Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Cryosurgery: The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Cardiac Catheters: Catheters inserted into various locations within the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Scimitar Syndrome: An anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the right PULMONARY VEIN is not connected to the LEFT ATRIUM but to the INFERIOR VENA CAVA. Scimitar syndrome is named for the crescent- or Turkish sword-like shadow in the chest radiography and is often associated with hypoplasia of the right lung and right pulmonary artery, and dextroposition of the heart.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Autonomic Denervation: The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Atrial Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lymphangiectasis: A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Pulmonary Atresia: A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.

Transcatheter occlusion of a post-Fontan residual hepatic vein to pulmonary venous atrium communication using the Amplatzer septal occluder. (1/1323)

A residual hepatic vein to left atrial communication may result in progressive cyanosis after the Fontan procedure. This problem has usually been treated surgically by ligation or re-inclusion of the residual hepatic vein in the Fontan circulation. Previous attempts at transcatheter closure of such veins have been unsuccessful. An Amplatzer septal occluder was successfully used for transcatheter closure of a post-Fontan hepatic vein to pulmonary venous atrium fistula in an 8 year old boy.  (+info)

Effects of respiratory cycle on pulmonary venous flow and cardiac cycle on pulmonary venous diameter of dogs: a transesophageal echocardiography study. (2/1323)

We investigated 12 anesthetized normal dogs using transesophageal echocardiography to understand the effects of respiration on the pulmonary venous flow. Additionally, we observed whether the diameter of the pulmonary vein changes with the heart beat. The pulsed Doppler wave form of pulmonary venous flow predominantly demonstrated two backward flows, with one peak occurring during ventricular systole and another during ventricular diastole. Sometimes a small forward flow occurred during left atrial contraction. In comparison with expiration, the peak velocity and velocity-time integral of the flow wave under inspiration occurred during both systole and diastole were significantly smaller. The diameter of the pulmonary vein decreased during left atrial contraction and increased during left ventricular systole and diastole.  (+info)

Site of functional bronchopulmonary anastomoses in sheep. (3/1323)

The location of bronchopulmonary anastomoses has long been a topic of discussion, and pre-, post-, and capillary sites have all been demonstrated in postmortem examinations. However, there have been few studies that have provided insight into the patency and function of these anastomoses in the intact lung. To identify these functional sites where the bronchial circulation anastomoses with the pulmonary circulation, we studied sheep lungs in situ serial sectioned with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Differences in radiodensities of blood, air, and nonionic contrast medium were used to differentiate and localize airways and vessels and to identify the effluent from the bronchial circulation. After an initial series of scans to identify the pulmonary arteries and veins adjacent to airways 2-12 mm in diameter, contrast material was infused into the bronchial artery. In three sheep, the major accumulation of contrast medium was found in pulmonary veins. In one of the sheep, a comparable number of pulmonary arteries and veins contained contrast medium. Serial histologic sections were able to identify small bronchial venules lying within subepithelial bronchial folds that drain directly into pulmonary veins. These results using serial CT and histologic images suggest that drainage from the intraparenchymal bronchial vasculature is predominantly into postcapillary pulmonary vessels.  (+info)

Pulmonary venous flow in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as assessed by the transoesophageal approach. The additive value of pulmonary venous flow and left atrial size variables in estimating the mitral inflow pattern in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (4/1323)

AIMS: This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of the pattern of pulmonary venous flow and to document the interaction of this flow and left atrial function with the pattern of mitral inflow in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pulmonary venous and mitral flows were evaluated by the transoesophageal approach in 80 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Left atrial size and function were measured by the transthoracic approach. Their values were compared with those obtained from 35 normal controls. Twelve patients showed significant (> 2+) mitral regurgitation. As a group, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients showed increased atrial reversal flow and longer deceleration time of the diastolic wave, but a wide variability of pulmonary venous flow patterns were observed. Thirty patients (37.5%) had pseudonormal mitral flow patterns. Stepwise multilinear regression analysis identified the ratio of systolic to diastolic pulmonary venous flow velocity, the ratio of velocity-time integrals of both flow waves at atrial contraction, the left atrial minimal volume and the systolic fraction as independent predictive variables of the mitral E/A wave velocity ratio (r = 0.82). By logistic regression, the former three variables were selected as independent predictive covariates of a pseudonormal mitral flow pattern (sensitivity: 83%, specificity: 90%). The ratio of velocity-time integrals of both atrial waves was the most important predictive variable in both analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The observed variability in the configuration of pulmonary venous flow velocity waveform is related to what occurs in transmitral flow in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Significant mitral regurgitation is not an independent correlate of pseudonormal mitral inflow patterns in these patients. Our results further emphasize the complementary, additive value of the pulmonary venous flow velocity pattern and left atrial size in the interpretation of the mitral flow velocity pattern, and indirectly suggest the underlying increased left ventricular filling pressures of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pseudonormal mitral flow patterns.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the bronchial circulation of the domestic fowl. (5/1323)

The bronchial circulation was studied in 25 adult domestic fowls. The right and left bronchial arteries originated caudal to the syrinx from a bronchoesophageal artery which is a branch of the right common carotid artery. Each bronchial artery ramified on the wall of the extrapulmonary part of the corresponding primary bronchus and finally anastomosed directly with a branch of the pulmonary artery at the hilus of the lung. Thr bronchial artery did not accompany the intrapulmonary part of the primary bronchus. The branches of each bronchial artery formed an anastomosing network on the wall of the extrapulmonary part of the primary bronchus. The calibre of the bronchial artery at its anastomosis with the branch of the pulmonary artery was greater than at its origin from the bronchoesophageal artery. Intravenous injections of Lycopodium spores indicated that the blood flows from the pulmonary artery into the bronchial artery. Small bronchial veins drained the extrapulmonary part of the primary bronchus into the pulmonary vein and the oesophageal veins. The intrapulmonary part of the primary bronchus was supplied by branches of the pulmonary artery and drained by tributaries of the pulmonary vein. The blood supply to the primary bronchus could constitute a shunt capable of passing blood from the pulmonary artery into the pulmonary vein without going through the exchange tissue. The parabronchial (atrial) muscles received a blood supply directly from the exchange tissue via septal venules which formed a network underneath the muscle bundles, without actually penetrating between the muscle cells. These venules drained into atrial veins which were tributaries of the pulmonary vein. The atrial muscles probably also received oxygen by direct diffusion from the parabronchial lumen. The pleura was supplied by the oesophageal branches of the bronchoesophageal artery, and by small twigs from the internal thoracic and intercostal arteries.  (+info)

Defibrillation-guided radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation secondary to an atrial focus. (6/1323)

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate a potential focal source of atrial fibrillation (AF) by unmasking spontaneous early reinitiation of AF after transvenous atrial defibrillation (TADF), and to describe a method of using repeated TADF to map and ablate the focus. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation may develop secondary to a rapidly discharging atrial focus that the atria cannot follow synchronously, with suppression of the focus once AF establishes. Focus mapping and radiofrequency (RF) ablation may be curative but is limited if the patient is in AF or if the focus is quiescent. Early reinitiation of AF has been observed following defibrillation, which might have a focal mechanism. METHODS: We performed TADF in patients with drug-refractory lone AF using electrodes in the right atrium (RA) and the coronary sinus. When reproducible early reinitiation of AF within 2 min after TADF was observed that exhibited a potential focal mechanism, both mapping and RF ablation were performed to suppress AF reinitiation. Clinical and ambulatory ECG monitoring was used to assess AF recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 44 lone AF patients (40 men, 4 women; 32 persistent, 12 paroxysmal AF) with a mean age of 58+/-13 years underwent TADF. Sixteen patients had early reinitiation of AF after TADF, nine (20%; 5 paroxysmal) exhibited a pattern of focal reinitiation. Earliest atrial activation was mapped to the right superior (n = 4) and the left superior (n = 3) pulmonary vein, just inside the orifice, in the seven patients who underwent further study. At the onset of AF reinitiation, the site of earliest activation was 86+/-38 ms ahead of the RA reference electrogram. The atrial activities from this site were fragmented and exhibited progressive cycle-length shortening with decremental conduction to the rest of the atrium until AF reinitiated. Radiofrequency ablation at the earliest activation site resulted in suppression of AF reinitiation despite pace-inducibility. Improved clinical outcome was observed over 8+/-4 months' follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Transvenous atrial defibrillation can help to unmask, map, and ablate a potential atrial focus in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF. A consistent atrial focus is the cause of early reinitiation of AF in 20% of patients with lone AF, and these patients may benefit from this technique.  (+info)

Prostanoid receptors involved in the relaxation of human pulmonary vessels. (7/1323)

1. To characterize the prostanoid receptors on human pulmonary smooth muscle involved in vasodilatations, isolated arteries and veins were contracted with norepinephrine (10 microM) and vessels were subsequently challenged with different prostanoid-receptor agonists in the absence or presence of selective antagonists. 2. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and the selective DP-receptor agonist, BW245C, induced relaxations in the contracted human pulmonary venous preparations. The pD2 values were: 6.88+/-0.11 (n=17) and 7.31+/-0.12 (n=5), respectively. The relaxant responses induced by PGD2 were reduced by the selective DP-receptor antagonist, BWA868C, and the estimated pA2 value was 7.84+/-0.16 (n=4). PGD2 and BW245C did not relax contracted human pulmonary arteries. 3. The selective IP-receptor agonists, iloprost and cicaprost, both induced relaxations in the contracted human vascular preparations. The pD2 values for iloprost were: 7.84+/-0.08 (n=6) and 8.25+/-0.06 (n=4) and for cicaprost: 8.06+/-0.12 (n=5) and 8.11+/-0.09 (n=5) in arteries and veins respectively. 4. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the EP2/EP3-receptor agonist, misoprostol, partially relaxed the contracted venous preparations and the pD2 values were: 8.10+/-0.15 (n=15) and 6.24+/-0.33 (n=3), respectively. These relaxations suggest the presence of an EP receptor in the human pulmonary veins. The contracted human pulmonary arteries did not relax when challenged with PGE2. 5. In human pulmonary venous preparations, the PGE2-induced relaxations were neither modified by treatment with TP/EP4-receptor antagonist, AH23848B (10 and 30 microM, n=6), nor by the DP/EP1/EP2-receptor antagonist, AH6809 (3 microM, n=6). 6. These data suggest that the relaxation induced by prostanoids involved DP-, IP-receptors and to a lesser extent an EP-receptor on human pulmonary venous smooth muscle. In contrast, only the IP-receptor is involved in the prostanoid induced relaxations on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.  (+info)

Fetal pulmonary venous flow into the left atrium relative to diastolic and systolic cardiac time intervals. (8/1323)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the nature and gestational age dependency of the pulmonary venous flow velocity pattern into the left atrium relative to systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of Doppler measurements of fetal pulmonary venous inflow velocities, which were correlated with simultaneous recordings of transmitral and aortic flow velocity waveforms based on an equal cardiac cycle length (+/- 5%). RESULTS: Successful recordings were obtained in 28 out of 60 (47%) normal singleton pregnancies at 20-36 weeks of gestation. Reproducibility of waveform analysis of the various phases of the cardiac cycle was satisfactory, within-patient variance ranging between 1.7% and 6.5%. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in pulmonary venous time average velocity and velocity integral with advancing gestational age was established. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of the pulmonary flow velocity integral was also found when related to each of the systolic and diastolic segments of the cardiac cycle, with the exception of isovolemic relaxation time. The duration of each of the diastolic and systolic segments of the cardiac cycle, as well as the pulmonary venous velocity integral expressed as a percentage of the cardiac cycle, remained constant with advancing gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The second half of pregnancy is characterized by pulmonary venous inflow into the left atrium throughout the cardiac cycle. Pulmonary venous inflow into the left atrium occurs predominantly during the filling and ejection phases of the cardiac cycle. Absolute cardiac diastolic and systolic time intervals as well as the percentage distribution of pulmonary venous flow velocity integrals between these cardiac time intervals remain unchanged with advancing gestational age.  (+info)

  • The most common site of drainage is either to a large vein (the superior vena cava) which brings the blue blood from the upper part of the body or to the right atrium directly or indirectly. (luriechildrens.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) associated with TAPVR has not been reported in the literature. (tjh.com.tr)
  • Special risks include residual obstruction to the pulmonary veins as they are reconnected to the heart, injury to the hearts normal pacemaker and rhythm abnormalities. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Still, lifelong follow up is suggested to make certain that any remaining problems, such as an obstruction in the pulmonary veins or irregularities in heart rhythm, are treated properly. (luriechildrens.org)
  • Humans have four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung. (healthline.com)
  • Each pulmonary vein is linked to a network of capillaries (small blood vessels) in the alveoli of each lung. (healthline.com)
  • Initially there are three vessels for the right lung, but the veins from the middle and upper lobes of the right lung tend to fuse together to form two right pulmonary veins. (healthline.com)
  • The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The largest pulmonary veins are the four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung that drain into the left atrium of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main pulmonary veins emerge from each lung hilum, receiving blood from three or four bronchial veins apiece and draining into the left atrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • An inferior and superior main vein drains each lung, so there are four main veins in total. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computed tomography of a normal lung, with different levels of pulmonary veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung transplant is a viable treatment option for patients with congenital and acquired pulmonary vein stenosis," The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation , vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 621-625, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • 50%), moderate or severe mitral or aortic valve disease, or lung disease (prior tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GOLD classes III-IV). (hindawi.com)
  • Medical records and catheterization reports were reviewed for: symptoms, flow to affected lung quadrant, time from PVI to diagnosis of PVO, anatomic characteristics of occluded veins, and procedural details. (ahajournals.org)
  • the vein draining the medial bronchopulmonary segment of the middle lobe of the right lung. (drugs.com)
  • Results on mice (C57BL/6 and BALBc) and rats (Wistar) revealed that cardiomyocytes regularly extend from the hilus along venous vessels into the lung tissue surrounding individual intrapulmonary veins of varying diameters (70-250µm). (medsci.org)
  • In humans (autopsies, n=20) extrapericardiac cardiomyocytes were only found in 23 out of 78 veins and showed an incomplete sleeve at the lung hilus. (medsci.org)
  • Occasionally, however, there are three pulmonary veins on the right side, the result of the vein from the middle lobe of the right lung opening separately into the left auricle instead of joining as usual the upper of the two right pulmonary veins. (imedecin.com)
  • At the root of the lung the pulmonary veins on both sides are arranged as an upper and lower branch, an anterior descending branch of the bronchus passing between them. (imedecin.com)
  • The upper vein on the right side is larger than the lower, and usually receives the vein from the middle lobe of the right lung. (imedecin.com)
  • 1 Additional rare causes of unilateral lesions include pulmonary circulatory diseases, such as proximal PA blockage (eg, PA sarcoma), venous thrombosis and unilateral pulmonary vein stenosis due to mediastinal fibrosis. (bmj.com)
  • Diagnosis of venous thrombosis due to pulmonary tuberculosis with lymph nodes involvement was made. (bmj.com)
  • This 3D medical animation depicting Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT or Deep Venous Thrombosis) begins by showing a blood clot forming in a lower leg vein. (smartimagebase.com)
  • Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of primary pulmonary vein stenosis or atresia in children," Annals of Thoracic Surgery , vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 229-234, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Outcomes of surgery for young children with multivessel pulmonary vein stenosis," The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 911-917, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • The deceleration time of the pulmonary venous diastolic flow has been well-correlated with invasive pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in several studies regardless of left ventricular systolic function. (nih.gov)
  • 25%): connection to the lower caval vein after passage through the diaphragm into the portal vein or hepatic veins (second capillary area, therefore often obstructed). (dhzb.de)
  • People have become concerned about the risks of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during long air flights, following reports in the press of occasional deaths due to fatal pulmonary embolisms. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • March is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Awareness Month for a good reason: 75% of Americans are unaware of the symptoms and risks of deep vein thrombosis. (ptcommunity.com)
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot develops in the deep veins, most commonly in the lower extremities. (cdc.gov)
  • As opposed to the superficial problem, deep veins in the leg can also become inflamed and a sourced of clotting. (healthcentral.com)
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) means thrombosis (clotting) of blood in the deep veins of the legs. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • 2. The thrombosis can cause chronic blockage in the deep veins or damage to their valves, leading to long term swelling and sometimes skin problems at the ankle. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • The deep veins lie between the muscles, and muscular activity (moving the legs, walking, or any leg exercise) helps to pump the blood up these veins. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • When the legs are inactive, and particularly when sitting or standing, blood tends to stagnate in the deep veins. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • Stretching and moving your legs stops blood stagnating in the deep veins of the calf, and is the simplest and most effective thing you can do. (circulationfoundation.org.uk)
  • ClotCare is a member organization of the Coalition to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis. (clotcare.com)
  • Click here to learn more about the Coalition to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and DVT Awareness Month, which is held each March. (clotcare.com)
Pulmonary Vein Isolation Ablation
Pulmonary Vein Isolation Ablation (my.clevelandclinic.org)
Entropy  | Free Full-Text | Granger Causality and Jensen-Shannon Divergence to Determine Dominant Atrial Area in Atrial...
Entropy | Free Full-Text | Granger Causality and Jensen-Shannon Divergence to Determine Dominant Atrial Area in Atrial... (mdpi.com)
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) | Lurie Children's
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC) | Lurie Children's (luriechildrens.org)
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return: infracardiac | Image | Radiopaedia.org
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return: infracardiac | Image | Radiopaedia.org (radiopaedia.org)
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection -- Child | Medical City Dallas
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection -- Child | Medical City Dallas (medicalcityhospital.com)
Heart-Encyclopedia - pulmonary veins
Heart-Encyclopedia - pulmonary veins (heart.org)
FOXF1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
FOXF1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics (medlineplus.gov)
Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetus to Adult - Wiley Online Library
Echocardiography in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetus to Adult - Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com)
Blood Flow Through Systemic and Pulmonary Circuits
Blood Flow Through Systemic and Pulmonary Circuits (unm.edu/~lkravitz/)
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (medlineplus.gov)
Multi-electrode Radiofrequency Balloon Catheter Use for the Isolation of the Pulmonary Veins. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Multi-electrode Radiofrequency Balloon Catheter Use for the Isolation of the Pulmonary Veins. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials... (clinicaltrials.gov)
How to Draw a Human Heart: 11 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow
How to Draw a Human Heart: 11 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow (wikihow.com)
Dissection of Sheep Lung & Heart by Nizar Salam on Prezi
Dissection of Sheep Lung & Heart by Nizar Salam on Prezi (prezi.com)
WEAS - Symposium - Canada, 2013 | IVIS
WEAS - Symposium - Canada, 2013 | IVIS (ivis.org)
Preclinical Cardiovascular Research Imaging | FUJIFILM VisualSonics
Preclinical Cardiovascular Research Imaging | FUJIFILM VisualSonics (visualsonics.com)
Ultrasound Atlas | GLOWM
Ultrasound Atlas | GLOWM (glowm.com)
A novel method for troubleshooting vascular injury during anatomic thoracoscopic pulmonary resection without conversion to...
A novel method for troubleshooting vascular injury during anatomic thoracoscopic pulmonary resection without conversion to... (link.springer.com)
Choking: Signs, Choking Hazards, and Prevention
Choking: Signs, Choking Hazards, and Prevention (healthline.com)
Inferior Lobe Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps
Inferior Lobe Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps (healthline.com)
Valvular Heart Disease -- Kenneth Korr, M.D.
Valvular Heart Disease -- Kenneth Korr, M.D. (brown.edu)
Do Neti Pots Work? Here's How to Use Them Safely
Do Neti Pots Work? Here's How to Use Them Safely (healthline.com)
Medical Assistant Core
Medical Assistant Core (uen.org)
ACR Education Center in Reston - Coronary CTA  | American College of Radiology
ACR Education Center in Reston - Coronary CTA | American College of Radiology (acr.org)
Diagnostic Utility of Ultrasonography of Leg Veins in Patients Suspected of Having Pulmonary Embolism | Annals of Internal...
Diagnostic Utility of Ultrasonography of Leg Veins in Patients Suspected of Having Pulmonary Embolism | Annals of Internal... (annals.org)
Fetal Cardiology | SpringerLink
Fetal Cardiology | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
1.3b Heart Valves, Part 2  - Week 1: Pulse/Heart Rate | Coursera
1.3b Heart Valves, Part 2 - Week 1: Pulse/Heart Rate | Coursera (coursera.org)
HRCT Chest - By Dr. Tinku Joseph
HRCT Chest - By Dr. Tinku Joseph (slideshare.net)
Right Pulmonary Veins Function, Anatomy & Diagram
Right Pulmonary Veins Function, Anatomy & Diagram (healthline.com)
Left Pulmonary Veins Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps
Left Pulmonary Veins Anatomy, Function & Diagram | Body Maps (healthline.com)
Computed tomographic analysis of the esophagus, left atrium, and pulmonary veins: implications for catheter ablation of atrial...
Computed tomographic analysis of the esophagus, left atrium, and pulmonary veins: implications for catheter ablation of atrial... (link.springer.com)
Christian J. Lambertsen - Wikipedia
Christian J. Lambertsen - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
St. Elizabeth Healthcare - Condition
St. Elizabeth Healthcare - Condition (stelizabeth.com)
Heart 1: Anatomy of Heart (not development)! Flashcards by Aaron Shoskes | Brainscape
Heart 1: Anatomy of Heart (not development)! Flashcards by Aaron Shoskes | Brainscape (brainscape.com)