tissue-level mechanisms that support walking and flight. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The alpha-crystallin-related heat shock (stress) protein hsp27 is expressed in absence of heat shock during Drosophila melanogaster development. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest multiple roles of hsp27 during Drosophila development which may be related to both the proliferative and differentiated states of the tissues. (rupress.org)
  • BODMER R. 1995: Heart development in Drosophila and its relationship to vertebrate systems. (eje.cz)
  • BODMER R. & VENKATESH T.V. 1998: Heart development in Drosophila and vertebrates: conservation of molecular mechanisms. (eje.cz)
  • To identify molecular mechanisms that underlie the changes brought about by reduced SOCE in neural development, we investigated Drosophila Orai ( dOrai ) mutants for behavioral, cellular, and molecular deficits. (jneurosci.org)
  • A prolonged 'pupal pulse' beginning at approximately 24 h-APF drives the remaining development of the adult fly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Timeline illustrates changes in ecdysteroid levels during the larval-pupal-adult transformation at 25°C. The late larval (LL) pulse of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) triggers pupariation, with subsequent development timed by hours after puparium formation (h-APF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • the pupal (P) pulse drives development of the adult fly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We reduced vari function during the development of adult epithelia with a partial rescue, RNA interference and generation of genetically mosaic tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggest that Ash2 is not only involved in regulating aspects of tissue development but also controls functions associated with cell proliferation in the adult. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Eclosion is the emergence of an adult insect from the pupal case at the end of development. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The frizzled pathway in Drosophila has been studied intensively for its role in the development of planar polarity in wing hairs, thoracic bristles and ommatidia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of epidermal hairs has principally been studied on the wing where each pupal cell produces a single distally pointing hair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White K (1986) Neuropeptide-FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in Drosophila: development and distribution. (springer.com)
  • Fujita SC (1988) Use of hybridoma libraries in the study of the genetics and development of Drosophila. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we propose that IAC turnover is regulated during development by mechanical tension in long-term cell-ECM adhesions to allow normal tissue growth and maintenance. (ubc.ca)
  • These hormone producing tissues express the ecdysone receptor throughout development, possibility indicating a functional feedback mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we demonstrate a regulatory link between mitochondrial fission activity and cell cycle exit in follicle cell layer development during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • During the last hours of metamorphic development, a cascade of peptide hormones acts to coordinate the emergence of the adult insect from the puparium or pupal case. (biologists.org)
  • Part of this effect of JHM is due to its suppression of the appearance of ecdysone receptor EcR-B1 that occurs after pupation and during early adult development. (biologists.org)
  • During the pre-developmental stage of the adult, the development status of the mosquito pupae directly affects the eclosion rate, and further affects the population growth rate of adults. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, melanin metabolism during the pupal stage is crucial for mosquito development, survival, and reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They give rise to three distinct cell populations at the end of larval development, which generate the adult tracheal tubes, the spiracle and the epidermis surrounding the spiracle. (biologists.com)
  • The Pax transcription factor gene eyegone ( eyg ) participates in many developmental processes in Drosophila , including the Notch signaling activated postembryonic growth of the eye primordium, global development of the adult head and the development of the antenna. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the deep functional conservation of sv , ey and toy in eye development has been extensively studied [ 10 ], it is unknown whether the eye growth activating function of Drosophila eyg has similarly deep evolutionary roots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the mechanical state and parameters in the Drosophila pupa dorsal thorax epithelium, we severed in vivo the adherens junctions around a disc-shaped domain comprising typically a hundred cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A large literature (for review [ 19 ]) has established laser ablation of individual cell junctions as a tool to measure the tensions within an epithelium, in particular during Drosophila dorsal closure [ 3 , 20 - 24 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The adult Drosophila head is constructed largely from paired eye-antennal imaginal discs, sac-like structures comprising a columnar disc proper epithelium and a mostly squamous peripodial epithelium, separated by a lumen. (nih.gov)
  • Both, Jbug/Filamin, an actin-meshwork organizing protein, and non-muscle Myosin-II (Myo-II) are required to maintain the shape and cell orientation of the Drosophila notum epithelium during flight muscle attachment to tendon cells. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • One of the first such mutants identified in the early days of fly genetics and to this day likely the most widely used mutation, is Curly, which causes an upward curvature in the adult wings. (prolekare.cz)
  • We examined the molecular mechanisms contributing to these processes in Drosophila by analyzing mutants for the rickets gene. (biologists.org)
  • We have examined the structure and function of mRNAs from the Drosophila grainyhead gene and demonstrated that alternate splicing is responsible for generating a neuroblast-specific isoform of the protein. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, isotype-specific antibodies have been used to localize alpha 85E tubulin protein in whole tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe the tissue distribution of this protein using an immunoaffinity-purified antibody. (rupress.org)
  • We characterize here a Drosophila MAGUK member, Varicose (Vari), the homologue of vertebrate scaffolding protein PALS2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a protein_coding_gene from Drosophila melanogaster. (ncbs.res.in)
  • The Drosophila twinfilin (twf) gene was identified and found to encode a protein functionally similar to yeast and mammalian twinfilins. (helsinki.fi)
  • Drosophila Asp protein associates with centrosomes and is involved in organizing microtubules at the spindle poles in mitosis and meiosis ( 6 , 8 , 9 , 11 , 13 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This stage of evolution required the invention of new protein complexes necessary for cell cohesion and its modulation during morphogenetic movements and morphogenic signals of cell and tissue specification. (univ-mrs.fr)
  • Emergence of the adult (eclosion) occurs at approximately 96 h-APF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, eclosion is a circadian clock-gated event and is regulated by various peptides. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Ecdysteroids are produced by the prothoracic gland (PG), an endocrine tissue that contains a peripheral clock and degenerates shortly after eclosion. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The adult guts were detected within 1 d after eclosion. (insect.org.cn)
  • Neither varying the induction time point of eyg knockdown nor knocking down components of the Janus kinase / Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription signaling pathway in combination with eyg reduced eye size like in Drosophila . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, Drosophila pupal/adult tissue progenitors can arise both by early allocation of multipotent cells and late return of differentiated cells to a multipotent state, even within a single tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood progenitors within the lymph gland, a larval organ that supports hematopoiesis in Drosophila melanogaster , are maintained by integrating signals emanating from niche-like cells and those from differentiating blood cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although it is well known that adult ISCs arise from adult midgut progenitors (AMPs), relatively little is known about the mechanisms that regulate AMP specification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Drosophila intestine is maintained by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs). (sdbonline.org)
  • In pupal stage tracing of Drosophila , green intestinal cells appeared at different sections in the midgut and Malpighian tubules, and engrailed gene was expressed in Drosophila intestine at the pupal stage. (insect.org.cn)
  • Like the mammalian intestine, the Drosophila adult midgut is constantly replenished by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The molt is initiated by a peak level and pupal ecdysis by a subsequent decline of the ecdysteroid ecdysone. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In this study, we used a powerful in vivo platform Drosophila melanogaster to explore a wide spectrum of adverse effects exerted by dietary AgNPs at the organismal, cellular and molecular levels. (nature.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the inherent tissue susceptibility or tolerance to O 2 lack are, however, not well defined. (jci.org)
  • Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila . (frontiersin.org)
  • Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • In an approach to understand the molecular mechanism, we focused on evolutionally conserved, but complicated, structural features in the family of 7-pass transmembrane cadherins (hereafter referred to as the Flamingo family), and performed extensive in vivo structure-function analysis in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Studies of the underlying mechanisms regulating asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) have contributed to the establishment of paradigms and identification of molecular components that control asymmetric division in more complex stem cell systems (Reviewed in Chia et al. (stembook.org)
  • We found Yellow expressed in the pupal epidermis in patterns prefiguring black pigmentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Sensory bristles are found in all regions of the adult epidermis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An imaginal disc is one of the parts of a holometabolous insect larva that will become a portion of the outside of the adult insect during the pupal transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insect fat body displays analogous functions to the vertebrate liver and adipose tissue, such as controlling the synthesis, storage and utilization of energy reserves ( Arrese and Soulages, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we describe the presence of another ILP in this same insect, expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) but also in peripheral tissues such as the fat body, dorsal vessel and hindgut. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike other insect species, in which there is a peristaltic segmental propagation of cardiac contractions, Drosophila uses extremely efficient synchronic cardiac contractions. (eje.cz)
  • aegypti, the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae), and Drosophila melanogaster is presented as a step towards understanding the structural and functional diversity of insect ILPs. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila 's utility as an adjunct to the field of insect sociobiology is not ideal, but retains surprising potential. (frontiersin.org)
  • It involves an activity where pupils guess what insect groups have a pupal stage. (wordpress.com)
  • It explains what happens inside a pupa when a worm-like larva transforms into an adult insect. (wordpress.com)
  • Neuropeptides are peptides produced by cells in the brain and are released into the hemolymph (insect blood), sending signals to different tissues in the body. (wsu.edu)
  • Because the hemolymph bathes virtually every cell in the insect body, circulating neuropeptides have the potential to come into contact with all tissues. (wsu.edu)
  • Although it has been known for several decades that the E20MO is a P450 enzyme that is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum ( 4 ) and/or mitochondria ( 5 , 6 ), depending on the insect, tissue, and developmental stage ( 7 , 8 ), it has not been purified to homogeneity nor has the gene coding for this enzyme been cloned. (pnas.org)
  • Among these, the spiracular branch tracheoblasts are responsible for the generation of the pupal and adult abdominal airways. (biologists.com)
  • Drosophila males lack a seventh abdominal segment (A7) whereas females have it (albeit reduced). (uam.es)
  • SCML1 is likely a recently duplicated gene during mammalian evolution due to the absence of orthologs in Drosophila, zebrafish and chicken. (springer.com)
  • Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal system to investigate KDM5 function, as it encodes a single ortholog in contrast to the four paralogs found in mammalian cells. (genetics.org)
  • Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. (biologists.org)
  • abstract = "BmFTZ-F1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor in the silkworm Bombyx mori sharing similar biochemical characteristics with Drosophila FTZ-F1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. (elsevier.com)
  • Imaging of cells or molecules in the context of their natural tissue environment in undissected D. melanogaster has been limited due to different pigments and optical properties of the cuticle and/or the pupal case. (drosophila-images.org)
  • Obstructor A organizes matrix assembly at the apical cell surface to promote enzymatic cuticle maturation in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • adult is then formed inside the pupal cuticle, and a later molt reveals this adult. (weebly.com)
  • However, only in the last 10 or so years have flies become recognised as a worthy model to investigate the genetics of tissue repair and the associated inflammatory response. (biologists.org)
  • Heartbeat patterns were monitored in the living bodies of decapitated adult flies using several electrocardiographic methods (pulse-light optocardiography, thermocardiography, strain-gauge cardiography). (eje.cz)
  • After becoming about 200 times heavier they entered the pupae stage, maturing inside pupal cases and emerging as adult flies. (photonics.com)
  • We provided larval flies with a steady diet of food that contained carbon nanotubes and checked their weight just after they emerged from their pupal cases. (photonics.com)
  • We found no significant differences in the adult weight of nanotube-fed flies when compared to control groups that were not fed carbon nanotubes. (photonics.com)
  • When the researchers removed and examined tissues from the flies, they found the NIR microscope allowed them to see and identify individual nanotubes inside the tissue specimens. (photonics.com)
  • Waddington first proposed that Curly causes an unequal contraction of the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces during the drying period shortly after flies emerge from their pupal cases [ 2 , 3 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • The adult twf mutant flies displayed reduced viability, a rough eye phenotype and severely malformed bristles. (helsinki.fi)
  • Drosophila and blowflies are higher flies in the suborder of Cyclorapha. (biologists.org)
  • Systematic gene knockdown was restricted to adult flies and muscle function was analyzed with behavioural assays. (ubc.ca)
  • In adults, alpha 85E mRNA has been unequivocally identified only in testes. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a Drosophila pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase (dADAR) and is expressed almost exclusively in the adult central nervous system. (jci.org)
  • A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity. (uniprot.org)
  • ASPM mRNA levels were high in fetal tissues but very low in most adult tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Northern blot analyses of RNA isolated from the middle and posterior silk glands and fat bodies showed that a 6.1-kb BmFTZ-F1 mRNA is present in all tissues so far examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The adult cuticular surface of Drosophila is decorated with large numbers of polarized structures such as sensory bristles and epidermal hairs. (biologists.org)
  • Many Drosophila epidermal cells produce cuticular hairs that are outgrowths from the apical surface of pupal epidermal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Drosophila , PCP is evident in the organization of cuticular structures, such as wing hair or body bristles, and in the orientation of photoreceptor clusters of the eye. (embopress.org)
  • The bacteria have been reported in a number of Drosophila species, associated with varied degrees of CI, including only weak or no effects ( 10 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, AgNPs mechanistically resulted in tissue-wide accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway, as demonstrated by an Nrf2 activity reporter in vivo . (nature.com)
  • The relatively simple communication, breeding, and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we present a dual function for the neuron-specific V0 subunit a1 orthologue v100 in Drosophila melanogaster . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated ( ASPM ) gene is the human orthologue of the Drosophila abnormal spindle ( asp ) and the most commonly mutated gene of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly ( 1 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4) Clone and characterize cDNAs from spotted winged Drosophila that encode neuropeptides and receptors involved in regulation of feeding and reproduction. (wsu.edu)
  • The adult optic lobe of D. melanogaster consists of four neuropils: lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate. (biologists.org)
  • In the Drosophila pupal abdomen, larval epidermal cells (LECs) are replaced by adult progenitor cells (histoblasts). (biologists.org)
  • Beneath the migrating epidermal cells, a wound granulation tissue - consisting of migrating fibroblasts, contractile myofibroblasts and a dense capillary network - shrinks to close the wound. (biologists.org)
  • Epidermal hairs have primarily been studied on the pupal wing, where each cell forms a single hair ( Wong and Adler, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • In the fruit fly Drosophila , new blood cells are formed in several different locations, including in an organ called the lymph gland. (elifesciences.org)
  • CURTIS N.J., RINGO J.M. & DOWSE H.B. 1999: Morphology of the pupal heart, adult heart and associated tissues in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. (eje.cz)
  • Researchers have studied how CNTs interact with tissues of rabbits, mice and other animals, but Weisman and co-author Kathleen Beckingham, professor of biochemistry and cell biology, chose something smaller -- the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster -- to attempt the first-ever detection of nanotubes inside a living animal. (photonics.com)
  • This application focuses on understanding the mechanisms that lead to neurodegeneration by TDP-43 dysfunction using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as a model, an approach that will greatly speed up the process of designing therapies targeting TDP-43. (elsevier.com)
  • In adults, hsp27 is still present in some regions of the central nervous system, and is also expressed in the male and female germ lines where it accumulates in mature sperm and oocytes. (rupress.org)
  • A-to-I editing of pre-mRNAs acts predominantly through nervous system targets to affect adult nervous system integrity, function and behavior. (uniprot.org)
  • Mitochondrial diseases most often affect tissues that have high energy demands, particularly muscle and nervous system, and they are characterized by a plethora of symptoms. (uta.fi)
  • By contrast, in Drosophila larval cells die except in the nervous system and the Malpighian tubules, and the adult is formed from imaginal discs and imaginal precursor cells ( Fristrom and Fristrom, 1993 ). (biologists.org)
  • Contained within the body of the larva, there are pairs of discs that will form, for instance, the wings or legs or antennae or other structures in the adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • To examine the consequences of complete loss of KDM5, we generated a null allele of Drosophila kdm5 , also known as little imaginal discs ( lid ), and show that it is essential for viability. (genetics.org)
  • Drosophila imaginal discs have been used as a model for studying processes of cell reprogramming. (uam.es)
  • Authors perform RNA-seq on wild type and EcR-depleted wing discs at two timepoints: 6hr before and 6hr after the larval-to-pupal transition (Fig 1C). (biologists.com)
  • IGFs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types and are capable of exerting insulin-like metabolic effects, but unlike insulin, IGFs are produced by most tissues/organs in the body, especially the liver ( Cohick and Clemmons, 1993 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Conversion of the body plan involves elimination of obsolete larval and the formation of adult tissues that either originate from the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells or the remodeling of larval cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Larval motoneurons persist through this transformation, but their larval muscle targets degenerate and are replaced by new muscles that grow during adult differentiation ( Nüesch, 1985 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Long-term live imaging of the Drosophila adult midgut reveals real-time dynamics of division, differentiation and loss. (drosophila-images.org)
  • The former represents irreversible differentiation in developmental pathways initiated well before adulthood to produce specialized breeder and unmated helper phenotypes, while the latter normally refers to differentiation among adult female breeders after insemination. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fission activity is a novel regulator of the onset of follicle cell differentiation during Drosophila oogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • This tension is required for muscle differentiation and is counterbalanced by tendon-cells avoiding tissue deformation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • For example, in the Drosophila wing, Hh signaling regulates cell segregation between anterior and posterior compartments (reviewed in [2] ), while Notch signaling is required for establishing a boundary that separates dorsal and ventral cells (reviewed in [3] ). (prolekare.cz)
  • We investigate, for instance, how the Hox gene Ultrabithorax controls the different size of the adult metanotum (dorsal part of the third thoracic segment, T3), and that is greatly reduced as compared to the mesonotum (dorsal part of the second thoracic segment, T2). (uam.es)
  • The adult germ lines transcribe hsp27 gene while no transcript is detected in the late pupal and adult brain. (rupress.org)
  • The shape of the adult bristle is determined by the actin bundles that are regularly spaced around the perimeter of the developing pupal bristles. (helsinki.fi)
  • Examination of the twf pupal bristles revealed an increased level of filamentous actin, which in turn resulted in splitting and displacement of the actin bundles. (helsinki.fi)
  • Pharate adults show bristles and eye color. (weebly.com)
  • Recently, ASPM is shown to express in nearly all transformed human cell lines and in multiple fetal tissues ( 23 , 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • EGF signaling regulates the proliferation of intestinal stem cells in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EGFR, Wingless and JAK/STAT signaling cooperatively maintain Drosophila intestinal stem cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A transient niche regulates the specification of Drosophila intestinal stem cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing. (uniprot.org)
  • Conclusion】 These results suggest that during pupa formation, part of the hindgut cells migrate into the midgut or Malpighian tubules and are involved in the reformation of adult midgut or Malpighian tubules. (insect.org.cn)
  • Wigglesworth, 1937 ) to investigate patterning mechanisms and regenerative capacities of various tissues. (biologists.org)
  • All multicellular organisms can repair themselves to varying degrees but, to date, most of what we know about healing has come from a combination of in vivo experiments using mice and from tissue culture 'scratch' wound studies. (biologists.org)
  • 15 ). Drosophila mitochondrial gene primers were used for a positive control of the reaction. (pnas.org)
  • In other cases, groups of cells undergo such changes in a coordinated manner, shaping and orientating tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Lamellocytes differentiate as a result of a concerted action of all three hematopoietic compartments of the larva: the lymph gland, the circulating hemocytes, and the sessile tissue. (sdbonline.org)