The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
Techniques for supplying artificial respiration to a single lung.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Surgical incision of the trachea.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The act of BREATHING in.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Mechanical ventilation delivered to match the patient's efforts in breathing as detected by the interactive ventilation device.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The motion of air currents.
Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
In the medical field, manikins are realistic, full-size models of human bodies used for teaching and practicing medical skills, such as CPR, intubation, or surgical procedures, as they provide a realistic and safe training environment without the use of actual patients.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The act of BREATHING out.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (1/1394)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

Particle deposition in the trachea: in vivo and in hollow casts. (2/1394)

The pattern of deposition within the respiratory tract of potentially harmful particulates is a major factor in assessing any risk from individual and community exposures. Although the trachea is the most easily observed of the conductive airways, very little information concerning its particle collection characteristics is available, information which is essential for a complete and realistic description of particle deposition patterns within the entire respiratory tract. Data on tracheal deposition are also needed for development of accurate predictive models for particle deposition. The pattern of particle deposition in the trachea, and its relation to air flow, was studied in a hollow cast of the human larynx-tracheobronchial tree. Results were compared with data obtained in humans in vivo and from previous studies in hollow casts. In addition, the relevance of tracheal deposition in the hollow cast test system to deposition in vivo was examined by a direct comparison of deposition in a cast prepared from the lungs of donkeys previously studied in a series of in vivo tests. The disturbance of the air flow within the trachea caused by the larynx promoted the deposition of suspended particulates throughout the length of the trachea, and especially in proximal regions. This proximal deposition was due both to direct impaction from the air jet coming from the glottis and to effects of the tubulent flow. Turbulence produced inhomogenous deposition patterns within the trachea for particles of all sizes, although its effect was more pronounced as size decreased. Tracheal deposition in the human cast was within the range of normal in vivo tracheal depostion only when a larynx was used during cast test exposures; this emphasizes the need for the use of realistic experimental test systems for the study of particle deposition patterns. The relative patterns of deposition in casts of the donkey trachea and in the same tracheas in vivo were similar.  (+info)

Pattern of total and regional lung function in subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by 15-me PGF2 alpha. (3/1394)

Closing volume (single breath nitrogen test), regional ventilation and perfusion (using intravenous xenon-133), and total lung function (TLC, VC, and FEV) were measured before and after intramuscular administration of 250 mug 15-methyl prostaglandin F2alpha (15-me PGF2alpha) in 10 healthy women. The cardiac output was measured with the Minnesota impedance cardiograph model 304A and the transthoracic impedance was used as an expression of the thoracic fluid volume. The slope of the alveolar plateau on the closing volume tracing showed a 271% increase 20 minutes after the prostaglandin administration, at which time the closing volume per cent (CV%) had decreased (P less than 0-01) and the closing capacity (CC%) had increased (P less than 0-05). Vital capacity (VC) decreased (P less than 0-01), residual volume (RV) increased (P less than 0-01), and the total lung capacity (TLC) remained unchanged. The maximal decrease (9%) in FEV1 was seen after 20 minutes. All these measurements except the slope of the alveolar plateau returned to control levels after 60 minutes. The redistribution of regional ventilation was more pronounced than that of the regional pulmonary blood flow. No change was observed in cardiac output and transthoracic impedance. None of the patients experienced any dyspnoea. Our results are consistent with a more pronounced effect of prostaglandin F2alpha on the small airways (the alveolar plateau) than on the larger airways (FEV1). In cases where an increase in the slope of the alveolar plateau is observed, the closing volume per cent should not be used as a measurement of the lung disease. It is concluded that the single breath nitrogen test (N2 closing volume) is more sensitive than the conventional tests.  (+info)

Effect on nasal resistance of an external nasal splint and isotonic exercise. (4/1394)

OBJECTIVES: The now commonplace wearing of external nasal splints by sportsmen and athletes has never been scientifically evaluated. The present study looks into the effect of isotonic exercise on nasal resistance, and examines whether this effect is altered by the wearing of an external nasal splint. METHODS: Twenty subjects not suffering from rhinitis were tested. Nasal resistance measurements were recorded using an anterior rhinomanometer before and after isotonic exercise with and without an external nasal splint. Pulse and blood pressure were measured before and after exercise. RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in pulse (p < 0.001) and both systolic (p < 0.002) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressure in response to exercise. Significant differences were seen in nasal resistance when the splint was applied (p < 0.001) and after exercise (p < 0.003). No significant difference was observed after exercise when the splint was worn (p = 0.167). CONCLUSIONS: External nasal splints decrease nasal resistance at rest but are of little value during isotonic exercise.  (+info)

Cardiopulmonary responses of middle-aged men without cardiopulmonary disease to steady-rate positive and negative work performed on a cycle ergometer. (5/1394)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding physiological responses to negative work allows therapists to be more knowledgeable when they prescribe this form of exercise. The physiological responses of 12 men without cardiopulmonary disease, aged 39 to 65 years (X=49.7, SD=9.3), to negative work (eccentric muscle contractions) and to positive work (concentric muscle contractions) were compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects performed the 2 types of work on a motorized cycle ergometer at pedaling frequencies of 35, 55, and 75 rpm with a constant power output of 60 W. Steady-rate values of oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), and breathing frequency (fb) were obtained during 6 test conditions (positive and negative work at each of the 3 pedaling frequencies). RESULTS: Values for all measures were greater during positive work than during negative work, except for fb. During positive work, values for all variables were greatest at 75 rpm, except for fb. During negative work, VO2 and HR were greater at 75 and 35 rpm than at 55 rpm, and VE and VT were greater at 75 rpm than at 55 rpm. Breathing frequency was not different among pedaling frequencies. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The results confirmed that negative work performed on a cycle ergometer is associated with low metabolic cost in older men without cardiopulmonary disease. Although VE was determined primarily by changes in VT during negative work, a comparable disproportionate increase in fb was observed at the start of negative work. Such changes in breathing patterns have implications for the prescription of negative work for patients with lung disease.  (+info)

Contribution of gular pumping to lung ventilation in monitor lizards. (6/1394)

A controversial hypothesis has proposed that lizards are subject to a speed-dependent axial constraint that prevents effective lung ventilation during moderate- and high-speed locomotion. This hypothesis has been challenged by results demonstrating that monitor lizards (genus Varanus) experience no axial constraint. Evidence presented here shows that, during locomotion, varanids use a positive pressure gular pump to assist lung ventilation. Disabling the gular pump reveals that the axial constraint is present in varanids but it is masked by gular pumping under normal conditions. These findings support the prediction that the axial constraint may be found in other tetrapods that breathe by costal aspiration and locomote with a lateral undulatory gait.  (+info)

Influence of immersion on respiratory requirements during 30-min cycling exercise. (7/1394)

Immersion is considered to facilitate exercise-based rehabilitation. However, the drag effect of moving limbs in water, likely to increase the respiratory requirements at exercise, is not mentioned in many reports. The energetic and ventilatory requirements of 30 min steady state cycling exercise performed by healthy male subjects in air and during immersion up to the xiphoid in 33 degrees C water were compared. In the first experimental series nine subjects exercised at the same 60% maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2,max) in air and water. In the two ambient conditions, ventilatory variables had similar values, but the ergometric setting had to be reduced during water immersion so that the workload rated only 69+/-20 W (mean+/-SD) in water versus 121+/-32 W (p<0.001) in air. In the second experimental series, the same ergometric work load (122 W) was achieved by nine subjects with an average V'O2 of 2,210+/-300 mL x min(-1) in air versus 2,868+/-268 mL x min(-1) in water (p<0.001). Resting water immersion caused a marked trend for decreasing vital capacity (p=0.06), but no modification of other ventilatory variables. During exercise at similar V'O2, the average values of minute ventilation (V'E), tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fR), tidal inspiratory time (VT/tI) were not different between water and air. However, at similar ergometric workload, V'E, VT, fR, VT/tI and plasma lactate levels were significantly higher in water than in air. Such consequences of the drag effect of water upon limb movements have not been reported in previous studies relying on shorter exercise bouts. Thus, maintaining steady exercise levels in water either led to a decrease in the workload or required a 25% higher oxygen consumption than in air. These findings may be relevant to the prescription of water immersion rehabilitation programmes.  (+info)

Effects of chemical feedback on respiratory motor and ventilatory output during different modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. (8/1394)

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of chemical feedback on respiratory motor and ventilatory output in conscious subjects ventilated on various modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. Seven subjects were connected to a ventilator and randomly ventilated on assist-volume control (AVC), pressure support (PS) or proportional assist ventilation (PAV). On each mode, the assist level was set to the highest comfortable level. Airway and oesophageal (Poes) pressures, tidal volume, respiratory frequency (fR) and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PET,CO2) were measured breath-by-breath. When the subjects were stable on each mode, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide (FI,CO2) was increased stepwise, and changes in minute ventilation (V'E) and respiratory motor output, estimated by the pressure-time product of all the respiratory muscles per breath (PTPrm) and per minute (PTPminute), were observed. At zero FI,CO2, PTPminute/PET,CO2 did not differ between modes, while V'E/ PTPminute was significantly lower with PAV than that with PS and AVC. As a result V'E/PET,CO2 was significantly lower with PAV, preventing, unlike AVC and PS, a significant drop in PET,CO2. With PAV, independent of CO2, V'E/PTPminute remained constant, while it decreased significantly with increasing CO2 stimulus with PS and AVC. At high PET,CO2 respiratory effort was significantly lower with PAV than that with PS and AVC. In conclusion, the mode of mechanical ventilation modifies the effects of chemical feedback on respiratory motor and ventilatory output. At all carbon dioxide stimulus levels neuroventilatory coupling was better preserved with proportional assist ventilation than with pressure support and assist-volume control ventilation.  (+info)

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

The Ventilation-Perfusion (V/Q) ratio is a measure used in respiratory physiology to describe the relationship between the amount of air that enters the alveoli (ventilation) and the amount of blood that reaches the alveoli to pick up oxygen (perfusion).

In a healthy lung, these two processes are well-matched, meaning that well-ventilated areas of the lung also have good blood flow. This results in a V/Q ratio close to 1.0.

However, certain lung conditions such as emphysema or pulmonary embolism can cause ventilation and perfusion to become mismatched, leading to a V/Q ratio that is either higher (ventilation exceeds perfusion) or lower (perfusion exceeds ventilation) than normal. This mismatch can result in impaired gas exchange and lead to hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood).

The V/Q ratio is often used in clinical settings to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders.

Hyperventilation is a medical condition characterized by an increased respiratory rate and depth, resulting in excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to hypocapnia (low CO2 levels in the blood), which can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, tingling sensations in the extremities, and muscle spasms. Hyperventilation may occur due to various underlying causes, including anxiety disorders, lung diseases, neurological conditions, or certain medications. It is essential to identify and address the underlying cause of hyperventilation for proper treatment.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Chemoreceptor cells are specialized sensory neurons that detect and respond to chemical changes in the internal or external environment. They play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis within the body by converting chemical signals into electrical impulses, which are then transmitted to the central nervous system for further processing and response.

There are two main types of chemoreceptor cells:

1. Oxygen Chemoreceptors: These cells are located in the carotid bodies near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and in the aortic bodies close to the aortic arch. They monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and respond to decreases in oxygen concentration or increases in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions (indicating acidity) by increasing their firing rate. This signals the brain to increase respiratory rate and depth, thereby restoring normal oxygen levels.

2. Taste Cells: These chemoreceptor cells are found within the taste buds of the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity. They detect specific tastes (salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami) by interacting with molecules from food. When a tastant binds to receptors on the surface of a taste cell, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the generation of an action potential. This information is then relayed to the brain, where it is interpreted as taste sensation.

In summary, chemoreceptor cells are essential for maintaining physiological balance by detecting and responding to chemical stimuli in the body. They play a critical role in regulating vital functions such as respiration and digestion.

Xenon is a noble gas with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It's a colorless, heavy, odorless, and chemically inert gas. In the field of medicine, xenon has been used as a general anesthetic due to its ability to produce unconsciousness while preserving physiological reflexes and cardiovascular stability. Its use is limited due to high cost compared to other anesthetics.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

Hypercapnia is a state of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the blood, typically defined as an arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. It is often associated with conditions that impair gas exchange or eliminate CO2 from the body, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), severe asthma, respiratory failure, or certain neuromuscular disorders. Hypercapnia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory acidosis, coma, and even death if not promptly treated.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a specialized mode of mechanical ventilation that delivers breaths at higher rates (usually 120-900 breaths per minute) and smaller tidal volumes (1-3 mL/kg) compared to conventional ventilation. This technique aims to reduce lung injury caused by overdistension and atelectasis, which can occur with traditional ventilator settings. It is often used in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units for the management of severe respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, and other conditions where conventional ventilation may be harmful.

There are two main types of high-frequency ventilation: high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV). Both techniques use different methods to generate the high-frequency breaths but share similar principles in delivering small tidal volumes at rapid rates.

In summary, high-frequency ventilation is a medical intervention that utilizes specialized ventilators to deliver faster and smaller breaths, minimizing lung injury and improving oxygenation for critically ill patients with severe respiratory distress.

Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) is a type of mechanical ventilation in which positive pressure is intermittently applied to the airway and lungs, allowing for inflation and deflation of the lungs. This mode of ventilation is often used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs) to support patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to respiratory failure or other conditions that affect breathing.

During IPPV, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient at set intervals, with each breath consisting of a set volume or pressure. The patient may also be allowed to take spontaneous breaths between the mechanically delivered breaths. The settings for IPPV can be adjusted based on the patient's needs and condition, including factors such as their respiratory rate, tidal volume (the amount of air moved with each breath), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which helps to keep the alveoli open and prevent atelectasis.

IPPV can be used to provide short-term or long-term ventilatory support, depending on the patient's needs. It is an effective way to ensure that patients receive adequate oxygenation and ventilation while minimizing the risk of lung injury associated with high pressures or volumes. However, it is important to closely monitor patients receiving IPPV and adjust the settings as needed to avoid complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia or barotrauma.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is a type of mechanical ventilation that delivers breaths at a frequency greater than 100 times per minute, typically in the range of 240-360 breaths per minute. It uses a high-pressure jet of gas to deliver small tidal volumes (usually less than 2 ml/kg of ideal body weight) into the airway.

The jet ventilation is often combined with a low-level positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain some lung volume and prevent atelectasis during exhalation. HFJV can be used in both invasive and noninvasive modes, depending on the patient's condition and requirements.

This mode of ventilation is particularly useful in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), bronchopleural fistula, or air leaks from lung injury, as it minimizes gas flow and reduces the risk of air leakage while still maintaining adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. However, HFJV requires careful monitoring and expertise to ensure proper settings and avoid complications such as barotrauma, hemodynamic instability, or inadequate ventilation.

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) refers to the delivery of mechanical ventilation without using an invasive airway, such as an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. It is a technique used to support patients with respiratory insufficiency or failure, while avoiding the potential complications associated with intubation and invasive ventilation.

NIV can be provided through various interfaces, including nasal masks, full-face masks, or mouthpieces. The most common modes of NIV are continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), which provide a constant flow of pressurized air to maintain airway patency and support breathing efforts.

NIV is commonly used in the management of chronic respiratory conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea, COPD, and neuromuscular disorders, as well as acute respiratory failure due to causes such as pneumonia or exacerbation of chronic lung disease. However, it is not appropriate for all patients and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Ventilator weaning is the process of gradually reducing the amount of support provided by a mechanical ventilator to a patient, with the ultimate goal of completely withdrawing the mechanical assistance and allowing the patient to breathe independently. This process is typically initiated when the patient's underlying medical condition has improved to the point where they are able to sustain their own respiratory efforts.

The weaning process may involve reducing the frequency and duration of ventilator breaths, decreasing the amount of oxygen supplied by the ventilator, or adjusting the settings of the ventilator to encourage the patient to take more frequent and deeper breaths on their own. The rate at which weaning is attempted will depend on the individual patient's condition and overall progress.

Close monitoring of the patient's respiratory status, oxygenation, and work of breathing is essential during the weaning process to ensure that the patient is able to tolerate the decreased level of support and to identify any potential complications that may arise. Effective communication between the healthcare team and the patient is also important to provide education, set expectations, and address any concerns or questions that may arise during the weaning process.

Mechanical Ventilators are medical devices that assist with breathing by providing mechanical ventilation to patients who are unable to breathe sufficiently on their own. These machines deliver breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube, which is placed in the windpipe (trachea). Mechanical Ventilators can be set to deliver breaths at specific rates and volumes, and they can also be adjusted to provide varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to help keep the alveoli open and improve oxygenation.

Mechanical ventilation is typically used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), and it may be employed for a variety of reasons, including respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or surgery. Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can lead to complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, muscle weakness, and decreased cardiac function, so the goal is usually to wean patients off the ventilator as soon as possible.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult (RDSa or ARDS), also known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, is a severe form of acute lung injury characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. This results in increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, pulmonary edema, and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). The inflammation can be triggered by various direct or indirect insults to the lung, such as sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, or aspiration.

The hallmark of ARDS is the development of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, which can resemble pulmonary edema, but without evidence of increased left atrial pressure. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain adequate oxygenation and prevent further lung injury.

The management of ARDS is primarily supportive, focusing on protecting the lungs from further injury, optimizing oxygenation, and providing adequate nutrition and treatment for any underlying conditions. The use of low tidal volumes and limiting plateau pressures during mechanical ventilation have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ARDS.

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) is a type of lung injury that can occur in patients who require mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing. It's caused by the application of excessive pressure or volume to the lungs during the process of mechanical ventilation, which can lead to damage of the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). This can result in inflammation, increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, and potentially even progressive lung dysfunction.

The risk factors for VILI include high tidal volumes (the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs during each breath), high inspiratory pressures, and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). To minimize the risk of VILI, clinicians often use a lung protective ventilation strategy that involves using lower tidal volumes and limiting inspiratory pressures.

It's important to note that while mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving intervention for many critically ill patients, it is not without risks. VILI is one of the potential complications of this therapy, and clinicians must be mindful of this risk when managing mechanically ventilated patients.

Work of breathing (WOB) is a term used in respiratory physiology to describe the amount of energy expended by the respiratory muscles to overcome the elastic and resistive forces in the lungs and chest wall during breathing. It is usually measured in joules per liter (J/L) or in breaths per minute (BPM).

WOB can be increased in various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and interstitial lung disease, due to increased airway resistance or decreased lung compliance. Increased WOB can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced quality of life.

WOB can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as esophageal pressure monitoring or transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, or invasively through the use of indwelling catheters in the pleural space or within the airways. These measurements are often used in research settings to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for respiratory disorders.

Blood gas analysis is a medical test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, as well as the pH level, which indicates the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. This test is often used to evaluate lung function, respiratory disorders, and acid-base balance in the body. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory illnesses. The analysis is typically performed on a sample of arterial blood, although venous blood may also be used in some cases.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Lung compliance is a measure of the ease with which the lungs expand and is defined as the change in lung volume for a given change in transpulmonary pressure. It is often expressed in units of liters per centimeter of water (L/cm H2O). A higher compliance indicates that the lungs are more easily distensible, while a lower compliance suggests that the lungs are stiffer and require more force to expand. Lung compliance can be affected by various conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). It is performed to provide an airway in cases where the upper airway is obstructed or access to the lower airway is required, such as in prolonged intubation, severe trauma, or chronic lung diseases. The procedure involves making an incision in the front of the neck and creating a direct opening into the trachea, through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to maintain the patency of the airway. This allows for direct ventilation of the lungs, suctioning of secretions, and prevention of complications associated with upper airway obstruction.

One-Lung Ventilation (OLV) is a medical procedure that involves the selective ventilation of one lung, while the other lung is either collapsed or not ventilated. This technique is often used during thoracic surgeries to provide a clear surgical field and improve exposure, especially for procedures involving the lower lobes of the lung or the mediastinum.

During OLV, a double-lumen endotracheal tube or a bronchial blocker is inserted into the trachea to isolate and ventilate one lung, while the other lung is deflated and not ventilated. This allows the surgical team to operate on the non-ventilated lung without the risk of contamination from secretions or debris from the operative site.

OLV requires careful monitoring of the patient's respiratory status, including oxygenation, ventilation, and carbon dioxide elimination. It may also increase the risk of hypoxemia, atelectasis, and pneumothorax, so it is important to closely monitor the patient's condition throughout the procedure and take appropriate measures to minimize these risks.

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

Helium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It's a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gases section of the periodic table. In medicine, helium is sometimes used in medical settings for its unique properties, such as being less dense than air, which can help improve the delivery of oxygen to patients with respiratory conditions. For example, heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen, may be used to reduce the work of breathing in patients with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Additionally, helium is also used in cryogenic medical equipment and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

A laryngeal mask is a type of supraglottic airway device that is used in anesthesia and critical care to secure the airway during procedures or respiratory support. It consists of an inflatable cuff that is inserted into the hypopharynx, behind the tongue, and above the laryngeal opening. The cuff forms a low-pressure seal around the laryngeal inlet, allowing for the delivery of ventilated gases to the lungs while minimizing the risk of aspiration.

Laryngeal masks are often used as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, especially in cases where intubation is difficult or contraindicated. They are also used in emergency situations for airway management and during resuscitation efforts. Laryngeal masks come in various sizes and designs, with some models allowing for the placement of a gastric tube to decompress the stomach and reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration.

Overall, laryngeal masks provide a safe and effective means of securing the airway while minimizing trauma and discomfort to the patient.

A negative pressure ventilator, also known as an iron lung, is a type of mechanical ventilator that creates a negative pressure environment around the patient's chest and abdomen to assist with breathing. This technology was widely used during the polio epidemic in the mid-20th century to help patients with respiratory paralysis caused by the disease.

In a negative pressure ventilator, the patient is placed inside an airtight chamber that is connected to a pump. The pump changes the air pressure within the chamber, creating a vacuum effect that causes the chest and abdomen to expand and contract, which in turn facilitates breathing. As the pressure around the chest decreases, the chest wall expands, allowing the lungs to fill with air. When the pressure increases, the chest wall contracts, pushing air out of the lungs.

Negative pressure ventilators have largely been replaced by positive pressure ventilators, which are more commonly used today. Positive pressure ventilators work by actively pushing air into the lungs, rather than relying on negative pressure to create a vacuum effect. However, negative pressure ventilators may still be used in certain situations where positive pressure ventilation is not appropriate or feasible.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Newborn is a common lung disorder in premature infants. It occurs when the lungs lack a substance called surfactant, which helps keep the tiny air sacs in the lungs open. This results in difficulty breathing and oxygenation, causing symptoms such as rapid, shallow breathing, grunting noises, flaring of the nostrils, and retractions (the skin between the ribs pulls in with each breath). RDS is more common in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and is treated with surfactant replacement therapy, oxygen support, and mechanical ventilation if necessary. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or even death.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) is a measure of the maximum amount of air that can be voluntarily breathed in and out of the lungs in one minute. It is often used as a clinical assessment to evaluate respiratory function and lung capacity. The test involves breathing as deeply and quickly as possible for a period of time, usually 12-15 breaths, and the total volume of air exhaled during that time is measured. This value is then extrapolated to one minute to determine the MVV. It is typically expressed in liters per minute (L/min).

MVV provides information about a person's overall respiratory muscle strength and endurance, as well as their ability to ventilate their lungs effectively. Reduced MVV values may indicate restrictive or obstructive lung diseases, such as COPD or pulmonary fibrosis, or neuromuscular disorders that affect the respiratory muscles. However, MVV should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical data and tests to make a definitive diagnosis.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Intensive care is a specialized level of medical care that is provided to critically ill patients. It's usually given in a dedicated unit of a hospital called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU). The goal of intensive care is to closely monitor and manage life-threatening conditions, stabilize vital functions, and support organs until they recover or the patient can be moved to a less acute level of care.

Intensive care involves advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines for kidney support, intravenous lines for medication administration, and continuous monitoring devices for heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs.

The ICU team typically includes intensive care specialists (intensivists), critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive, round-the-clock care for critically ill patients.

Respiratory dead space is the portion of each tidal volume (the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during normal breathing) that does not participate in gas exchange. It mainly consists of the anatomical dead space, which includes the conducting airways such as the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, where no alveoli are present for gas exchange to occur.

Additionally, alveolar dead space can also contribute to respiratory dead space when alveoli are perfused inadequately or not at all due to conditions like pulmonary embolism, lung consolidation, or impaired circulation. In these cases, even though air reaches the alveoli, insufficient blood flow prevents efficient gas exchange from taking place.

The sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space is referred to as physiological dead space. An increased respiratory dead space can lead to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired oxygenation, making it a critical parameter in assessing respiratory function, particularly during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

Anoxia is a medical condition that refers to the absence or complete lack of oxygen supply in the body or a specific organ, tissue, or cell. This can lead to serious health consequences, including damage or death of cells and tissues, due to the vital role that oxygen plays in supporting cellular metabolism and energy production.

Anoxia can occur due to various reasons, such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, severe blood loss, carbon monoxide poisoning, or high altitude exposure. Prolonged anoxia can result in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, a serious condition that can cause brain damage and long-term neurological impairments.

Medical professionals use various diagnostic tests, such as blood gas analysis, pulse oximetry, and electroencephalography (EEG), to assess oxygen levels in the body and diagnose anoxia. Treatment for anoxia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supplemental oxygen, and supporting vital functions, such as breathing and circulation, to prevent further damage.

A tracheotomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening in the neck and through the front (anterior) wall of the trachea (windpipe). This is performed to provide a new airway for the patient, bypassing any obstruction or damage in the upper airways. A tube is then inserted into this opening to maintain it and allow breathing.

This procedure is often conducted in emergency situations when there is an upper airway obstruction that cannot be easily removed or in critically ill patients who require long-term ventilation support. Complications can include infection, bleeding, damage to surrounding structures, and difficulties with speaking, swallowing, or coughing.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

Apnea is a medical condition defined as the cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more. It can occur during sleep (sleep apnea) or while awake (wakeful apnea). There are different types of sleep apnea, including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and complex sleep apnea syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the airway becomes blocked during sleep, while central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Complex sleep apnea syndrome, also known as treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apneas. Sleep apnea can lead to various complications, such as fatigue, difficulty concentrating, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

Lung injury, also known as pulmonary injury, refers to damage or harm caused to the lung tissue, blood vessels, or air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This can result from various causes such as infection, trauma, exposure to harmful substances, or systemic diseases. Common types of lung injuries include acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, and chemical pneumonitis. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, cough, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Hypoventilation is a medical condition that refers to the decreased rate and depth of breathing, which leads to an inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. As a result, there is an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a decrease in the levels of oxygen (hypoxemia) in the blood. Hypoventilation can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory muscle weakness, sedative or narcotic overdose, chest wall deformities, neuromuscular disorders, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing. Prolonged hypoventilation can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

The prone position is a body posture in which an individual lies on their stomach, with their face down and chest facing the floor or bed. This position is often used in medical settings for various purposes, such as during certain surgical procedures, respiratory support, or to alleviate pressure ulcers. It's also important to note that the prone position can have implications for patient safety, particularly in critically ill patients, and should be carefully monitored.

Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing (IPPB) is a type of ventilatory support that involves the intermittent delivery of positive pressure to the airways and alveoli during inspiration, while allowing for expiration to occur passively. This technique is often used in medical settings to assist patients with respiratory insufficiency or failure, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neuromuscular disorders, or following surgery.

During IPPB, the patient breathes in through a mouthpiece or mask that is connected to a ventilator or breathing machine. The machine delivers positive pressure to the airways, which helps to inflate the lungs and improve oxygenation. The pressure can be adjusted to meet the needs of each individual patient, and the frequency and duration of breaths can also be controlled by the healthcare provider.

IPPB is typically used on a short-term basis, as a means of providing respiratory support while a patient's underlying condition improves. It may be used in conjunction with other therapies, such as bronchodilators or corticosteroids, to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms. While IPPB can be an effective tool for managing respiratory insufficiency, it is not without risks, and careful monitoring is required to ensure that it is used safely and effectively.

Oxygen inhalation therapy is a medical treatment that involves the administration of oxygen to a patient through a nasal tube or mask, with the purpose of increasing oxygen concentration in the body. This therapy is used to treat various medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, and other conditions that cause low levels of oxygen in the blood. The additional oxygen helps to improve tissue oxygenation, reduce work of breathing, and promote overall patient comfort and well-being. Oxygen therapy may be delivered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and medical condition.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Krypton is a noble gas with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It exists in various radioisotopes, which are unstable isotopes of krypton that undergo radioactive decay. A few examples include:

1. Krypton-81: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 2.1 x 10^5 years and decays via electron capture to rubidium-81. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
2. Krypton-83: With a half-life of approximately 85.7 days, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to bromine-83. It can be used in medical imaging for lung ventilation studies.
3. Krypton-85: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 10.7 years and decays via beta decay to rubidium-85. It is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission and can be found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
4. Krypton-87: With a half-life of approximately 76.3 minutes, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to rubidium-87. It is not found naturally on Earth but can be produced artificially.

It's important to note that while krypton radioisotopes have medical applications, they are also associated with potential health risks due to their radioactivity. Proper handling and safety precautions must be taken when working with these substances.

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and damage to the lung tissue, which can lead to difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. It is often caused by direct or indirect injury to the lungs, such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, or inhalation of harmful substances.

The symptoms of ALI include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, cough, and low oxygen levels in the blood. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation to support breathing. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury, providing supportive care, and managing symptoms.

In severe cases, ALI can lead to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a more serious and life-threatening condition that requires intensive care unit (ICU) treatment.

Pulmonary circulation refers to the process of blood flow through the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. This is a vital part of the overall circulatory system, which delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body's cells while removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation returns to the right atrium of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood then moves into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery when the right ventricle contracts.

The pulmonary artery divides into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further branch into a vast network of tiny capillaries in the lungs. Here, oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood, binding to hemoglobin in red blood cells, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled through the nose or mouth.

The now oxygenated blood collects in venules, which merge to form pulmonary veins. These veins transport the oxygen-rich blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where it enters the systemic circulation once again. This continuous cycle enables the body's cells to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning while disposing of waste products.

Respiratory muscles are a group of muscles involved in the process of breathing. They include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles (located between the ribs), scalene muscles (located in the neck), and abdominal muscles. These muscles work together to allow the chest cavity to expand or contract, which draws air into or pushes it out of the lungs. The diaphragm is the primary muscle responsible for breathing, contracting to increase the volume of the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs during inhalation. The intercostal muscles help to further expand the ribcage, while the abdominal muscles assist in exhaling by compressing the abdomen and pushing up on the diaphragm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Krypton" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It's a noble gas, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive. It's commonly used in lighting products like flash lamps and high-powered gas lasers. The misconception might arise from its use in popular culture, notably as the element that gives Superman his powers in comic books, movies, and television shows.

Pulmonary atelectasis is a medical condition characterized by the collapse or closure of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs, leading to reduced or absent gas exchange in the affected area. This results in decreased lung volume and can cause hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). Atelectasis can be caused by various factors such as obstruction of the airways, surfactant deficiency, pneumothorax, or compression from outside the lung. It can also occur after surgical procedures, particularly when the patient is lying in one position for a long time. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, and chest discomfort, but sometimes it may not cause any symptoms, especially if only a small area of the lung is affected. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include bronchodilators, chest physiotherapy, or even surgery in severe cases.

Barotrauma is a type of injury that occurs when there is a difference in pressure between the external environment and the internal body, leading to damage to body tissues. It commonly affects gas-filled spaces in the body, such as the lungs, middle ear, or sinuses.

In medical terms, barotrauma refers to the damage caused by changes in pressure that occur rapidly, such as during scuba diving, flying in an airplane, or receiving treatment in a hyperbaric chamber. These rapid changes in pressure can cause the gas-filled spaces in the body to expand or contract, leading to injury.

For example, during descent while scuba diving, the pressure outside the body increases, and if the diver does not equalize the pressure in their middle ear by swallowing or yawning, the increased pressure can cause the eardrum to rupture, resulting in barotrauma. Similarly, rapid ascent while flying can cause the air in the lungs to expand, leading to lung overexpansion injuries such as pneumothorax or arterial gas embolism.

Prevention of barotrauma involves equalizing pressure in the affected body spaces during changes in pressure and avoiding diving or flying with respiratory infections or other conditions that may increase the risk of injury. Treatment of barotrauma depends on the severity and location of the injury and may include pain management, antibiotics, surgery, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

A critical illness is a serious condition that has the potential to cause long-term or permanent disability, or even death. It often requires intensive care and life support from medical professionals. Critical illnesses can include conditions such as:

1. Heart attack
2. Stroke
3. Organ failure (such as kidney, liver, or lung)
4. Severe infections (such as sepsis)
5. Coma or brain injury
6. Major trauma
7. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body

These conditions can cause significant physical and emotional stress on patients and their families, and often require extensive medical treatment, rehabilitation, and long-term care. Critical illness insurance is a type of insurance policy that provides financial benefits to help cover the costs associated with treating these serious medical conditions.

Airway extubation is a medical procedure in which an endotracheal tube is removed from a patient's airway. The endotracheal tube is typically inserted during intubation, which is performed to maintain a secure airway and ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation of the lungs during surgery or other medical procedures.

Extubation is usually done when the patient is able to breathe on their own and no longer requires mechanical ventilation. The procedure involves carefully removing the tube while ensuring that the patient's airway remains open and protected. This may involve suctioning secretions from the airway, providing oxygen supplementation, and monitoring the patient's vital signs closely.

Extubation can be a routine procedure in some cases, but it can also carry risks such as respiratory distress, laryngospasm, or aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs. As such, it is typically performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled setting, with appropriate monitoring and equipment available to manage any potential complications.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration during quiet breathing. It represents the sum of the residual volume (RV) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The FRC is approximately 2.5-3.5 liters in a healthy adult. This volume of air serves to keep the alveoli open and maintain oxygenation during periods of quiet breathing, as well as providing a reservoir for additional ventilation during increased activity or exercise.

Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation that causes difficulty in completely emptying the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs during exhaling. This results in the trapping of stale air and prevents fresh air from entering the alveoli, leading to various symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and decreased exercise tolerance.

The most common obstructive lung diseases include:

1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants.
2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by variable airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Symptoms can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, or physical activity.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the airways become abnormally widened, scarred, and thickened due to chronic inflammation or infection, leading to mucus buildup and impaired clearance.
4. Cystic Fibrosis: An inherited genetic disorder that affects the exocrine glands, resulting in thick and sticky mucus production in various organs, including the lungs. This can lead to chronic lung infections, inflammation, and airway obstruction.
5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: A genetic condition characterized by low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin protein, which leads to uncontrolled protease enzyme activity that damages the lung tissue, causing emphysema-like symptoms.

Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves bronchodilators (to relax and widen the airways), corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation), and lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or even lung transplantation may be considered.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

Pulmonary edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitial spaces (the area surrounding the alveoli) within the lungs. This buildup of fluid can lead to impaired gas exchange, resulting in shortness of breath, coughing, and difficulty breathing, especially when lying down. Pulmonary edema is often a complication of heart failure, but it can also be caused by other conditions such as pneumonia, trauma, or exposure to certain toxins.

In the early stages of pulmonary edema, patients may experience mild symptoms such as shortness of breath during physical activity. However, as the condition progresses, symptoms can become more severe and include:

* Severe shortness of breath, even at rest
* Wheezing or coughing up pink, frothy sputum
* Rapid breathing and heart rate
* Anxiety or restlessness
* Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) due to lack of oxygen

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, chest X-ray, and other diagnostic tests such as echocardiography or CT scan. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care such as supplemental oxygen, diuretics to help remove excess fluid from the body, and medications to help reduce anxiety and improve breathing. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support respiratory function.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Interactive Ventilatory Support (IVS) is not a widely recognized or established medical term with a universally accepted definition. However, in the context of mechanical ventilation, it generally refers to a mode of support that allows for some level of interaction between the patient's own breathing efforts and the ventilator's assistance.

One example of IVS is called "Pressure Regulated Volume Control with Automatic Tube Compensation" (PRVC-ATC). In this mode, the ventilator delivers a preset volume while adjusting the pressure to maintain a constant flow, and it compensates for the resistance of the endotracheal tube. The patient's spontaneous breaths are assisted by a lower level of pressure, allowing for some interaction between the patient's efforts and the ventilator's support.

It is important to note that different manufacturers may use the term "Interactive Ventilatory Support" or similar terms to describe various modes or functions of their mechanical ventilators. Therefore, it is always recommended to refer to the specific definitions provided by the manufacturer's user manual or clinical literature.

Critical care, also known as intensive care, is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that require close monitoring and organ support. Critical care medicine is practiced in critical care units (ICUs) or intensive care units of hospitals. The goal of critical care is to prevent further deterioration of the patient's condition, to support failing organs, and to treat any underlying conditions that may have caused the patient to become critically ill.

Critical care involves a multidisciplinary team approach, including intensivists (specialist doctors trained in critical care), nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. The care provided in the ICU is highly specialized and often involves advanced medical technology such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy.

Patients who require critical care may have a wide range of conditions, including severe infections, respiratory failure, cardiovascular instability, neurological emergencies, and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Critical care is an essential component of modern healthcare and has significantly improved the outcomes of critically ill patients.

Neuromuscular diseases are a group of disorders that involve the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nerves and muscles outside of the brain and spinal cord. These conditions can affect both children and adults, and they can be inherited or acquired. Neuromuscular diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, numbness, tingling, pain, cramping, and twitching. Some common examples of neuromuscular diseases include muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), peripheral neuropathy, and myasthenia gravis. The specific symptoms and severity of these conditions can vary widely depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles and nerves that are affected. Treatment for neuromuscular diseases may include medications, physical therapy, assistive devices, or surgery, depending on the individual case.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

Middle ear ventilation refers to the normal process of air movement between the middle ear and the back of the nose (nasopharynx) through the eustachian tube. This tube is a narrow canal that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and helps to regulate air pressure in the middle ear, preventing its accumulation and subsequent negative pressure or fluid build-up, which can lead to conditions such as otitis media (middle ear infection) or serous otitis media (fluid in the middle ear).

The eustachian tube opens during activities such as swallowing, yawning, or chewing, allowing fresh air to enter the middle ear and any accumulated fluid or gas to be drained out. Abnormalities in middle ear ventilation can result from dysfunction of the eustachian tube, leading to various middle ear disorders.

Respiratory therapy is a healthcare profession that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of respiratory disorders and diseases. Respiratory therapists (RTs) work under the direction of physicians to provide care for patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, sleep apnea, and neuromuscular diseases that affect breathing.

RTs use a variety of techniques and treatments to help patients breathe more easily, including oxygen therapy, aerosol medication delivery, chest physiotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and patient education. They also perform diagnostic tests such as pulmonary function studies to assess lung function and help diagnose respiratory conditions.

RTs work in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and home health agencies. They may provide care for patients of all ages, from premature infants to the elderly. The overall goal of respiratory therapy is to help patients achieve and maintain optimal lung function and quality of life.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides intensive care to critically ill or injured infants, children, and adolescents. The PICU is equipped with advanced medical technology and staffed by healthcare professionals trained in pediatrics, including pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists as needed.

The primary goal of the PICU is to closely monitor and manage the most critical patients, providing around-the-clock care and interventions to support organ function, treat life-threatening conditions, and prevent complications. The PICU team works together to provide family-centered care, keeping parents informed about their child's condition and involving them in decision-making processes.

Common reasons for admission to the PICU include respiratory failure, shock, sepsis, severe trauma, congenital heart disease, neurological emergencies, and post-operative monitoring after complex surgeries. The length of stay in the PICU can vary widely depending on the severity of the child's illness or injury and their response to treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fluorocarbons" are not typically associated with medical definitions. Fluorocarbons are chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to fluorine atoms. They are often used in a variety of applications including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and in the manufacturing of Teflon and other non-stick coatings.

If you have any medical terms or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a specific type of pneumonia that develops in patients who have been mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube for at least 48 hours. It is defined as a nosocomial pneumonia (healthcare-associated infection occurring >48 hours after admission) that occurs in this setting. VAP is typically caused by aspiration of pathogenic microorganisms from the oropharynx or stomach into the lower respiratory tract, and it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

The diagnosis of VAP is often challenging due to the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions and the potential for contamination of lower respiratory samples by upper airway flora. Clinical criteria, radiographic findings, and laboratory tests, such as quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or protected specimen brush, are often used in combination to make a definitive diagnosis.

Preventing VAP is crucial in critically ill patients and involves several evidence-based strategies, including elevating the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, and careful sedation management to allow for spontaneous breathing trials and early extubation when appropriate.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

Capnography is the non-invasive measurement and monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled breath, also known as end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). It is typically displayed as a waveform graph that shows the concentration of CO2 over time. Capnography provides important information about respiratory function, metabolic rate, and the effectiveness of ventilation during medical procedures such as anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and resuscitation. Changes in capnograph patterns can help detect conditions such as hypoventilation, hyperventilation, esophageal intubation, and pulmonary embolism.

"APACHE" stands for "Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation." It is a system used to assess the severity of illness in critically ill patients and predict their risk of mortality. The APACHE score is calculated based on various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory values, as well as age and chronic health conditions.

There are different versions of the APACHE system, including APACHE II, III, and IV, each with its own set of variables and scoring system. The most commonly used version is APACHE II, which includes 12 physiological variables measured during the first 24 hours of ICU admission, as well as age and chronic health points.

The APACHE score is widely used in research and clinical settings to compare the severity of illness and outcomes between different patient populations, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and triage.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a mode of non-invasive ventilation that delivers pressurized room air or oxygen to maintain airway patency and increase functional residual capacity in patients with respiratory disorders. A CPAP device, which typically includes a flow generator, tubing, and a mask, provides a constant positive pressure throughout the entire respiratory cycle, preventing the collapse of the upper airway during inspiration and expiration.

CPAP is commonly used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition characterized by repetitive narrowing or closure of the upper airway during sleep, leading to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, and sleep fragmentation. By delivering positive pressure, CPAP helps to stent open the airway, ensuring unobstructed breathing and reducing the frequency and severity of apneic events.

Additionally, CPAP can be used in other clinical scenarios, such as managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, or postoperative respiratory insufficiency, to improve oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing. The specific pressure settings and device configurations are tailored to each patient's needs based on their underlying condition, severity of symptoms, and response to therapy.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Pulmonary surfactants are a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that are produced by the alveolar type II cells in the lungs. They play a crucial role in reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface within the alveoli, which helps to prevent collapse of the lungs during expiration. Surfactants also have important immunological functions, such as inhibiting the growth of certain bacteria and modulating the immune response. Deficiency or dysfunction of pulmonary surfactants can lead to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants and other lung diseases.

Xenon radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element xenon that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be produced through various nuclear reactions and have a wide range of applications, including medical imaging and cancer treatment. Examples of commonly used xenon radioisotopes include xenon-127, xenon-131m, xenon-133, and xenon-135.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medical settings must be carefully regulated and monitored to ensure safety and minimize potential risks to patients and healthcare workers.

Respiratory paralysis is a condition characterized by the inability to breathe effectively due to the failure or weakness of the muscles involved in respiration. This can include the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and other accessory muscles.

In medical terms, it's often associated with conditions that affect the neuromuscular junction, such as botulism, myasthenia gravis, or spinal cord injuries. It can also occur as a complication of general anesthesia, sedative drugs, or certain types of poisoning.

Respiratory paralysis is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, as it can lead to lack of oxygen (hypoxia) and buildup of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) in the body, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Physiological monitoring is the continuous or intermittent observation and measurement of various body functions or parameters in a patient, with the aim of evaluating their health status, identifying any abnormalities or changes, and guiding clinical decision-making and treatment. This may involve the use of specialized medical equipment, such as cardiac monitors, pulse oximeters, blood pressure monitors, and capnographs, among others. The data collected through physiological monitoring can help healthcare professionals assess the effectiveness of treatments, detect complications early, and make timely adjustments to patient care plans.

A manikin is commonly referred to as a full-size model of the human body used for training in various medical and healthcare fields. Medical manikins are often made from materials that simulate human skin and tissues, allowing for realistic practice in procedures such as physical examinations, resuscitation, and surgical techniques.

These manikins can be highly advanced, with built-in mechanisms to simulate physiological responses, such as breathing, heartbeats, and pupil dilation. They may also have interchangeable parts, allowing for the simulation of various medical conditions and scenarios. Medical manikins are essential tools in healthcare education, enabling learners to develop their skills and confidence in a controlled, safe environment before working with real patients.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Insufflation is a medical term that refers to the act of introducing a gas or vapor into a body cavity or passage, typically through a tube or surgical instrument. This procedure is often used in medical and surgical settings for various purposes, such as:

* To administer anesthesia during surgery (e.g., introducing nitrous oxide or other gases into the lungs)
* To introduce medication or other substances into the body (e.g., insufflating steroids into a joint)
* To perform diagnostic procedures (e.g., insufflating air or a contrast agent into the gastrointestinal tract to visualize it with X-rays)
* To clean out a body cavity (e.g., irrigating and insufflating the bladder during urological procedures).

It's important to note that insufflation should be performed under controlled conditions, as there are potential risks associated with introducing gases or vapors into the body, such as barotrauma (damage caused by changes in pressure) and infection.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life or beyond, due to abnormal development and injury to the lungs.

The condition was first described in the 1960s, following the introduction of mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen therapy for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). These treatments, while lifesaving, can also cause damage to the delicate lung tissue, leading to BPD.

The pathogenesis of BPD is complex and involves an interplay between genetic factors, prenatal exposures, and postnatal injury from mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired lung development contribute to the development of BPD.

Infants with BPD typically have abnormalities in their airways, alveoli (air sacs), and blood vessels in the lungs. These changes can lead to symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and poor growth. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, diuretics, and other medications to support lung function and minimize complications.

The prognosis for infants with BPD varies depending on the severity of the disease and associated medical conditions. While some infants recover completely, others may have long-term respiratory problems that require ongoing management.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled forcefully after a normal tidal exhalation. It is the difference between the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the residual volume (RV). In other words, ERV is the extra volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after a normal breath out, when one tries to empty the lungs as much as possible. This volume is an important parameter in pulmonary function tests and helps assess lung health and disease. A decreased ERV may indicate restrictive lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders affecting respiratory muscles.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) is a medical condition primarily seen in newborns, also known as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS). It's characterized by the presence of hyaline membranes, which are made up of proteins and cellular debris, on the inside surfaces of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs.

These membranes can interfere with the normal gas exchange process, making it difficult for the newborn to breathe effectively. The condition is often associated with premature birth, as the surfactant that coats the inside of the lungs and keeps them inflated isn't fully produced until around the 35th week of gestation.

The lack of sufficient surfactant can lead to collapse of the alveoli (atelectasis), inflammation, and the formation of hyaline membranes. HMD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants, but with early detection and proper medical care, including the use of artificial surfactant, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation, many babies can recover.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 3 January 2018. Mortensen, Jann; Berg, ... However, in states of ventilation perfusion mismatch, such as pulmonary embolism or right-to-left shunt, oxygen is not ... Pulmonary hypoxia is hypoxia from hypoxemia due to abnormal pulmonary function, and occurs when the lungs receive adequately ... X-rays or CT scans of the chest and airways can reveal abnormalities that may affect ventilation or perfusion. A ventilation/ ...
"21.5A: Pressure Changes During Pulmonary Ventilation". LibreTexts. 2020-05-26. Retrieved 2021-04-16. "Arterial Blood Gases (ABG ... Mechanical ventilation, assisted ventilation or intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) is the medical term for using a ... If non-invasive ventilation or negative-pressure ventilation is used, then an airway adjunct is not needed. Pain medicine such ... A relatively new ventilation mode is flow-controlled ventilation (FCV). FCV is a fully dynamic mode without significant periods ...
"Mechanical Factors in Distribution of Pulmonary Ventilation". Journal of Applied Physiology. 8 (4): 427-443. doi:10.1152/jappl. ... Pendelluft is one mechanism by which ventilation occurs during High-frequency oscillatory ventilation A final example of ... This gas flow can help improve ventilation of alveoli in regions with increased airway resistance or poorer compliance, ... Lohser, Jens; Ishikawa, Seiji (2011). "Physiology of the Lateral Decubitus Position, Open Chest and One-Lung Ventilation". In ...
For pulmonary edema, medical treatment in addition to measures to maintain ventilation include diuretics to remove excess fluid ... Bello, Giuseppe; De Santis, Paolo; Antonelli, Massimo (September 2018). "Non-invasive ventilation in cardiogenic pulmonary ... Non-invasive ventilation is the first step for patient's who require ventilatory support. This can take the form of oxygen ... Maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in alveolar lung disease is achieved through a number of methods. The mechanism of ...
May 2010). "Meta-analysis: Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema". Ann. Intern. Med. 152 (9): 590-600. ... "Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: ... "Noninvasive ventilation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema". N. Engl. J. Med. 359 (2): 142-51. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0707992. ... Opioids Opioids have traditionally been used in the treatment of the acute pulmonary edema that results from acute ...
... expired air ventilation and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation; diving procedures, the role of dive leader, importance of planning ... employing expired air ventilation and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. underwater removal and replacement of scuba and ballast ...
Normal pulmonary ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) scan. The nuclear medicine V/Q scan is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary ...
The spirometers have been used to measure control of ventilation related to high-altitude pulmonary edema, to determine the ... Hackett PH, Roach RC, Schoene RB, Harrison GL, Mills WJ (1988). "Abnormal control of ventilation in high-altitude pulmonary ...
Gottlieb, G; Jackson DC (1976). "Importance of pulmonary ventilation in respiratory control in the bullfrog". Am J Physiol. 230 ... Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in alveoli, but reptiles do not possess a diaphragm, therefore ventilation occurs via a ... Without an operculum, other methods, such as ram ventilation, are required. Some species of sharks use this system. When they ...
Gottlieb, G; Jackson DC (1976). "Importance of pulmonary ventilation in respiratory control in the bullfrog". Am J Physiol. 230 ... pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension) Infectious, environmental and other "diseases" (e.g., pneumonia, ... The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on positive pressure ventilation. Muscles lower the floor of the oral cavity ... Pulmonary function test Pulmonary function testing (PFT) Campbell, Neil A. (1990). Biology (2nd ed.). Redwood City, Calif.: ...
"Ventilation Imbalances in Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease". Oregon Health and Science University, 4D ...
In more severe cases, pulmonary ventilation must sometimes be supported mechanically. Seizures are typically managed with ... environments like tractor cabs or while operating rotary fan mist sprayers in facilities or locations with poor ventilation ...
Ventilation/perfusion ratio Pulmonary shunt Kaynar AM, Sharma S (7 April 2020). Pinsky MR (ed.). "Respiratory Failure". ... Ventilation-perfusion mismatch (parts of the lung receive oxygen but not enough blood to absorb it, e.g. pulmonary embolism) ... Mechanical ventilation is sometimes indicated immediately or otherwise if NIV fails. Respiratory stimulants such as doxapram ... Gai L, Tong Y, Yan B (July 2018). "The Effects of Pulmonary Physical Therapy on the Patients with Respiratory Failure". Iranian ...
O'Connor, Patrick M.; Claessens, Leon P. A. M. (2005). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian ... Gibson, Andrea (July 13, 2005). "Study: Predatory Dinosaurs had Bird-Like Pulmonary System". Research Communications. Athens, ...
O'Connor, Patrick M.; Leon P.A.M. Claessens (2006). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian ... flow-through ventilation' system similar to that of modern birds. In such a system, the neck vertebrae and ribs are hollowed ...
It can be caused by ventilation-perfusion mismatch, intracardiac shunting, or pulmonary shunting. In some cases, the cause is ... or pulmonary atrioventricular malformations, and a functional component that causes blood to move through the shunt, such as ... Ebstein's Anomaly, pulmonary hypertension, or absent superior vena cava. Henkin, Stanislav; Negrotto, Sara; Pollak, Peter M.; ...
O'Connor, P. & Claessens, L. (July 2005). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod ... A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ventilation comes from a reconstruction of the air ... Ruben, J.A.; Jones, T.D.; Geist, N.R.; Leitch, A.; Hillenius, W.J. (1997). "Lung ventilation and gas exchange in theropod ... Ruben, J.A.; Dal Sasso, C.; Geist, N.R.; Hillenius, W. J.; Jones, T.D.; Signore, M. (January 1999). "Pulmonary function and ...
O'Connor, Patrick M.; Claessens, Leon P.A.M. (2006). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian ... These air sacs may have allowed for a basic form of avian-style 'flow-through ventilation,' where air flow through the lungs is ...
O'Connor PM, Claessens LP (July 2005). "Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod ... Avian pulmonary air sacs are lined with simple epithelial and secretory cells supported by elastin connective tissues. The air ... Birds have a system of air sacs in their ventilation system. The air sacs work to produce a unidirectional flow where air ... A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ventilation comes from a reconstruction of the air ...
Currently, mechanical ventilation remains the therapeutic mainstay for pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation injury ... 2008) Trial of prophylactic inhaled steroids to prevent or reduce pulmonary function decline, pulmonary symptoms, and airway ... 12 h before symptoms of pulmonary edema develop. Acute lung injury (ALI), also called non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, is ... sloughing of the airway and pulmonary epithelium, scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling. Bessac BF, Jordt ...
"The treatment of ventilatory insufficiency after pulmonary resection with tracheostomy and prolonged artificial ventilation". ... Positive pressure ventilation systems are now more common than negative pressure systems like the iron lungs. It proved to be ... of Pulmonary / Critical Care / Sleep Medicine, Univ. of Tennessee College of Medicine-Memphis,, "What is the background ... Louise Reisner-Sénélar (2009). "The Danish anaesthesiologist Björn Ibsen a pioneer of long-term ventilation on the upper ...
Endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation may be necessary where pulmonary oedema has developed.[citation ... Patients with impaired left ventricular function may furthermore develop pulmonary edema as a result of the acute circulatory ... and this coupled with hypertension will push fluid from the intra-vascular to the interstitial compartment causing pulmonary ... disturbances Cerebral edema Convulsions Coma Bradycardia Hypotension or hypertension Tachypnoea Hypoxia Cyanosis Pulmonary ...
Tweed WA, Phua WT, Chong KY, Lim E, Lee TL (November 1991). "Large tidal volume ventilation improves pulmonary gas exchange ...
The use of high frequency ventilation has been reported. Mechanical ventilation can also cause pulmonary barotrauma when high ... Techniques such as pulmonary toilet (removal of secretions), fluid management, and treatment of pneumonia are employed to ... Ensuring an open airway and adequate ventilation may be difficult in people with TBI. Intubation, one method to secure the ... It is required if a tear interferes with ventilation; if mediastinitis (inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest) occurs; ...
Mechanical ventilation M. R. Wolfson; T. H. Shaffer (2005). "Pulmonary applications of perfluorochemical liquids: ventilation ... Overall, liquid ventilation improves gas exchange and lung compliance and prevents the lungs against ventilation-induced lung ... 2008). "Multicenter comparative study of conventional mechanical gas ventilation to tidal liquid ventilation in oleic acid ... In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are completely filled with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid while the liquid ...
Positive pressure ventilation, meticulously adjusting the ventilator settings to avoid pulmonary barotrauma. Chest tubes as ... Pulmonary contusions are commonly associated with flail chest and that can lead to respiratory failure. This is due to the ... Aggressive pulmonary toilet A person may be intubated with a double lumen tracheal tube. In a double lumen endotracheal tube, ... Richardson, J. David M.D, Lee Adams M.D, Lewis M. Flint, M.D. Selective Management of Flail Chest and Pulmonary Contusion. ...
Whenever there is poor pulmonary ventilation, the carbon dioxide levels in the blood are expected to rise. This leads to a rise ...
On March 18, Medtronics had opened its code and files for manufacturing its main pulmonary ventilation equipment. The issue was ... The team built a working prototype in one month, at the end of which a successful 12 hour ventilation test on a pig was ... "Oxysphere - OpenHardware Ventilation Project - Let us Stop Covid together". Archived from the original on 2020-05-13. Retrieved ... The requirements for non-invasive ventilation are less strict. On March 16, 2020, the Open Source Ventilator Ireland (OSV) ...
A pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scan (lung V/Q scan) can be used to diagnose the V/Q mismatch. A ventilation scan is used to ... Ventilation-perfusion coupling is the relationship between ventilation and perfusion, represented by the ventilation-perfusion ... Secondly, the pulmonary shunt is caused by zero or low V/Q ratio due to insufficient ventilation and excess perfusion. Improper ... Ventilation is the movement of gas during breathing, and perfusion is the process of pulmonary blood circulation, which ...
"Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography vs ventilation-perfusion lung scanning in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism ... Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism Media related to Pulmonary embolism at Wikimedia Commons "Pulmonary Embolism". ... Otherwise, a CT pulmonary angiography, lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or ultrasound of the legs may confirm the diagnosis. ... A CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is the preferred method for diagnosis of a pulmonary embolism due to its easy administration ...
... ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas of the lungs. ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing ( ... V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan; Pulmonary embolism - V/Q scan; PE- V/Q scan; Blood clot ... A pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan may be a lower-risk alternative to pulmonary angiography for evaluating disorders of ...
... noninvasive ventilation can reduce the need for endotracheal intubation, the length of the hospital stay, and the in-hospital ... In selected patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ... Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease N Engl J Med. 1995 Sep 28;333(13):817- ... Background: In patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noninvasive ventilation may be used ...
The use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is often employed f ... Noninvasive ventilation in acute severe asthma: current evidence and future perspectives Current Opinion in Pulmonary ... Noninvasive ventilation in acute severe asthma: current evidence and future perspectives : Current Opinion in Pulmonary ... Noninvasive ventilation in acute severe asthma. current evidence and future perspectives. Carson, Kristin V.a,b,c; Usmani, ...
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for the treatment of severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a ... Background: Evidence is weak for the ability of long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to improve survival ... Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Long-term Ventilation, Gauting, Germany. ... in patients with stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous prospective studies did not target a ...
High frequency jet ventilation versus high frequency oscillatory ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. ... High frequency jet ventilation versus high frequency oscillatory ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. ... Two new types of breathing machines (known as high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation ... Two methods of HFV - high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) - are widely used ...
Helium3 Polarization Using Spin Exchange Technique: Application to Simultaneous Pulmonary Ventilation/Perfusion Imaging in ... Helium3 Polarization Using Spin Exchange Technique: Application to Simultaneous Pulmonary Ventilation/Perfusion Imaging in ... Helium3 Polarization Using Spin Exchange Technique: Application to Simultaneous Pulmonary Ventilation/Perfusion Imaging in ...
Both 1H MR imaging-derived specific ventilation and hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging-derived ventilation percentage were ... ventilation maps were coregistered to quantify regional specific ventilation within hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging ventilation ... coregistered 1H MR imaging specific ventilation and hyperpolarized 3He MR imaging maps showed that specific ventilation was ... 1H MR imaging-derived specific ventilation correlated with plethysmography-derived specific ventilation (ρ = 0.54, P = .002) ...
... and lung injury that can be used to enhance conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) so as to improve survival and reduce ... highlighting the concepts of pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, respiration control, ... This article reviews assisted ventilation of the newborn, ... In infants with severe pulmonary disease, ventilation with ... High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is another mode of ventilation that may reduce lung injury and may improve pulmonary outcomes ...
Intraoperative Ventilation Strategies to Reduce Pulmonary Complications in Obese Patients-Reply. Gama de Abreu M., Schultz M., ... Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, ventilation management, and outcomes in invasively ventilated intensive care unit ...
Pulmonary ventilation. Quanta. 10 L/min. 10 L/min. 6 L/min. 4 L/min. 10 L/min. 6 L/min. 4 L/min. 4 L/min. ...
A linear relationship exists between oxygen consumption and ventilation. At maximal exercise, pulmonary ventilation is 100-110 ... greater than the actual pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise. This extra ventilation provides an element of safety ... In women, the values of muscle strength, pulmonary ventilation, and cardiac output (all variables related with muscle mass) are ... and total pulmonary and alveolar ventilation increase by approximately 20-fold. ...
Aj M; Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New ... There is no universally acceptable protocol for the withdrawal of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in chronic obstructive ... of immediate withdrawal and stepwise reduction in duration of non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Ish P; Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New ...
Categories: Pulmonary Ventilation Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Pulmonary Ventilation and Perfusion. Treatment and management. Introduction, Cellular Level , Organ Systems Involved, Mechanism ... Physiology, Pulmonary Ventilation and Perfusion. Author: Contributor Profile. Upstate Medical University Vestal, NY. Disclosure ... In a right-to-left shunt, a portion of the pulmonary blood flow is shunted away from alveoli, resulting in ventilation without ... The edema prevents air from reaching pulmonary capillaries, resulting in perfusion without ventilation and shunting. ...
VQ scan procedure that can help diagnose lung ventilation and perfusion, preparation, procedure, risks and results of test are ... A VQ scan is a short form for Lung or Pulmonary Ventilation (V) and Perfusion (Q) Scans, which is an imaging test that ... Pulmonary Embolism: Know The Causes... Pulmonary Embolism, abbreviated as PE, refers to a blood clot in the lungs due t.. ... During A Ventilation Scan:. The patient will wear a face mask and breathe in a gas that contains the radioactive tracer. The ...
... can potentially detect lung-harming events during ventilation and weaning such as atelectasis, hyperinsufflation and pendelluft ... Research group „ventilation, weaning and pulmonary monitoring". German version. Monitoring of transpulmonary pressure and ... Additive treatment and advanced pulmonary monitoring of ventilation in COVID associated ARDS (CARDS). Grafik: Uniklinik Köln ... individualization of ventilation and ventilator weaning by using modern pulmonary monitoring such as transpulmonary pressure ...
... ventilation/perfusion scan, ventilation-perfusion matching, ventilation-perfusion mismatching, ventilation-perfusion ratio ... alprostadil, inequality of ventilation-perfusion ratio, nitroglycerin, pulmonary capillary, respiratory distress syndrome, ... Prostaglandin E1 and Nitroglycerin Reduce Pulmonary Capillary Pressure but Worsen Ventilation-Perfusion Distributions in ... Prostacyclin for the Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension in the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Effects on Pulmonary ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Mechanical Ventilation Journal Articles. ...
Pulmonary Ventilation: Volumes, Flows, Dead Space and Preoxygenation. Health Education England. Educator: Health Education ... Be the first to review "Pulmonary Ventilation: Volumes, Flows, Dead Space and Preoxygenation" Cancel reply. Your email address ...
In cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which may be delayed in onset, maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation. ... In cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which may be delayed in onset, maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation. ... In cases of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, which may be delayed in onset, maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation. ... Methyl isocyanate-induced pulmonary edema may progress to effects such as alveolar wall destruction and pneumonia, which may ...
MRI of exogenous imaging agents offers a safely repeatable modality to assess regional pulmonary ventilation. A small number of ... This technique offers the potential to concurrently acquire images reflecting both pulmonary ventilation and perfusion.. en_US ... ¹⁹F-MRI of inhaled perfluoropropane for quantitative imaging of pulmonary ventilation. en_US. ... Novel quantitative measures of ventilation and perfusion have been investigated and discussed. A preliminary healthy volunteer ...
"Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 3 January 2018. Mortensen, Jann; Berg, ... However, in states of ventilation perfusion mismatch, such as pulmonary embolism or right-to-left shunt, oxygen is not ... Pulmonary hypoxia is hypoxia from hypoxemia due to abnormal pulmonary function, and occurs when the lungs receive adequately ... X-rays or CT scans of the chest and airways can reveal abnormalities that may affect ventilation or perfusion. A ventilation/ ...
Pulmonary Ventilation, Neonatology, Ventilators, Mechanical, Heart Diseases, Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena, Lung ... Pulmonary Ventilation, Infant, Premature, Diseases, Congenital Hyperinsulinism, Meningitis, Brain Injury, Chronic, ...
Comparison of computed tomography in relation to ventilation perfusion scan in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism Authors. * ... Computed tomography and ventilation/perfusion scanning are the modalities most commonly used in the diagnosis of pulmonary ... We can conclude that the application of ventilation/perfusion scanning in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is a little more ... Comparison of computed tomography in relation to ventilation perfusion scan in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. isnn. ...
New modes of improving ventilation and oxygenation in pulmonary hypertension and acute respiratory failure in newborns and ... with atelectases and ventilation/perfusion mismatch with major pulmonary shunt.New methods to provide better ventilation and ... Inhaled nitric oxide; high frequency oscillatory ventilation; partial liquid ventilation; respiratory inductive plethysmography ... on pulmonary hypertension and oxygenation in dose-response studies.· The effect of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV ...
FDA approves Cyclopharms Technegas combo product for visualizing pulmonary ventilation. Oct. 2, 2023 ...
  • This test has largely been replaced by CT pulmonary angiography for diagnosing pulmonary embolism. (
  • Goldhaber SZ, Piazza G. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. (
  • The main aim of the scan is to find out for any evidence of blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). (
  • Pulmonary embolism is still a challenge in diagnosis due to its variable and nonspecific symptoms. (
  • Computed tomography and ventilation/perfusion scanning are the modalities most commonly used in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and both modalities have their advantages and disadvantages. (
  • One of the most important factors in the assessment and localization of pulmonary embolism is the diagnostic accuracy of these modalities, which serves to model different diagnostic strategies in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (
  • We can conclude that the application of ventilation/perfusion scanning in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is a little more accurate compared to computed tomography. (
  • Ventilation/perfusion lung scanning will more accurately identify healthy individuals while on the other hand we can conclude that computed tomography is more accurate in diagnosing embolism in sick individuals. (
  • Paraganlija N, Bajrović J, Julardžija F, Šehić A. Comparison of computed tomography in relation to ventilation perfusion scan in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (
  • Pulmonary Embolism in Covid-19: Coagulation Parameters, Close Monitoring to Prevent? (
  • Free-breathing Arterial Spin Labeling MRI for the Detection of Pulmonary Embolism. (
  • Pulmonary Embolism Can Be Diagnosed with Dynamic Chest Radiography without Using Intravenous Contrast Material. (
  • Deep Learning and Risk Assessment in Acute Pulmonary Embolism. (
  • CT Angiography Clot Burden Score from Data Mining of Structured Reports for Pulmonary Embolism. (
  • Computer-aided Pulmonary Embolism Detection on Virtual Monochromatic Images Compared to Conventional CT Angiography. (
  • Pulmonary Embolism in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Multicenter Study. (
  • CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with COVID-19: When, Why, and for Who? (
  • Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19: The Actual Prevalence Remains Unclear. (
  • Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (
  • We refer to the recent Invited Perspective which proposes that there is now a reduced role for V/Q scintigraphy in the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) given the emergence of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) ( 1 ). (
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be classified into deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ) and pulmonary embolism ( PE ). (
  • Pulmonary embolism may arise as a consequence of deep vein thrombosis as a result of embolization of the clot from deep veins of the legs. (
  • Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an acute obstruction of the pulmonary artery (or one of its branches). (
  • Most often, pulmonary embolism is due to a venous thrombosis ( blood clot from a vein ), which has been dislodged from its site of formation in the lower extremities . (
  • In patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noninvasive ventilation may be used in an attempt to avoid endotracheal intubation and complications associated with mechanical ventilation. (
  • A total of 85 patients were recruited from a larger group of 275 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the intensive care units in the same period. (
  • In selected patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, noninvasive ventilation can reduce the need for endotracheal intubation, the length of the hospital stay, and the in-hospital mortality rate. (
  • Evidence is weak for the ability of long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to improve survival in patients with stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Breathing machines providing what is known as conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), which is currently used to support these babies, potentially contribute to longer-term lung injury known as chronic lung disease (CLD). (
  • Despite widespread improvements in care, including increased utilization of antenatal steroids, use of surfactant replacement therapy, and advances in conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs in 42% of surviving preterm infants born at less than 28 weeks gestational age (GA). High frequency ventilation (HFV) aims to optimize lung expansion while minimizing tidal volume (Vt) to decrease lung injury. (
  • Comparison of immediate withdrawal and stepwise reduction in duration of non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presenting with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. (
  • There is no universally acceptable protocol for the withdrawal of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) patients presenting with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHcRF). (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Neuromuscular diseases or interstitial lung disease Malformed vascular system such as an anomalous coronary artery[citation needed] Hypoxemic hypoxia is a lack of oxygen caused by low oxygen tension in the arterial blood, due to the inability of the lungs to sufficiently oxygenate the blood. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. (
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training and supplemental oxygen during exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation practice in comparison with only exercise training on lung functions, blood gases, lactate levels, respiratory muscle pressures, dyspnea, walking distances, quality of life, and depression in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • We hypothesize that controlled ventilation is feasible in patients with hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Efficacy of Dynamic Chest Radiography for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. (
  • Right Ventricular Extracellular Volume with Dual-Layer Spectral Detector CT: Value in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. (
  • The most common obstructive causes are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. (
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is persistent narrowing (blocking, or obstruction) of the airways occurring with emphysema, chronic obstructive bronchitis, or both disorders. (
  • This is due, in large part, to lack of training experiences in managing patients with long-term chronic ventilation needs. (
  • Education of pulmonary and critical care physicians in chronic noninvasive ventilation is crucial. (
  • The non invasive mechanical ventilation is considered the first choice of ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to exacerbated chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, acute pulmonary edema and immunocompromised patients. (
  • The use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is often employed for the management of acute respiratory failure as an alternative to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. (
  • This article reviews assisted ventilation of the newborn, highlighting the concepts of pulmonary mechanics, gas exchange, respiration control, and lung injury that can be used to enhance conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) so as to improve survival and reduce adverse effects. (
  • Sound application of these concepts is necessary to optimize mechanical ventilation. (
  • Hypercapnia secondary to severe V/Q mismatch may be treatable with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or may require high-frequency ventilation (HFV). (
  • 94%, requirement for noninvasive ventilation or endotracheal intubation with older, hospitalized veterans with high prevalences of underly- mechanical ventilation, or chest radiograph or computed tomography ing conditions suggest the importance of booster doses to help pulmonary findings consistent with pneumonia. (
  • This method provided the means to monitor and optimize lung volume continuously, non-invasively and without interruption of ventilation during mechanical ventilation. (
  • PARTIAL liquid ventilation (PLV), combining the intrapulmonary instillation of perfluorocarbons in volumes up to the lung's functional residual capacity with conventional mechanical gaseous ventilation (GV), 1 is a new therapeutic strategy to improve gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • Historically, mechanical ventilation was initiated with a tidal volume based on a patient's actual body weight, which was believed to reflect metabolic need. (
  • In recent years, intraoperative lung-protective mechanical ventilation (LPV) has been reportedly able to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injuries (VILI). (
  • Lung protective mechanical ventilation significantly improved intraoperative pulmonary oxygenation function and pulmonary compliance in patients experiencing various abdominal laparoscopic surgeries, but it could not ameliorate early postoperative atelectasis and oxygenation function on the first day after surgery. (
  • Unfortunately, many physicians consider liberation from mechanical ventilation to be the only acceptable goal. (
  • Most pulmonary and critical care physicians are trained to manage acute illness in patients for whom complete weaning from mechanical ventilation is the appropriate goal. (
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. (
  • The clue of the non invasive mechanical ventilation is the possibility to avoid intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation with its complications, less morbidity and mortality, and less hospital stay. (
  • Only a low dose of inhaled nitric oxide was needed, 5 ppm or less, which also concomitantly improved oxygenation in postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children. (
  • Objective To evaluate the association between pressure -controlled ventilation -volume guaranteed (PCV-VG) mode and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung resection. (
  • Pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position in laparoscopic surgeries could contribute to postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. (
  • Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) added to supplemental oxygen during exercise training was associated with better physiological adaptations than other modalities. (
  • Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) unloads respiratory muscles. (
  • In addition, the frequency of complications was significantly lower in the noninvasive-ventilation group (16 percent vs. 48 percent, P = 0.001), and the mean (+/- SD) hospital stay was significantly shorter for patients receiving noninvasive ventilation (23 +/- 17 days vs. 35 +/- 33 days, P = 0.005). (
  • Intraoperative Ventilation Strategies to Reduce Pulmonary Complications in Obese Patients-Reply. (
  • Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). (
  • The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) slope has proven to be a predictor of surgical complications and mortality. (
  • It was also evaluated which were the most frequent pulmonary diseases, the type of respiratory insufficiency associated with the therapy, the type of interface used, the most frequent complications, and which of the pulmonary diseases benefited most in morbidity and mortality with the use of this type of ventilation. (
  • Children with acute respiratory failure and disturbed vascular/alveolar relation with atelectases and ventilation/perfusion mismatch with major pulmonary shunt.New methods to provide better ventilation and oxygenation have been developed over the last few years. (
  • The aims of the present thesis were to assess:· The effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), a selective pulmonary vasodilator, on pulmonary hypertension and oxygenation in dose-response studies. (
  • It has been proposed that partial liquid ventilation (PLV) causes a compression of the pulmonary vasculature by the dense perfluorocarbons and a subsequent redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from dorsal to better-ventilated middle and ventral lung regions, thereby improving arterial oxygenation in situations of acute lung injury. (
  • Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that LPV could improve intraoperative oxygenation function, pulmonary mechanics and early postoperative atelectasis in laparoscopic surgeries. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that the lung-protective ventilation strategy including a low tidal volume, an appropriate level of PEEP and periodic recruitment maneuvers could improve intraoperative oxygenation function, pulmonary mechanics, and early postoperative atelectasis. (
  • Many patients required supplemental oxygen, some required assisted ventilation and oxygenation, and some were intubated. (
  • Effects of a high-intensity pulmonary rehabilitation program on the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output slope during exercise in a cohort of patients with COPD undergoing lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation programs (PRPs) could influence short-term outcomes in patients with COPD undergoing lung resection. (
  • Mixed cardiac and pulmonary disorders are also common sources of dyspnea 6 , 7 and include COPD with pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, deconditioning, pulmonary emboli and trauma. (
  • A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas of the lungs. (
  • The ventilation scan is used to see how well air moves and blood flows through the lungs. (
  • A ventilation and perfusion scan is most often done to detect an acute pulmonary embolus (blood clot in the lungs). (
  • Gas exchange occurs in the lungs between alveolar air and the blood of the pulmonary capillaries. (
  • Individual alveoli have variable degrees of ventilation and perfusion in different regions of the lungs. (
  • Collective changes in ventilation and perfusion in the lungs are measured clinically using the ratio of ventilation to perfusion (V/Q). Changes in the V/Q ratio can affect gas exchange and can contribute to hypoxemia. (
  • A VQ scan is a short form for Lung or Pulmonary Ventilation (V) and Perfusion (Q) Scans, which is an imaging test that determines air and blood flow into the lungs. (
  • A ventilation scan measures how much air moves in and out of your lungs. (
  • A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a nuclear medicine imaging test that uses a small amount of radioactive material to determine airflow (ventilation) and blood flow(perfusion) in the lungs. (
  • Generalised, or hypoxic hypoxia may be caused by: Hypoventilation - insufficient ventilation of the lungs due to any cause (fatigue, excessive work of breathing, barbiturate poisoning, pneumothorax, sleep apnea etc. (
  • Pulmonary hypoxia is hypoxia from hypoxemia due to abnormal pulmonary function, and occurs when the lungs receive adequately oxygenated gas which does not oxygenate the blood sufficiently. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries, which carry oxygen-poor blood from your heart to your lungs. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is dangerous because it disrupts the flow of blood through your heart and lungs . (
  • High blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries forces your heart to work harder to send oxygen-poor blood to your lungs. (
  • Less blood can flow through your lungs, raising the pressure in your pulmonary arteries. (
  • Pulmonary function tests measure the lungs' capacity to hold air, to move air in and out, and to absorb oxygen. (
  • Ventilation may be required during immediate care of the infant who is depressed or apneic or during prolonged periods of respiratory failure treatment. (
  • Pulmonary venoarterial shunts and alveolar hypoventilation result in V/Q mismatch, which is probably the most important mechanism of gas exchange impairment in infants with respiratory failure due to various causes, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). (
  • Deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary arteries has a PVO2 of 40 mmHg, and alveolar air has a PAO2 of 100 mmHg, resulting in a movement of oxygen into capillaries until arterial blood equilibrates at 100 mmHg (PaO2). (
  • Thirty-five patients (mean ± SD age, 65.4 ± 6.5 years) with a mean bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration of 39.4 ± 7%, undergoing an 8-week outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation, were randomized to either non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training, supplemental oxygen during exercise training, or exercise training groups. (
  • The improvements in respiratory muscle strength were higher in non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training patients than the moderate improvements in the exercise training group. (
  • Both non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training and supplemental oxygen during exercise training groups showed significant increases in the 6-minute walk test and incremental shuttle walk test. (
  • However, the increase in walking distance was better in non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training group (69.8 ± 53.2 m in 6-minute walk test and 66.6 ± 65.2 m in incremental shuttle walk test, P = .001 and P = .005, respectively) compared to supplemental oxygen during exercise training group (42.5+55.5 m in 6-minute walk test and 53.5+70.2 m in incremental shuttle walk test, P = .01 each, respectively). (
  • Symptoms of depression significantly improved only in non-invasive ventilation, supplemental oxygen, and exercise training group (−2.8+2.8, P = .006). (
  • In the surfactant washout animal model of acute lung injury, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow does not seem to be a major factor for the observed increase of arterial oxygen tension during partial liquid ventilation. (
  • The primary endpoints were the changes in the ratio of PaO 2 to FiO 2 (P/F). The secondary endpoints were the differences between the two groups in PaO 2 , alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aO 2 ), intraoperative pulmonary mechanics and the incidence of atelectasis detected on chest x-ray on the first postoperative day. (
  • In particular Dr Vedam has recently been involved with updating prescription guidelines for the provision of domiciliary oxygen, CPAP and nocturnal ventilation devices (bi-level and ASV devices) in 2014. (
  • Ventilation is related to the metabolic demands of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination necessary to meet a given level of activity. (
  • Ventilation (V) refers to the flow of air into and out of the alveoli, while perfusion (Q) refers to the flow of blood to alveolar capillaries. (
  • The control of opening or closing of alveoli to regulate ventilation occurs at the alveolar duct. (
  • Acute exposure to higher vapor concentrations may cause severe pulmonary edema and injury to the alveolar walls of the lung and death. (
  • Significant exposure to methyl isocyanate vapors would most likely be the result of accidental release of methyl isocyanate to the air such as occurred in Bhopal, India in 1984, where the primary effect was pulmonary edema with some alveolar wall destruction. (
  • Causes include hypoventilation, impaired alveolar diffusion, and pulmonary shunting. (
  • The effect of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on alveolar recruitment and response to iNO. (
  • Respiratory inductive plethysmography during dynamic ventilatory changes on high frequency oscillatory ventilation and on conventional ventilation (CV) as a new continuous and non-invasive method to optimize alveolar recruitment without interrupting ventilation. (
  • For example, in a patient with pulmonary edema, the accumulated fluid activates neural fibers in the alveolar interstitium and reflexively causes dyspnea. (
  • persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (
  • This is called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) . (
  • Possible residual cardiopulmonary and neurological symptoms in a follow-up study after treatment with inhaled nitric oxide.The methods used were dose-response studies with iNO, lung volume recruitment with surfactant, high frequency oscillatory ventilation and partial liquid ventilation, lung volume measurements with respiratory inductive plethysmography and a four-center follow up study after iNO.Results and conclusions:· iNO decreased pulmonary artery pressure after cardiopulmonary bypass. (
  • After induction of acute lung injury by repeated lung lavage with saline, 20 pigs were randomly assigned to partial liquid ventilation with two sequential doses of 15 ml/kg perfluorocarbon (PLV group, n = 10) or to continued gaseous ventilation (GV group, n = 10). (
  • During partial liquid ventilation, there were no changes in pulmonary blood flow distribution when compared with values obtained after induction of acute lung injury in the PLV group or to the animals submitted to gaseous ventilation. (
  • Noninvasive ventilation in acute severe asthma: current evid. (
  • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is considered one of the major contributors to severe pulmonary dysfunction and consequent death in preterm infants. (
  • Hypercapnia is usually caused by severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch or hypoventilation. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is providing: 1) background information on the forms of e-cigarette products, 2) information on the multistate outbreak of severe pulmonary disease associated with using e-cigarette products (devices, liquids, refill pods, and cartridges), and 3) clinical features of patients with severe pulmonary disease. (
  • One patient (in Illinois) with a history of recent e-cigarette use was hospitalized with severe pulmonary disease and subsequently died. (
  • Users of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) who choke, get pneumonia or have major surgery, and end up trached, many times are transferred either to a skilled nursing facility or to a long-term acute care hospital. (
  • The majority of patients with pneumonia and acute pulmonary edema started the therapy with a respiratory index less than 150, but this didn`t relate with more time in therapy neither more mortality. (
  • Two new types of breathing machines (known as high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)) have been tested in the hope that these methods of breathing support might reduce lung injury (CLD). (
  • Two methods of HFV - high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) - are widely used, but neither has demonstrated clear superiority in elective or rescue mode. (
  • Methods Patients undergoing open or thoracoscopic pulmonary lobectomy from September to December 2015 were included. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension leading to hypoxemia is a potentially life-threatening condition in pediatric intensive care. (
  • Hypoxemia may also result from conditions not primarily related to pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The pediatric patients with these symptoms are:· Children after surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass with pulmonary hypertension attributable to congenital heart defects with high pulmonary blood flow. (
  • Newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension as a symptom of fetal illness or malformation or after a relapse into fetal circulation without obvious reason. (
  • Follow up after iNO treatment showed residual pulmonary hypertension in cardiac but not in lung patients. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension causes your pulmonary arteries to become narrow. (
  • What is pulmonary hypertension? (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a general diagnosis that means you have high blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries . (
  • Pulmonary hypertension has many different causes. (
  • How does pulmonary hypertension affect my body? (
  • Without treatment, pulmonary hypertension can overtax your heart and eventually be fatal. (
  • Because pulmonary hypertension can affect your entire body, it's essential that you're diagnosed and treated as early as possible. (
  • What are the different types of pulmonary hypertension? (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on its cause. (
  • Who does pulmonary hypertension affect? (
  • Pulmonary hypertension can affect adults at any age. (
  • How common is pulmonary hypertension? (
  • Some types of PH are rare, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and PH caused by blood clots. (
  • A pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan may be a lower-risk alternative to pulmonary angiography for evaluating disorders of the lung blood supply. (
  • It may be caused by: Ventilation perfusion mismatch (V/Q mismatch), which can be either low or high. (
  • A reduced V/Q ratio can be caused by impaired ventilation, which may be a consequence of conditions such as bronchitis, obstructive airway disease, mucus plugs, or pulmonary edema, which limit or obstruct the ventilation. (
  • The most frequent diagnostics where pneumoniae, acute pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. (
  • The most frequent indications for non invasive ventilation obsesrved were acute pulmonary edema and pneumoniae in inmunocompromised patients. (
  • Pulmonary causes include obstructive and restrictive processes. (
  • MRI of exogenous imaging agents offers a safely repeatable modality to assess regional pulmonary ventilation. (
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography was used to study regional pulmonary blood flow. (
  • In women, the values of muscle strength, pulmonary ventilation, and cardiac output (all variables related with muscle mass) are generally 60-75% of the exercise physiology values recorded in men. (
  • It can be used before relying on continuous positive airway pressure or intermittent two-lung ventilation and result in fewer interruptions in surgery. (
  • Non-responders need careful attention in order to improve ventilation and/or hemodynamics. (
  • Gas exchange, hemodynamics, and pulmonary blood flow were determined in both groups before and after the induction of acute lung injury and at corresponding time points 1 and 2 h after each instillation of perfluorocarbon in the PLV group. (
  • Relations between ventilator-controlled variables (shaded circles) and pulmonary mechanics (unshaded circles) that determine minute ventilation during pressure-limited time-cycled ventilation. (
  • In selected cases where the test results are inconclusive or require clarification, complete pulmonary function testing, arterial blood gas measurement, echocardiography and standard exercise treadmill testing or complete cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be useful. (
  • Pulmonary levels of biomarkers for inflammation and lung injury in protective versus conventional one-lung ventilation for oesophagectomy: A randomised clinical trial. (
  • Prisoners were suspected of having TB we proposed to determine the prevalence on the grounds of clinical findings, past of pulmonary TB and the associated risk history of diagnosis of TB infection and factors among juvenile detainees in Karachi family history of the illness. (
  • Noncardiac or nonpulmonary disease must be considered in patients with minimal risk factors for pulmonary disease and no clinical evidence of cardiac or pulmonary disease. (
  • Clinical Fellowship, Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. (
  • Although the etiology of e-cigarette-associated pulmonary disease is undetermined, epidemiologic investigations in affected states are ongoing to better characterize the exposures, demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and behaviors of patients. (
  • Restrictive lung problems include extrapulmonary causes such as obesity, spine or chest wall deformities, and intrinsic pulmonary pathology such as interstitial fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, granulomatous disease or collagen vascular disease. (
  • Such effects are similar to the interstitial pulmonary fibrosis reported previously by NIOSH researchers using single-walled carbon nanotubes. (
  • Objective Hypoxemia is common during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery. (
  • When hypoxemia occurs, surgery is interrupted for rescue ventilation. (
  • The patients who received lung -protective ventilation strategy during anesthesia were divided into a PCV-VG group (n=165) and a VCV group (n=164) according to intraoperative ventilation mode. (
  • Conclusion Among patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung resection, intraoperative ventilation mode (PCV-VG or VCV) is not associated with the risk of PPCs during hospitalization . (
  • The use of pathophysiology-based ventilatory strategies, strategies to prevent lung injury, and alternative modes of ventilation should yield further improvements in neonatal outcomes. (
  • 1H MR imaging-derived specific ventilation was significantly greater in the gravitational-dependent versus nondependent lung in healthy subjects (P = .02) but not in patients with asthma (P = .1). (
  • MR imaging volumes were coregistered by using optical flow deformable registration to generate 1H MR imaging-derived specific ventilation maps. (
  • COVID-19 and Pulmonary Thromboembolism. (
  • Especially if the patient had been a successful user of noninvasive ventilation previously, I would attempt to wean the patient from invasive ventilation back to NIV and try to avoid a tracheostomy entirely. (
  • The main objective was to establish if the patients who received non invasive ventilation had a benefit in mortality statistically significant. (
  • Of a total population of 18 - 85 years hospitalized in a period between 1 of August and 31 of November of 2014, we studied a total of 40 patients who developed a respiratory disease who met the criteria to receive treatment with non invasive ventilation. (
  • The department who used more non invasive ventilation was the Intensive Care Unit. (
  • Although the article addressed many of the strengths and limitations of CTPA in the evaluation of suspected PE, we do not agree with the suggestion that there is now a role for ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scanning only in a very limited number of patient groups. (
  • To compare the benefits and side effects of HFJV versus HFOV for mortality and morbidity in preterm infants born at less than 37 weeks GA with pulmonary dysfunction in both elective and rescue modes. (
  • We conducted a prospective, randomized study comparing noninvasive pressure-support ventilation delivered through a face mask with standard treatment in patients admitted to five intensive care units over a 15-month period. (
  • 5 Centre of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery, Asklepios Hospital Gauting, Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Long-term Ventilation, Gauting, Germany. (
  • Lung-protective ventilation has also been shown to improve outcomes in patients ventilated in the operating room and in the intensive care unit (ICU) [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • The differential diagnosis is composed of four general categories: cardiac, pulmonary, mixed cardiac or pulmonary, and noncardiac or nonpulmonary. (
  • The broad differential diagnosis of dyspnea contains four general categories: cardiac, pulmonary, mixed cardiac or pulmonary, and noncardiac or nonpulmonary ( Table 1 ) . (
  • Concept analysis of the nursing diagnosis of impaired spontaneous ventilation in critical patients. (
  • In nursing practice, this concept has been identified in r i t i c a l P n C studies that address the nursing diagnosis of impaired spontaneous ventilation. (
  • Most cases of dyspnea are due to cardiac or pulmonary disease, which is readily identified with a careful history and physical examination. (
  • The lung-protective ventilation bundle has been shown to reduce mortality in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (
  • High blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries causes these arteries to become narrow. (
  • PAH makes your pulmonary arteries become narrow, thick or stiff. (
  • Less blood can flow through, which raises the pressure in your pulmonary arteries. (
  • Blood backs up in your heart, raising the pressure in your pulmonary arteries. (
  • The primary objective of assisted ventilation is to support breathing until the patient's respiratory efforts are sufficient. (
  • Objective To determine the ability of lung ultrasound (LUS) of the dependent region to detect real-time changes in lung volume, identify opening and closing pressures of the lung, and detect pulmonary hysteresis. (
  • A chest x-ray is usually done before, and sometimes after a ventilation and perfusion scan. (
  • The provider should take a ventilation and perfusion scan and then evaluate it with a chest x-ray. (