Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Compounds that cause reproductive sterility in organisms. They are sometimes used to control pest populations by sterilizing males within the population.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An insect chemosterilant and an antineoplastic agent.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.
The number of males per 100 females.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Living facilities for humans.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Respecified larval proleg and body wall muscles circulate hemolymph in developing wings of Manduca sexta pupae. (1/933)

Most larval external muscles in Manduca sexta degenerate at pupation, with the exception of the accessory planta retractor muscles (APRMs) in proleg-bearing abdominal segment 3 and their homologs in non-proleg-bearing abdominal segment 2. In pupae, these APRMs exhibit a rhythmic 'pupal motor pattern' in which all four muscles contract synchronously at approximately 4 s intervals for long bouts, without externally visible movements. On the basis of indirect evidence, it was proposed previously that APRM contractions during the pupal motor pattern circulate hemolymph in the developing wings and legs. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by making simultaneous electromyographic recordings of APRM activity and contact thermographic recordings of hemolymph flow in pupal wings. APRM contractions and hemolymph flow were strictly correlated during the pupal motor pattern. The proposed circulatory mechanism was further supported by the findings that unilateral ablation of APRMs or mechanical uncoupling of the wings from the abdomen essentially abolished wing hemolymph flow on the manipulated side of the body. Rhythmic contractions of intersegmental muscles, which sometimes accompany the pupal motor pattern, had a negligible effect on hemolymph flow. The conversion of larval proleg and body wall muscles to a circulatory function in pupae represents a particularly dramatic example of functional respecification during metamorphosis.  (+info)

The Drosophila beta FTZ-F1 orphan nuclear receptor provides competence for stage-specific responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone. (2/933)

The acquisition of competence is a key mechanism for refining global signals to distinct spatial and temporal responses. The molecular basis of competence, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the beta FTZ-F1 orphan nuclear receptor functions as a competence factor for stage-specific responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. beta FTZ-F1 mutants pupariate normally in response to the late larval pulse of ecdysone but display defects in stage-specific responses to the subsequent ecdysone pulse in prepupae. The ecdysone-triggered genetic hierarchy that directs these developmental responses is severely attenuated in beta FTZ-F1 mutants, although ecdysone receptor expression is unaffected. This study define beta FTZ-F1 as an essential competence factor for stage-specific responses to a steroid signal and implicates interplay among nuclear receptors as a mechanism for achieving hormonal competence.  (+info)

Somatic signaling mediated by fs(1)Yb is essential for germline stem cell maintenance during Drosophila oogenesis. (3/933)

Drosophila oogenesis starts when a germline stem cell divides asymmetrically to generate a daughter germline stem cell and a cystoblast that will develop into a mature egg. We show that the fs(1)Yb gene is essential for the maintenance of germline stem cells during oogenesis. We delineate fs(1)Yb within a 6.4 kb genomic region by transgenic rescue experiments. fs(1)Yb encodes a 4.1 kb RNA that is present in the third instar larval, pupal and adult stages, consistent with its role in regulating germline stem cells during oogenesis. Germline clonal analysis shows that all fs(1)Yb mutations are soma-dependent. In the adult ovary, fs(1)Yb is specifically expressed in the terminal filament cells, suggesting that fs(1)Yb acts in these signaling cells to maintain germline stem cells. fs(1)Yb encodes a novel hydrophilic protein with no potential signal peptide or transmembrane domains, suggesting that this protein is not itself a signal but a key component of the signaling machinery for germline stem cell maintenance.  (+info)

IA in Kenyon cells of the mushroom body of honeybees resembles shaker currents: kinetics, modulation by K+, and simulation. (4/933)

Cultured Kenyon cells from the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, show a voltage-gated, fast transient K+ current that is sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, an A current. The kinetic properties of this A current and its modulation by extracellular K+ ions were investigated in vitro with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The A current was isolated from other voltage-gated currents either pharmacologically or with suitable voltage-clamp protocols. Hodgkin- and Huxley-style mathematical equations were used for the description of this current and for the simulation of action potentials in a Kenyon cell model. Activation and inactivation of the A current are fast and voltage dependent with time constants of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms (means +/- SE) at +45 mV and 3.0 +/- 1.6 ms at +45 mV, respectively. The pronounced voltage dependence of the inactivation kinetics indicates that at least a part of this current of the honeybee Kenyon cells is a shaker-like current. Deactivation and recovery from inactivation also show voltage dependency. The time constant of deactivation has a value of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms at -75 mV. Recovery from inactivation needs a double-exponential function to be fitted adequately; the resulting time constants are 18 +/- 3.1 ms for the fast and 745 +/- 107 ms for the slow process at -75 mV. Half-maximal activation of the A current occurs at -0.7 +/- 2.9 mV, and half-maximal inactivation occurs at -54.7 +/- 2.4 mV. An increase in the extracellular K+ concentration increases the conductance and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of the A current, affecting the slow but not the fast time constant. With respect to these modulations the current under investigation resembles some of the shaker-like currents. The data of the A current were incorporated into a reduced computational model of the voltage-gated currents of Kenyon cells. In addition, the model contained a delayed rectifier K+ current, a Na+ current, and a leakage current. The model is able to generate an action potential on current injection. The model predicts that the A current causes repolarization of the action potential but not a delay in the initiation of the action potential. It further predicts that the activation of the delayed rectifier K+ current is too slow to contribute markedly to repolarization during a single action potential. Because of its fast activation, the A current reduces the amplitude of the net depolarizing current and thus reduces the peak amplitude and the duration of the action potential.  (+info)

DRONC, an ecdysone-inducible Drosophila caspase. (5/933)

Caspases play an essential role in the execution of programmed cell death in metazoans. Although 14 caspases are known in mammals, only a few have been described in other organisms. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a Drosophila caspase, DRONC, that contains an amino terminal caspase recruitment domain. Ectopic expression of DRONC in cultured cells resulted in apoptosis, which was inhibited by the caspase inhibitors p35 and MIHA. DRONC exhibited a substrate specificity similar to mammalian caspase-2. DRONC is ubiquitously expressed in Drosophila embryos during early stages of development. In late third instar larvae, dronc mRNA is dramatically up-regulated in salivary glands and midgut before histolysis of these tissues. Exposure of salivary glands and midgut isolated from second instar larvae to ecdysone resulted in a massive increase in dronc mRNA levels. These results suggest that DRONC is an effector of steroid-mediated apoptosis during insect metamorphosis.  (+info)

Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway. (6/933)

We studied the role of Ras signaling in the regulation of cell death during Drosophila eye development. Overexpression of Argos, a diffusible inhibitor of the EGF receptor and Ras signaling, caused excessive cell death in developing eyes at pupal stages. The Argos-induced cell death was suppressed by coexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes p35, diap1, or diap2 in the eye as well as by the Df(3L)H99 chromosomal deletion that lacks three apoptosis-inducing genes, reaper, head involution defective (hid) and grim. Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death. Thus, Argos-induced cell death seemed to have resulted from the suppression of the anti-apoptotic function of Ras. Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK. These results support the idea that Ras signaling functions in two distinct processes during eye development, first triggering the recruitment of cells and later negatively regulating cell death.  (+info)

Horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between phylogenetically distant insect species by a naturally occurring mechanism. (7/933)

Wolbachia is a genus of alpha-proteobacteria found in obligate intracellular association with a wide variety of arthropods, including an estimated 10-20% of all insect species [1]. Wolbachia represents one of a number of recently identified 'reproductive parasites' [2] which manipulate the reproduction of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]. The influence of Wolbachia infection on the dynamics of host populations has focused considerable interest on its possible role in speciation through reproductive isolation [3] [10] [11] and as an agent of biological control [2] [12] [13]. Although Wolbachia normally undergoes vertical transmission through the maternal line of its host population [14], there is compelling evidence from molecular phylogenies that extensive horizontal (intertaxon) transmission must have occurred [1] [9] [15] [16] [17]. Some of the best candidate vectors for the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia are insect parasitoids [15], which comprise around 25% of all insect species and attack arthropods from an enormous range of taxa [18]. In this study, we used both fluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification with Wolbachia-specific primers to show that Wolbachia can be transmitted to a parasitic wasp (Leptopilina boulardi) from its infected host (Drosophila simulans) and subsequently undergo diminishing vertical transmission in this novel host species. These results are, to our knowledge, the first to reveal a natural horizontal transfer route for Wolbachia between phylogenetically distant insect species.  (+info)

Developmental analysis of Ganaspis xanthopoda, a larval parasitoid of Drosophila melanogaster. (8/933)

Ganaspis xanthopoda is a solitary larval parasitoid wasp of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The life cycle of Ganaspis xanthopoda in the wild-type and developmental mutant ecdysoneless strains of Drosophila melanogaster is described. The female infects a second-instar host larva. The parasitoid embryo hatches into a mobile first-instar (L1) larva. The L1 parasitoid has fleshy appendages and, while mobile, it remains confined within the wandering larval host. The second-instar larva (L2) is an endoparasite within the host prepupa and lacks appendages. The L2-to-L3 molt is dependent on pupation and marks the transition of the endoparasite into an ectoparasite. The third-instar larva (L3) is a sessile ectoparasite, develops an extensive tracheal system and consumes the host as it progresses through its prepupal and pupal stages. A single adult male or female emerges from the host puparium. The developmental analysis of Ganaspis xanthopoda reveals a tight synchrony between host and parasitoid development which is, at least in part, dependent on the ecdysone levels of the host.  (+info)

Abstract. Bactrocera minax is a major citrus pest distributed in China, Bhutan and India. The long pupal diapause duration of this fly is a major bottleneck for artificial rearing and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic information on B. minax transcriptome and gene expression profiles are needed to understand its pupal diapause. High-throughput RNA-seq technology was used to characterize the B. minax transcriptome and to identify differentially expressed genes during pupal diapause development. A total number of 52,519,948 reads were generated and assembled into 47,217 unigenes. 26,843 unigenes matched to proteins in the NCBI database using the BLAST search. Four digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed for pupae at early diapause, late diapause, post-diapause and diapause terminated developmental status. 4,355 unigenes showing the differences expressed across four libraries revealed major shifts in cellular functions of cell proliferation, protein processing and ...
Sternite of first tergite not differentiated from its tergite (Figs 157, 385, 396), and first tergite 4.2-17.6 times as long as its apical width, cylindrical, distinctly longer than second tergite; second tergite more or less petiolate and sculptured basally (Figs 72, 120, 274, 321, 334, 347); hind wing without trace of vein cu-a; hind coxa without dorsal tooth; hind tarsus of female nearly always with three tarsomeres (but with five tarsomeres in the genus Stephanus); vein 1-M of fore wing straight or nearly so (Figs 58, 140, 240, 252, 376); hind tibia distinctly narrowed and compressed basally (Figs 91, 143, 248, 262, 383); posterior pronotum gradually merging in remainder of pronotum (Figs 59, 241, 253, 377); eighth metasomal tergite of female usually without apical protuberance (pygidial process) (Figs 72, 120, 261; but present in Pseudomegischus); Subfamily Stephaninae Leach, 1815 (including Subfamily Foenatopodinae Elliott, 1922) ...
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Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very difficult to dissect Drosophila pupae (at leats with 26h APF). There is a protocol in the web from a Nicolas Gompel that is very good. Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most literature about Drosophila pupa is very old... , Does anyone have some ideas about the difficulties and protocols for , dissecting and manipulating Drosophila pupae (without getting it killed)? , Also, does anyone know which is the best part of the pupa to visualize the , epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , Dros mailing list , Dros from net.bio.net , http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/dros , , -- View this message in context: http://www.nabble.com/Drosophila-pupal-epithelium-tf2941767.html#a9310296 Sent from the Bio.net - ...
This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. Proteins isolated from silkworm pupae were separated by...
7.5 × 106 l(2)mbn cells were pelleted, washed once in PBS, and resuspended in 800 μl of buffer A (10 mM Hepes, pH 7.6, 10 mM KCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM EGTA, Complete™ protease inhibitors; Roche), and placed on ice for 15 min. NP40 was added to 0.1%, vortexed for 30 s, and centrifuged at 13 K for 30 s at 4°C. Nuclear pellet was resuspended in 80 μl buffer C (10mM Hepes, pH 7.6, 400 mM NaCl, 7.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM EGTA, 1 mM DTT, 0.5 mM PMSF, Complete™), and incubated on ice for 40 min while shaking. Extract was then centrifuged for 5 min at 13 K and supernatant aliquoted and frozen at -70° C. Nuclear extracts from second instar, wandering third instar, early pupae, and larvae specifically staged at -18 and -4 h (relative to puparium formation) from wild-type and rbp5 larvae were prepared as follows. Extracts were made by homogenizing 50 larvae in 300 μl of buffer A and removing them to a fresh tube in a total of 600 μl devoid of larval debri. After incubation on ...
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Nasonia presents a number of technical challenges that make the work of Li et al. notable. Nasonia female lay eggs in the pupae of other insects. In the laboratory Sarchophaga bullata is a common host whose pupae are commercially available and can be stored in cool temperatures for prolonged periods. When needed the pupae are presented to gravid females in a way the results in Nasonia eggs only being laid at one end of the pupae. To access the freshly laid eggs the pupal cuticle at the end containing the eggs is removed, exposing a cluster of eggs.. The eggs have a very thin, transparent chorion and while small, the eggs are readily injected using technologies and procedures available for the injection of other insect embryos.. The injected eggs are then placed back into a pupa and allowed to develop and emerge. Li et al (2017) have successfully solved these various technical challenges and have successfully created mutations using Cas9.. ...
Detailed information on immature stages of Mutillidae is being acquired. However, Clausen (1940) noted that very little information was available regarding the form or habits of immature stages of this family. The egg of Mutilla sp (Williams 1919b) has been described as elongated and curved, with the chorion minutely granulated. It is placed transversely upon the dorsum of a Tiphia larva, between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments. The point of larval feeding is ventral. Ferton stated that the egg of Stenomutilla argentata var. saundersivora Fer. is attached to the inner wall of the host cocoon. The early larval instars by 1940 had not been described for any species. The mature larva of M. glossinae has 11 pairs of spiracles, located on the 2nd and 3rd thoracic and the first 9 abdominal segments. The mandibles are 4-dentate, while those of M. lunata and M. attenuata are believed to be tridentate. The mature larvae of all species spin a cocoon within the cell, cocoon, or puparium of the host, ...
D. A. Paranjpe, D. Anitha, V. K. Sharma and A. Joshi, Circadian clocks and life-history-related traits: is pupation height affected by circadian organization in Drosophila melanogaster?, Journal of Genetics 83, 73 - 77 (2004 ...
Nevertheless, the Mwh protein does not incorporate FH1 and FH2 domains, and is not envisioned to be able to advertise actin polymerization like real formins.
|p|The Vantage 10200506 is a defluxer with a container type of pail.|/p||b|The Vantage 10200506 Specifications: |/b||br||ul||li| Brand: BIOACT®|li| Product Type: Defluxer|li| Physical Form: Liquid|li| Container Size: 5gal|li| Container Type: Pail|li| Chemical Composition: Semi-Aqueous|li| Solubility (Yes/No): No|li| Removes: Flux Residues HMP Flux Residues No Clean Flux Residues RMA Flux Residues|li| Standards Met: USDA Approved|li| Applications: Defluxing|li| For Use With: PCB|/ul|
9780470646977 Our cheapest price for Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, 4th Edition is $1.09. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Chromatomyia aprilina on Lonicera periclymenum, Voltherbroek. Chromatomyia larvae always pupate inside the mine. Often this happens in a separate part of the mine, a sort of pupal chamber. There the front spiracula penetrate the plant epidermis. Like in all higher Diptera the adult fly leaves the puparium by pumping up a bladder on top of the head. This creates an irregular hole in the puparium wall.. Neither pupation within the mine nor penetrating spiracula are exclusive characters for Chromatomyia: both can be found in some Phytomyza species as well.. 22.xii.2007 ...
Packaging: Pack of 2Description: BRUSH, CHANNEL CLEANING 8X.079 S/S HANDLE (2/PK)Brand: Manufacturer: Key SurgicalManufacturer #: BR-08-079Application: Container Type: Contents: For Use On: Overall Dimensions: Scent ...
Larvae of the Hydrophiloidea are intensively studies in last years, however the immature stages are still unadequately known and/or described in many species. After some break from larvae, I recently started to cooperate with Yusuke Minoshima (Kitakyushu Museum, Japan) on the studies of the larval Rygmodinae. Plus I am also continually accumulating other larval material and describing some of the most interesting ones (e.g., Yateberosus is done, Lihelophorus and Sphaerocetum are awaiting descriptions). I also started with associations of larvae with adults using DNA data, which is a cool source of larval material of many rare taxa ...
The final total of larvae (see here) that managed to succesfully pupate is 3 out of 12. So 75% parasitisation, which is well within normal parameters. Interestingly enough, the last two larvae were successful. I suppose that shows the value of having a spread of hatching/pupation dates within a species: by the time the later ones are hatching, the parasite has either died or moved on ...
Hy Im looking for a protocoll to isolate proteins from the nucleus of 3rd instar larvae D.m.. Please send it to path092 at mail.uni-wuerzburg.de Thank you in advance Thomas Twardzik ...
While Hyalophora cecropia larvae are large and feed on a wide range of host plants, this species is not considered a serious pest in any parts of its range. Some populations of Hyalophora cecropia may be in decline due to a number of factors, including nontarget effects of introduced biological control agents. Boettner et al. (2000) suggested that the generalist parasitoid fly Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae) may be responsible for such declines in the northeastern U.S. Due to its size and hardiness, Hyalophora cecropia has been used extensively in physiological and biochemical research. Carroll Williams conducted pioneering work on juvenile hormone and its role in molting and metamorphosis using this species. Owing to its impressive size and appearance, Hyalophora cecropia has become a favorite of collectors and amateur Lepidopterists. Eggs and pupae are commercially available, and a small livestock industry has developed around this and other related species. ...
Diapause is a developmental strategy adopted by insects to survive in challenging environments such as the low temperatures of a winter. This unique process is regulated by diapause hormone (DH), which is a neuropeptide hormone that induces egg diapause in Bombyx mori and is involved in terminating pupal diapause in heliothis moths. An G protein-coupled receptor from the silkworm, B. mori, has bee ...
Pupae: Pupae are yellow-green before maturing into a brown color. Nearing eclosion (the emergence of an adult insect from a pupal case or an insect larva from an egg), the coloration of the adults forewings is visible and sex can be determined. Pupation usually occurs under a shelter, a simple cocoon can be made of the host plant and silk; however, pupal development will occur without a cocoon if the availability of plant material is limited (Tashiro and Mitchell 1985).. Adult: Both sexes of fiery skipper adults have short, knobbed antennae and orange and brown patterned wings. Females can be differentiated from males by the greater number and larger size of brown patches on both the top and underside of the wings (Figure 3). On the edges of the males wings are black marginal markings giving the wing edges a toothed appearance (Brock and Kaufman 2006) (Figure 4). Overall, their wingspan is around 3.0 to 4.0 cm (1.18 in to 1.57 in) (Deputy and Hara 2000). Adults in the desert southwest and ...
Shop Flexible cuticle protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Flexible cuticle protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Diagnosis: Only species in the hylas group with slender third palpal segment, apices of veins M1, M2 broadly pale, apex of CuA1 with small pale spot and apex of CuA2 dark, spermathecae without sclerotized necks, male tergite 9 with a distinct distal notch, gonostylus with subapical tooth and with V-shaped base of the separate portion of parameres.. Male: Similar to female with usual sexual differences. Wing length 1.19 mm; width 0.41 mm; CR 0.65. Genitalia (Fig. 1): tergite 9 somewhat truncated, distinctly notched posteromedially, cerci pointed; sternite 9 with with shallow posteromedial excavation. Gonocoxite 2.4 times longer than broad; gonostylus yellow, slightly shorter than gonocoxite, nearly straight, with suabapical tooth, tip pointed. Parameres (Fig. 2) stout, broadly fused at base, fused portion 1.5 broader than long; separate portion V-shaped at base, each abruptly tapering to terminal filament with very fine fringing hairs distally. Aedeagus triangular, 1.7 times longer than broad, ...
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The Crybda Group of the Spissipes Section of Culex (Melanoconion), proposed by Sallum and Forattini (1996), includes three subgroups, Pedroi (Cx....
Of the parasites which attack blow-flies, Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. is one of the best known and most widely distributed. The stock used in these experiments was derived from host pupae which had been exposed in the laboratory. It had been bred in captivity for about a year when these investigations were started. From time to time, fresh parasites, obtained from field-parasitized pupae, were added.
Suborder: Opisthothelae--first described in 1990 by the American arachnologists Richard C. Brusca and Gary J. Brusca, who used the Greek words οπισθεν (oh-PIS-thehn) = behind, at the back, yet to come + θηλη (THEE-lee) = nipple or teat, to distinguish this grouping of spiders from the more primitive spiders in the suborder Mesothelae, in that certain characters (e.g., tergite plates, ganglia in the abdomen, and - in particular, inasmuch as the suborder name is a direct reference thereto - median-positioned spinnerets) of the latter are absent in the former; thus spiders in this suborder have spinnerets positioned at the hindmost portion of the abdomen;
Naumann, S ; W.A. Nässig & S. Löffler, 2008: Notes on the identity of Loepa katinka diversiocellata Bryk, 1944 and description of a new species, with notes on preimaginal morphology and some taxonomic remarks on other species (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo N.F. 29 (3): 149-162 ...
In the box Pack of: 1General Brand: ArielModel Name: MaticQuantity: 2 LFragrance: Fragrance-FreeContainer Type: BottleMaximum Shelf Life: 18 MonthsDetails: Quantity: 2 L Container Type: Bottle Fragrance: Fragrance-Free
Coelopids are found in the wrack zone of temperate seashores where the larvae feed on rotting seaweed. They are sometimes very abundant in this habitat. They go through several generations a year. The females lay their eggs in small batches into fresh alga banks.There 3 larval instars. Larvae feed in a bacteria-laden mass Pupation is seldom in the alga substrate that soon collapses, but more frequently in the highest sand layers. Larvae are also found in winter wrack heaps as bacteria raise temperatures to 20-30°C even if the heap is superficially frozen.Larvae and pupae have numerous enemies. Beside birds there is the staphylinid Aleochara and suites of parasites confined to algal banks.. ...
On Monday, Merus Labs reported its fourth quarter and fiscal 2015 results. In the fourth quarter, the company posted revenue of $16.1M.
The ant begins its life as a tiny egg. The egg hatches into a maggot-like larva. As the larva grows it molts many times. It covers itself with a cocoon in the pupal stage and metamorphoses into an adult.
As it is still at an immature stage, an infants skin is particularly vulnerable. Which techniques should be used in case of irritation?
Recent Mojo acquisition (no, really, thats the company name) extends Aristas network automation strategy from core to campus.
Larva: feeds on the seeds from beneath a dense silken tube fixed against the central stalk of a seedhead from September to March. The larva cuts an elongate hole in the stem and spins a dense but very thin cocoon in the stem, usually just below the seed-head, for pupation from March to early May.. Adult: can be disturbed amongst the foodplant during the day, its small size and shape being reminiscent of a Coleophorid.. ...
ਜੰਤੂ ਜਾਂ ਜਾਨਵਰ ਜਾਂ ਅੈਨੀਮਲ (Animalia, ਐਨੀਮੇਲੀਆ) ਜਾਂ ਮੇਟਾਜੋਆ (Metazoa) ਜਗਤ ਦੇ ਬਹੁਕੋਸ਼ਿਕੀ ਅਤੇ ਸੁਕੇਂਦਰਿਕ ਜੀਵਾਂ ਦਾ ਇੱਕ ਮੁੱਖ ਸਮੂਹ ਹੈ। ਪੈਦਾ ਹੋਣ ਦੇ ਬਾਅਦ ਜਿਵੇਂ-ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕੋਈ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਵੱਡਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਸਰੀਰਕ ਯੋਜਨਾ ਨਿਰਧਾਰਤ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਵਿਕਸਿਤ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ, ਹਾਲਾਂਕਿ ਕੁੱਝ ਪ੍ਰਾਣੀ ਜੀਵਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਅੱਗੇ ਜਾਕੇ ਰੂਪਾਂਤਰਣ (metamorphosis) ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਕਿਰਿਆ ਵਿੱਚੀਂ ਲੰਘਦੇ ਹਨ। ਬਹੁਤੇ ਜੰਤੂ ਗਤੀਸ਼ੀਲ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ, ਅਰਥਾਤ ਆਪਣੇ ਆਪ ਅਤੇ ਆਜ਼ਾਦ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ ਚੱਲ ਫਿਰ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ। ...
The Dashs sock-like bootie design, which keeps out debris, is combined with arch-lasted construction for a supportive fit. Lacing is asymmetrical with offset eyelets that help to reinforce the support.
Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 μg and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues.
Seasonal polyphenism demonstrates an organisms ability to respond to predictable environmental variation with alternative phenotypes, each presumably better suited to its respective environment. However, the molecular mechanisms linking environmental variation to alternative phenotypes via shifts in development remain relatively unknown. Here we investigate temporal gene expression variation in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana. This species shows drastic changes in eyespot size depending on the temperature experienced during larval development. The wet season form (larvae reared over 24 degrees C) has large ventral wing eyespots while the dry season form (larvae reared under 19 degrees C) has much smaller eyespots. We compared the expression of three proteins, Notch, Engrailed, and Distal-less, in the future eyespot centers of the two forms to determine if eyespot size variation is associated with heterochronic shifts in the onset of their expression. For two of these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Allergenic characterization of 27-kDa glycoprotein, a novel heat stable allergen, from the pupa of silkworm, Bombyx mori. AU - Jeong, Kyoung Yong. AU - Son, Mina. AU - Lee, June Yong. AU - Park, Kyung Hee. AU - Lee, Jae Hyun. AU - Park, Jung Won. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Boiled silkworm pupa is a traditional food in Asia, and patients with silkworm pupa food allergy are common in these regions. Still now only one allergen from silkworm, arginine kinase, has been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify novel food allergens in silkworm pupa by analyzing a protein extract after heat treatment. Heat treated extracts were examined by proteomic analysis. A 27-kDa glycoprotein was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. IgE reactivity of the recombinant protein was investigated by ELISA. High molecular weight proteins (above 100 kDa) elicited increased IgE binding after heat treatment compared to that before heat treatment. The molecular ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The replacement of cells is a common strategy during animal development. In the Drosophila pupal abdomen, larval epidermal cells (LECs) are replaced by adult progenitor cells (histoblasts). Previous work showed that interactions between histoblasts and LECs result in apoptotic extrusion of LECs during early pupal development. Extrusion of cells is closely preceded by caspase activation and is executed by contraction of a cortical actomyosin cable. Here, we identify a population of LECs that extrudes independently of the presence of histoblasts during late pupal development. Extrusion of these LECs is not closely preceded by caspase activation, involves a pulsatile medial actomyosin network, and correlates with a developmental time period when mechanical tension and E-cadherin turnover at adherens junctions is particularly high. Our work reveals a developmental switch in the cell extrusion mechanism that correlates with changes in tissue mechanical properties. ...
초록. To elucidate optimal environment conditions of nesting sites, we investigated effects of location, direction, altitude and sites of nest trapping on the rate of trap nested of Osmia spp. The direction of placed nest traps rate dont affect in the rate of trap nested of Osmia spp. A higher altitude appeared to correspond to a higher the rates of trap nested. In case of sites of placed nest trap, the rate of trap nested in nest trap of mud wall of old house was 3 fold higher than that of apple orchard. In conclusion, rates of trap nested in Osmia spp. affected by altitude, placed site and bee plants. To butter understand the ecological characteristic of Osmia cornifrons, we investigated life span and developmental characteristic. Average egg period was 3.2 days and larval period was 13.3 days. Pupal period consist of prepupal stage was 82 days. Averyage longevity of adult terminated diapause was 21.8 for female and 24.4 days for male. Total life span in laboratory was 122.4 days for female ...
Finding the nearest relatives of Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Roger Burks University of California, Riverside Department of Entomology. What is Nasonia ?. Gregarious puparial parasitoids of calyptrate flies in bird nests and refuse Slideshow 2994323 by deacon
Dissection of Drosophila CNSs Protocol Protocol for the dissection of Drosophila CNSs. Includes: Tools; Dissection of the CNS; Dissecting larval CNSs; Dissecting early pupae; Dissecting mid pupae; Dissecting late pupae; Dissecting the whole CNS; Dissecting only the brain proper; Taking the pupa out of the puparium. ...
Females lay eggs in groups of up to nine under the skin of host fruits; the female can lay more than 500 eggs in her lifetime. The amount of time it takes for egg development depends on the ambient temperature, but is normally about two days. Maggots tunnel through the fruit feeding on the pulp, shed their skins twice, and emerge through exit holes in four to 21 days, depending on temperature. The larvae drop from the fruit and burrow 1 to 6 inches into the soil to pupate. The pupal period varies from four days in summer to over six weeks in winter. The newly emerged adult females need eight to 16 days to mature sexually prior to egg-laying. Breeding is continuous, with several annual generations. Adults feed on honeydew, decaying fruit, nectar, and plant sap. The adult is a strong flyer, recorded to travel 25 miles in search of food and egg laying sites. This ability to fly long distances allows the fly to infest new areas very quickly.. ...
Behavior and Survival of the Filth Fly Parasitoids Spalangia endius and Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Response to Three Granular House Fly Baits and Components ...
The butterfly wing can seemingly thank two specific genes for the intricate and colorful patterns that adorn it and help it mate and survive.
NUS biologists have discovered that Hox genes are essential for the development of eyespot patterns on the wings of Bicyclus anynana butterflies.
Environmental Entomology publishes reports on the interaction of insects with the biological, chemical, and physical aspects of their environment.
with: known body length in adults more than 8 mm; cephalic plate trapezoidal, with posterior part wider than anterior part ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); forcipular tergite elongated, trapezoidal ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); denticle of tarsungulum relatively short and positioned close to mid-length of tarsungulum ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31); distal denticle of trochanteroprefemur and denticle of femur distinctly spaced ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31).. Recorded specimens: a single specimen, ♂.. Distribution. Brazil-Paraná: Foz do Iguaçu ( Silvestri 1909a, 1909b).. Description of holotype. Male (MCSG Vase type).. Entire body: length 8, maximum width 0.2. Cephalic plate: trapezoidal, with posterior margin 1.5 times as wide as anterior margin; length 0.33 and maximum width (near posterior margin) 0.24 (length/width ratio 1.37). Antenna: length 0.56, 1.7 times as long as cephalic plate; AA II-XIII length/width ratio 0.44-0.95; LAA ...
On the last day of the 5th instar, the body of the caterpillar shortens and changes to a milky shade of yellowish green. It ceases feeding and comes to a halt on the surface of a leaf of the host plant. Here the caterpillar spins a short transverse silk band and a silk girdle. At the same time, a moderate amount of white waxy substance is secreted by the caterpillar and spread over the pupation site. With its posterior end secured to the silk band via claspers and the body secured at the mid-section with the girdle, the caterpillar enters its immobile pre-pupatory stage. ...
Larvae are expected to remain in the pupation stage for approximately 2 weeks, however our first butterfly remained in the pupa stage for a total of 27 days. Typically, larvae do not enter the pupation stage of their life cycle until the end of April but perhaps this year due to warmer weather almost all of the individuals have already pupated. The breeding for release program currently has 93 pupas and 4 larvae ready to pupate.. ...
Zhang, H.; Tong, X. 2013: Descriptions of the final instar larvae of seven Chinese Chlorogomphidae species, with taxonomic notes on adults (Odonata: Anisoptera). Zootaxa 3620(2): 223-244. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3620.2.2 reference page ...
This is a Longhorned Borer Beetle in the family Cerambycidae, but we are uncertain of the species. We will attempt to contact beetle expert Arthur Evans to see if he can provide a more specific identification.. ...
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STOCKTON - He pressed two fingers together, securing a butterflys wings in between. Firm enough to keep it from flying. Gentle enough to keep its new wings from tearing.
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The attitude of the cooler-than-cool couple in front of us in line for Amon Tobin, the Brazilian electronic musician/mad scientist, pretty much summed up the evening for me. Sure, I expected hipsters galore at a show like this -- while Ive never really met any other Amon Tobin fans,...
For young ants at the pupal stage of life--caught between larva and adulthood--status is all about being heard. The findings, reported online on Feb. 7 in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, add to evidence that ants can communicate abstract information through sound in addition to chemical cues.
Packing 384 10G Ethernet ports into an 11-rack-unit form factor is only the beginning for Arista Networks DCS-7508 data center core switch.
Step by step instructions to make butterfly key joinery. Enjoy this second part of our four part series on how to make butterfly key joints.
Inequitable conduct arises when a material reference was intentionally withheld by the patent applicant in order to deceive or mislead the examiner…
Collection of Information Under Review by Office of Management and Budget (OMB): OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0060, 1625-0081, and 1625-0083, 21805-21806 [05-8350]
Sorry for my noobishness, but ive done a google search, a wiki search, and a Head-fi search, and I still cant figure this out. What exactly is PRaT?
While some caterpillars spin a cocoon to protect the pupa, most species do not. The naked pupa, often known as a chrysalis, ... In the pupa, the wing forms a structure that becomes compressed from top to bottom and pleated from proximal to distal ends as ... The pupa or chrysalis, unlike that of moths, is not wrapped in a cocoon.[14] ... The vast majority of butterflies have a four-stage life cycle; egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis) and imago (adult). In ...
Pupa. As seen in its lateral aspect, the mosquito pupa is comma-shaped. The head and thorax are merged into a cephalothorax, ... The pupa can swim actively by flipping its abdomen, and it is commonly called a "tumbler" because of its swimming action. As ... However, pupae do not feed during this stage; typically they pass their time hanging from the surface of the water by their ... The pupa is less active than the larva because it does not feed, whereas the larva feeds constantly.[25] ...
Pupa[edit]. The larva then pupate underground for 7 to 37 days in a cocoon they form of soil and silk. Duration and survival of ...
Pupa[edit]. The pupae are silver in color.[1] During the fifth instar stage, the pupa produces a silk pad on the lower surface ... Pupa attachment failure occurs when the silk pad breaks. Additionally, researchers have found the pupa attachment to have high ... The cremaster, a hooked bristle-like structure on the pupa, attaches to this silk pad by a series of lateral movements of the ... The silk fibers are important in providing greater flexibility to the pupa attachment. ...
... so that a large number of pupae are often found, at a little distance from each other, on a wall, or the trunk of a tree."[4] ...
Their pupae are brown with darker brown speckles throughout, and the divisions between the segments appear black.[8] Pupae are ... It takes around 27 days for D. elpenor to move from the larva stage to the pupa stage.[11] When the larvae are fully grown, ... The pupae overwinter in cocoons, and the species become active from May to early August. Its peak activity time is between the ...
Pupa[edit]. The pupa is golden yellow or tan in colour with black markings. Male pupae may be distinguished by a faint charcoal ... The time taken for this species to develop from egg to pupa is approximately six weeks, with the pupal stage taking a month or ... Adults emerge from the pupae early in the morning while humidity is still high, as the enormous wings may dry out before they ... most specimens are reared from larvae or pupae. ...
Pupa[edit]. In the pupa or chrysalis stage, the caterpillar spins a silk pad on to a horizontal substrate. It then hangs from ... Eggs, larvae and pupae develop more quickly in milder conditions. Temperatures above 95°F can be lethal for larvae, and eggs ... The two species hunt the larvae and some pupae from the branches and undersides of leaves in milkweed bushes. The bulbuls also ...
Pupa[edit]. The pupa is green with a slender and pointed thoractic projection, yellowish wing cases and lateral bands. "Conical ...
Pupa[edit]. "Very pale green, the abdominal segments somewhat opaque; of the usual Lycaenid shape, no distinctive structure or ...
Pupa[edit]. Five-eighths of an inch long, transparent, pale cream-colour. In front a longish tubercle directed forwards, with a ... After the escape of the imago, the 5th and 6th segments of the pupa become blood-red. ...
Pupa[edit]. In form and appearance, the pupae of gulf fritillaries are not recognizably uniform, but rather can vary in both ...
The pupa's morphology varies with both sex and generation. Female pupae are generally longer and wider than the male pupae. ... Pupa[edit]. The pupae are 10-12mm long and can be as wide as 3mm. The color changes as time passes, from the brown color of the ... egg or pupa) - another Ichneumon. A parasitised pupa may die or eclose as a stunted adult. Perilampus tristis, a Chalcidoid ... Neoplectops veniseta (pupa) - a Tachinid fly. *Ephialtes extensor (caterpillar) - an Ichneumonidae wasp that attacks both ...
Pupa. Suspended by the tail and a band that encircles it much nearer the head than is usual with Papilio pupae. In form stout, ... Life cycle Larva Pupa Pupa Imago (dorsal view) Imago (ventral view) The larval host plants of these butterflies are small ... I thought at first it was merely produced by the rubbing of one ring of the pupa-case against the next, but the sound did not ... 1875 p. 9) states- "The pupa possesses the power of making a curious noise like pha-pha!, and makes it very loudly when touched ...
Pupa. "Similar in shape to that of Castalius rosimon, Fabricius, but smaller and narrower. It is of a bright apple-green with a ...
Pupa. "brown, boat-shaped." (After Davidson & Aitken) Listed alphabetically: P. s. admiralia Rothschild, 1915 P. s. apicalis ... larva and pupa P. s. borneensis, Borneo Cramer, Pieter [1779-1782] De uitlandsche kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld- ...
Pupa. "Green or brown, with the head rounded, the edges of the wing-cases raised and angled anteriorly; the thorax humped and ...
3. eggs; 4. early instar larva; 5. final instar larva 6. pupa; 7. newly emerged adult Damage 9. one week after hatching; 10. ...
The pupae are typically attached to the substrate by the cremaster but with head up held by a silk girdle. The Apollos, however ... Pupa. Variable in form but most often curved backwards. It is angulate, with the head truncate or rounded and the back of ... In Parnassius, the pupa is placed in a loose silken web between leaves. Imago. Wings extraordinarily variable in shape. ... Stages of development of a papilionid, the giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes) Egg Larva Pupa Imago The key characteristics ...
Pupa. Uniform pale green, stout, smooth, quite regular, except the head-case which is semidetached, broad and angular, with two ... sharp points in front (after Davidson & Aitken). Eggs Larva Pre-pupatory larva Pupa Newly eclosed adult Dorsal view (male) ...
Pupa. "More narrowed at the head than E. garuda, green, all the points golden tipped with black, and a few large spots of gold ...
The second, characterized by terminal spines of pupa and dome-shaped ova laid apart from others, includes: A. psi, A. tridens, ... Pupae[edit]. Once the winter months near, fully grown caterpillars pupate in cocoons on leaves or leaf litter. The cocoon has ... The larvae tend to feed from the summer onwards until winter, during which A. rumicis spend its time in the pupae stage in ... characterized by a hoop-like structure of the pupa and clumped oviposition, includes: A. auricoma, A. myricae, A. menthanthidis ...
... while others do not cover their pupae in cocoons, but rather hang from a twig or tree bark, like butterfly pupae do. ... Moths usually emerge from pupae in July, but it can vary with population density and climate.[3]:11 The brown male gypsy moth ... Calosoma sycophanta is a beetle that preys upon the gypsy moth larvae and pupae. Larvae and adults of the species tear open ... A parasite native to North America, Itoplectes conquisitor, attacks and kills gypsy moth pupae, but development of the larva is ...
De Yoreo, J.; Gilbert, PUPA; Sommerdijk, N. A. J. M.; Penn, R. L.; Whitelam, S.; Joester, D.; Zhang, H.; Rimer, J. D.; ...
Pupa claviform. Cremaster triangular. Pupation occurs in a cocoon made by silk threads woven among leaves. Host plants include ...
Pupa efflorescent. The larvae feed on Phyllanthus and Sauropus species. Poole, R. W. (1989). Lepidopterorum Catalogus (New ...
Pupa efflorescent. The larvae feed on Cytisus, Desmodium, Wisteria, Arachis, Butea, Cajanus, Calopogonium, Crotalaria, Derris, ...
Pupa obtect. Anterior side broader. Early stages light coloured. It turns dark brownish to blackish in emergence time. Pupation ... Dorsal side of adult Underside of adult Caterpillar Late instar Caterpillar Pupa "Species Details: Polytela gloriosae Fabricius ...
Pupa green. Food plant, Inga vera. Savela, Markku. "Lophocampa catenulata (Hübner, [1812])". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life ...
Ménard, S; Pupa SM; Campiglio M; Tagliabue E (2003). "Biologic and therapeutic role of HER2 in cancer". Oncogene. 22 (42): 6570 ...
Decticous pupa - pupae with articulated mandibles. Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera and few ... "Types of Pupa". Agri Info. Retrieved 28 April 2016.. *^ "Pupa and Puparium (Insects)". what-when-how. Retrieved 28 April 2016. ... The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for ... Moth pupae are usually dark in color and either formed in underground cells, loose in the soil, or their pupa is contained in a ...
Pupa nitulida, common name the smooth pink pupa, is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family ... Pupa nitidula. In: MolluscaBase (2015). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ ...
Other articles where Coarctate pupa is discussed: insect: Types of larvae: …glued to the body; and coarctate, which is ...
... Cory Feschuk umfesch4 at cc.umanitoba.ca Wed Oct 2 13:24:33 EST 1996 *Previous message: Nato Science ... I have yet to collect any results yet because unfortunatly my pupa have turned brown and fallen off the side of the container. ...
Pupa definition is - an intermediate usually quiescent stage of a metamorphic insect (such as a bee, moth, or beetle) that ... Comments on pupa. What made you want to look up pupa? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if ... Post the Definition of pupa to Facebook Share the Definition of pupa on Twitter ... 2017 In fact, as soon as one of the ants emerged from its pupa, the other members of the colony ate him. - Jason Daley, ...
China Pupa Brush Set Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Pupa Brush Set Products at makeup ... A wide variety of pupa brush set options are available to you, There are 7 pupa brush set suppliers, mainly located in Asia. ... The top supplying country is China (Mainland), which supply 100% of pupa brush set respectively. Pupa brush set products are ... Related Searches for pupa brush set: makeup brush set makeup brushes toilet brush brush set hair brush ...
Access hourly, 10 day and 15 day forecasts along with up to the minute reports and videos for Tesi Baba Pupa, Nigeria from ... Get the Tesi Baba Pupa weather forecast. ...
Psyche is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of basic entomology. Psyche is the official publication of the Cambridge Entomological Club, which founded the journal in 1874.
Discomorpha winkleri, pupa prepupa larva. click on image to enlarge. © Don Windsor, 2005-2008 Email full-size image and text ... IM/I_DW/0003/320/Discomorpha_winkleri,_pupa_prepupa_larva,I_DW313.jpg. width=320 x height=155 pixels; size=35383 bytes Discover ...
... uses two colours of flexibody cut with scalloped pinking shears to make a simple but very effective fly imitating a caddis pupa ... This is a simple little caddis pupa tied in the classic green/black combination. ... uses two colours of flexibody cut with scalloped pinking shears to make a simple but very effective fly imitating a caddis pupa ...
... green or other colours found in sedge pupae. ... A simple and very effective imitation of caddis pupae. ... A simple and very effective imitation of caddis pupae. Transparent body wrap wound over tinsel and then ribbed with wire gives ... green or other colours found in sedge pupae. ... https://globalflyfisher.com/video/pontcanna-pupa. Simply the ... me copies of some of his own creations and moreover delicate watercolour drawings of his in Scandinavia very famous Sedge Pupa ...
Buy Pupa - Responsive & Retina Multi-Purpose Theme by fuelthemes on ThemeForest. !!! This is the non-WooCommerce version !!! ...
Beutenmüller, "Descriptions of the Larva and Pupa of Scotobates Calcaratus Fabr," Psyche, vol. 6, no. 177, pp. 13-14, 1891. ... Descriptions of the Larva and Pupa of Scotobates Calcaratus Fabr. Wm. Beutenmüller ...
????? ??? ??? - PUPA ????? ?????? Miss Pupa, ?????? 401 ????????? ??? , 2,4 ?????? -?????? OZON.ru: ???????? ???? ??????? ???? Pupa, ??????? ??? ?????????? . ?????????? ??????? ?????? 3500 ???? . ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? .
PUPA. PUPA (κόρη, νύμφη), a doll. Greek and Roman children commonly had dolls, made often of terra-cotta, but also of other ...
"Our experiments are the first to show not only that ant pupae use sound to communicate with the adults in their colony, but ... Pupae experimentally rendered mute lose that higher-priority status.. The findings suggest that acoustics might actually ... It turns out that those sounds are essential for pupae to maintain their rightful place in the ant hierarchy, above their ... When unstressed adult worker ants hear those sounds from pupae, they are assigned priority over their silent fellows in rescue ...
Worker ants look after pupae, carrying them around the colony, and cleaning and feeding them. Many individuals are responsible ... www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/photograph/12806/ant-carrying-pupa (accessed 9 July 2020) ... for feeding larvae and pupae. Others bring food to the feeders, and still others forage outside and bring food into the colony. ...
I we find grubs in the ground all the time that my Western Garden Guide shows as cutworms but the pupa is bigger than it is ... That is a moth pupa, most likely a sphinx moth. If you look closesly between its eyes, youll see a long, skinny line that is ... What Is This? Unknown Pupa (Crane Fly). By Jess (TF Editor) [217 Posts, 1,729 Comments] ... Sure looks like the pupa of a June bug, aka May bug or beetle. Theyre very common in Wisconsin, Dont know about Oregon. Ad ...
Mehlhorn H., Gestmann F. (2011) Extracts from Fly Maggots and Fly Pupae as a "Wound Healer". In: Mehlhorn H. (eds) Nature Helps ...
Caterpillars and Pupa(2460)▼*butterfly caterpillars(513)▼*brush footed butterfly caterpillars(222) ... Lady Beetle Pupa. On April 30, 2013. · Category: Lady Bug · Add Comment ... This is the pupa of a Lady Beetle or Ladybug. Ladybug is a common name not recognized by scientists since they are actually ...
The pupa hangs from a mucus thread attached to the roof of a cave. ... www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/9736/glow-worm-pupa (accessed 26 August 2019) ...
Buy PUPA Home Spa Massage Cream - Rebalancing 250ml , luxury hair care, skincare and cosmetics at HQHair.com, with Free ... Pamper skin with the Rebalancing Home Spa Massage Cream from PUPA. The velvet-smooth, emollient-rich formula quickly melts into ...
Caterpillar Envenomation - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. tugas
Caddisfly Pupa, collected from the Namekagon River in Wisconsin on May 18, 2004. ... Pupa: Any insect which spends most of its juvenile lifetime as a larva first becomes a pupa for a time before emerging as a ... Start a Discussion of this Pupa:. You must log in at the top of the page to post. If you havent registered yet, its this easy ... I was surprised how bright green this pupa is. Its chartreuse. After collecting it, I experimented with melting down ...
Re: Live Chimarra pupae. In the Identify This! Board by Millcreek. 13. Oct 2, 2014. by Millcreek. ... Prepupae and pupae can be found in medium to large aggregations on cobble from early summer to the first floods. When the ... Neophylax larvae and pupae. Millcreek has attached these 14 pictures. The message is below. ...
Mosquito pupa (Aedes punctor), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Magnification x31 at an image size of 10 cm wide ... mosquito pupa, nature, pupa, scanning electron micrograph, scanning electron microscope, segmented, sem, siphon, young, ... Caption: Mosquito pupa (Aedes punctor), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Magnification x31 at an image size of 10 ...
Comparison: See Pupa tragulata.. Synonymy: Beu (2004, p. 218 220) gives a long list of synonyms, which includes Pupa fumata ( ... Reeve, 1865), Pupa nivea (Angas, 1871) and Pupa kirki Hutton, 1873. His synonymy is based only on shells and a future genetic ... Pupa affinis (A. Adams, 1865). Description: Shell pupoid in shape, variable in width, aperture 2/3 of total shell length. Spire ...
After parasitoid larvae exit from the host to pupate, the host stops feeding, remains close to the pupae, knocks off predators ... In the field, the presence of bodyguard hosts resulted in a two-fold reduction in mortality of parasitoid pupae. Hence, the ... to behave as a bodyguard of the parasitoid pupae. ... Pupae Is the Subject Area "Pupae" applicable to this article? ...
Is the shape of this pupa characteristic of this species? or do other species have the same form?. I did collect the pupa but, ... It is consistent with the pupa of that species, as is, of course, the location where it was found.. Paul. - - - - Paul Beuk on ... Found on very ripe cherries in a garden in the suburbs of Paris, this pupa (3 mm long) looks like another one that I noticed on ...
  • CASAGRANDE, Mirna Martins and MIELKE, Olaf H.H. . Notes on the last instar larva and pupa of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae) . (scielo.br)
  • Structural features of the last instar larva and pupa of H. hanno are described and illustrated with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (scielo.br)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal volume Ibarra-Polesel, Mario G., Neita-Moreno, Jhon C., Larrea, Dario D., Damborsky, Miryam P. (2017): Description of the larva and pupa of Neocorvicoana reticulata (Kirby, 1819) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini). (gbif.org)
  • FERREIRA-KEPPLER, RUTH e RONDEROS, MARÍA M. . Description of fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia. (scielo.br)
  • The fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone are described for the first time. (scielo.br)
  • The adult male is redescribed and the larva and pupa are described for the first time. (elsevier.es)
  • Larva and pupa of Megatoma (s. str. (pensoft.net)
  • Many individuals are responsible for feeding larvae and pupae. (teara.govt.nz)
  • The role of glutathione S-transferases in the detoxification of some organophosphorus insecticides in larvae and pupae of the yellow mealworm, Tene. (nih.gov)
  • The studies were carried out on the larvae and pupae of the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor L, which exhibit varying natural levels of GST activity. (nih.gov)
  • Larvae and pupae are illustrated and photomicrographed. (scielo.br)
  • Production and infectivity to cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae larvae and pupae was compared to four entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema carpocapsae , S. feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica and H. bacteriophora . (scialert.net)
  • Nematodes production of all species was determined by the number infective juveniles (IJs) established in cabbage butterfly larvae and pupae using sand and filter paper bioassay. (scialert.net)
  • Infectivity test of larvae and pupae was also done in sand media. (scialert.net)
  • Infective juveniles recovered from larvae and pupae when treated with S. carpocapsae produced maximum infective juveniles at 25°C temperatures than all other isolates. (scialert.net)
  • H. indica produced higher number of IJs in larvae and pupae than all other nematode isolates at 30°C. This research indicates the application of nematodes with the knowledge of insect pest biology represents a possible new strategy for controlling cabbage butterfly larvae and pupae. (scialert.net)
  • This study aimed to investigate the inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota in honey bee larvae and pupae.ResultsIndividual larvae differed in the composition of major bacterial groups. (vuzv.cz)
  • Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera , Mecoptera , Trichoptera and few Lepidoptera families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Lepidoptera, Nematocera and Brachycera of Dipterans, Staphylinidae and Chrysomelidae Coleopterans, many Chalcidoidea Hymenopterans) Coarctate pupa - enclosed in a hardened cuticle of the penultimate larval instar called puparium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) follow the same life cycle stages - egg, larva, pupa and adult - but aspects differ from species to species. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • Lepidoptera Life Cycles - Includes examples of the eggs of butterflies and moths and a guide to help identify the most frequently seen caterpillars in the U.K. Also some examples of cocoons and pupae and the advantages of sexing pupae when breeding Lepidoptera in captivity. (ukleps.org)
  • Kathy Routliffe, chicagotribune.com , "Heat, rain, mean earlier mosquito spray operations in Wilmette, Winnetka," 9 July 2018 When a rescuer touches a lightly injured ant with its antennae, the injured ant folds its remaining legs up in a position similar to a pupa and lies still, making itself easier to carry. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Kiona N. Smith, Ars Technica , "In wars with termites, ants rescue and care for their wounded," 14 Feb. 2018 When the butterfly emerged from its pupa , Robert Reed was stunned. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Fisierul Teodora Birsan si Formatia Cromatic Band - Nana Ti-as Pupa Gurita 2018 a fost adaugat pe site-ul nostru in data de 17 Septembrie 2018 de catre Echipa MuzicaVeche.Net si se poate downloada gratuit de pe unul din linkurile de mai sus. (muzicaveche.net)
  • Teodora Birsan si Formatia Cromatic Band - Nana Ti-as Pupa Gurita 2018 se afla in categoria populara si a fost accesat de 1827 ori. (muzicaveche.net)
  • Daca crezi ca Teodora Birsan si Formatia Cromatic Band - Nana Ti-as Pupa Gurita 2018 incalca termenii si conditiile noastre te rugam sa raportezi acest fisier ca administratorii site-ului sa il stearga. (muzicaveche.net)
  • Iti multumim ca ai descarcat Teodora Birsan si Formatia Cromatic Band - Nana Ti-as Pupa Gurita 2018 de pe site-ul nostru si speram ca vei reveni in curand sa descarci si alte fisiere asemanatoare. (muzicaveche.net)
  • Combat loose skin with PUPA Elasticity Boost Moisturising Fluid . (lookfantastic.com)
  • The Pupa Elasticity Boost Moisturising Fluid smoothes and moisturises the skin thanks to the restorative qualities of jojoba oil, vitamin F and nourishing argan oil. (escentual.com)
  • Our state-of-the-art farm produces pure grade Dried Earthworms, Silkworm pupae and Spirulina, free of heavy metal contaminates, fillers or other dilatants and is guaranteed to be pesticide-free. (fuzing.com)
  • In this study, we examined complex-type N-glycans on recombinant proteins via coexpression of human β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (hGnT II) and human β1,4-galactosyltransferase (hGalT I) in silkworm pupae, by using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system. (altmetric.com)
  • The actin A3 promoter from B. mori and the polyhedrin promoter from Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses (AcMNPVs) were used to coexpress hGnT II and hGalT I. These recombinant BmNPVs were coexpressed with human IgG (hIgG), hGnT II and hGalT I in silkworm pupae. (altmetric.com)
  • The obtained N-glycan structure was dependent on the promoters used for coexpression of hGnT II or hGalT I. This is the first report of silkworm pupae producing a biantennary, terminally galactosylated N-glycan in a recombinant protein. (altmetric.com)
  • Redescription of larva, pupa and adult of Anopheles (Anopheles) annulipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae) and the removal of the specie of the Cycloleppteron Series. (scielo.br)
  • Another means of defense by pupae of other species is the capability of making sounds or vibrations to scare potential predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupa nitulida, common name the smooth pink pupa, is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Acteonidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is the shape of this pupa characteristic of this species? (diptera.info)
  • It is consistent with the pupa of that species, as is, of course, the location where it was found. (diptera.info)
  • The aim is to illustrate the beauty and variety amongst the eggs, larvae, pupae and adult stages of Butterflies and Moths and to help with the identification of species found in the U.K. and Northern Europe. (ukleps.org)
  • THE accumulation of glycerol in overwintering insects, first shown in eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori1, and pupae of certain saturniid silkmoths2, is now known in many species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [4] The pupa may enter dormancy or diapause until the appropriate season to emerge as an adult insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any insect which spends most of its juvenile lifetime as a larva first becomes a pupa for a time before emerging as a fully grown adult. (troutnut.com)
  • 1. A study has been made of the structure of the outer epicuticle of the pupa of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera), particular attention being paid to a surface wax layer. (biologists.org)
  • The third instar then becomes a pupa. (tolweb.org)
  • Our experiments are the first to show not only that ant pupae use sound to communicate with the adults in their colony, but also that the social ranking of mature pupae depends on their ability to make those sounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new work, by scientists at CEH, University of Oxford, and University of Turin, shows that as soon as the ants' bodies begin to harden as pupae, they begin making sounds similar to adults with their "file and scraper" organs, although the sounds are first emitted as single pulses, not longer sequences. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, during the treatment with the two strains, it was observed that there was a decrease in the longevity of old pupae and adults that emerged from old and young pupae. (academicjournals.org)
  • Pupae live about 14 days before becoming adults. (gc.ca)
  • Tumbler (pupa) of a mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are mosquito pupa. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mosquito pupa (Aedes punctor), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Pupae startresponding to light changes and move with a flip of their tails towards protective areas.Thisis the time when a mosquito changes into an adult. (dabur.com)
  • Exarate pupa - appendages are free and are not usually encapsulated within a cocoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obtect pupa - appendages are attached closely to the body and are commonly encapsulated within a cocoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • To overcome this, pupae often are covered with a cocoon, conceal themselves in the environment, or form underground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the presence or absence of articulated mandibles that are employed in emerging from a cocoon or pupal case, the pupae can be classified in to two types: Decticous pupa - pupae with articulated mandibles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on whether the pupal appendages are free or attached to the body, the pupae can be classified in three types: Exarate pupa - appendages are free and are not usually encapsulated within a cocoon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupae are encased in a silk cocoon attached to vegetation or other objects in the water. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Cocoon Capers are high-protein, frozen Musca domestica fly pupae reared at our insectary in Catalina, AZ. (arbico-organics.com)
  • Today I discovered one of the three remaining silkworms had become a pupa without making a cocoon. (blogspot.com)
  • This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. (termedia.pl)
  • Today I am sending some more pictures of the later development: the last instar caterpillar, the pre-pupa, and the pupa. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • The Epicuticular Wax Layers of the Pupa of Tenebrio Molitor L. (biologists.org)
  • 3. At moulting, the Tenebrio pupa has a wax layer exposed on its surface. (biologists.org)
  • 6. The water-loss curves for Tenebrio pupae change shape as the outer epicuticle develops. (biologists.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Black fly pupa (Simulium hippovorum). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Coarctate pupa - enclosed in a hardened cuticle of the penultimate larval instar called puparium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discussion Forum: Pupa of Drosophila suzukii? (diptera.info)
  • Found on very ripe cherries in a garden in the suburbs of Paris, this pupa (3 mm long) looks like another one that I noticed on a forum which eventually gave birth to an imago Drosophila suzukii . (diptera.info)
  • However, more recent work has now demonstrated that employing a much later stage in the Drosophila lifecycle - the Drosophila pupa - offers a number of distinct advantages, including improved RNAi efficiency, longer imaging periods, and significantly greater immune cell numbers. (jove.com)
  • Here we describe a protocol for imaging wound repair and the associated inflammatory response at the high spatio-temporal resolution in live Drosophila pupae. (jove.com)
  • Insects emerge (eclose) from pupae by splitting the pupal case. (wikipedia.org)
  • plural: pupae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and imago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jason Daley, Smithsonian , "T. Rex Ants Found Alive for the First Time," 17 May 2017 Anglers should see opportunities to fish dry flies over the next few days, and pupa and larva patterns are extremely effective both on a dead drift and on a swing in anticipation of bugs on the water. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Because these fly pupae have been frozen they will not hatch into flies. (arbico-organics.com)
  • The Olive Sparkle Pupa Emerger Fly is the result of closely observing hatching caddis flies in underwater environments. (riverbum.com)
  • The Black Sparkle Pupa Emerger Fly is the result of closely observing hatching caddis flies in underwater environments. (riverbum.com)
  • The Olive Partridge Caddis Emerger Pupa is especially effective when fish are seeing Caddis in the emergent stage. (riverbum.com)
  • In fact, as soon as one of the ants emerged from its pupa , the other members of the colony ate him. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Jason Daley, Smithsonian , "T. Rex Ants Found Alive for the First Time," 17 May 2017 The redhumped caterpillar has four stages of development: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa and moth. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Cathy Rubin, Philly.com , "Oct. 6-12: In the garden, it's time to…," 3 Oct. 2017 In fact, as soon as one of the ants emerged from its pupa , the other members of the colony ate him. (merriam-webster.com)
  • When unstressed adult worker ants hear those sounds from pupae, they are assigned priority over their silent fellows in rescue operations back to the nest. (eurekalert.org)
  • Worker ants look after pupae, carrying them around the colony, and cleaning and feeding them. (teara.govt.nz)
  • It looks like it is a moth pupa of some kind. (thriftyfun.com)
  • That is a moth pupa, most likely a sphinx moth. (thriftyfun.com)
  • We used a field experiment to demonstrate that mice consume gypsy moth pupae in the wild, although only two out of 80 pupae provided were eaten. (umich.edu)
  • Mature pupae show good waterproofing to a higher temperature than do young pupae. (biologists.org)
  • The colonization of the pathogen was observed in young pupae between 48 and 120 h. (academicjournals.org)
  • It turns out that those sounds are essential for pupae to maintain their rightful place in the ant hierarchy, above their younger, larval siblings. (eurekalert.org)
  • As stated above, logistic regression analysis revealed that the bacterial concentration (106, 107 or 108 bacteria per gram of larval diet) was not a significant predictor of egg to pupa recovery rates (Wald's test t = 1.01, df = 2, P = 0.603). (nih.gov)
  • Pamper skin with the Rebalancing Home Spa Massage Cream from PUPA . (hqhair.com)
  • The morphological alterations observed in the cuticle and in the internal tissues of the pupae were analyzed using a stereo-microscope, a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. (academicjournals.org)
  • The adhesion stage and formation of the appressorium happened 18 h after the infection, occasioning black spots and depressions in the cuticle of young and old pupae. (academicjournals.org)
  • The extrusion happened after 120 h, presenting the mycelial growth upon the pupae cuticle and further sporulation upon the corpses. (academicjournals.org)
  • The redescription of male, female, pupa and larva of Anopheles ( Anopheles ) annulipalpis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878 is presented. (scielo.br)
  • The redescription of Anopheles annulipalpis demonstrate that pupae have laticorn trumpet. (scielo.br)
  • Stages of development in Weevil which includes larva, pupa and weevil stage in United States. (criticalpast.com)
  • At the last stage, weevil emerges out of the pupa. (criticalpast.com)
  • PUPA Home Spa Scented Water - Revitalising 150m. (hqhair.com)
  • Characterization and distribution of the hydrocarbons found in diapausing pupae tissues of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L. (eurekamag.com)
  • The Olive Flashback Caddis Pupa is a Caddis pupal pattern designed to imitate the deep pupal stage of the caddis, with an impressionistic representation of the translucent air sac surrounding the. (riverbum.com)
  • The respiration rate of the beet armyworm pupae (Spodoptera exigua) after multi-generation intoxication with cadmium and zinc. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Exposure to cadmium did not cause any effects whilst exposure to zinc led to a significant increase in the respiration rate of pupae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • From the outside, it appears as though the pupa, also known as the chrysalis, is resting. (amnh.org)
  • Give your skin a re-boot with the Pupa Elasticity Boost Moisturizing Fluid, a fast-absorbing fluid that targets skin texture, sagging and hydration. (escentual.com)
  • The pupa is a non-feeding, usually sessile stage, or highly active as in mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • District workers, who also treat other breeding locations in forest preserves and elsewhere, use surfactants to smother mosquitoes that make it to the pupa form. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The term is derived from the metallic-gold coloration found in the pupae of many butterflies, referred to by the Greek term χρυσός (chrysós) for gold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bead Head Olive Sparkle Pupa Fly is designed to match an emerging Caddis as they appear underwater. (riverbum.com)
  • This popular and innovative Olive Deep Sparkle Pupa pattern was developed by the late Gary LaFontaine. (riverbum.com)
  • This simple Electric Olive Caddis Fly Pupa is effective and durable. (riverbum.com)
  • Caddis Pupa Bead Head Hares Ear in Olive may look simple but it is one of the most effective patterns around. (riverbum.com)