Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Dental Pulp CalcificationDental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.PeroxidasesBasidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.OdontoblastsPaperXylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.Vanillic Acid: A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Pinus taeda: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Sasa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Cleome: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
It was first isolated from lignin-rich pulp mill effluent. Its type strain is IRE-31 (= ATCC 700072). GONZaLEZ, J. M.; Mayer, F ... nov., Two Marine Bacteria from a Lignin-Rich Pulp Mill Waste Enrichment Community". International Journal of Systematic ...
the Kappa number, indicating lignin content in pulp. *. κ. {\displaystyle \kappa }. represents: *the Von Kármán constant, ...
... lignin content in percent The Kappa number for bleachable pulps are in the range of 25-30, sack paper pulps in the range 45-55 ... Since the amount of bleach needed is related to the lignin content of the pulp, the Kappa number can be used to monitor the ... It is approximately proportional to the residual lignin content of the pulp. K ≈ c*l K: Kappa number; c: constant ≈ 6,57 ( ... The Kappa number is an indication of the residual lignin content or bleachability of wood pulp by a standardised analysis ...
Witayakran, Suteera; Ragauskas, Arthur J. (2009). "Modification of high-lignin softwood kraft pulp with laccase and amino acids ... hydrogen peroxide and lignin, while laccase is induced by availability of phenolic compounds. Production of lignin-peroxidase ... Degradation of lignin is catalyzed by enzymes that oxidase aromatic compounds, such as phenol oxidases, peroxidases and ... Most white-rot species also produce laccase, a copper-containing enzyme that degrades polymeric lignin and humic substances. ...
nov., two marine bacteria from a lignin-rich pulp mill waste enrichment community". International Journal of Systematic ...
To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres. This is accomplished by dissolving ... Mechanical pulping yields almost a tonne of pulp per tonne of dry wood used, which is why mechanical pulps are sometimes ... There are two major mechanical pulps: thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood pulp (GW). In the TMP process, wood is chipped ... Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, >95%, however it causes the paper thus produced to ...
Where recovery boiler capacity is limited and a bottleneck in the pulp mill the lignin in the black liquor may be extraordinary ... Pulp mills have used black liquor as an energy source since at least the 1930s. Most kraft pulp mills use recovery boilers to ... black liquor is the waste product from the kraft process when digesting pulpwood into paper pulp removing lignin, ... Early kraft pulp mills discharged black liquor to watercourses. Black liquor is quite toxic to aquatic life, and causes a very ...
The content of lignin is very high. In kraft pulping knots are typically 0.5-3.0 % of the digester throughput. The knots are ... Knots are unwanted, large, dark aggregates of wood fibres when making chemical pulp. Knots are incompletely cooked wood chips ... screened from the pulp, because if left in the pulp they may damage washing equipment and consume large amounts of bleaching ... Chemical Pulping. Finland: Tappi Press. p. 119. ISBN 952-5216-06-3. ...
Specifically, salts of SH− break bonds between lignin and cellulose components of pulp in the Kraft process. For well over a ... has been implicated in increased miscarriage and reproductive health issues among Russian and Finnish wood pulp workers, but ...
To extract the fermentable sugars, one must first disconnect the celluloses from the lignin, and then use acid or enzymatic ... Lignocellulosic biomass is the feedstock for the pulp and paper industry. This energy-intensive industry focuses on the ... The problems presented by the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are the foci of much contemporary research. A large sector of ... It is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an aromatic polymer (lignin). These carbohydrate ...
Wastewater discharges for a pulp and paper mill contains solids, nutrients and dissolved organic matter such as lignin. It also ... Pulp mills can be sources of both air and water pollution, especially if they are producing bleached pulp. Recycling paper ... Wood pulp produced primarily by grinding wood is known as "mechanical pulp" and is used mainly for newsprint. These mechanical ... Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite ...
Lignin is the third component at around 27% in coniferous wood vs. 23% in deciduous trees. Lignin confers the hydrophobic ... The single most revealing property of wood as an indicator of wood quality is specific gravity (Timell 1986), as both pulp ... Hardwood lignin is primarily derived from sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol. Softwood lignin is mainly derived from ... A major focus of the paper industry is the separation of the lignin from the cellulose, from which paper is made. In chemical ...
... the wood pulp is bleached to remove any color from the trace amounts of lignin that was not extracted in the chemical pulping ... Chemical pulping involves dissolving lignin in order to extract the cellulose from the wood fiber. The different processes of ... pulping technique) Rudolf Patt et al. "Paper and Pulp" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, ... Caustic soda is added to increase the pH in the pulping process of fibers. The higher pH of the paper-fiber solution causes the ...
Pilot plant operation has shown that ethanol pulping produces pulp superior to sulphite pulp at a lower cost. Lignin and ... Numerous authors report that pulping with ethanol-water solutions gives a lignin free pulp yield 4-4.5% higher than that of ... The lignin from the second stage is isolated by adding phosphoric acid until a pH of 4.0 is reached. The Alcohol Pulping and ... The recovery of lignin from ethylene glycol organosolv pulping can be effected by 3 times dilution with acidified water. The ...
The Chemicals group produces resins, ethanol and lignin from the pulping discharge in five of its pulping plants. In May 2017, ... The Pulp, Paper & Paperboard Group consists of 9 pulp manufacturing plants, 5 paper manufacturing plants and 1 paperboard plant ... The town's economic lifeblood, a pulp mill owned by a large multinational corporation, CIP, was shut down in 1972. The mill's ... Tembec's operating divisions include Forest Products, Pulp, Paper & Paperboard, and Chemicals. The Forest Products Group ...
Paper made from wood-based pulp that has not had its lignin removed turns yellow, becomes brittle, and deteriorates over time. ... It can be made from any cellulose fiber as long as the active acid pulp is eliminated during processing. It is also lignin- and ... as the main filler material in the pulp: PCC reacts with acids, and therefore requires the pulp to be chemically neutral or ... buffered paper made from wood-based pulp. Archival-grade (also Museum-grade) - cotton rag paper made from cotton pulp. Mass ...
... is a viscous yellow-black odorous liquid obtained as a by-product of the Kraft process of wood pulp manufacture when pulping ... high alkalinity and temperature converts the esters and carboxylic acids in rosin into soluble sodium soaps of lignin, rosin, ... Most pines give a soap yield of 5 - 25 kg/ton pulp, while Scots pine gives 20 - 50 kg/ton. Scots pine grown in northern ... ISBN 952-5216-06-3. Biermann, Christopher J. (1993). Essentials of Pulping and Papermaking. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. p. ...
However, subsequent developments in the wood pulp industry have made its lignin wastes less attractive as a raw material for ... Later it was synthesized from lignin-containing "brown liquor", a byproduct of the sulfite process for making wood pulp. ... was supplanted by production from the lignin-containing waste produced by the sulfite pulping process for preparing wood pulp ... Today, artificial vanillin is made either from guaiacol or lignin. Lignin-based artificial vanilla flavoring is alleged to have ...
The pulp is bleached to remove the remaining traces of lignin, dried into a continuous sheet and rolled onto spools. The pulp ... Lyocell fiber is produced from dissolving pulp, which contains cellulose in high purity with little hemicellulose and no lignin ... Lyocell is a form of rayon which consists of cellulose fibre made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp) using dry jet-wet ... The chips are digested chemically either with the prehydrolysis-kraft process or with sulfite process to remove the lignin and ...
... made either from guaiacol or from lignin, a byproduct of the wood pulp industry. Under the Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c ...
The pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, is used in animal feed. The ... The pressed pulp is dried and sold as animal feed, while the liquid pressed out of the pulp is combined with the raw juice, or ... This recovers additional sucrose in the liquid pressed out of the pulp, and reduces the energy needed to dry the pulp. ... The molasses is stored on site and is added to dried beet pulp to make animal feed. Some is also sold in bulk tankers. Actual ...
"Enzymatic" combustion": the microbial degradation of lignin." Annual Reviews in Microbiology 41.1 (1987): 465-501. Kirk, T. ... a biopulping product for control of pitch and resin acid problems in pulp mills. J. Biotechnol. 30: 115-122. Farrell, R.L. ( ... "Physical and enzymatic properties of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium." Enzyme and microbial ...
W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, M. Baucher (June 2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519-549. doi:10.1146/annurev ... Mimms, Agneta; Michael J. Kuckurek, Jef A. Pyiatte, Elizabeth E. Wright (1993). Kraft Pulping. A Compilation of Notes. TAPPI ...
Beet pulp is a common ingredient in dog diets as it is a very versatile and useful fiber source. Beet pulp provides fiber to ... The insoluble fraction includes cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These components have a very good water binding capacity ... Sources of fiber included in senior dog foods include beet pulp and flax seed as well as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and ... Effects of graded levels of dietary beet pulp on nutrient intake, digestability, metabolizable energy and digesta mean ...
MeSH is released as a by-product of kraft pulping in pulp mills. In kraft pulping, lignin is depolymerized by nucleophilic ... Chemical Pulping Processes. In Handbook of Pulp, Sixta, H., Ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.: Weinheim, 2006; Vol. 1, p 169 (109 ... However, in a side reaction, HS− attacks methoxyl groups (OMe) in lignin, demethylating them to give free phenolate groups (PhO ...
In 2010, Russian pulp and paper maker, Vyborgskaya Cellulose, said they would be producing pellets that can be used in heat and ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... Sawdust, bark and chips are already used for decades for fuel in industrial processes; examples include the pulp and paper ...
... a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock ... However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both ... To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it ... only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was ...
The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and ... be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black ... Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource ... Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis. Guangzai Nong * , Zongwen Zhou. ...
These results, using lignin obtained from Saiccors acid bisulphite-based pulping process, compares well with that obtained in ... This study contributes to a further understanding of the electro-oxidation of lignin and is of value to the paper and pulp ... Previous work on the oxidation of lignin was based primarily on Kraft pulping effluent, which is alkaline, compared to our acid ... Thus electrolysis of lignin could be an attractive alternative in the oxidation of lignin and lignosulphonates, as it offers ...
On one hand the UV excitation is more sensitive towards aromatic residual lignin in pulp, and on the other hand the visible ... Characterization of dissolved lignins from acetic acid Lignofibre (LGF) organosolv pulping and discussion of its ... The resonance Raman spectra of peroxide bleached chemical pulps had chromophoric lignin bands at 1605 and 1655 cm−1, whereas ... Resonance Raman spectroscopy of highly fluorescing lignin containing chemical pulps: Suppression of fluorescence with an ...
In this work, the effects of residual lignin and thermal drying on... ... Abstract Recycled pulp can be used as a potential and sustainable resource for production of fermentable monosaccharides. ... compared to bleached pulp (lignin content 0.3%). Compared with once-dried bleached pulp, the unbleached pulp after drying had a ... Influence of residual lignin and thermal drying on the ultrastructure of chemical hardwood pulp and its enzymatic hydrolysis ...
... Deshpande, ... The α-ethers that are common in wood were missing in the studied pulp samples. Based on these findings and known lignin ... The presence of covalent bonds between lignin and polysaccharides was investigated in dissolving pulps made with one-stage and ... The covalent bonds between lignin and pulp polysaccharides occurred mainly to xylan and glucomannan and were of the phenyl ...
3 million grant from the USDA to support the commercialization of patented and patent-pending lignin conversion and refining ... Pulp Moulded Products in Newmarket, Ontario, which focuses on products made from Canadian pulp, will receive additional ... and lignin, followed by the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose into biofuel (butanol), and the conversion of lignin into ... Lignocellulose, or lignin, is ubiquitous in biomass, and yet it is highly-resistant to the chemical, biological, and other ...
Isolating lignin from wood pulp could enable use of lignin for new industrial products, such as chemicals. Lignin can also be ... This process could also produce additional value-added for pulp producers through the sale of pure lignin as a fuel or material ... The process could have significantly lower energy needs for pulping compared to traditional chemical pulping processes, as deep ... to extract lignin from wood pulp.. *Key milestone: successfully demonstrate at the full plant scale and/or scale up to an ...
Laucaena leucocephala offers great potential as an alternative to softwood that is usually used in pulp and paper industry. ... A Study Of Chemical Constitution Of Lignin Of Leucaena Leuccephala - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read ... carried out on Laucaena leucocephala of different age groups to learn more about its chemical composition by isolating lignin ... usually used in pulp and paper industry.. Key words: Lignin, Solvent Isolation, Softwood. I. INTRODUCTION. The pulp and paper ...
In this study, we demonstrate that SIL pulp opens up a mechanically e ... pulp offers an efficient and greener technology to produce nanofibers via ultrafine grinding. ... 2010) showed that an increased contact angle value is associated with higher lignin content in wood pulps. Since lignin is less ... The SIL treated pulp was diluted to 2 wt% concentration, and the bleached SIL pulp and reference pulp were diluted to 1.5 wt% ...
LIGNIN (1) Lignin Degradation Method (1) Lignin Degradation Problem (1) Lignin Measurement (1) LIGNIN PRECIPITATION (1) MLSS ... Toxic Chemicals of Pulp and Paper which inhibit bacterial growth (1) Try to Unstable The Lignin Polymer (1) TSS (1) Useful ... Algal Biofuels (1) Art of India Jaipur (1) Beauty of Nature (1) Bio-remediation of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent by Tannic Acid ... 5.Titanium dioxide : Used in pulp and paper for Filler to increase the opacity and brightness of paper. Used in coating also. ...
Select 2018 high quality Lignin products in best price from certified Chinese Additive manufacturers, Concrete Admixture ... Sodium Lignin Calcium Lignin Concrete Admixture Lignin Sodium Lignosulphonate Lignin Wood Pulp Lignin Wood Pulp Calcium Lignin ... Wood-pulp Sodium Lignin Wood-pulp Sodium Lignin For Concrete Lignin-removing Agent Lignin Factory Wholesale Lignin More ... Sodium Lignin Sulfonate Suppliers Wood-pulp Sodium Lignin Suppliers Wood-pulp Sodium Lignin For Concrete Suppliers Lignin- ...
The pulping liquor is easily recovered by distillation. The reason for using a solvent is to make the lignin more soluble in ... Roll pulp or reel pulp is the most common delivery form of pulp to non traditional pulp markets. Fluff pulp is normally shipped ... See also: Dissolving pulp, Fluff pulp, NBSK, and SBSK (pulp). Chemical pulp is produced by combining wood chips and chemicals ... Chemical pulp[edit]. International Paper Company. Pulp mill that makes fluff pulp for use in absorbent products with the kraft ...
Investigation of residual lignin in chemical pulps. Hortling, Bo / Turunen, Eila / Sundquist, Jorma ... Optimum strategies for pulp fractions refining by Huber, Patrick/ Carré, Bruno/ Kumar, Saurabh and Lecourt, Michael ... Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials by Javed, Asif/ Ullsten, Henrik/ Rättö, Peter and Järnström, Lars ... Indications of the onset of fiber cutting in low consistency refining using a refiner force sensor: The effect of pulp furnish ...
Residual lignin in PH-soda-AQ pulp exhibited a higher S/G ratio (0.86 to 0.98) than that in soda-AQ pulp (0.76 to 0.97). This ... Furthermore, palmitic acid was also detected in the residual lignin (contents 0.11 to 0.28%). The residual lignin was subjected ... pulp yields were 45.3 and 33.9%, respectively). Py-GC/MS of the residual lignin showed that two pyrolysis products which were ... study showed that the contents of lignin (19 to 44%) and enzyme in enzymatically isolated lignin can be estimated by the Py-GC/ ...
The predominant use of alkaline lignin reactions is in the kraft pulping process, where lignin undergoes a variety of reactions ... NMR analysis suggested that residual lignin, compared to the wood lignin, is much less reactive towards pulping chemicals due ... Such polymers are known as lignin, hemicellulose (mainly xylans and mannans), and various lignin-carbohydrate bonds. Lignin ... evidence of the influence of S/G ratio on pulp yield and ease of pulping has been reported, leading to the inclusion of lignin ...
... sulphate pulping process, polyoxometalates, spectrum analysis, carbonyl compounds, lignin, pulp, pulp and paper processes, ... Finely divided aspen and spruce woods and a high lignin pine kraft pulp have been selectively delignified to low lignin levels ... In order to elucidate changes occurring in lignin during polyoxometalate delignification of kraft pulp, residual lignins of a ... Chemical reactions, sulphate pulping process, polyoxometalates, lignin analysis, bleaching, pulping, carbonyl compounds, ...
... lignin, carboxyl groups, syringyl, guaiacyl, lignin, analysis, chemistry, pulp, pulp and paper processes, sulfate pulping, ... After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping), the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The ... The degradation of lignin model compounds and residual lignin in kraft pulps, upon treatment with POMs was studied and ... Polyoxometalates in oxidative delignification of chemical pulps: effect on lignin. Chemical pulps are produced by chemical ...
Domtar - Plymouth Lignin. Fluff Pulp Manufacture. 12/7/2016. Application. NC. NCDENR. Nucor Steel Company. Steel Mini-Mill. 7/ ... KRAFT PULP MILL. 1/31/2018. 2/13/2018. Draft Permit. AL. ADEM. T. R. Miller Mill Company, Inc.. Lumber Mill (dry kilns, boiler) ... Kraft Pulp Mill. 3/27/2018. 11/8/2018. Draft Permit. NC. NC DENR. Enviva Pellets Sampson, LLC. Wood Pellet Manufacturing. 4/10/ ...
The Biological Degradation of Lignin from Pulp Mill Black Liquor F. E. WOODARD, Graduate Research Assistant O. J. SPROUL, ... The Biological Degradation of Lignin from Pulp Mill Black Liquor F. E. WOODARD, Graduate Research Assistant O. J. SPROUL, ... Lignin, however, has not been removed by this process, leaving a large portion of the COD and nearly all of the color to be ... Lignin, however, has not been removed by this process, leaving a large portion of the COD and nearly all of the color to be ...
New Concrete Admixture Lignin with Straw Pulp in Construction Chemical FOB Price: US $ 215-260 / Ton. Min. Order: 1 Ton ... Calcium Lignosulphonate Wood Pulp Casno. 8061-52-7 Coal Water Slurry Additive Concrete Admixture FOB Price: US $ 510-610 / Ton ... Chemicals for Industrial Production Lignin Yellow Powder as Fertilizer Calcium Lignosulfonate in China Calcium Lignosulfonate ...
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Find details about China Sodium Lignin Price, Sodium Lignin MSDS from Wood Pulp Powder Sodium Lignin for Concrete Admixure ( ... China Wood Pulp Powder Sodium Lignin for Concrete Admixure (lignolphonate), ... Wood Pulp Powder Sodium Lignin for Concrete Admixure (lignolphonate) Wood Pulp Powder Sodium Lignin for Concrete Admixure ( ... Sodium Lignin Price, Sodium Lignin MSDS, Concrete Admixture manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Wood Pulp Powder Sodium ...
... characterization of lignin, and (v) techno-economic and life-cycle analysis of integrated processes to utilize lignin in an ... and biological methods for lignin depolymerization, (iii) chemo-catalytic and biological methods for upgrading lignin, (iv) ... However, lignins chemical composition makes it an attractive source for biological and catalytic conversion to fuels and ... employ lignin valorization technologies.Chapters will specifically focus on the production of fuels and chemicals from lignin ...
  • Papermaking using pulp made from hemp and linen fibers from tattered clothing, fishing nets and fabric bags spread to Europe in the 13th century, with an ever-increasing use of rags being central to the manufacture and affordability of rag paper , a factor in the development of printing. (
  • While in theory, any tree can be used for pulp-making, coniferous trees are preferred because the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these species are longer, and therefore make stronger paper. (
  • Humans discovered long ago that if they could separate the cellulose fibers from the lignin, they could make several useful products. (
  • That material we write, draw and doodle on is made from a mass of softened fibers -- pulp -- that are formed into a mat, pressed and dried (we'll talk more about this in the Processing Timber section). (
  • Softwood pulps are known for their long fibers which are particularly conducive to making products like rayon, a synthetic fiber which can be turned into fabric for clothing and linens. (
  • Some dissolving pulp is made from hardwoods, though, and an increasing amount is made from non-wood plant fibers. (
  • The two most common practices for turning plant fibers into dissolving pulp are the modified kraft process and the sulfite process. (
  • After cooking, the pulp is washed to separate debris from the fibers. (
  • Lignin is a polymer that binds wood fibers together. (
  • Lowering the lignin content allows the final loosening of dark fibers from lighter ones. (
  • In papermaking, for example, producers blend mechanical pulps with the chemically derived dissolving pulp to balance the printability of long fibers with the durability of short fibers. (
  • While the demand for dissolving pulp experienced a slow decline from the 1970s to the end of the 1980s as competition from other fibers such as polyester increased, it has since stabilized and continues to play an important role in a range of industries. (
  • Steam treatment significantly reduces the total energy needed to make the pulp and decreases the damage (cutting) to fibers. (
  • Prisma Renewable Composites is a biomaterials company creating technologies to produce high value composite materials, including carbon fibers and polymers, all of which contain lignin, a highly renewable organic polymer. (
  • Methods are provided for determining the yield and/or hygroscopicity of a pulp from the dimensions of fibers obtained from a sample of the pulp. (
  • and, e) calculating the yield of the pulp from a predefined calibration curve derived from the at least one dimension of the fibers from the isolated fraction. (
  • The first involves pulping, the process of removing the wood fibers from the wood. (
  • Pulping is when small woodchips are treated mechanically or chemically to separate the individual fibers from each other, the way they are in the tree. (
  • Mechanical pulping uses elevated temperatures and an abrasive surface to pull apart the individual fibers. (
  • The lignin that holds the fibers together in the wood remains with the pulp. (
  • Lignin is like a glue that holds the fibers together to give the tree strength. (
  • Chemical pulping utilizes chemicals to dissolve the lignin and free the pulp fibers. (
  • After the fibers are released from the wood, they can be bleached to increase the brightness of the pulp. (
  • Sodium hydroxide is used to help regenerate the chemicals used to pulp the wood chips into fibers in the chemical pulping process, which allows the pulp mill to reuse many of the chemicals and reduce the cost of producing pulp. (
  • A method is provided for recovering pulp fibers having little damage from a used absorbent article that contains pulp fibers and a superabsorbent polymer. (
  • A method is provided for recovering pulp fibers having little damage from a used absorbent article which includes a water permeable front sheet, a water impermeable back sheet and an absorbent body that contains pulp fibers and a superab. (
  • A method is provided which, by a simple process, separates and recovers pulp fibers from a used absorbent article that contains pulp fibers and a superabsorbent polymer. (
  • Rubber compounds are readily bonded to reinforcing elements, particularly tire cords of glass fibers, using a one-step dip process in which the dip contains an alkaline aqueous dispersion of a mixture of a major amount by weight of a rubbery vinyl pyridine/styrene/butadiene terpolymer and a lignin sulfonate-resorcinol-formaldehyde reaction product. (
  • KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology. (
  • Lignin is a cross-linked polymer with molecular masses in excess of 10,000 u . (
  • Lignin is a complex phenylpropanoid polymer that constitutes a vital component of plant secondary cell walls, and imparts 'waterproofing' capacity as well as mechanical strength, rigidity, and environmental protection. (
  • Guo Z, Li M, Willauer HD, Huddleston JG, April GC, Rogers RD. Evaluation of polymer-based aqueous biphasic systems as improvement for the hardwood alkaline pulping process. (
  • The principal direction of investigation of uses for lignin derivatives has been in the polymer field, lignins being high molecular weight compounds formed by the biosynthetic polymerization of certain closely related phenylpropenol precursors. (
  • However, plant cell walls also contain an aromatic polymer, lignin, that has not been cost-effectively converted into fuels or commodity chemicals. (
  • Lignin is an energy-dense, heterogeneous polymer comprised of phenylpropanoid monomers used by plants for structure, water transport, and defense, and it is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. (
  • Publications] M.Funaoka: 'Conversion of Native Lignin to Highly Phenolic, Functional Polymer and Its Separation from Lignocellulosics' Biotechnology & Boiengineering. (
  • 2. The process of claim 1, wherein fibrous pulp type A is further characterized in that it comprises a covalently chemically bonded polymeric modifier consisting essentially of a hydrophilic organic polycarboxylate polymer, and wherein the web temperature throughout steps (a)-(e) has an upper limit of about 200 C. (
  • The units resulting from the monolignols, when incorporated into the lignin polymer, are called guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p -hydroxyphenyl (H) units ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). (
  • Lignin is a natural polymer, but is available in modified forms as industrial side-streams. (
  • 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. (
  • Residual lignin present in alkali pulps prepared from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch was isolated using an enzymatic method and characterized successfully by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These pulps were prepared by sodaanthraquinone (AQ) and prehydrolysis (PH) soda-AQ cooking methods (pulp yields were 45.3 and 33.9%, respectively). (
  • these pulps have distinct protonated and alkali-metal-cation-exchanged. (
  • Such polymers are known as lignin, hemicellulose (mainly xylans and mannans), and various lignin-carbohydrate bonds. (
  • Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae . (
  • Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers. (
  • In this presentation, we will discuss the interaction between lignin and plastic polymers during co-pyrolysis in detail. (
  • Through Prisma's lignin technology, petrochemicals are partially replaced by natural polymers. (
  • An original reaction system (the phase separative reaction system) has been designed for converting native lignins to highly phenolic, functional polymers (lignophenol derivatives). (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICLECMP 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Lignin for Energy, Chemicals, Materials and Polymers . (
  • The project successfully demonstrated the antioxidant properties of lignin and its use in the production of thermoplastic polymers. (
  • Jan. 15, 2018 - Meridian Waste Solutions, Inc., an integrated, non-hazardous solid waste services and innovative technology company, announced today the award of a US$3 million grant from the USDA to support the commercialization of patented and patent-pending lignin conversion and refining technologies owned by Meridian's subsidiary, Attis Innovations, Inc. Attis Innovations is the combination of recent transactions with American Science and Technology Corp. and Advanced Lignin Biocomposites LLC. (
  • Isolating lignin from wood pulp could enable use of lignin for new industrial products, such as chemicals. (
  • The invention of the recovery boiler , by G.H. Tomlinson in the early 1930s, allowed kraft mills to recycle almost all of their pulping chemicals. (
  • The book provides the latest breakthroughs and challenges in upgrading lignin to fuels and chemicals for graduate students and researchers in academia, governmental laboratories, and industry interested in biomass conversion. (
  • Detailed HSQC NMR analysis of the isolated lignins revealed that they still contained large amounts of β-aryl ether units, especially α-ethoxylated and α-butoxylated β-O-4 units, making them particularly suitable for depolymerisation to mono-aromatic chemicals. (
  • Lignocellulosic biomass, which consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin ( Fig. 1 ), 1 is the most abundant source of renewable carbon on the planet and has recently received a lot of attention as a potential source of energy, fuels and chemicals. (
  • Large tonnages of such materials are produced during the chemical pulping of wood and other plant material but up to the present time they have been utilised principally only for their combustion value in the formation of an incinerator product from which pulping chemicals can be recovered. (
  • The screened chips or cut plant material (bamboo, kenaf, etc.) goes to the digester where it is mixed with an aqueous solution of the pulping chemicals, then heated with steam. (
  • Converting lignin into valuable products (e.g. fuels and chemicals) attracts great research interests. (
  • With the intensive development of lignocellulosic biorefineries around the world to produce fuels and chemicals from biomass-derived carbohydrates, the amount of waste lignin will dramatically increase, warranting new lignin upgrading strategies. (
  • In production of fuels and chemicals from biomass, lignin is typically underused as a feedstock and burned for process heat because its inherent heterogeneity and recalcitrance make it difficult to selectively valorize. (
  • It is known that this enzyme produces chemicals that weaken lignin structures. (
  • This comprehensive overview examines the identity and origin of chemicals in pulp mill effluents, environmental fate of chemicals from pulp and paper mills, bioaccumulation of substances from pulp mills to fish and wildlife, field and laboratory studies of biochemical and whole organism responses associated with pulp and paper effluents, integrated monitoring and future research, and policy directions of this rapidly evolving field. (
  • The lignin chemical business of Marathon was operated for many years as Marathon Chemicals. (
  • A great need exists for the development of an effective, economically feasible method for the removal of lignin. (
  • It is the purpose of this paper to present the results of research toward the development of an acclimated activated sludge specific for the removal of lignin found in pulp mill wastes. (
  • The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW) extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood. (
  • The resonance Raman spectra of peroxide bleached chemical pulps had chromophoric lignin bands at 1605 and 1655 cm −1 , whereas the chlorine dioxide bleached pulps had only the aromatic band at 1605 cm −1 . (
  • Reactivity of lignin with different composition of aromatic syringyl/guaiacyl structures and erythro/threo side chain structures in β-O-4 type during alkaline delignification: as a basis for the different degradability of hardwood and softwood lignin. (
  • Lignin, an aromatic biopolymer found in plant cell walls, is a key component of lignocellulosic biomass and generally utilized for heat and power. (
  • Our work demonstrates that the utilization of these natural aromatic catabolic pathways may enable new routes to overcome the lignin utilization barrier that, in turn, may enable a broader slate of molecules derived from lignocellulosic biomass. (
  • In nature, however, some organisms have evolved metabolic pathways that enable the utilization of lignin-derived aromatic molecules as carbon sources. (
  • Here, we use a natural aromatic-catabolizing organism, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to demonstrate that these aromatic metabolic pathways can be used to convert both aromatic model compounds and heterogeneous, lignin-enriched streams derived from pilot-scale biomass pretreatment into medium chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates ( mcl -PHAs). (
  • Lignin could become the main renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry in the future, according to an analysis by Frost & Sullivan. (
  • In hardwood species, the S/G ratio has been successfully correlated to the amount of β-O-4 ether linkages present in the lignin and the ease of pulping reactions. (
  • While small amounts of p -hydroxyphenyl propane units derived from the incorporation of p -coumaryl alcohol are found in both softwood and hardwood lignins, substantially more are found in monocot lignin, which is a copolymer of all three lignin precursors (Sarkanen and Hergert 1971). (
  • This method of pretreatment of hardwood chips results in the removal of a significant amount of hemicelluloses/xylan (∼80% of total hemicelluloses), a small amount of easily accessible lignin (up to 15% of the total lignin), some water-soluble inorganics and hydrophilic/phenolic extractives. (
  • The presence of unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP) in a culture increases the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites and stimulates the fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase and cellobiose-quinine oxidoreductase. (
  • Using a hardwood beech pulp as an example, essentially complete conversion of the cellulose component to reducing sugars was achieved with a cellulase loading of 22 FPU per g. (
  • The method of Claim 1 wherein the wood pulp comprises at least one hardwood. (
  • Calcium Lignin Sulfonate, Calcium Lignosulfonate, Water Reducer manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Cls Wood Pulp Fertilizer Binder / Dust Control Calcium Lignin Sulfonate, Concrete Chemical of Sodium Lignosulphonate Construction Admixture, Water Reducing Agent, Plasticizer, Cement Dispersant Sodium Gluconate Concrete Admixture/ Steel Surface Cleaning Agent/ Construction Additives and so on. (
  • These findings are significant in that few electro-oxidation reactions have been carried out on the effluent of a pulp mill which uses the acid bisulphite pulping process and no results have previously been reported on the electro-oxidation of syringaldehyde. (
  • Sappi Saiccor, situated near Durban, South Africa, is one of the few pulp mills that still partially use calcium bisulphite as the base for the acid bisulphite pulping process. (
  • Previous work on the oxidation of lignin was based primarily on Kraft pulping effluent, which is alkaline, compared to our acid bisulphite pulping effluent. (
  • Acid pretreatment of wood provides significant energy savings during refining but reduces the brightness of the pulp. (
  • This slightly acid environment was maintained to encourage the growth of lignin degrading molds. (
  • Compared to the case of Acid-lignin, immersion in water was slowed down more extensively by Ca-lignin. (
  • The water resistance of Ca-lignin was explained by a lower aqueous solubility that differed from the typical pH-dependent solubility of Acid-lignin. (
  • Lignin was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. P. de Candolle , who described it as a fibrous, tasteless material, insoluble in water and alcohol but soluble in weak alkaline solutions, and which can be precipitated from solution using acid. (
  • A lignin- and acid-free stock, it is pH-balanced at 9. (
  • For archival use, the boards are acid- and lignin-free with alkaline or neutral sizing. (
  • Publications] M.Funaoka: 'Characteristics of Lignin Structural Conversion on the Phase-Separative Reaction System Composed of Cresol and Sulfuric Acid' Holzforschung. (
  • Called a Hollinger box, it has acid-free and lignin-free dividers made from Talas Heritage Corrugated Board. (
  • Archival-quality paper, tissue and matboard should be acid- and lignin-free. (
  • If the risk of flooding and severe weather is high, collectors may wish to consider choosing Coroplast boxes over those made from acid- and lignin-free board. (
  • The best results were obtained with the GH10 xylanase and with crude supernatants of P. barcinonensis, which produced a lignin removal of 23% and a reduction of 25% in the hexenuronic acid content of sisal pulps without a significant loss of viscosity. (
  • Archival corrugated is acid- and lignin-free and safe to use for long term storage. (
  • Both boards are acid-free and lignin-free, high alpha-cellulose purified pulp. (
  • Bringing together experts from biology, catalysis, engineering, analytical chemistry, and techno-economic/life-cycle analysis, Lignin Valorization presents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary picture of how lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially employ lignin valorization technologies. (
  • An organosolv system consisting of n -butanol containing 5% water and 0.2 M HCl at reflux was found to remove effectively the lignin and hemicellulose components of lignocellulosic biomass leaving a cellulose pulp suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis to simple sugars. (
  • Fig. 1 Structural representation of lignocellulosic biomass showing the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components. (
  • c) continuously treating the material with an alkaline cooking liquor, at cooking temperature, to produce a cellulose pulp with higher yield or strength than if (a) were not practiced. (
  • Due to its superior reactivity, CatLignin is an ideal replacement for phenol in phenol formaldehyde resins and could become a new, high-value product for pulp mills. (
  • The successful formulation developed at UM for fabricating 85% industrial kraft lignin based plastics involves solvent casting (in aqueous 82% pyrrolidine) of blends with polyvinyl acetate and two plasticizers (diethyleneglycol dibenzoate and indene). (
  • Solvent casting does not represent a suitable method for producing plastics in an industrial context, but a promising alternative approach is provided by spray-drying aqueous (water-based) kraft lignin solutions into which the polyvinyl acetate has been introduced as an emulsion. (
  • Reaction parameter effects on metal-salt-catalyzed aqueous biphasic pulping systems. (
  • Raw materials were pulped using aqueous-alcohol (65:35 vol%) ammonia and sulfur dioxide solutions. (
  • Compared with once-dried bleached pulp, the unbleached pulp after drying had a slightly higher proportion of amorphous region, higher average pore size and specific surface area, and lower hornification degree, which are favorable for enzymatic hydrolysis. (
  • Enzymolysis also showed that the once-dried unbleached pulp was much easier to digest, and yielded 66% glucose after 12-h hydrolysis, which was much higher than the yield (54%) of the once-dried bleached pulp and should have good prospects. (
  • An anaerobic digestion system may include a material grinding/pulping portion, a hydrolysis portion arranged downstream of the grinding portion, a multiple chamber anaerobic reactor arranged downstream from the hydrolysis portion and inc. (
  • Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. (
  • A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or other plant fibre source into a thick fiberboard which can be shipped to a paper mill for further processing. (
  • A gram positive, rod shaped, bacterium was isolated from pulp and paper mill sludge and characterized as Brevibacillus parabrevis (MTCC 12105) by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (
  • Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. (
  • A new model, developed by the paper industry consulting firm Fisher International, can now show the carbon footprint of every pulp and paper mill in the. (
  • In recent years, there have been emerging concerns regarding the fate and effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on the environment. (
  • Environmental Fate and Effects of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents explores the most active and critical current research and experimentation from around the world. (
  • The EU-funded SmartLi project developed technologies for ensuring high quality lignin raw materials for manufacturers and industrial end users. (
  • However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. (
  • The strength properties of these new plastics vary monotonically with the degree of intermolecular association between the constituent kraft lignin components. (
  • This is the first attempt at performing any type of oxidation on Sappi Saiccor's effluent and the results could be of value to the industrial paper and pulp community. (
  • The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. (
  • The cleavage of α-ether linkages rapidly occurs under mildly acidic reaction conditions, resulting in lower molecular weight lignin fragments. (
  • Membrane separation (ultrafiltration) of the hydrolyzate has been shown to furnish retentates which vary in lignin content, as high as 90%, depending on the pH and molecular weight limits of the membrane [ 2 ]. (
  • The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. (
  • Raman spectroscopy using 400 nm excitation was successfully applied to chemical pulp samples and the fluorescence background that usually limits the application of this method to such samples was effectively suppressed. (
  • Chemical pulp made up 93 percent of market pulp. (
  • In chemical pulp mills, the bark introduces unwanted contaminants such as calcium, silica and aluminium that cause scaling and give an extra loading for the chemical recovery system. (
  • The main building blocks of lignin are the hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (or monolignols) coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, with typically minor amounts of p -coumaryl alcohol ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • During fruit development, expression of EjODO1 decreased along with the reduction of lignin content and became undetectable in mature ripe fruit. (
  • The microbial decomposition of green manure is affected by the C : nitrogen (N) ratio and forms of C (cellulose and lignin content) in plant tissue (Vigil and Kissel 1991). (
  • The similar procedure was also used for determination content of Klason's lignin in the plant materials [ 10 - 14 ]. (
  • Dissolving pulp is bleached to decrease the lignin content. (
  • Given the high hydrogen content, waste plastics could serve as a potential hydrogen donor for lignin pyrolysis. (
  • Therefore, pre-treatment is necessary to reduce sulfur content and odour, and improve the properties of lignin so that it can be used as reinforcing filler in composites and plasticisers. (
  • Lignin exhibits up to 30 percent increase in monolignol ferulate content. (
  • Oxidative stress in lignin peroxidase (LIP)-producing cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is studied by comparing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cumulative oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymes with those found in non-LIP producing cultures exchange of atmospheric air. (
  • A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. (
  • Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. (
  • The material fed into the digester must be small enough to allow the pulping liquor to penetrate the pieces completely. (
  • Chen Y, Wan J, Huang M, Ma Y, Wang Y, Lv H, Yang J (2011) Influence of drying temperature and duration on fiber properties of unbleached wheat straw pulp. (
  • The wood fiber sources required for pulping are "45% sawmill residue, 21% logs and chips, and 34% recycled paper" (Canada, 2014). (
  • Domtar is a leading provider of a wide variety of fiber-based products including communication, specialty and packaging papers, market pulp, and absorbent hygiene products. (
  • The method of Claim 1 wherein the predefined calibration curve is obtained by correlating fiber dimensions from a fraction of a pulp with an initial yield of the pulp calculated using gravimetric methods. (
  • The method of Claim 13 wherein the predefined calibration curve is obtained by correlating fiber dimensions from a fraction of a pulp with an initial hygroscopicity of the pulp calculated using gravimetric methods. (
  • Lignin consists of three monolignol precursors p -coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols (Fig. 1) reacted via an enzyme-initiated dehydrogenative polymerization and is found in every vascular plant on earth. (