Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
A secondary headache disorder attributed to low CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure caused by SPINAL PUNCTURE, usually after dural or lumbar puncture.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Techniques for controlling bleeding.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
A condition in which the FORESKIN, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of GLANS PENIS, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Methods to repair breaks in tissue caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of dust that contains both CARBON and crystalline SILICON DIOXIDE. These foreign matters induce fibrous nodule formation in the lung.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (1/617)

The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain.  (+info)

Resetting of exaggerated tubuloglomerular feedback activity in acutely volume-expanded young SHR. (2/617)

One purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of 7-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to reset tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) activity in response to acute volume expansion (VE). Second, we evaluated the contribution of ANG II, via its action on AT1 receptors, to TGF control of glomerular function during VE. TGF was assessed by micropuncture methods and proximal tubular stop-flow pressure (SFP) determinations in SHR, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). During euvolemia SHR exhibited enhanced TGF activity. In the same animals acute VE was achieved by infusion of saline (5 ml. h-1. 100 g body wt-1). VE led to resetting of TGF in all three strains. Maximal SFP responses, elicited by a 30-40 nl/min loop of Henle perfusion rate, decreased from 19 to 12 mmHg in SHR and, on average, from 11 to 5 mmHg in WKY and SD (P < 0.001). Tubular flow rate producing a half-maximal response (turning point) shifted to higher flow rates during VE, from 12 to 14 nl/min in SHR and from 15 to 19 nl/min in WKY. Administration of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan (0.05 mg/kg iv) during sustained VE decreased TGF-mediated reductions in SFP in SHR and slightly increased the turning point in WKY. Nevertheless, other parameters of TGF activity were unaffected by AT1 receptor blockade. In conclusion, young SHR possess the ability to reset TGF activity in response to VE to a degree similar to compensatory adjustments in WKY. However, TGF remains enhanced in SHR during VE. ANG II and its action on AT1 receptors are in part responsible for the exaggerated SFP responses in young SHR during VE.  (+info)

Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed for acute myocardial infarction in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. (3/617)

A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain. Electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression and negative T wave in I, aVL and V4-6. Following a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), urgent coronary angiography revealed 99% organic stenosis with delayed flow in the proximal segment and 50% in the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Subsequently, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the stenosis in the proximal LAD was performed. In the coronary care unit, her blood pressure dropped. Hematomas around the puncture sites were observed and the platelet count was 28,000/mm3. After transfusion, electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in I, aVL and V1-6. Urgent recatheterization disclosed total occlusion in the middle segment of the LAD. Subsequently, PTCA was performed successfully. Then, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the platelet count and the bleeding tendency disappeared. A case of AMI with ITP is rare. The present case suggests that primary PTCA can be a useful therapeutic strategy, but careful attention must be paid to hemostasis and to managing the platelet count.  (+info)

Body piercing medical concerns with cutting-edge fashion. (4/617)

OBJECTIVE: To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms "body piercing" and "ear piercing." Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for "body piercing" on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing.  (+info)

Cecal ligation and puncture peritonitis model shows decreased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor numbers in rat muscle: immunopathologic mechanisms? (5/617)

BACKGROUND: Although systemic inflammation is believed to cause upregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) in muscle, chronic infections such as Chagas' disease occasionally are complicated by myasthenia gravis. The authors investigated how a nonlethal cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) peritonitis model in rats could affect muscle nAchR. METHODS: On day 1, 4, 7, 14, or 21 after CLP or sham operation, nAchR binding was assayed in the anterior tibial muscle and diaphragm using [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin. The presence or absence of weakness, in vivo dose-response relationships for d-tubocurarine, and serum anti-nAchR antibody titers were assayed in separate experiments. RESULTS: Systemic inflammation was most severe during the first 4 to 5 days. Numbers of nAchRs were decreased in anterior tibial muscle on days 7, 14, and 21 after CLP, and in the diaphragm on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01). Both 50% and 90% blocking doses of d-tubocurarine) were lower in CLP rats than in sham-operated rats on days 7, 14, and 21 (P < .05). Weakness was overt in approximately half of CLP rats at these times. Serum anti-nAchR antibody (0.7-1.4 nM) was detectable beginning on day 4 and continuing throughout the 21-day observation period in 58-67% of CLP rats. CONCLUSIONS: During the recovery phase of injury, nonlethal CLP peritonitis resulted in downregulation of nAchR. However, further study is needed to determine the role of anti-nAchR antibodies in the development of decreased receptor numbers and impaired neuromuscular function.  (+info)

Is gut the major source of proinflammatory cytokine release during polymicrobial sepsis? (6/617)

Although studies have shown that the gut is capable of being a cytokine-producing organ and that the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 are upregulated following the onset of sepsis, it remains unknown whether the gut is indeed the major source of the increased cytokine production under such conditions. To determine this, male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, a model of polymicrobial sepsis) or sham operation followed by the administration of normal saline solution subcutaneously (i.e., fluid resuscitation). Systemic and portal blood samples were taken simultaneously at 2, 5, 10, or 20 h after CLP or sham operation. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In additional animals, the small intestine was harvested at 10 h after CLP or sham operation and examined for TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 gene expression by RT-PCR. The results indicate that the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in both systemic and portal blood samples were significantly elevated during sepsis with the exception that the increase in IL-1beta was not significant at 2 h after CLP. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of those proinflammatory cytokines between systemic and portal blood at any points after the onset of sepsis. Moreover, there were no significant alterations in the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the small intestine at 10 h after CLP. Since the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were not significantly increased in portal blood as compared to systemic blood and since there was no upregulation of gene expression for these cytokines, it appears that organs other than the gut are responsible for the upregulated proinflammatory cytokines during polymicrobial sepsis.  (+info)

Eukaliuric diuresis and natriuresis in response to the KATP channel blocker U37883A: micropuncture studies on the tubular site of action. (7/617)

1. Systemic application of U37883A, a blocker of ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, elicits diuresis and natriuresis without significantly altering urinary potassium excretion. 2. To elucidate tubular sites of action upstream to the distal nephron, micropuncture experiments were performed in nephrons with superficial glomeruli of anaesthetized Munich-Wistar-Fromter rats during systemic application of U37883A (1, 5 or 15 mg kg-1 i.v.). 3. The observed eukaliuric diuresis and natriuresis in response to U37883A at 15 mg kg-1 was accompanied by an increase in early distal tubular flow rate (VED) from 10 - 18 nl min(-1) reflecting a reduction in fractional reabsorption of fluid up to this site (FR-fluid) of 13%. The latter proposed an effect on water-permeable segments such as the proximal tubule which could fully account for the observed reduction in fractional reabsorption of Na+ up to the early distal tubule (FR-Na+) of 8% and the increase in early distal tubular Na+ concentration ([Na+]ED) from 35 - 51 mM whereas [K+]ED was left unaltered. 4. In comparison, furosemide (3 mg kg-1 i.v.), which acts in the water-impermeable thick ascending limb, elicited diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis which were associated with a fall in FR-Na+ of 10% with no change in FR-fluid, and a rise in [Na+]ED from 42 - 117 mM and [K+]ED from 1.2 - 5.7 mM with no change in VED. 5. Direct late proximal tubular fluid collections confirmed a significant inhibition of fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule in response to systemic application of U37883A. 6. These findings suggest that the diuretic and natriuretic effect upstream to the distal tubule in response to systemic application of U37883A involves actions on water-permeable segments such as the proximal convoluted tubule.  (+info)

Neurointerventional experience with an arteriotomy suture device. (8/617)

We describe our experience with an arteriotomy closure device that has become a routine tool for the management of most patients in our neurointerventional service. In our experience, this device contributes significantly to patient comfort by allowing mobilization within 2 hours of a procedure, even with anticoagulants. Efficacy and safety of this suture device requires proctoring during initial experience.  (+info)

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

A spinal puncture, also known as a lumbar puncture or a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is inserted between two vertebrae in the lower back to extract cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, by analyzing the CSF for cells, chemicals, bacteria, or viruses. Additionally, spinal punctures can be used to administer medications or anesthetics directly into the CSF space, such as in the case of epidural anesthesia during childbirth.

The medical definition of a spinal puncture is: "A diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves introducing a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, typically at the lumbar level, to collect cerebrospinal fluid or administer medications."

Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a type of headache that can occur following a procedure where the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, is punctured. This most commonly occurs during lumbar punctures (spinal taps), epidural anesthesia or central line placements.

The headache is typically described as a positional headache, meaning it worsens with sitting upright or standing and improves with lying down. The exact cause of PDPH is not fully understood, but it's thought to be due to the loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that cushions the brain and spinal cord. This leads to traction on pain-sensitive structures in the head and neck.

PDPH usually begins within 48 hours of the procedure, but can sometimes occur up to five days later. In addition to positional headache, symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness, photophobia (light sensitivity), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and hearing loss. The headache usually resolves on its own within a few days or weeks, but in some cases, it can last for months or even become chronic. Treatment options include hydration, caffeine, analgesics, and in some refractory cases, an epidural blood patch.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

A blood patch, epidural is a medical procedure used to treat a post-dural puncture headache (PDPH), which can occur after a lumbar puncture or spinal anesthesia. During the procedure, a small amount of the patient's own blood is withdrawn and injected into the epidural space, forming a clot that seals the dural tear and alleviates the headache.

The blood patch procedure involves several steps:

1. The patient is typically placed in a lateral decubitus position (lying on their side) to widen the intervertebral space.
2. The area is cleaned and prepared for the injection, similar to other sterile procedures.
3. Using a local anesthetic, the skin and underlying tissues are numbed to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
4. A thin needle is inserted into the epidural space, usually at the same level as the original dural puncture.
5. Once the needle is in the correct position, a small amount of blood (usually around 10-20 mL) is drawn from a vein in the patient's arm.
6. The withdrawn blood is then slowly injected into the epidural space through the needle.
7. After the injection, the needle is removed, and the patient is monitored for any adverse reactions or complications.

The clot formed by the injected blood helps to seal the dural tear, preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from leaking into the epidural space and causing a headache. The blood patch procedure typically provides rapid relief from PDPH, with most patients experiencing significant improvement within 30 minutes to an hour after the injection. However, in some cases, multiple blood patches may be required to achieve complete resolution of the headache.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

An artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis or speech aid, is a device used to help individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the larynx) or have other conditions that prevent them from speaking normally. The device generates sound mechanically, which can then be shaped into speech by the user.

There are two main types of artificial larynx devices:

1. External: This type of device consists of a small electronic unit that produces sound when the user presses a button or activates it with a breath. The sound is then directed through a tube or hose into a face mask or a mouthpiece, where the user can shape it into speech.
2. Internal: An internal artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis, is implanted in the body during surgery. It works by allowing air to flow from the trachea into the esophagus and then through the voice prosthesis, which creates sound that can be used for speech.

Both types of artificial larynx devices require practice and training to use effectively, but they can significantly improve communication and quality of life for individuals who have lost their natural voice due to laryngeal cancer or other conditions.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Hemostatic techniques refer to various methods used in medicine to stop bleeding or hemorrhage. The goal of these techniques is to promote the body's natural clotting process and prevent excessive blood loss. Some common hemostatic techniques include:

1. Mechanical compression: Applying pressure directly to the wound to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. This can be done manually or with the use of medical devices such as clamps, tourniquets, or compression bandages.
2. Suturing or stapling: Closing a wound with stitches or staples to bring the edges of the wound together and allow the body's natural clotting process to occur.
3. Electrocautery: Using heat generated by an electrical current to seal off blood vessels and stop bleeding.
4. Hemostatic agents: Applying topical substances that promote clotting, such as fibrin glue, collagen, or gelatin sponges, to the wound site.
5. Vascular embolization: Inserting a catheter into a blood vessel and injecting a substance that blocks the flow of blood to a specific area, such as a bleeding tumor or aneurysm.
6. Surgical ligation: Tying off a bleeding blood vessel with suture material during surgery.
7. Arterial or venous repair: Repairing damaged blood vessels through surgical intervention to restore normal blood flow and prevent further bleeding.

Spinal anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting local anesthetic medication into the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, which is the space surrounding the spinal cord. This procedure is typically performed by introducing a needle into the lower back, between the vertebrae, to reach the subarachnoid space.

Once the local anesthetic is introduced into this space, it spreads to block nerve impulses from the corresponding levels of the spine, resulting in numbness and loss of sensation in specific areas of the body below the injection site. The extent and level of anesthesia depend on the amount and type of medication used, as well as the patient's individual response.

Spinal anesthesia is often used for surgeries involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities, such as cesarean sections, hernia repairs, hip replacements, and knee arthroscopies. It can also be utilized for procedures like epidural steroid injections to manage chronic pain conditions affecting the spine and lower limbs.

While spinal anesthesia provides effective pain relief during and after surgery, it may cause side effects such as low blood pressure, headache, or difficulty urinating. These potential complications should be discussed with the healthcare provider before deciding on this type of anesthesia.

Meningitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. This inflammation can be caused by various infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or by non-infectious causes like autoimmune diseases, cancer, or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Bacterial meningitis is usually more severe and requires immediate medical attention, while viral meningitis is often less severe and may resolve on its own without specific treatment.

It's important to note that meningitis can be a serious and life-threatening condition, so if you suspect that you or someone else has symptoms of meningitis, you should seek medical attention immediately.

Surgical gloves are a form of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures, particularly surgical procedures. They are designed to provide a barrier between the healthcare professional's hands and the patient's sterile field, helping to prevent contamination and reduce the risk of infection.

Surgical gloves are typically made of latex, nitrile rubber, or vinyl and come in various sizes to fit different hand shapes and sizes. They have a powder-free interior and an exterior that is coated with a substance to make them easier to put on and remove. The gloves are usually sterile and are packaged in pairs, often with a protective covering to maintain their sterility until they are ready to be used.

The use of surgical gloves is a critical component of standard precautions, which are measures taken to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from patients to healthcare professionals or from one patient to another. By wearing surgical gloves, healthcare professionals can protect themselves and their patients from potentially harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that may be present during medical procedures.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection that causes the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed. It's caused by various types of bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

The infection can develop quickly, over a few hours or days, and is considered a medical emergency. Symptoms may include sudden high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light. In some cases, a rash may also be present.

Bacterial meningitis can lead to serious complications such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, and even death if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics and supportive care. It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect bacterial meningitis. Vaccines are available to prevent certain types of bacterial meningitis.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

The axillary vein is a large vein that runs through the axilla or armpit region. It is formed by the union of the brachial vein and the basilic vein at the lower border of the teres major muscle. The axillary vein carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb, chest wall, and breast towards the heart. As it moves proximally, it becomes continuous with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. It is accompanied by the axillary artery and forms part of the important neurovascular bundle in the axilla.

Blood specimen collection is the process of obtaining a sample of blood from a patient for laboratory testing and analysis. This procedure is performed by trained healthcare professionals, such as nurses or phlebotomists, using sterile equipment to minimize the risk of infection and ensure accurate test results. The collected blood sample may be used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, assess overall health and organ function, and check for the presence of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of the specimen are crucial to maintain its integrity and prevent contamination.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure (CSFP) is the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. CSF acts as a cushion for the brain, allowing it to float within the skull and protecting it from trauma.

The normal range of CSFP is typically between 6 and 18 cm of water (cm H2O) when measured in the lateral decubitus position (lying on one's side). Elevated CSFP can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as hydrocephalus, meningitis, or brain tumors. Conversely, low CSFP may indicate dehydration or other underlying health issues.

It is important to monitor and maintain normal CSFP levels, as abnormal pressure can lead to serious neurological complications, including damage to the optic nerve, cognitive impairment, and even death in severe cases. Regular monitoring of CSFP may be necessary for individuals with conditions that affect CSF production or absorption.

Alaryngeal speech refers to the various methods of communicating without the use of the vocal folds (cords) in the larynx, which are typically used for producing sounds during normal speech. This type of communication is necessary for individuals who have lost their larynx or have a non-functioning larynx due to conditions such as cancer, trauma, or surgery.

There are several types of alaryngeal speech, including:

1. Esophageal speech: In this method, air is swallowed into the esophagus and then released in short bursts to produce sounds. This technique requires significant practice and training to master.
2. Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) speech: A small opening is created between the trachea and the esophagus, allowing air from the lungs to pass directly into the esophagus. A one-way valve is placed in the opening to prevent food and liquids from entering the trachea. The air passing through the esophagus produces sound, which can be modified with articulation and resonance to produce speech.
3. Electrolarynx: This is a small electronic device that is held against the neck or jaw and produces vibrations that are used to create sound for speech. The user then shapes these sounds into words using their articulatory muscles (lips, tongue, teeth, etc.).

Alaryngeal speech can be challenging to learn and may require extensive therapy and practice to achieve proficiency. However, with proper training and support, many individuals are able to communicate effectively using these methods.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Peritonitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The peritoneum has an important role in protecting the abdominal organs and providing a smooth surface for them to move against each other.

Peritonitis can occur as a result of bacterial or fungal infection, chemical irritation, or trauma to the abdomen. The most common cause of peritonitis is a rupture or perforation of an organ in the abdominal cavity, such as the appendix, stomach, or intestines, which allows bacteria from the gut to enter the peritoneal cavity.

Symptoms of peritonitis may include abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and decreased bowel movements. In severe cases, peritonitis can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by widespread inflammation throughout the body.

Treatment for peritonitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical intervention to repair any damage to the abdominal organs and remove any infected fluid or tissue from the peritoneal cavity. In some cases, a temporary or permanent drain may be placed in the abdomen to help remove excess fluid and promote healing.

Neurosyphilis is a term used to describe the invasion and infection of the nervous system by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is the causative agent of syphilis. This serious complication can occur at any stage of syphilis, although it's more common in secondary or tertiary stages if left untreated. Neurosyphilis can cause a variety of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) leading to headaches, stiff neck, and fever.
2. Meningovascular syphilis: Affects the blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), or small-vessel disease, which can lead to cognitive decline.
3. General paresis (also known as tertiary general paresis): Progressive dementia characterized by memory loss, personality changes, disorientation, and psychiatric symptoms like delusions or hallucinations.
4. Tabes dorsalis: A degenerative disorder affecting the spinal cord, leading to ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, pain, sensory loss, and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
5. Argyll Robertson pupils: Small, irregularly shaped pupils that react poorly or not at all to light but constrict when focusing on near objects. This is a rare finding in neurosyphilis.

Diagnosis of neurosyphilis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological tests for syphilis. Treatment usually consists of intravenous penicillin G, which can halt the progression of the disease if initiated early enough. However, any neurological damage that has already occurred may be irreversible. Regular follow-up evaluations are essential to monitor treatment response and potential complications.

Bloodletting is a medical procedure that was commonly used in the past to balance the four humors of the body, which were believed to be blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. The procedure involved withdrawing blood from a patient through various methods such as venesection (making an incision in a vein), leeches, or cupping.

The theory behind bloodletting was that if one humor became overabundant, it could cause disease or illness. By removing some of the excess humor, practitioners believed they could restore balance and promote healing. Bloodletting was used to treat a wide variety of conditions, including fever, inflammation, and pain.

While bloodletting is no longer practiced in modern medicine, it was once a common treatment for many different ailments. The practice dates back to ancient times and was used by various cultures throughout history, including the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Chinese. However, its effectiveness as a medical treatment has been called into question, and it is now considered an outdated and potentially harmful procedure.

The epidural space is the potential space located outside the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). This space runs the entire length of the spinal canal and contains fatty tissue, blood vessels, and nerve roots. It is often used as a route for administering anesthesia during childbirth or surgery, as well as for pain management in certain medical conditions. The injection of medications into this space is called an epidural block.

Febrile seizures are a type of seizure that occurs in young children, typically between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, and is often associated with fever. A febrile seizure is defined as a convulsion or seizure that is brought on by a high fever, usually greater than 100.4°F (38°C), but can also occur in response to a rapid rise in body temperature. The seizures can vary in length and may involve shaking of the entire body, jerking of the arms and legs, or just twitching of one part of the body. They can be quite alarming to witness, but they are usually harmless and do not cause any long-term neurological problems.

Febrile seizures are most commonly caused by viral infections, such as a cold or flu, but they can also occur with bacterial infections, such as a urinary tract infection or ear infection. In some cases, the fever and seizure may be the first signs that a child is ill.

While febrile seizures are generally harmless, it is important to seek medical attention if your child has a seizure. This is because a small percentage of children who have febrile seizures may go on to develop epilepsy, a condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Additionally, some serious underlying conditions, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause fever and seizures, so it is important to rule out these possibilities with a thorough medical evaluation.

If your child has a febrile seizure, the best course of action is to remain calm and make sure they are in a safe place where they cannot injure themselves. Do not try to restrain them or put anything in their mouth. Instead, gently turn them onto their side to prevent choking and call for medical help. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes and resolve on their own without any treatment. After the seizure, your child may be sleepy or confused, but they should return to their normal state within a short period of time.

Obstetrical anesthesia refers to the use of anesthetic techniques and medications during childbirth or obstetrical procedures. The goal is to provide pain relief and comfort to the birthing person while ensuring the safety of both the mother and the baby. There are different types of obstetrical anesthesia, including:

1. Local anesthesia: Injection of a local anesthetic agent to numb a specific area, such as the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) during childbirth.
2. Regional anesthesia: Numbing a larger region of the body using techniques like spinal or epidural anesthesia. These methods involve injecting local anesthetic agents near the spinal cord to block nerve impulses, providing pain relief in the lower half of the body.
3. General anesthesia: Using inhaled gases or intravenous medications to render the birthing person unconscious during cesarean sections (C-sections) or other surgical procedures related to childbirth.

The choice of anesthetic technique depends on various factors, including the type of delivery, the mother's medical history, and the preferences of both the mother and the healthcare team. Obstetrical anesthesia requires specialized training and expertise to ensure safe and effective pain management during labor and delivery.

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This is typically performed in cases of advanced laryngeal cancer or other severe diseases of the larynx. After the surgery, the patient will have a permanent stoma (opening) in the neck to allow for breathing. The ability to speak after a total laryngectomy can be restored through various methods such as esophageal speech, tracheoesophageal puncture with a voice prosthesis, or electronic devices.

Myelography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the spinal cord and surrounding structures, such as the spinal nerves, intervertebral discs, and the spinal column. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into the subarachnoid space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The dye outlines the spinal structures, making them visible on X-ray or CT scan images.

The primary purpose of myelography is to diagnose various spinal conditions, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors, infection, and traumatic injuries. It can help identify any compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves that may be causing pain, numbness, weakness, or other neurological symptoms.

The procedure typically requires the patient to lie flat on their stomach or side while the radiologist inserts a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, usually at the lower lumbar level. Once the contrast dye is injected, the patient will be repositioned for various X-ray views or undergo a CT scan to capture detailed images of the spine. After the procedure, patients may experience headaches, nausea, or discomfort at the injection site, but these symptoms usually resolve within a few days.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

The subarachnoid space is the area between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, which are two of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the third one being the dura mater). This space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and cushioning to the central nervous system. The subarachnoid space also contains blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord with oxygen and nutrients. It's important to note that subarachnoid hemorrhage, a type of stroke, can occur when there is bleeding into this space.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Needlestick injuries are sharp object injuries typically involving hollow-bore needles, which can result in exposure to bloodborne pathogens. They often occur during the use or disposal of contaminated needles in healthcare settings. These injuries pose a significant risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It is essential to follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of needles and other sharp objects to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries.

"Morganella morganii" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and associated with various animals. In humans, it can be part of the normal gut flora but can also cause infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or following surgical procedures. It is known to cause a variety of infections, such as urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria can produce a number of virulence factors, including enzymes that help it evade the host's immune system and cause tissue damage. It is resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging.

Phlebotomy is a medical term that refers to the process of making an incision in a vein, usually in the arm, in order to draw blood. It is also commonly known as venipuncture. This procedure is performed by healthcare professionals for various purposes such as diagnostic testing, blood donation, or therapeutic treatments like phlebotomy for patients with hemochromatosis (a condition where the body absorbs too much iron from food).

The person who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist. They must be trained in the proper techniques to ensure that the process is safe and relatively pain-free for the patient, and that the blood sample is suitable for laboratory testing.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Obstetrical analgesia refers to the use of medications or techniques to relieve pain during childbirth. The goal of obstetrical analgesia is to provide comfort and relaxation for the mother during labor and delivery while minimizing risks to both the mother and the baby. There are several methods of obstetrical analgesia, including:

1. Systemic opioids: These medications, such as morphine or fentanyl, can be given intravenously to help reduce the pain of contractions. However, they can cause side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression in the mother and may also affect the baby's breathing and alertness at birth.
2. Regional anesthesia: This involves numbing a specific area of the body using local anesthetics. The two most common types of regional anesthesia used during childbirth are epidural and spinal anesthesia.

a. Epidural anesthesia: A catheter is inserted into the lower back, near the spinal cord, to deliver a continuous infusion of local anesthetic and sometimes opioids. This numbs the lower half of the body, reducing the pain of contractions and allowing for a more comfortable delivery. Epidural anesthesia can also be used for cesarean sections.

b. Spinal anesthesia: A single injection of local anesthetic is given into the spinal fluid, numbing the lower half of the body. This type of anesthesia is often used for cesarean sections and can also be used for vaginal deliveries in some cases.

3. Nitrous oxide: Also known as laughing gas, this colorless, odorless gas can be inhaled through a mask to help reduce anxiety and provide some pain relief during labor. It is not commonly used in the United States but is more popular in other countries.

When choosing an obstetrical analgesia method, it's essential to consider the potential benefits and risks for both the mother and the baby. Factors such as the mother's health, the progression of labor, and personal preferences should all be taken into account when making this decision. It is crucial to discuss these options with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate choice for each individual situation.

Intracranial hypotension is a medical condition characterized by reduced pressure within the cranial cavity (the space containing brain and cerebrospinal fluid). This can occur due to several reasons, most commonly being a spontaneous or traumatic CSF leak (cerebrospinal fluid leak) from the dural membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The decrease in CSF pressure can cause various symptoms such as headaches (often positional), nausea, vomiting, neck pain, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, and cognitive impairment. Treatment typically involves identifying and addressing the underlying cause, which may include bed rest, hydration, caffeine, epidural blood patch procedures, or surgical repair of CSF leaks.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

In medical terms, the "groin" refers to the area where the lower abdomen meets the thigh. It is located on both sides of the body, in front of the upper part of each leg. The groin contains several important structures such as the inguinal canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves, and the femoral artery and vein, which supply blood to and from the lower extremities. Issues in this region, such as pain or swelling, may indicate a variety of medical conditions, including muscle strains, hernias, or infections.

In medical terms, "heel" generally refers to the posterior and largest part of the foot, specifically the calcaneus bone. The heel is the first part of the foot to make contact with the ground during walking or running, and it plays a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and absorbing shock during movement.

The term "heel" can also be used to describe a structure or device that is attached to the back of a shoe or boot to provide additional height, support, or protection to the wearer's heel. These types of heels are often worn for fashion purposes or to compensate for differences in leg length.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Pseudotumor cerebri, also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is a condition characterized by increased pressure around the brain without any identifiable cause such as a tumor or other space-occupying lesion. The symptoms mimic those of a brain mass, hence the term "pseudotumor."

The primary manifestation of this condition is headaches, often accompanied by vision changes like blurry vision, double vision, or temporary loss of vision, and pulsatile tinnitus (a rhythmic whooshing sound in the ears). Other symptoms can include neck pain, nausea, vomiting, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). If left untreated, pseudotumor cerebri can lead to permanent vision loss.

The exact cause of pseudotumor cerebri remains unknown, but it has been associated with certain factors such as obesity, rapid weight gain, female gender (particularly during reproductive years), sleep apnea, and the use of certain medications like tetracyclines, vitamin A derivatives, and steroid withdrawal. Diagnosis typically involves a series of tests including neurological examination, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scan), and lumbar puncture to measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Treatment usually focuses on lowering intracranial pressure through medications, weight loss, and sometimes surgical interventions like optic nerve sheath fenestration or shunting procedures.

Fungal meningitis is a form of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is specifically caused by the invasion of the meninges by fungi. The most common causative agents are Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum.

Fungal meningitis typically occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. It begins gradually, often with symptoms including headache, fever, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light. Other possible symptoms can include confusion, nausea, vomiting, and altered mental status.

Diagnosis of fungal meningitis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment usually requires long-term antifungal therapy, often administered intravenously in a hospital setting. The prognosis for fungal meningitis depends on several factors, including the underlying immune status of the patient, the specific causative agent, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A percutaneous nephrostomy is a medical procedure in which a tube (catheter) is inserted through the skin into the kidney to drain urine. "Percutaneous" means that the procedure is performed through the skin. The term "nephrostomy" refers specifically to the creation of an opening into the kidney.

This procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and imaging guidance, such as ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the catheter. It may be used in cases where there is a blockage in the urinary tract that prevents the normal flow of urine, such as a kidney stone or tumor. By creating a nephrostomy, urine can be drained from the kidney, helping to alleviate pressure and prevent further complications.

Percutaneous nephrostomy is generally a safe procedure, but like any medical intervention, it carries some risks. These may include bleeding, infection, injury to surrounding organs, or failure to properly place the catheter. Patients who undergo this procedure will typically require follow-up care to manage the catheter and monitor their kidney function.

A stab wound is a type of penetrating trauma to the body caused by a sharp object such as a knife or screwdriver. The injury may be classified as either a stabbing or a puncture wound, depending on the nature of the object and the manner in which it was inflicted. Stab wounds typically involve a forceful thrusting motion, which can result in damage to internal organs, blood vessels, and other structures.

The depth and severity of a stab wound depend on several factors, including the type and length of the weapon used, the angle and force of the strike, and the location of the wound on the body. Stab wounds to vital areas such as the chest or abdomen can be particularly dangerous due to the risk of internal bleeding and infection.

Immediate medical attention is required for stab wounds, even if they appear minor at first glance. Treatment may involve wound cleaning, suturing, antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs. In severe cases, stab wounds can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death if left untreated.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The term "cisterna magna" is derived from Latin, where "cisterna" means "reservoir" or "receptacle," and "magna" means "large." In medical anatomy, the cisterna magna refers to a large, sac-like space located near the lower part of the brainstem. It is a subarachnoid cistern, which means it is a space that contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the arachnoid and pia mater membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

More specifically, the cisterna magna is situated between the cerebellum (the lower part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance) and the occipital bone (the bone at the back of the skull). This space contains a significant amount of CSF, which serves as a protective cushion for the brain and spinal cord, helps regulate intracranial pressure, and facilitates the circulation of nutrients and waste products.

The cisterna magna is an essential structure in neurosurgical procedures and diagnostic imaging techniques like lumbar puncture (spinal tap) or myelograms, where contrast agents are introduced into the CSF to visualize the spinal cord and surrounding structures. Additionally, it serves as a crucial landmark for various surgical approaches to the posterior fossa (the lower part of the skull that houses the cerebellum and brainstem).

The subclavian vein is a large venous structure that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb and part of the thorax back to the heart. It forms when the axillary vein passes through the narrow space between the first rib and the clavicle (collarbone), becoming the subclavian vein.

On the left side, the subclavian vein joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein, while on the right side, the subclavian vein directly merges with the internal jugular vein to create the brachiocephalic vein. These brachiocephalic veins then unite to form the superior vena cava, which drains blood into the right atrium of the heart.

The subclavian vein is an essential structure for venous access in various medical procedures and interventions, such as placing central venous catheters or performing blood tests.

Paraphimosis is a urological emergency that occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male gets retracted behind the glans penis and cannot be returned to its normal position, leading to constriction and swelling of the glans. If left untreated, it can result in severe pain, discomfort, infection, and even gangrene, potentially requiring surgical intervention.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins refer to the proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The protein concentration in the CSF is much lower than that in the blood, and it contains a specific set of proteins that are produced by the brain, spinal cord, and associated tissues.

The normal range for CSF protein levels is typically between 15-45 mg/dL, although this can vary slightly depending on the laboratory's reference range. An elevation in CSF protein levels may indicate the presence of neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Additionally, certain conditions such as spinal cord injury, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative diseases can also cause an increase in CSF protein levels.

Therefore, measuring CSF protein levels is an important diagnostic tool for neurologists to evaluate various neurological disorders and monitor disease progression. However, it's essential to interpret the results of CSF protein tests in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results to make an accurate diagnosis.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Paracentesis is a medical procedure in which a thin needle or catheter is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove excess fluid from the peritoneal cavity. This procedure is also known as abdominal tap or paracentesis aspiration. The fluid removed, called ascites, can be analyzed for infection, malignant cells, or other signs of disease. Paracentesis may be performed to relieve symptoms caused by the buildup of excess fluid in the abdomen, such as pain, difficulty breathing, or loss of appetite. It is commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney failure.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts are medical devices used to divert the flow of excess CSF from the brain and spinal cord to another part of the body, usually the abdominal cavity. The shunt consists of a catheter, a valve, and a reservoir.

The catheter is inserted into one of the ventricles in the brain or the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord to drain the excess CSF. The valve regulates the flow of CSF to prevent over-drainage, which can cause complications such as low CSF pressure and brain sagging. The reservoir is a small chamber that allows for easy access to the shunt system for monitoring and adjusting the pressure settings.

CSF shunts are typically used to treat conditions associated with increased production or impaired absorption of CSF, such as hydrocephalus, communicating hydrocephalus, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and pseudotumor cerebri. By reducing the buildup of CSF in the brain, shunts can help alleviate symptoms such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, vision problems, and cognitive impairment.

It is important to note that while CSF shunts are effective in managing these conditions, they also carry risks of complications such as infection, obstruction, malfunction, and over-drainage. Regular monitoring and follow-up care are necessary to ensure proper functioning and minimize the risk of complications.

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and is typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It's the measurement of the pressure exerted by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and brain tissue within the confined space of the skull.

Normal ICP ranges from 5 to 15 mmHg in adults when lying down. Intracranial pressure may increase due to various reasons such as bleeding in the brain, swelling of the brain, increased production or decreased absorption of CSF, and brain tumors. Elevated ICP is a serious medical emergency that can lead to brain damage or even death if not promptly treated. Symptoms of high ICP may include severe headache, vomiting, altered consciousness, and visual changes.

Wound closure techniques are methods used to bring the edges of a wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing the scar formation. The goal is to approximate the wound edges accurately while providing strength and support to the healing tissues. Several techniques can be employed depending on the type, location, and size of the wound. Some common wound closure techniques include:

1. Sutures (Stitches): A surgical thread is passed through the skin on either side of the wound and tied together to hold the edges in place. Sutures can be absorbable or non-absorbable, and various materials and needle types are used depending on the specific application.
2. Staples: Similar to sutures, staples are used to bring the wound edges together. They are typically faster to apply and remove than sutures, making them suitable for certain types of wounds, such as those on the scalp or torso.
3. Adhesive strips (Steri-Strips): These are thin adhesive bandages applied across the wound to keep the edges approximated. They are often used in conjunction with other closure techniques or for superficial wounds that do not require extensive support.
4. Tissue adhesives (Glues): A liquid adhesive is applied to the wound edges, which then hardens and forms a bond between them. This technique is typically used for minor wounds and can be less invasive than sutures or staples.
5. Skin closure tapes: These are specialized tapes that provide support to the healing wound while also protecting it from external factors. They can be used in combination with other closure techniques or on their own for superficial wounds.
6. Surgical sealants: These are medical-grade materials that create a barrier over the wound, helping to prevent infection and maintain moisture at the wound site. They can be used alongside other closure methods or as an alternative for certain types of wounds.

The choice of wound closure technique depends on various factors, including the location, size, and depth of the wound, patient preferences, and the healthcare provider's expertise. Proper wound care and follow-up are essential to ensure optimal healing and minimize scarring.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Hemorrhage is defined in the medical context as an excessive loss of blood from the circulatory system, which can occur due to various reasons such as injury, surgery, or underlying health conditions that affect blood clotting or the integrity of blood vessels. The bleeding may be internal, external, visible, or concealed, and it can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Hemorrhage is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment to prevent further blood loss, organ damage, and potential death.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Anthracosilicosis is a type of pneumoconiosis, which is a lung disease caused by inhaling dust particles. This particular form of the disease results from exposure to both coal mine dust (anthracotic dust) and silica dust. The inhalation of these dusts can lead to inflammation, fibrosis (scarring) and nodular lesions in the lungs.

The symptoms of anthracosilicosis can be quite varied, but they often include coughing, shortness of breath, and decreased lung function. The severity of the disease depends on the duration and intensity of exposure to the dusts. While there is no cure for anthracosilicosis, treatments can help alleviate symptoms and slow progression. These may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, and various medical interventions, such as bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, or in some cases, lung transplantation. Prevention is key, and occupational health and safety measures should be implemented to minimize exposure to harmful dusts in high-risk industries like coal mining and construction.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

Paresthesia is a medical term that describes an abnormal sensation such as tingling, numbness, prickling, or burning, usually in the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These sensations can occur without any obvious cause, often described as "pins and needles" or falling asleep in a limb. However, persistent paresthesia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as nerve damage, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent paresthesia to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Headache disorders refer to a group of conditions characterized by recurrent headaches that cause significant distress and impairment in daily functioning. The most common types of headache disorders are tension-type headaches, migraines, and cluster headaches.

Tension-type headaches are typically described as a dull, aching sensation around the head and neck, often accompanied by tightness or pressure. Migraines, on the other hand, are usually characterized by moderate to severe throbbing pain on one or both sides of the head, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances.

Cluster headaches are relatively rare but extremely painful, with attacks lasting from 15 minutes to three hours and occurring several times a day for weeks or months. They typically affect one side of the head and are often accompanied by symptoms such as redness and tearing of the eye, nasal congestion, and sweating on the affected side of the face.

Headache disorders can have a significant impact on quality of life, and effective treatment often requires a multidisciplinary approach that may include medication, lifestyle changes, and behavioral therapies.

Intervertebral disc degeneration is a physiological and biochemical process that occurs in the spinal discs, which are located between each vertebra in the spine. These discs act as shock absorbers and allow for movement and flexibility of the spine.

The degenerative process involves changes in the structure and composition of the disc, including loss of water content, decreased production of proteoglycans (which help to maintain the disc's elasticity), and disorganization of the collagen fibers that make up the disc's outer layer (annulus fibrosus). These changes can lead to a decrease in the disc's height and mobility, as well as the development of tears or cracks in the annulus fibrosus.

In advanced stages of degeneration, the disc may herniate or bulge outward, causing pressure on nearby nerves and potentially leading to pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area. It's worth noting that while intervertebral disc degeneration is a normal part of aging, certain factors such as injury, smoking, obesity, and repetitive stress can accelerate the process.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Maxillary sinusitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation or infection of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located in the upper part of the cheekbones. These sinuses are lined with mucous membranes that produce mucus to help filter and humidify the air we breathe.

When the maxillary sinuses become inflamed or infected, they can fill with fluid and pus, leading to symptoms such as:

* Pain or pressure in the cheeks, upper teeth, or behind the eyes
* Nasal congestion or stuffiness
* Runny nose or postnasal drip
* Reduced sense of smell or taste
* Headache or facial pain
* Fatigue or fever (in cases of bacterial infection)

Maxillary sinusitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and may also result from allergies, structural abnormalities, or exposure to environmental irritants such as smoke or pollution. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms with over-the-counter remedies or prescription medications, such as decongestants, antihistamines, or antibiotics. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as sinus surgery may be necessary.

Extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials refers to the unintended leakage or escape of these substances from the intended vasculature into the surrounding tissues. This can occur during the administration of various medical treatments, such as chemotherapy, contrast agents for imaging studies, or other injectable medications.

The extravasation can result in a range of complications, depending on the type and volume of the material that has leaked, as well as the location and sensitivity of the surrounding tissues. Possible consequences include local tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and potential long-term effects such as fibrosis or necrosis.

Prompt recognition and management of extravasation are essential to minimize these complications. Treatment may involve local cooling or heating, the use of hyaluronidase or other agents to facilitate dispersion of the extravasated material, or surgical intervention in severe cases.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Peritoneal lavage is a medical procedure where a sterile fluid is introduced into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within it. The fluid is then allowed to mix with any potentially present infectious or inflammatory material in the cavity. Afterward, the fluid is drained out and sent for laboratory analysis to diagnose various conditions such as bacterial peritonitis or other sources of abdominal infection or inflammation.

The procedure can help identify the presence of infection, determine the type of bacteria causing it, and guide appropriate antibiotic therapy. It is an invasive diagnostic test that requires careful monitoring and proper aseptic technique to avoid complications such as infection or bleeding.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Look up puncture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Puncture, punctured or puncturing may refer to: a flat tyre in British ... a punctured code, in which some of the bits of the data stream have been removed Pneumothorax, also known as punctured lung ... a penetrating wound caused by pointy objects as nails or needles Lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap Puncture (band), ... an English punk band Puncture (film), a 2011 American film starring Chris Evans Puncture (topology), the removal of a finite ...
However, with puncturing the same decoder can be used regardless of how many bits have been punctured, thus puncturing ... Puncturing is used in UMTS during the rate matching process. It is also used in Wi-Fi, Wi-SUN, GPRS, EDGE, DVB-T and DAB, as ... In coding theory, puncturing is the process of removing some of the parity bits after encoding with an error-correction code. ... Puncturing was introduced by Gustave Solomon and J. J. Stiffler in 1964. Singleton bound, an upper bound in coding theory Chris ...
... at IMDb Puncture Wounds at Rotten Tomatoes (Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles with ... Puncture Wounds was released direct to video in the United States on March 11, 2014. Eoin Friel, of The Action Elite, praised ... Puncture Wounds (produced and released internationally as A Certain Justice) is a 2014 American action film directed by Giorgio ... "Puncture Wounds movie review",, published 03-17-2014. Retrieved 09-16-2015. Jane, Ian (2014-03-24). " ...
"Puncture". Officialsite. Retrieved February 28, 2019. "Puncture (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2014-04-05. "Puncture". ... "Puncture". Retrieved February 28, 2019. "Millennium Lands U.S. Rights for 'Puncture'". The Hollywood Reporter. 2011-06-16. ... Ebert, Roger (2011-10-05). "Puncture". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2014-04-05. Honeycutt, Kirk (2011-09-06). "Puncture: Film ... Puncture was released on DVD and Blu-ray on January 3, 2012. The film promotes safe needle use worldwide. Rotten Tomatoes, a ...
Puncture were an early English punk rock group. Founded in the summer of 1976, this Islington, London based, four-piece combo ... Like so many other English punk singles of the time, original copies of the Puncture single now sell for up to £30. "Mucky Pup ... In the 1980s, The Exploited covered Puncture's song "Mucky Pup" on their album Punks Not Dead. ...
... was first introduced in 1891 by the German physician Heinrich Quincke. The reason for a lumbar puncture may be ... lumbar puncture in the presence of raised ICP may cause uncal herniation Exception: therapeutic use of lumbar puncture to ... Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, ... Sometimes, lumbar puncture cannot be performed safely (for example due to a severe bleeding tendency). It is regarded as a safe ...
A suboccipital puncture or cisternal puncture is a diagnostic procedure that can be performed in order to collect a sample of ... Lumbar puncture Marco Mumenthaler; Heinrich Mattle (1 January 2011). Neurology. Thieme. pp. 79-80. ISBN 978-1-60406-135-2. ( ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage and direct puncture of brain tissue are the most common major complications. Fluoroscopic guidance ... through the skin below the external occipital protuberance into the cisterna magna and is an alternative to lumbar puncture. ...
Examples of punctured manifolds include the open disk (which is a sphere with a single puncture), the cylinder (which is a ... In this case, the manifold is known as once-punctured. With the removal of a second point, it becomes twice-punctured, and so ... In topology, puncturing a manifold is removing a finite set of points from that manifold. The set of points can be small as a ... sphere with two punctures), and the Möbius strip (which is a projective plane with a single puncture).[citation needed] Seifert ...
The puncture resistance will depend on the nature of puncture attempt, with the two most important features being point ... Puncture resistance denotes the relative ability of a material or object to inhibit the intrusion of a foreign object. This is ... It can be measured in several ways ranging from a slow controlled puncture to a rapid impact of a sharp object or a rounded ... Puncture resistance in fabrics can be obtained through very tight woven fabrics, small ceramic plates in fabric coating or ...
Secondary puncture can be performed when: 1) primary puncture was not possible, 2) for re-puncture after closure of a previous ... A secondary puncture could then be placed.[citation needed] This procedure refers to a puncture that is placed anytime after ... A tracheo-esophageal puncture (or tracheoesophageal puncture) is a surgically created hole between the trachea (windpipe) and ... Poor tissue condition at the puncture site can be a contra-indication for TE puncture. It is also important that the patient ...
... is the name of two early comedy films: Tillie's Punctured Romance (1914 film), starring Marie ... Fields This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Tillie's Punctured Romance. If an internal link led ... Dressler, Mabel Normand, and Charles Chaplin Tillie's Punctured Romance (1928 film), starring W. C. ...
... is a medical procedure performed to obtain a sample of arterial blood for gas analysis. A needle is ... prior to arterial puncture, does not reduce the perceived pain of the procedure. Collins, Kevin P.; Russian, Christopher J.; ... RCT of lidocaine for arterial puncture". Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine. 8 (4): 185-191. doi:10.1111/jebm.12177. PMID ... Gonzales, Joshua F. (2016). "Teaching Health Care Students the Radial Arterial Puncture Procedure". Journal of Allied Health. ...
... (PDPH) is a complication of puncture of the dura mater (one of the membranes around the brain and ... Onset occurs within two days in 66% of cases and three days in 90%. It occurs so rarely immediately after puncture that other ... The headache usually occurs 24-48 hours after puncture but may occur as many as 12 days after. It usually resolves within a few ... A small amount of the person's blood is injected into the epidural space near the site of the original puncture; the resulting ...
In contrast to standard lumbar puncture by palpation, the use of ultrasound imaging may reduce the number of failed punctures, ... Ultrasound-guided lumbar puncture is a medical procedure used in some emergency departments to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for ... Ultrasound-guided lumbar puncture was first described in Russian medical literature in 1971. Shaikh, F.; Brzezinski, J.; ... "Focus On: Ultrasound-Guided Lumbar Puncture". American College of Emergency Physicians. Retrieved 1 November 2014. v t e (CSF ...
Tillie's Punctured Romance at IMDb Tillie's Punctured Romance at AllMovie Tillie's Punctured Romance public domain versions at ... Tillie's Punctured Romance is a 1914 American silent comedy film directed by Mack Sennett and starring Marie Dressler, Mabel ... Tillie's Punctured Romance". BFI. September 2006. Charlie Chaplin. Archived from the original on June 29, 2006. Retrieved 2015- ... Tillie's Punctured Romance, 1914. UCLA Film and Television Archive: 12th Festival of Preservation, July 22-August 21, 2004. ...
The PAIR (puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration; sometimes percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration) procedure is a ... ultrasound-guided percutaneous puncture of the cyst aspiration of cystic fluid injection of a scolicidal solution reaspiration ...
Tillie's Punctured Romance Tillie's Punctured Romance at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Tillie's Punctured Romance is a lost 1928 American silent circus comedy film starring W. C. Fields as a ringmaster and Louise ...
Elytra very decidedly wider than long, sides strongly dilated to apex; with four basal foveas; punctures indistinct. Abdomen ...
... punctures indistinct. Upper surface of abdomen with third segment a trifle longer than second or fourth; lower surface feebly ... with numerous very small punctures. Elytra convex, almost as long as wide, sides some-what inflated in middle, apex almost ...
Punctures were common; tyre manufacturer Michelin introduced a detachable rim with a tyre already affixed, which could be ... which could be quickly swapped onto the car in the event of a puncture. Unlike in the Gordon Bennett races, only the driver and ... and to limit the resulting problem of impaired visibility and punctures the ACF sealed the entire length of the track with tar ... had retired on lap ten after a long series of punctures. Of the other retirements, Hémery, René Hanriot (riding mechanic Jean ...
Pronotal punctures are regular, sparse and moderately strong on disc. Coarse punctures found along the posterior margin. Elytra ... Metasternum moderately strongly and irregularly punctured. Abdomen without punctures. Legs are testaceous. "Catalogue of the ... Elytral punctures are fairly fine and regular, and moderately dense. Epipleura, prothorax, metacoxae medially and abdomen are ... Head finely, sparsely and relatively regularly punctured. Antennae flavo-testaceous, which are moderately long and slender. ...
fundoscopy, and lumbar punctures. However, the diagnosis of many of the disorders associated with neuritis is a clinical one ...
Elytra lacking serial punctures. Coelostoma aeneolum Régimbart, 1903 Coelostoma aethiopicum Orchymont, 1936 Coelostoma afflatum ...
On 28 January 2020, he suffered a punctured lung, a broken rib, and ligament damage across the shoulder and collarbone as a ... "Grimsby's Hessenthaler punctures lung". BBC Sport. Retrieved 26 October 2020. "Grimsby Town's Jake Hessenthaler faces long lay- ...
2017) She is the author of several books, including Life and Other Punctures, a 1978 account of bicycling in France and Holland ... ISBN 0-413-29450-1. Bron, Eleanor (1978). Life and Other Punctures. A. Deutsch. ISBN 978-0-233-97008-0. Bron, Eleanor (1985). ...
Pronotum with deep punctures. "Functional diversity and seasonal activity of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) on native ...
Clypeus coarsely and closely punctured. Forehead with moderately strong punctures. Thorax obliquely narrowed in front with ... Elytra with strong punctures. Pygidium small but with similar puncturation as in thorax. Underside of the abdomen is pubescent ...
Both drivers suffered punctures and had to pit on the first lap and fell to the back of the field. However, he managed to ... He outqualified his teammate again in Brazil and was running fourth, but he picked up a puncture from debris on the track, ... Both drivers suffered punctures. Hülkenberg recovered to 13th, but Leclerc eventually retired from the race. He then finished ...
". "Parakala punctures Praja Rajyam". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 6 July 2019. TNM Staff (19 June 2018). "AP govt advisor ...
McGonigal, Mike (Spring 1998). "Dropping in at the Neutral Milk Hotel". Puncture. Archived from the original on April 23, 2003 ...
However, with puncturing the same decoder can be used regardless of how many bits have been punctured, thus puncturing ... Puncturing is used in UMTS during the rate matching process. It is also used in Wi-Fi, Wi-SUN, GPRS, EDGE, DVB-T and DAB, as ... In coding theory, puncturing is the process of removing some of the parity bits after encoding with an error-correction code. ... Puncturing was introduced by Gustave Solomon and J. J. Stiffler in 1964. Singleton bound, an upper bound in coding theory Chris ...
I was walking in the flat without shoes For my good luck the sharp object my mom use for getting blood for chcking blood sugar prick me and penetrate my big toe for a minute until I removed . I got w...
Puncture wounds: First aid. By Mayo Clinic Staff. A puncture wound, such as from stepping on a nail, doesnt usually cause much ... Puncture wound. In: Triage Protocols for Aging Adults. Wolters Kluwer; 2019.. *Rerucha CM, et al. Acute hand infections. ... Puncture wound. In: Adult Telephone Protocols. Office Version. 5th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2022. ... Puncture wound. In: Pediatric Telephone Protocols. Office Version. 17th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018. ...
Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle into the airway through the skin of the throat. It is done to ... Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle into the airway through the skin of the throat. It is done to ... Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle into the airway through the skin of the throat. It is done to ... Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts to assist with ...
Sprint finish: Sanchez races clear to avoid drawing pin drama and puncture mayhem ...
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Porretto Punctures "Process". One of the downsides of contemporary capitalism (yes, there are a few) is the need to invent new ...
The central vein sign is an emerging neuroimaging biomarker for multiple sclerosis that may reduce the need for lumbar puncture ... Reducing the Need for Lumbar Puncture OCBs in CSF are commonly used as a diagnostic biomarker for MS and can serve to meet the ... The presence of OCBs is "very specific for MS and is obtained by lumbar puncture, which is invasive and can be unpleasant, so ... CVS is an emerging neuroimaging biomarker for MS that may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the need for lumbar puncture. ...
The puncture came and the race was over, says Etixx-QuickStep sprinter ... After a hard battle to stay with the main bunch on stage 7, a late puncture put paid to Marcel Kittels hopes to fight for his ... Unfortunately, the puncture came and the race was over.. Get The Leadout Newsletter. The latest race content, interviews, ... Giro dItalia: Puncture costs Kittel points lead on stage 7. By Alasdair Fotheringham ...
Lumbar Puncture. LP is traditionally performed as a follow-up test when a CT scan has shown no SAH and has excluded possible ... McCormack RF, Hutson A. Can computed tomography angiography of the brain replace lumbar puncture in the evaluation of acute- ... Traditionally, a negative CT scan is followed with lumbar puncture (LP). However, noncontrast CT followed by CT angiography ( ... Approximately 10-20% of patients with clinically diagnosed SAH (on CT and/or lumbar puncture) have negative angiographic ...
... the sinus cavity is punctured with a needle, and a sample of the sinus contents is obtained. A culture and sensitivity test is ... For this test, the sinus cavity is punctured with a needle, and a sample of the sinus contents is obtained. A culture and ... Needle puncture and aspiration of the sinus may be needed when a person has repeated sinus infections. More accurate ...
The lateral patellofemoral approach is most commonly used for knee puncture, but it is a painful procedure and not always ... The lateral patellofemoral approach is most commonly used for knee puncture, but it is a painful procedure and not always ...
Im working on a piece of writing where a character suffers a punctured lung from getting stabbed. ... If the puncture has allowed air (but not blood, or at least not a lot of blood) to enter the space around the lung, youre ... Im working on a piece of writing where a character suffers a punctured lung from getting stabbed. Google has supplied me with ...
Superb range of Puncture Repair - Discontinued at, cycle distributor to the trade. ... Puncture Repair - Discontinued. No Results Found Try selecting a different product Category from the menu on the left of the ...
The utility model discloses a cricothyroid membrane puncture breather pipe which comprises a breather connecting pipe, a ... CN215534870U - Cricothyroid membrane puncture breather pipe - Google Patents. Cricothyroid membrane puncture breather pipe ... the trachea cannula puncture breather pipe is equipped with the trachea cannula, the trachea cannula puncture breather pipe is ... Cricothyroid membrane puncture breather pipe Applications Claiming Priority (1). Application Number. Priority Date. Filing Date ...
Hand protection for puncture hazards. Let us help you find the right puncture protection ...
Priyanka Reddy was on her way home when her motorbike had a puncture near Hyderabad in India. A group of men then abducted her ... Priyanka had called her sister Bhavya at 9.45pm to say that her motorbike had a puncture and someone had offered to help. ... Police now believe the suspects may have deliberately caused the puncture to make their attack easier. ... Priyanka Reddy, in her twenties, was on her motorbike when she got a puncture ...
Puncture Wounds, Bruising, Burns: 10 Children Rescued From Fairfield Home Describe Horrible Living Conditions to Police The ... after some told police about enduring abuse in the home that resulted in puncture wounds, burns, bruising and injuries ...
Randomly Punctured LDPC Codes. *Mark. Mitchell, David G.M. ; Lentmaier, Michael LU ; Pusane, Ali E. and Costello Jr., Daniel J. ... In this paper, we present a random puncturing analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensembles. We derive a simple ... In this paper, we present a random puncturing analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensembles. We derive a simple ... Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, spatially coupled codes, rate-compatible codes, punctured codes, iterative decoding, ...
Get the best deals on Maxxis Puncture Resistant Bicycle Tyres. Shop with Afterpay on eligible items. Free delivery and returns ... Maxxis Re-Fuse 700x32c 60TPI MaxxShield K2 Puncture Resistant Road/Gravel Tyre. AU $59.99. ...
During transfemoral catheterisation one must be careful not to make the arterial puncture far below the inguinal ligament ... Difficult haemostasis following diagnostic transfemoral angiogram caused by inadvertent puncture of the arteria profunda ... Difficult haemostasis following diagnostic transfemoral angiogram caused by inadvertent puncture of the arteria profunda ...
Muc-Off No Puncture Hassle sealant is brand new and, regardless of the size you buy, is one of the most expensive sealants out ... Muc Off No Puncture Hassle isnt cheap but it works, and in our book that makes it a top buy. If you want the best out there, ... Muc Offs No Puncture Hassle will cost you over £17 to do two standard sized tyres, more if you run Plus tyres, but it works. ... Muc-Off No Puncture Hassle sealant is brand new and, regardless of the size you buy, is one of the most expensive sealants out ...
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Lumbar puncture needles provide access to the neonatal spinal column for obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample for ... Lumbar Puncture. Myelo-Nate® neonatal/pediatric lumbar puncture needles and kits provide access to the spinal column for the ... The Myelo-Nate® Lumbar Puncture Needle provides access to the spinal column for the purpose of obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid ... Superficial infection at or near puncture site.. • Lumbosacral anomalies.. • Increased intracranial pressure (ICP), due to: a. ...
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A new sensory organ is identified in our skin that informs us of puncture pain. August 18, 2019. 2 Mins Read ... which explain how they can participate in the detection of painful punctures and pressure. In the experiments, the researchers ... such as punctures and impacts. The discovery is published in the journal Science. ...
  • The smaller the needle used for the lumbar puncture, the lower the risk that the patient will experience a post-lumbar puncture headache. (
  • Especially the frequency of post-lumbar puncture headache will decrease, and the number of hospital readmissions or epidural blood patches for this complication will be strongly reduced," added Dr. Brouwer, who co-wrote an editorial about the study. (
  • Infectious complications of puncture wounds. (
  • Serious complications of a lumbar puncture include damage to the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots resulting in weakness or loss of sensation, or even paraplegia . (
  • Common complications of LP include headache and mild pain at the puncture site. (
  • This should change clinical practice and result in fewer patients with lumbar puncture complications. (
  • Ultrasound allows the identification of impalpable veins , its patency tested and its puncture performed under direct vision, which improves the success rates of PVA and decrease the complications 3,4,6-8 . (
  • Lumbar punctures may also be done to inject medications into the cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • Elevated or reduced pressure in the brain also poses risks during lumbar punctures. (
  • Usually present as granulocytes , white cells can also indicate reaction to repeated lumbar punctures, reaction to a needle contaminated with detergent, reactions to prior injections of medicines or dyes, central nervous system hemorrhage, leukemia or a metastatic tumor. (
  • The answer to the question, 'Are atraumatic needles better for lumbar punctures? (
  • During Radio Resource Control (RRC) Connection set procedure, during sending NBAP radio link setup message the uplink puncturing limit will send to NODE B, along with U/L spreading factor & U/L scrambling code. (
  • The lateral patellofemoral approach is most commonly used for knee puncture, but it is a painful procedure and not always technically successful. (
  • In medicine , a lumbar puncture (colloquially known as a spinal tap ) is a diagnostic procedure that is done to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis. (
  • The procedure is ended by withdrawing the needle while placing pressure on the puncture site. (
  • Diagnostic analysis of changes in fluid pressure during lumbar puncture procedures requires attention both to the patient's condition during the procedure and to their medical history. (
  • The procedure is not recommended when epidural infection is present or suspected, when topical infections or dermatological conditions pose a risk of infection at the puncture site or in patients with severe psychosis or neurosis with back pain. (
  • Lumbar puncture (LP) is a routine clinical procedure used to evaluate patients with suspected meningitis, demyelinating diseases, and metabolic disorders. (
  • Lumbar puncture is a procedure that is often performed in the emergency department to obtain information about the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (
  • Lumbar puncture is an extremely common procedure, and the strong results from this study call for switching the type of needle. (
  • It was observed that nurses who received stage 3 of the training were able to identify and puncture the vein in a shorter time, demonstrating the ability of the model used in step 3 to improve nurses' ability for the ultrasound guided venipuncture procedure. (
  • Muc Off's No Puncture Hassle will cost you over £17 to do two standard sized tyres, more if you run Plus tyres, but it works. (
  • A brave statement I know, but 100% tubeless here, no punctures this year yet. (
  • The Muc-Off No Puncture Hassle Tubeless sealant sets new standards: the microfiber molecules seal even large cracks and punctures, while the latex milk seals the critical areas immediately. (
  • Compatible with tubeless ready and full UST wheels/tires, No Puncture Hassle tubeless sealant works from 15psi-120psi and temperatures from -20°C to +50°C. The filler bag is designed to fit perfectly on your Presta valve. (
  • The most common indication for a lumbar puncture is to collect cerebrospinal fluid in a case of suspected meningitis . (
  • Myelo-Nate® neonatal/pediatric lumbar puncture needles and kits provide access to the spinal column for the purpose of obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample for diagnostic analysis. (
  • The Myelo-Nate® Lumbar Puncture Needle provides access to the spinal column for the purpose of obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample from small patients. (
  • Adverse side effects from a lumbar puncture range from introduced infection to headache. (
  • Postdural-puncture headache incidence dropped significantly from 11.0% in the conventional needle group to 4.2% in the atraumatic group. (
  • Subgroup analyses of postdural-puncture headache showed no interactions between needle type and patient sex, age, position, bed rest after puncture, needle gauge, indication for lumbar puncture, use of intravenous fluid, or clinician specialty. (
  • Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. (
  • Looking a bit like a packet of Capri Sun, Muc-Off's No Puncture sealant is definitely not cheap, but it was the only gunge to seal the 2.7mm hole, 5mm hole and sidewall cut in our big August issue grouptest. (
  • Muc-Off No Puncture Hassle sealant is brand new and, regardless of the size you buy, is one of the most expensive sealants out there. (
  • Developed together with professional athletes, Muc-Off's "No Puncture" sealant gives you unparalleled performance in all conditions. (
  • Our data suggest that approximately 69 percent of puncture injuries may be due to an inadvertent gun discharge or misfire, preventable in large part by the use of sequential triggers. (
  • The cricothyroid membrane puncture is one of the emergency treatment methods clinically adopted for patients with respiratory obstruction and severe dyspnea, can win time for tracheotomy, is an important component of on-site emergency treatment, and has the advantages of simplicity, convenience, quickness and effectiveness, and can be mastered by people who slightly accept emergency education. (
  • The B2 route is technically easier than the B3 route for guidewire insertion, dilation , and stenting but if performed with conventional oblique-viewing (OV) EUS, B2 puncture can cause transesophageal puncture and severe adverse events. (
  • After a hard battle to stay with the main bunch on stage 7 , a late puncture put paid to Marcel Kittel 's hopes to fight for his third win of the 2016 Giro d'Italia . (
  • Patient education: Taking care of cuts, scrapes and puncture wounds (the basics). (
  • Ten children have been removed from "horrible living conditions" in a home in Fairfield, California, after some told police about enduring abuse in the home that resulted in puncture wounds, burns, bruising and injuries consistent with being shot with a pellet gun, police said Monday. (
  • Despite being one of the thickest sealants on test, No Puncture Hassle distributes evenly around the inside of the tyre. (
  • It also sealed the larger 5mm almost instantly and, while most sealants on test only sealed the sidewall cut temporarily,No Puncture Hassle sealed it permanently and we even managed to re-inflate the tyre after about an hour. (
  • Muc Off No Puncture Hassle isn't cheap but it works, and in our book that makes it a top buy. (
  • They excluded randomized trials in which no dural puncture was performed (epidural injections) and those without a conventional needle control group. (
  • Absolute contraindications for lumbar puncture are the presence of infected skin over the needle entry site and the presence of unequal pressures between the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. (
  • Superficial infection at or near puncture site. (
  • The traditional superficial venous puncture depends on the location of the vein close enough to the skin to be visible or at least palpable, thus peripheral venous access (PVA), without the use of ultrasound, can be challenging, with a failure rate of approximately 25% 5 . (
  • Evaluation for fungal meningitis includes a lumbar puncture (LP, also known as spinal tap) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. (
  • Lumbar puncture success on the first attempt, failure rate, average number of attempts, and incidence of traumatic tap and backache were similar with the two needle types. (
  • When we first squirted the full 140ml there's didn't seem like much left in the bottom of the tyre but we needn't have worried because this luminous pink gunk sealed the 2.75mm puncture in barely a revolution. (
  • Lumbar puncture should be performed only after a neurologic examination but should never delay potentially life-saving interventions, such as the administration of antibiotics and steroids to patients with suspected bacterial meningitis. (
  • The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. (
  • Training nurses to perform ultrasound guided venous puncture is an important issue to improve care for patients with indication for peripheral venous access, especially for those with difficult access. (
  • After training, nurses performed ultrasound guided venipuncture on patients, the variables were noted, among them, the identification and puncture times of the vein. (
  • Thus, UGPVA has become an useful tool in cases of difficult puncture (when palpation and anatomical references fail) in noncritical patients 14 and is an effective and safe alternative to CVA, which traditionally it is the next step after PVA failure 15,16 . (
  • Traditionally, a negative CT scan is followed with lumbar puncture (LP). However, noncontrast CT followed by CT angiography (CTA) of the brain can rule out SAH with greater than 99% sensitivity. (
  • Although Matteo Trentin ( Etixx-QuickStep ) stepped up to the bar in his leader's absence and took a solid sixth place in the bunch sprint , the puncture left Kittel 166th on the stage, out of the running for the stage win, and also cost the German his red jersey of points leader, which he had held since stage 2. (
  • CVS is an emerging neuroimaging biomarker for MS that may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the need for lumbar puncture. (
  • A puncture wound, such as from stepping on a nail, doesn't usually cause much bleeding. (
  • However, with puncturing the same decoder can be used regardless of how many bits have been punctured, thus puncturing considerably increases the flexibility of the system without significantly increasing its complexity. (
  • We derive a simple analytic expression for the iterative belief propagation (BP) decoding threshold of a randomly punctured LDPC code ensemble on the binary erasure channel (BEC) and show that, with respect to the BP threshold, the strength and suitability of an LDPC code ensemble for random puncturing is completely determined by a single constant that depends only on the rate and the BP threshold of the mother code ensemble. (
  • As they report in The Lancet, online December 6, Dr. Almenawer and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare patient outcomes after lumbar puncture with atraumatic needles versus conventional needles. (
  • The researchers searched 13 databases with no language restrictions from inception to Aug 15, 2017, for randomized controlled trials comparing the use of atraumatic needles and conventional needles for any lumbar puncture indication. (
  • In performing a lumbar puncture (in an adult), first the patient is usually placed in a left (or right) lateral position with his/her neck bent in full flexion and knees bent in full flexion up to his/her chest, approximating a fetal position as much as possible. (
  • Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle into the airway through the skin of the throat. (
  • Emergency airway puncture is done in an emergency situation, when someone is choking and all other efforts to assist with breathing have failed. (
  • Emergency airway puncture provides enough breathing support for only a very short period of time. (
  • The body of a vet has been found charred under an overpass in India after she was raped and murdered by men who had offered to help her with a puncture. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of forward-viewing (FV) EUS, which we have developed to improve safety for B2 puncture in EUS-HGS (B2-EUS-HGS). (
  • article{db92e312-8dae-49ad-a81e-71a378e3b2cc, abstract = {{In this paper, we present a random puncturing analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensembles. (
  • For this test, the sinus cavity is punctured with a needle, and a sample of the sinus contents is obtained. (
  • We also perform an asymptotic minimum distance analysis of randomly punctured code ensembles and present simulation results that confirm the robust decoding performance promised by the asymptotic results. (
  • Please let me know when this product: 'Weldtite Puncture Repair Kit, Default Title' will be back in stock. (
  • Police now believe the suspects may have deliberately caused the puncture to make their attack easier. (
  • During transfemoral catheterisation one must be careful not to make the arterial puncture far below the inguinal ligament distal to the origin of the branches of the femoral artery. (
  • According to the product labeling, 2-3 punctures are recommended for primary vaccination and 15 punc- tures for revaccination. (
  • We then provide an efficient way to accurately predict BP thresholds of randomly punctured LDPC code ensembles on the binary- input additive white Gaussian noise channel (BI-AWGNC), given only the BP threshold of the mother code ensemble on the BEC and the design rate, and we show how the prediction can be improved with knowledge of the BI-AWGNC threshold. (