Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Presence of air or gas in the subcutaneous tissues of the body.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Presence of air in the mediastinal tissues due to leakage of air from the tracheobronchial tree, usually as a result of trauma.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Disorder characterized by a vasculitic syndrome associated with exposure to an antigen such as a drug, infectious agent, or other foreign or endogenous substance. Its pathophysiology includes immune complex deposition and a wide range of skin lesions. Hypersensitivity or allergy is present in some but not all cases.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.

Fragile lung in the Marfan syndrome. (1/1021)

Two cases of the Marfan syndrome presented with spontaneous pneumothorax. Both had chest radiographs showing bilateral bullae in the upper lung zones and pulmonary function tests consistent with mild emphysema. There were dereases in forced expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and lung elastic recoil. It is suggested that pneumothorax and bullous emphysema in this syndrome are caused by a weakness in the pulmonary connective tissue framework.  (+info)

Detection of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody in the serum of patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorders. (2/1021)

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the humoral immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Although circulating autoantibodies to lung protein(s) have been suggested, none of the lung proteins have been characterised. The purpose of this study was to determine the antigen to which the serum from patients with pulmonary fibrosis reacted. METHODS: The anti-A549 cell antibody was characterised in a patient with CFA using Western immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining of A549 cells. As we identified that one of the antibodies against A549 cells was anti-cytokeratin 8, the expression of mRNA of cytokeratin 8 in A549 cells was evaluated. In addition, we attempted to establish an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure the levels of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody in the serum of patients with CFA and pulmonary fibrosis associated with collagen vascular disorders (PF-CVD). RESULTS: Initially two anti-A549 cell antibodies were detected in the serum of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, one of which was characterised as anticytokeratin 8 antibody by Western immunoblotting. We were able to establish an ELISA to measure anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody and found significantly higher levels in patients with CFA and PF-CVD than in normal volunteers, patients with sarcoidosis, pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: One of the anti-A549 cell antibodies in the serum of patients with CFA was against cytokeratin 8. The serum levels of anti-cytokeratin 8 antibody were increased in patients with CFA and PF-CVD. These results suggest that anticytokeratin 8 antibody may be involved in the process of lung injury in pulmonary fibrosis.  (+info)

Improvements in thoracic movement following lung volume reduction surgery in patients with severe emphysema. (3/1021)

In twelve patients with severe emphysema who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), we assessed the results of dyspnea scale, pulmonary function, 6-minute walk distance (6MD), and thoracic movement prior to and 6 months following LVRS. Postoperatively, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), maximum inspiratory mouth pressures (MIP), maximum expiratory mouth pressures (MEP), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and 6MD were significantly increased with the decrease in dyspnea scale and lung hyperinflation. Thoracic movement, as assessed by the bilateral lung area ratio of the mid-sagittal dimension of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at full inspiration to that at full expiration, was significantly increased. The improvement in thoracic movement was significantly correlated with the increases in FEV1, MVV, and MIP, and with the decrease in residual volume (RV), and with the improvement in the dyspnea scale. These findings suggest that LVRS is an effective procedure for improving not only the airflow limitation and gas exchange but also the thoracic movement in severe emphysema, and these improvements may contribute to an increase in exercise performance and relief of dyspnea.  (+info)

Physiological basis of improvement after lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema: where are we? (4/1021)

Lung volume reduction surgery has become an accepted therapeutic option to relieve the symptoms of selected patients with severe emphysema. In a majority of these patients, it causes objective as well as subjective functional improvement. A proper understanding of the physiological determinants underlying these beneficial effects appears very important in order to better select patients for the procedure that is currently largely carried out on an empirical basis. Lung volume reduction surgery has two distinct effects. Firstly, it causes an increased elastic recoil, which at least partially explains the enhanced maximal expiratory flow. Secondly, it is associated with a reduction of hyperinflation which allows for an increase in global inspiratory muscle strength and in diaphragmatic contribution to tidal volume as well as a decrease in the inspiratory elastic load imposed by the chest wall. Taken together, these effects result in a reduced work of breathing and in an enhanced maximal ventilation which both contribute to the increased exercise capacity and reduced dyspnoea after surgery. The improved lung recoil and the reduced hyperinflation after volume reduction surgery were the primary postulates upon which the usual selection criteria for the procedure were based. It is now likely that these are correct. Nevertheless, some patients do not benefit from lung volume reduction surgery and the current literature does not allow for a refinement of the selection process from a physiological point of view. The exact mechanisms underlying the improvement in lung recoil, lung mechanics, and respiratory muscle function remain incompletely understood. Moreover, the effects of lung volume reduction surgery on gas exchange and pulmonary haemodynamics still need to be more fully investigated. An analysis of the characteristics of patients who do not benefit from the procedure and the development of an animal model for lung volume reduction surgery would probably help address these important issues.  (+info)

Subjective differentiation of normal and pathological bronchi on thin-section CT: impact of observer training. (5/1021)

The effect of observer training on sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement in the differentiation between normal and pathological bronchi on computed tomography (CT) was studied. The wall thickness of bronchi with normal walls and with pathologically thickened walls were subjectively scored by three independent observers before and after a training period of 2 weeks. Sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement were calculated for reading sessions before and after training. Increase and decrease in agreement after training were determined. There was a statistically significant difference (p=0.001) between objectively measured wall thickness of normal and pathological bronchi, both for reference bronchi and for bronchi used for reading sessions. While training increased interobserver agreement, it had no effect on sensitivity (0.46 versus 0.44 after training) and specificity (0.71 versus 0.72 after training) in detecting pathological bronchi. Increased agreement after training was significantly (p=0.001) more frequent than decreased agreement. There is a discrepancy between the effect of training on interobserver agreement and on sensitivity and specificity in the subjective differentiation between normal and pathological bronchi. Interobserver agreement alone is not a reliable indicator of a beneficial effect of training in the evaluation of this parameter.  (+info)

Outcome of asthma: longitudinal changes in lung function. (6/1021)

Current knowledge about factors determining outcome of asthma is limited, but observations over the last few decades suggest that active asthma has a negative impact on the longitudinal changes in lung function. This review aims to give an overview of the present knowledge concerning longitudinal changes in lung function, including clinical markers for distinctly poor outcome with regard to lung function, in children and adults suffering from asthma. The majority of patients with asthma have a good prognosis. However, some patients with asthma, especially those with more severe disease, are at risk of impaired growth of lung function during childhood, a lower maximally attained level of lung function and excessive decline in lung function in adulthood, which may lead to life-threatening lung function impairment. Clinical markers of poorly controlled airway inflammation appear to have a negative impact on the longitudinal changes in lung function, and disease progression to nonreversible airflow obstruction may be observed in a minority of patients with asthma. Early intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy may improve the short-term outcome of asthma, but long-term controlled studies are clearly needed in order to verify whether or not treatment, especially with inhaled corticosteroids, according to the current international guidelines alters the natural history of asthma, i.e. disease progression with regard to changes in lung function and possible development of nonreversible airflow obstruction.  (+info)

Surgical aspects and techniques of lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema. (7/1021)

Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has become an accepted procedure for palliative treatment of diffuse, nonbullous emphysema. Single or multiple peripheral segmental wedge resections of the most destroyed areas of the lungs are performed with the use of stapling devices, in order to decrease hyperinflation and restore diaphragmatic function. Median sternotomy, videoendoscopy or anterior muscle sparing thoracotomies have been used as surgical approaches. The functional improvement after bilateral resections exceed those after a unilateral approach. LVRS has demonstrated its potential as an alternative to transplantation, and with growing experience, the indications for the procedure have been widened. In selected patients with peripheral lung cancer who have been considered unsuitable for a surgical resection, the combination of both tumour resection and LVRS has successfully been performed. In contrast to LVRS, laser surgery of the emphysematous lung has been abandoned in most institutions.  (+info)

Emphysematous lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis in the lungs of transgenic mice overexpressing platelet-derived growth factor. (8/1021)

Because of its expression pattern and its potent effects on mesenchymal cells, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been implicated as an important factor in epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions during normal lung development and in the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung disease. To further explore the role of PDGF in these processes, we have developed transgenic mice that express the PDGF-B gene from the lung-specific surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter. Adult SPC-PDGFB transgenic mice exhibited lung pathology characterized by enlarged airspaces, inflammation, and fibrosis. Emphysematous changes frequently occurred throughout the lung, but inflammation and fibrotic lesions were usually confined to focal areas. The severity of this phenotype varied significantly among individual mice within the same SPC-PDGFB transgenic lineage. A pathology similar to that observed in adult mice was noted in lungs from transgenic mice as young as 1 week of age. Neonatal transgenic mice exhibited enlarged saccules and thickened primary septa. Results of these studies indicated that overexpression of PDGF-B induced distinct abnormalities in the developing and adult lung and led to a complex phenotype that encompassed aspects of both emphysema and fibrotic lung disease.  (+info)

Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis. This results in loss of elastic recoil, which leads to trappling of air within the lungs and difficulty exhaling. It is often caused by cigarette smoking or long-term exposure to harmful pollutants. The disease is part of a group of conditions known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also includes chronic bronchitis.

Emphysema is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the airspaces called alveoli in the lungs, accompanied by destruction of their walls. This results in loss of elasticity and decreased gas exchange efficiency, causing shortness of breath and coughing. It is often caused by smoking or exposure to harmful pollutants. The damage to the lungs is irreversible, but quitting smoking and using medications can help alleviate symptoms and slow disease progression.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Alpha 1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disorder that results from insufficient levels of the protective protein AAT in the blood and lungs. This protein is produced by the liver and helps to protect the lungs from damage caused by inflammation and the action of enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, that are released during the immune response.

In people with AAT deficiency, the lack of adequate AAT levels leads to an uncontrolled increase in neutrophil elastase activity, which can cause damage to lung tissue and result in emphysema, a condition characterized by shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. Additionally, some individuals with AAT deficiency may develop liver disease due to the accumulation of abnormal AAT proteins in liver cells.

There are different variants or genotypes associated with AAT deficiency, with the most common and severe form being the PiZZ genotype. This variant is caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, which encodes for the AAT protein. Individuals who inherit two copies of this mutated gene (one from each parent) will have very low levels of AAT in their blood and are at increased risk of developing emphysema and liver disease.

Diagnosis of AAT deficiency typically involves measuring AAT levels in the blood and performing genetic testing to identify specific variants of the SERPINA1 gene. Treatment may include lifestyle modifications, such as smoking cessation, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids to manage lung symptoms, as well as augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of AAT protein to help slow disease progression in individuals with severe deficiency. Liver transplantation may be considered for those with advanced liver disease.

Subcutaneous emphysema is a medical condition where air or gas collects in the subcutaneous tissue, which lies beneath the skin and above the muscle layer. This tissue covers the entire body, but the collection of air usually occurs in the chest wall, neck, or face. The accumulation of air can cause swelling, crepitus (a crackling or crunching sound when touched), and tightness in the affected area. Subcutaneous emphysema is often associated with underlying conditions such as trauma, pulmonary disease, or certain medical procedures that result in air leaks from the lungs or other structures into the subcutaneous tissue. It can be a serious condition if left untreated, as it may lead to complications like mediastinal emphysema or tension pneumothorax. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrices, which are the structures that provide support and organization to cells in tissues and organs.

MMP-12 is also known as macrophage elastase because it is primarily produced by macrophages, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. MMP-12 is capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix, including elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues such as lungs, arteries, and skin.

MMP-12 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Dysregulation of MMP-12 activity has been associated with various diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, and tumor metastasis.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Mediastinal emphysema is a medical condition characterized by the presence of air or gas within the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thorax that contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, and other associated structures.

In mediastinal emphysema, the air accumulates in the mediastinal tissues and spaces, leading to their abnormal distention or swelling. This condition can result from various causes, including:

* Pulmonary trauma or barotrauma (e.g., mechanical ventilation, scuba diving)
* Infections that cause gas-forming organisms (e.g., pneumomediastinum)
* Air leakage from the lungs or airways (e.g., bronchial rupture, esophageal perforation)
* Certain medical procedures (e.g., mediastinoscopy, tracheostomy)

Mediastinal emphysema can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, and swallowing problems. In severe cases, it may lead to life-threatening complications, including tension pneumothorax or mediastinitis. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

Helium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It's a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gases section of the periodic table. In medicine, helium is sometimes used in medical settings for its unique properties, such as being less dense than air, which can help improve the delivery of oxygen to patients with respiratory conditions. For example, heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen, may be used to reduce the work of breathing in patients with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Additionally, helium is also used in cryogenic medical equipment and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by the persistent obstruction of airflow in and out of the lungs. This obstruction is usually caused by two primary conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis involves inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to excessive mucus production and coughing. Emphysema is a condition where the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs are damaged, resulting in decreased gas exchange and shortness of breath.

The main symptoms of COPD include progressive shortness of breath, chronic cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and excessive mucus production. The disease is often associated with exposure to harmful particles or gases, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. While there is no cure for COPD, treatments can help alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, combination inhalers, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous is a type of vasculitis that is limited to the skin. Vasculitis refers to inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage to the vessel walls and impair blood flow to various tissues in the body. In leukocytoclastic vasculitis, the small blood vessels (capillaries and venules) in the skin become inflamed, leading to damage and destruction of the vessel walls.

The term "leukocytoclastic" refers to the presence of nuclear debris from white blood cells (leukocytes) that have been destroyed within the affected blood vessels. This type of vasculitis is often associated with the deposition of immune complexes (formed by the interaction between antibodies and antigens) in the walls of the blood vessels, which triggers an inflammatory response.

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis typically presents as palpable purpura (small to large, raised, purple or red spots on the skin), usually located on the lower extremities, but can also affect other areas of the body. Other symptoms may include burning or itching sensations in the affected area, and in some cases, ulcers or necrosis (tissue death) may occur.

The diagnosis of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis is typically made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and histopathological examination of a skin biopsy specimen. Treatment usually involves addressing any underlying causes or triggers, as well as managing symptoms with medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

Panniculitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the subcutaneous fat, or the layer of fat located just beneath the skin. This condition can affect people of all ages and genders, although it is more commonly seen in middle-aged women. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, trauma, and medications.

The symptoms of panniculitis may include:

* Red, painful lumps or nodules under the skin
* Skin lesions that may be tender, warm, or bruised
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Fever, fatigue, and malaise (a general feeling of illness)

The diagnosis of panniculitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a specific type of lung disease that results from the thickening and scarring of the lung tissues, particularly those in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitium (the space around the air sacs). This scarring makes it harder for the lungs to properly expand and transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and eventually respiratory failure. The exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can vary, with some cases being idiopathic (without a known cause) or related to environmental factors, medications, medical conditions, or genetic predisposition.

Lung compliance is a measure of the ease with which the lungs expand and is defined as the change in lung volume for a given change in transpulmonary pressure. It is often expressed in units of liters per centimeter of water (L/cm H2O). A higher compliance indicates that the lungs are more easily distensible, while a lower compliance suggests that the lungs are stiffer and require more force to expand. Lung compliance can be affected by various conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

... (PIE) is a collection of air outside of the normal air space of the pulmonary alveoli, found ... The prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema widely varies with the population studied. In a 1987 study 3% of infants ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a concern in any of the following: Prematurity Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is more frequent in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation for severe lung ...
... (CPFE), describes a medical syndrome involving both pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema ... February 2006). "Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: a distinct underrecognised entity". European Respiratory Journal. ... Wand, O; Kramer, MR (January 2018). "The Syndrome of Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema - CPFE". Harefuah. 157 (1): 28- ... Jankowich, MD; Rounds, SI (January 2012). "Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome: a review". Chest. 141 (1): 222- ...
Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a rare syndrome that shows upper-lobe emphysema, together with lower-lobe ... Centrilobular emphysema, also called centriacinar emphysema, affects the centre of a pulmonary lobule (centrilobular) in the ... This is also known as localized pulmonary emphysema. Blebs and bullae may also be included as focal emphysema. These can be ... "Emphysema". Retrieved 3 October 2021. "Pulmonary Emphysema". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. 19 November 2019. Retrieved 3 October ...
José Manuel García León, Tabasco músician; pulmonary emphysema. August 31 - Nadia Stankovitch (93), Serbian-born Mexican ... October 21 - Rosaura Barahona, 75, journalist (El Norte) and feminist writer, pulmonary disease. November 1 - Ignacio ... emphysema. Alicia Rivas Lombera, high school theater teacher; cáncer. José Alberto Toledo Villalobos, anti-mining activist in ...
Robert Q. Lewis, 70, American television personality (What's My Line?) and actor, pulmonary emphysema. Artur Lundkvist, 85, ...
Cameron AJ (1933). "Marked papilloedema in pulmonary emphysema". Br J Ophthalmol. 17 (3): 167-9. doi:10.1136/bjo.17.3.167. PMC ...
Swyer, P. R.; James, G. C. W. (1953). "A Case of Unilateral Pulmonary Emphysema". Thorax. 8 (2): 133-136. doi:10.1136/thx.8.2. ... The characteristic radiographic appearance is that of pulmonary hyperlucency, caused by overdistention of the alveoli in ...
"Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema in Beef Cattle: Causes and Prevention" (PDF). Dale C. Honeyfield, Department of ... "Acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema" (PDF). Rarnirez RR, Guadiana GS, Nevárez GAM, Trigo TFJ (in Spanish). 1993. ... This toxicity leads to emphysema and pulmonary edema which may cause death by asphyxiation. In the history of research into ... Fog fever is a refeeding syndrome in cattle, clinically named acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPEE) and bovine ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, but maybe more or less ... "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema". Retrieved 2008-04-19. BTS COPD Consortium (2005). "Spirometry in practice ... Emphysema, for example, can only be seen on CT scan. The main form of long term management involves the use of inhaled ... Severe emphysema has been treated with lung volume reduction surgery, with in carefully chosen cases. Lung transplantation is ...
... nonspecific chronic pulmonary disease, diffuse obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The terms emphysema and chronic bronchitis were ... Tai chi exercises appear to be safe to practice for people with COPD and may be beneficial for pulmonary function and pulmonary ... The two most common types of COPD are emphysema and chronic bronchitis and have been the two classic COPD phenotypes. Emphysema ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at Curlie " ...
When the alveoli of the lung are ruptured, as occurs in pulmonary laceration, air may travel beneath the visceral pleura (the ... Subcutaneous emphysema is also considered a hallmark of Fournier gangrene. Symptoms of subcutaneous emphysema can result when ... When the condition is caused by surgery it is called surgical emphysema. The term spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema is used ... the subcutaneous emphysema will usually clear. However, spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema can, in rare cases, progress to a ...
Lorna Sage, 57, British literary critic and writer, pulmonary emphysema. Michael Williams, 65, British actor, lung cancer. ... Stan Freeman, 80, American musician, pulmonary emphysema. Amando de Ossorio Rodríguez, 82, Spanish film director. Luigi Broglio ... Sandy Baron, 64, American stand-up comic, actor (Seinfeld) and songwriter, emphysema. Pier Giorgio Cazzola, 63, Italian ...
Francisco Rabal, 75, Spanish actor, pulmonary emphysema. Dick Selma, 57, American baseball player, liver cancer. Graeme ... Álvaro Carolino, 50, Portuguese football player and manager, pulmonary complications. Elsa Cavelti, 94, Swiss operatic ...
Jeanne Carpenter, 76, American child actress of the silent era, pulmonary emphysema. Brian Johnston, 81, British cricket ... Frances Gifford, 73, American actress, pulmonary emphysema. Telly Savalas, 72, American actor (Kojak, On Her Majesty's Secret ... Harvey Haddix, 68, American baseball pitcher and pitching coach, pulmonary emphysema. Harry Boye Karlsen, 73, Norwegian ... Oliver Smith, 75, American scenic designer and interior designer, pulmonary emphysema. Sidney Quinn Curtiss, 76, American ...
Ivan Lessa, 77, Brazilian journalist, pulmonary emphysema. Pat Mahoney, 83, Canadian businessman, politician, and judge, MP for ... Faruq Z. Bey, 70, American jazz saxophonist, emphysema. Pádraig Faulkner, 94, Irish politician, TD for Louth (1957-1987), ... John Hinrichs, 78, American welding engineer, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. David Hodgson, 73, Australian judge. Caroline John ...
Glendon Swarthout, 74, American novelist, pulmonary emphysema. James A. Van Fleet, 100, American Army general. Christiane Barry ...
Davis Roberts, 76, American actor, pulmonary emphysema. Michael Winstanley, Baron Winstanley, 74, British politician. Szymon ... Condor Laucke, 78, Australian politician, pulmonary emphysema. Don Myrick, 53, American saxophonist, shot. Edward Bernard ...
Paul Avery, 66, American journalist, pulmonary emphysema. Jack Cowan, 73, Canadian football player. Dick Healey, 77, Australian ... Hugh W. Pinnock, 66, American Mormon leader, pulmonary fibrosis. Chuck Pratt, 61, American rock climber, heart attack. Theo ... Uldis Pūcītis, 63, Latvian actor, scriptwriter and film director, pulmonary embolism. Princess Marie Alexandra of Schleswig- ...
Lash LaRue, 78, American actor, pulmonary emphysema. Fritz Ligges, 57, German equestrian, heart attack. Robert Christie, 82, ...
Rolo Puente, 71, Argentine actor, pulmonary emphysema. Friedrich Rückert, 90, Austrian Olympic hockey player. Tommy Wright, 83 ... Cornell Dupree, 68, American jazz and R&B guitarist, complications from emphysema. George Guțiu, 87, Romanian Catholic hierarch ...
Ferguson (1983). "Congenital lesion of the lungs and emphysema". Gibbons surgery of the Chest (4th ? ed.). WB Saunders. pp. 668 ... It is widely believed that extralobar pulmonary sequestrations are a result of prenatal pulmonary malformation while intralobar ... intrapulmonary sequestration drains via pulmonary veins, extra pulmonary sequestration drains to the IVC) Walker, Christopher M ... A pulmonary sequestration is a medical condition wherein a piece of tissue that ultimately develops into lung tissue is not ...
Joy Shelton, 77, English actress, pulmonary emphysema. Kenneth Waller, 72, British actor. George McTurnan Kahin, 82, American ...
Cullen JH (1963). "An evaluation of tracheostomy in pulmonary emphysema". Annals of Internal Medicine. 58 (6): 953-60. doi: ... The many possible complications include hemorrhage, loss of airway, subcutaneous emphysema, wound infections, stomal cellulites ...
He died of pulmonary emphysema in 1991. In university Piñera Carvallo joined the National Falange, the germ of the Christian ...
2008). "Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: a pictorial review". International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 3 ... Pulmonary circuit Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery.Deep ... The largest pulmonary artery is the main pulmonary artery or pulmonary trunk from the heart, and the smallest ones are the ... The pulmonary trunk splits into the right and the left main pulmonary artery. The left main pulmonary artery is shorter than ...
He was diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema in 2016. He battled the disease by using various methods, including natural medicine ...
... pulmonary emphysema. Gil Langley, 81, Australian cricketer and politician. Elisabeth Lennartz, 98, German stage actress. Loften ... Jesús Aguirre, 66, Spanish intellectual, Jesuit priest, and aristocrat, pulmonary embolism. Michael J. Bird, 72, British writer ...
Little Beaver, 61, Canadian midget wrestler, pulmonary emphysema. Leonidas Berry, 93, American pioneer in gastroscopy and ... pulmonary emphysema. Henri Patrelle, 77, French football player and executive. Allen Russell Patrick, 85, Canadian politician ... Lisa McPherson, 36, American member of the Church of Scientology, pulmonary embolism. Clair Cameron Patterson, 73, American ...
Vicente Leñero, 81, Mexican writer and journalist, pulmonary emphysema. Kostas Linoxilakis, 81, Greek footballer. Ann Marcus, ... Raymond M. Durkin, 78, American politician, complications related to heart failure and emphysema. Mike Elliott, 68, British ... emphysema and heart failure. Brian Swatuk, 65, Canadian jockey, cancer. Taitetsu Unno, 85, Japanese Shin Buddhist scholar and ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Laszlo Varga, 89, Hungarian-born American cellist. Hans Wallat, 85, German conductor and ...
Jesús del Pozo, 65, Spanish fashion designer, pulmonary emphysema. Topi Sorsakoski, 58, Finnish singer, lung cancer. Ellen ... Raúl Ruiz, 70, Chilean film director (Three Lives and Only One Death, Time Regained), pulmonary infection. Jimmy Sangster, 83, ...
... emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic obstructive asthma) [PDF - 830 KB] ... Percent of adults who have ever been diagnosed with COPD, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis: 4.6% (2022) ...
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a collection of air outside of the normal air space of the pulmonary alveoli, found ... The prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema widely varies with the population studied. In a 1987 study 3% of infants ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a concern in any of the following: Prematurity Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is more frequent in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation for severe lung ...
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a collection of gases outside of the normal air passages and inside the connective ... encoded search term (Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema) and Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema What to Read Next on Medscape ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) * Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine ... Pulmonary lymphatic air: locating "pulmonary interstitial emphysema" of the premature infant. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 May. ...
... distinct pulmonary manifestation within the spectrum of CTD-associated lung diseases in smokers or former smokers, especially ... Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in connective tissue disease Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jan;63(1):295-304. doi: ... High-resolution computed tomography revealed emphysema of the upper lung zones and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower zones in all ... The aim of this study was to describe the recently individualized syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) ...
... Am J Surg. 1955 Feb;89(2):372-82. doi: 10.1016/0002 ...
Pulmonary emphysema is identified by marked overdistention of alveoli along with destruction of supporting alveolar and ... Pulmonary emphysema is one of the two conditions under the umbrella term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with the ...
Doctors notes on Pulmonary Edema vs. Emphysema symptoms, signs, causes, and treatment. ... Emphysema. Pulmonary edema and emphysema are both conditions that affect the lungs. Pulmonary edema is an excess collection of ... Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).. A shared symptom of pulmonary edema and emphysema is ... What Is the Treatment for Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema?. Management of pulmonary edema can involve multiple types of treatment ...
Amelioration of emphysema in mice through lentiviral transduction of long-lived pulmonary alveolar macrophages. ... Amelioration of emphysema in mice through lentiviral transduction of long-lived pulmonary alveolar macrophages. ... In an established mouse model of emphysema, lentivirally delivered hAAT ameliorated the progression of emphysema, as evidenced ... in vivo is an attractive approach for both modulating gene expression and correcting inherited mutations such as emphysema ...
Specific treatments of pulmonary hypertension have not yet been evaluated in the context of pulmonary emphysema, IPF, and CPFE. ... pulmonary fibrosis. Emphysema and the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), are ... Hiwatari N, Shimura S, Takishima T. Pulmonary emphysema followed by pulmonary fibrosis of undetermined cause. Respiration 1993; ... Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: a distinct underrecognised entity. V. Cottin, H. Nunes, P-Y. Brillet, P. Delaval, G. ...
... Vijai P. Sharma, Ph.D., psychologist ...
The most common cause of Emphysema is smoking. Learn about symptoms and treatment. ... Emphysema is a type of COPD. COPD makes it hard to breathe. ... Emphysema is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary ... FastStats: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema (National Center for Health ... Can emphysema be prevented?. Since smoking causes most cases of emphysema, the best way to prevent it is to not smoke. Its ...
... is part of a group of lung diseases called COPD. Heres what you need to know. ... Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which the air sacs (alveoli) may be destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched, or ...
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a collection of gases outside of the normal air passages and inside the connective ... encoded search term (Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema) and Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is more common in infants of lower gestational age. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema usually ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) * Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Emphysema in Emergency Medicine ...
Professur "Molecular Mechanisms of Emphysema, Hypoxia and Lung Aging" * Aktuelles * Forschung * Pulmonary Emphysema ... Forschung https://www.uni-giessen.de/de/fbz/fb11/institute/innere/med2/Emphysema%20and%20Lung%20Aging/forschung https://www.uni ...
Emphysema, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, affects the walls of the millions of tiny air sacs in the ... Pulmonary rehabilitation. An important part of emphysema treatment is pulmonary rehabilitation, which includes education, ... Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a group of lung conditions that cause permanent blockage ... Our approach to emphysema. UCSF offers comprehensive evaluations and care for all types of COPD. When treating emphysema, we ...
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the common name for a group of ...
Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are irreversible chronic events after inhalation injury. However, the mechanism(s) involved in ... We found elevated plasma heme in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (GOLD stage 4) patients and also in a ferret ... These mice also had elevated pulmonary endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as seen in COPD patients; the pharmacological or ... and emphysema. This is the first study to our knowledge to report elevated heme in COPD patients and establishes heme ...
... and induction of pulmonary vascular dilatation to characterize emphysema susceptibility in a normal smoking population. ... Video Telehealth Pulmonary Rehabilitation to Reduce Hospital Readmission in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ... The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of a real time video telehealth pulmonary rehabilitation ... The investigators will study the effect of pulmonary arterial vasodilation to see if it eliminates indices of persistent lung ...
AI-based Population Screening for Pulmonary Emphysema Using CT.. Its purpose is to identify patients with pulmonary emphysema ...
Hi Charlene they just said mild emphysema COPD never said a stage my doctor is calling me monday so i can tell him my results ... But i was told that if they did a ct scan on people who have smoked for over 40 years most would have emphysema. ... Hi i tink mine must be stage 1 they told me i have mild emphysema. ... i got results a few days ago no cancer found but some bowl problem and was told i have mild emphysema and he just said i take ...
irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat; pulmonary edema, bronchitis; emphysema; conjunctivitis; stomatis; dental erosion; eye, ...
Emphysema. J44.9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unspecified. J45. Asthma. J45.P. Prevent asthma. ...
The pulmonary air leak syndromes, including pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pulmonary interstitial emphysema and ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: selective bronchial occlusion with a Swanganz catheter. Archives of Disease in Childhood, ... Weintraub Z, Oliven A. Succesful resolution of unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a premature infant by selective ... Selective intubation in the management of unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema. American Journal of Diseases of Children ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 4,788 (4). 5,709 (5). 3,004 (5). Emphysema. 1,093 (1). 1,357 (1). 630 (1). ... Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection, by Ethnic Group, Hawaii, USA, 2005-2019 Rebekah A. Blakney, ... Incidence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Infection, by Ethnic Group, Hawaii, USA, 2005-2019. ...
Emphysema,. *Chronic interstitial pneumonia, and. *Pulmonary fibrosis,. all of which increased as cumulative exposure to ...
Emphysema, pulmonary. 6603 Encephalitis, epidemic, chronic. 8000 Endocarditis. 7001 Endometriosis. 7629 Enteritis, chronic. ...
Emphysema isnt contagious or communicable and cant be spread from one person to another. You cant ... Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that occurs when air sacs in the lungs become damaged. The ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of chronic lung diseases. Two of the most common are emphysema. ... Treatment options for emphysema may include:. *Pulmonary rehabilitation: Youll learn breathing techniques and other ways to ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been known to mankind for over 200 year. The disease was initially recognized ... Laënnec described emphysema of the lungs in 1821 in his Treatise of diseases of the chest. He was the inventor of the ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been known to mankind for over 200 year. The disease was initially recognized ... William Briscoe was the first person who used the term COPD in discussion at the 9th Aspen Emphysema Conference in 1965. ...
Diffusion Weighted 3He-MRI in the Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema.. K.K Gast, Trine Stavngaard, J.M Wild, A.E. Morbach, Lise ... Diffusion Weighted 3He-MRI in the Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema. / Gast, K.K; Stavngaard, Trine; Wild, J.M et al. ... Diffusion Weighted 3He-MRI in the Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema. Poster session presented at Proc Intl Soc Magn Reson Med. ... title = "Diffusion Weighted 3He-MRI in the Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema.",. author = "K.K Gast and Trine Stavngaard and J. ...
Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema. Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema. BMJOAE 2,913,1956. ... Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema. Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema. BMJOAE 2,913,1956. ... Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema. Liver: Multiple effects. Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes. VCVGK ... Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema. Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands. ...
  • Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the same as adult-onset asthma. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also, smokers who get emphysema are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Go to Emphysema and Emergent Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) for complete information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a group of lung conditions that cause permanent blockage of airflow in the lungs. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the common name for a group of lung conditions that causes breathing difficulties. (springfieldmedicalclinic.com)
  • We found elevated plasma heme in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (GOLD stage 4) patients and also in a ferret model of COPD secondary to chronic cigarette smoke inhalation. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of a real time video telehealth pulmonary rehabilitation intervention with standard of care in patients hospitalized for an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to determine the impact on hospital readmissions and respiratory morbidity, and to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of the proposed project is to examine novel pulmonary and vascular physiological mechanisms that contribute to structural brain abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction early in the course of COPD. (nih.gov)
  • Its purpose is to identify patients with pulmonary emphysema who undergo thoracic CT for reasons other than COPD. (umassmed.edu)
  • Hi Charlene they just said mild emphysema COPD never said a stage my doctor is calling me monday so i can tell him my results then he can request a copy of my results from the hospital. (patient.info)
  • Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that occurs when air sacs in the lungs become damaged. (healthline.com)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been known to mankind for over 200 year. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus emphysema was known to be a part of COPD early one. (news-medical.net)
  • William Briscoe was the first person who used the term COPD in discussion at the 9th Aspen Emphysema Conference in 1965. (news-medical.net)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease often caused by cigarette smoking that makes breathing difficult. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • COPD includes both damage to the bronchial tubes (airway disease) and emphysema. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • The COPD and Emphysema Program at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lung Center provides comprehensive diagnostic testing and treatment for men and women with COPD. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Establishment of a mouse model is important for investigating the mechanism of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, the CS exposure method is a more suitable model of COPD for emphysema research due to its simple operation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by a persistently limited airflow, chronic airway inflammation, airway remodeling and emphysema [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quick-relief medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) work quickly to help you breathe better. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Health Care Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). (medlineplus.gov)
  • COPD patients may exhibit symptoms of chronic bronchitis , emphysema , and asthma . (medicinenet.com)
  • Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis , but the severity of each type can be different for different people. (medicinenet.com)
  • There is a genetic factor called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency that places a small percentage (less than 1%) of people at higher risk for COPD (and emphysema) because of a protective factor (alpha-1 antitrypsin protein) for lung tissue elasticity is decreased or absent. (medicinenet.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The comorbidity of pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema has garnered increasing attention. (nevinmanimala.com)
  • RESULTS: We identified a total of 1827 original articles and reviews on the comorbidity of pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema published between 2004 and 2023. (nevinmanimala.com)
  • CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis demonstrates a continuous increasing trend in literature related to the comorbidity of pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema. (nevinmanimala.com)
  • The research hotspots and trends identified in this study provide a reference for in-depth research in this field, aiming to promote the development of the comorbidity of pulmonary fibrosis and COPD/emphysema. (nevinmanimala.com)
  • Our Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program is designed to improve the quality of life for patients who have a lung disease or lung conditions, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis and those who have had or have a pending lung transplant. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • Lung cancer and obstructive pulmonary disease share multiple etiological factors, such as cigarette smoking, occupational inhalation hazards, and air pollution, and 50-70% of lung cancer patients present with co-existing COPD or airflow obstruction 6 . (nature.com)
  • Animal models and mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide, and its global health burden is increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • COPD is characterized by emphysema, mucus hypersecretion, and persistent lung inflammation, and clinically by chronic airflow obstruction and symptoms of dyspnea, cough, and fatigue in patients. (cdc.gov)
  • A cluster of pathologies including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and cardiovascular disease in the form of hypertension and atherosclerosis variably coexist in COPD patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Specifically, we aim to develop a diagnostic support system for the very early stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on the CT images. (scirp.org)
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease added to target diseases of "Health Japan 21" planned by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare as one of new lifestyle-related diseases since 2013 [1]. (scirp.org)
  • COPD, also known as "tobacco disease", is a pulmonary chronic inflammatory disease caused by long-term inhalation exposure of harmful substances, mainly tobacco smoke. (scirp.org)
  • COPD includes emphysema and … COPD webpage. (wisconsin.gov)
  • COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a progressive nonreversible disease that makes it hard to breathe. (cdc.gov)
  • A recent study, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and U.S. Workers: Prevalence, Trends, and Attributable Cases Associated with Work , examined COPD prevalence, trends and the proportion of cases attributable to work, during 2012-2018 among workers looking at smoking status, industry, and occupation. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is airflow limitation caused by an inflammatory response to inhaled toxins, often cigarette smoke. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Preventable CRDs include asthma and respiratory allergies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occupational lung diseases, cancer, sleep apnoea and pulmonary hypertension. (who.int)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive life-threatening lung disease that causes breathlessness (initially with exertion) and predisposes to exacerbations and serious illness. (who.int)
  • You could be one of the 24 million Americans who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD. (cdc.gov)
  • COPD, also referred to as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, is a serious lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to describe the recently individualized syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in a population of patients with CTD. (nih.gov)
  • The syndrome resulting from combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema has not been comprehensively described. (ersjournals.com)
  • The authors hereby individualise the computer tomography-defined syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema characterised by subnormal spirometry, severe impairment of gas exchange, high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, and poor survival. (ersjournals.com)
  • Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been mentioned in passing in series of patients with IPF or has been the subject of case reports or short series 1 - 3 , but has not hitherto been specifically studied in a large cohort of patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • High-resolution computed tomography revealed emphysema of the upper lung zones and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower zones in all patients, and all patients exhibited dyspnea during exercise. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, patients with CTD and CPFE had higher lung volumes, lower diffusion capacity, higher pulmonary pressures, and more frequently were male than those with CTD and lung fibrosis without emphysema. (nih.gov)
  • The current authors conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients with both emphysema of the upper zones and diffuse parenchymal lung disease with fibrosis of the lower zones of the lungs on chest computed tomography. (ersjournals.com)
  • Emphysema and the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), are entities defined by distinct clinical, functional, radiological, and pathological characteristics. (ersjournals.com)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are irreversible chronic events after inhalation injury. (jci.org)
  • Patchy fibrosis with greater involvement of the lower lobes and subpleural regions is readily apparent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary edema and emphysema are both conditions that affect the lungs . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pulmonary edema is an excess collection of watery fluid in the lungs that inhibits lung function. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Emphysema affects the air sacs in your lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In emphysema, the walls between many of the air sacs in the lungs are damaged. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cause of emphysema is usually long-term exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and the airways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Emphysema, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, affects the walls of the millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs, which become inflamed and lose elasticity, causing the bronchioles to collapse. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Quitting smoking is also essential for patients with emphysema, since continuing to use tobacco will only further damage the lungs. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Inhaled as aerosol sprays or taken orally, bronchodilator medications may help to relieve symptoms of emphysema by relaxing and opening the air passages in the lungs. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Emphysema - damage to the air sacs in the lungs. (springfieldmedicalclinic.com)
  • Emphysema happens when there's damage to the walls between the tiny air sacs in your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Laënnec described emphysema of the lungs in 1821 in his Treatise of diseases of the chest . (news-medical.net)
  • He was the inventor of the stethoscope who wrote that emphysema lungs were excessively inflated that did not empty well. (news-medical.net)
  • Pulmonary edema is when fluid collects in the air sacs of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema is a condition involving fluid buildup in the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema also occurs as part of a condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe inflammation of the lungs that leads to significant breathing difficulties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a slowly progressive obstruction of airflow into or out of the lungs . (medicinenet.com)
  • Emphysema is an abnormal and permanent enlargement of the air spaces (alveoli) located at the end of the terminal bronchioles in the lungs. (medicinenet.com)
  • Individuals who have schistosomiasis and sickle cell disease have an elevated risk of pulmonary hypertension, or high blood pressure within the lungs. (who.int)
  • Inhaled as an aerosol spray, steroids can help relieve symptoms of emphysema associated with asthma and bronchitis. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Five patients with SSc exhibited pulmonary hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Pulmonary hypertension was present in 47% of patients at diagnosis, and 55% during follow-up. (ersjournals.com)
  • The presence of pulmonary hypertension at diagnosis was a critical determinant of prognosis. (ersjournals.com)
  • The current study provides a detailed analysis of the clinical characteristics of a homogenous group of 61 patients with computer tomography (CT)-defined CPFE, thus leading to the individualisation of a characteristic entity, and further shows that the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) at diagnosis is a critical determinant of prognosis in these patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • The largest pulmonary arteries have small yellow atherosclerotic plaques in pulmonary arterial hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • In an established mouse model of emphysema, lentivirally delivered hAAT ameliorated the progression of emphysema, as evidenced by attenuation of increased lung compliance and alveolar size. (jci.org)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is initiated when air ruptures from the alveolar airspace and small airways into the perivascular tissue of the lung. (medscape.com)
  • The American Thoracic Society defined emphysema as enlarged alveolar spaces and loss of alveolar walls. (news-medical.net)
  • Presence of subpleural pulmonary interstitial emphysema as an indication of single or multiple alveolar ruptures on CT in patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. (qxmd.com)
  • BACKGROUND: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) stimulates elastin synthesis by lung fibroblasts and induces alveolar regeneration in animal models of pulmonary emphysema. (hal.science)
  • Since water ingestion and asphyxia can damage the alveolar capillary membrane, pulmonary edema can occur hours later as ARDS (Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome). (scuba-doc.com)
  • Emphysema is destruction of lung parenchyma leading to loss of elastic recoil and loss of alveolar septa and radial airway traction, which increases the tendency for airway collapse. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For example, if someone with emphysema coughs around you and doesn't have another sickness, you won't be at risk of developing a cough. (healthline.com)
  • Retrieved on September 28, 2023 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2023 report. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with emphysema get frequent respiratory infections such as colds and the flu . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because infections are common in people with emphysema, antibiotics may be prescribed in some cases. (healthline.com)
  • Some people with emphysema may need to use a machine that delivers oxygen through a nasal catheter or a mask. (healthline.com)
  • What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? (springfieldmedicalclinic.com)
  • The primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is cigarette smoking or exposure to tobacco smoke. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is estimated that 90% of the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is related to smoking tobacco and secondhand smoke (tobacco smoke exhaled by a smoker and then breathed in by a non-smoker). (medicinenet.com)
  • People who smoke tobacco are at the highest risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • In general, three other non-genetic problems related to lung tissue play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are thought to be variations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and are considered part of the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by many researchers. (medicinenet.com)
  • Infectious diseases of the lung may damage areas of the lung tissue and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells: a novel therapy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? (bmj.com)
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a lung disease that causes airflow blockage and breathing -related problems. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a lung disease that is characterized by a persistent reduction of airflow. (who.int)
  • A shared symptom of pulmonary edema and emphysema is shortness of breath. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A person with emphysema will have shortness of breath - during physical activity and, when the condition is more advanced, also during rest. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Laënnec went on to describe a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. (news-medical.net)
  • 1) chronic bronchitis , 2) emphysema, and 3) infectious diseases of the lung. (medicinenet.com)
  • What Is the Treatment for Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What is pulmonary edema? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema can be acute (occurring suddenly) or chronic (occurring more slowly over time). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute pulmonary edema is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Treatment of pulmonary edema usually focuses on improving respiratory function and addressing the source of the problem. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sudden-onset (acute) pulmonary edema is a medical emergency. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema can be acute or chronic. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema occurs when fluid floods the alveoli. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pulmonary edema that results from a direct problem with the heart is called cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Congestive heart failure is a common cause of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Causes of pulmonary edema that are not due to poor heart function are called noncardiogenic and are often the result of ARDS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute pulmonary edema causes significant breathing difficulties and can appear without warning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If the pulmonary edema is chronic, symptoms are usually less severe until the body's system can no longer compensate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes a chest X-ray can assist in the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We also offer pulmonary rehabilitation, a multifaceted program that provides nutrition and exercise counseling, help in quitting smoking and education on how to stay as healthy as possible. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation also developed over the last half of the 20th century. (news-medical.net)
  • Coordinated by board-certified physicians in pulmonary and critical care medicine, including interventional pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons who specialize in minimally invasive lung surgery such as lung volume reduction surgery, our multidisciplinary team also comprises specialists from thoracic imaging, pulmonary rehabilitation, and respiratory therapy. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a concern in any of the following: Prematurity Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) Amniotic fluid aspiration Sepsis Infections Mechanical ventilation Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is created when air bursts or ruptures through tissue from the alveoli and bronchioles into the perivascular tissue of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a common comorbidity of neonates that is mainly associated with the etiologic triad of prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and mechanical ventilation therapy. (medscape.com)
  • See the Medscape Drugs & Diseases articles Imaging in Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome Imaging , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , and Imaging in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for more information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • If you have emphysema, experts recommend getting annual flu and pneumonia vaccines, COVID-19 vaccines, and taking measures to avoid getting respiratory infections. (healthline.com)
  • The pulmonary air leak syndromes, including pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pulmonary interstitial emphysema and pneumopericardium, comprise a spectrum of disease with the same underlying pathophysiology. (who.int)
  • Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and tension pneumothorax are previously unreported complications of shoulder arthroscopy with subacromial decompression. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Three patients developed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and bilateral tension pneumothorax during or immediately after shoulder arthroscopy with subacromial decompression. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Background There are no previous reports regarding the computed tomography (CT) findings of subpleural pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) in patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. (qxmd.com)
  • However, in extremely premature infants, pulmonary interstitial emphysema can occur at low mean airway pressure and probably reflects the underdeveloped lung's increased sensitivity to stretch. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema has been rarely reported in the absence of mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. (medscape.com)
  • The two treatments induced emphysema and airway remodeling and decreased lung function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Emphysema was induced after 1 month of exposure to CS or CS + LPS, while airway remodeling was induced after 2 months of exposure to CS + LPS and 3 months of exposure to CS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the mice in the CS + LPS group exhibited more severe inflammation and airway remodeling than the mice in the CS group, but the two treatments induced similar levels of emphysema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Emphysema develops due to damage to the air sacs and lung tissue. (healthline.com)
  • Patients with connective tissue disease at the time of the diagnosis of CFPE were excluded from the study, as well as patients with a diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases, such as drug-induced interstitial lung disease, pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis and eosinophilic pneumonia 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is more frequent in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation for severe lung disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In severe cases, emphysema can cause weight loss, weakness in your lower muscles, and swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oxygen therapy , if you have severe emphysema and low levels of oxygen in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What at first appears to be a tension pneumothorax may instead be severe emphysema of one or more lobes of the lung. (hawaii.edu)
  • Some infants may develop chronic lobar emphysema, which may require surgical lobectomies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired lobar emphysema (ALE) is an increasingly recognized complication of advanced BPD. (who.int)
  • However, the infant deteriorated clinically and repeated radiography revealed lobar emphysema on the right lower lung. (who.int)
  • CPFE warrants inclusion as a novel, distinct pulmonary manifestation within the spectrum of CTD-associated lung diseases in smokers or former smokers, especially in patients with RA or SSc. (nih.gov)
  • 200 physicians dedicated to the study of rare (so-called "orphan") pulmonary diseases. (ersjournals.com)
  • Chronic Pulmonary Heart Diseases (incl. (sharecare.com)
  • Furthermore, reverse causality remains a concern since pulmonary symptoms may be early manifestations of lung cancer or acquired lung diseases in patients whose immune system has already been compromised by undiagnosed cancer. (nature.com)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema does not preferentially localize in any one of the 5 pulmonary lobes. (medscape.com)
  • Emphysema is a chronic, progressive lung disease in which the lung tissue involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is damaged or destroyed. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This study will use dual energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) to evaluate the relationship between heterogeneous perfusion, hypoxia (low oxygen in inspired gas) and induction of pulmonary vascular dilatation to characterize emphysema susceptibility in a normal smoking population. (nih.gov)
  • Rarely, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can play a role in causing emphysema. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In rare cases, the genetic disorder alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency causes emphysema. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is congenital lack of a primary lung antiprotease, alpha-1 antitrypsin, which leads to increased protease-mediated tissue destruction and emphysema in adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is no cure for emphysema. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There's no cure for emphysema, but treatments and lifestyle changes can help relieve symptoms and improve your quality of life. (healthline.com)
  • The authors reviewed the medical records, pulmonary function tests and laboratory tests at diagnosis and during follow-up. (ersjournals.com)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a radiographic and pathologic diagnosis (see image below and Workup). (medscape.com)
  • In making a diagnosis of emphysema, your doctor will start by conducting a thorough medical examination, recording your medical history and asking about any symptoms you are experiencing. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Chest X-rays can help confirm a diagnosis of emphysema and rule out other lung conditions. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • How do you support the diagnosis of emphysema on CXR? (hawaii.edu)
  • Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The demographic characteristics of the patients, the results of pulmonary function testing, high-resolution computed tomography, lung biopsy, and treatment, and the outcomes of the patients were analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Fibroblasts were cultured from the lung of 10 control subjects and eight patients with emphysema. (hal.science)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a collection of air outside of the normal air space of the pulmonary alveoli, found instead inside the connective tissue of the peribronchovascular sheaths, interlobular septa, and visceral pleura. (wikipedia.org)
  • This supportive tissue is called the pulmonary interstitium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another possible mechanism for entrapment of air in the interstitium is the increased amount of pulmonary connective tissue in the immature lung. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema compresses adjacent functional lung tissue and vascular structures and hinders both ventilation and pulmonary blood flow, thus impeding oxygenation, ventilation, and blood pressure. (medscape.com)
  • Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis. (nature.com)
  • This fluid may obstruct the movement of gas from ruptured alveoli or airways to the mediastinum, causing an increase of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. (medscape.com)
  • Pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoke can also cause emphysema, especially if you inhale them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Also, secondhand smoke exposure can cause emphysema. (healthline.com)
  • This is the most important step you can take to treat emphysema. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When treating emphysema, we aim to ease symptoms, slow progression of the disease and prevent complications. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • The goal of therapy for emphysema is to provide relief of symptoms, prevent complications and slow the progression of the disease. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Unlike a cold or the flu, which are considered communicable illnesses, emphysema is a noncommunicable disease . (healthline.com)
  • This article will explain how emphysema develops, why it doesn't spread from one person to another, and how to treat and prevent the disease. (healthline.com)
  • Being around someone with emphysema doesn't increase your risk of developing the disease. (healthline.com)
  • Because smoking causes most cases of emphysema, the best way to prevent the disease is not to smoke or to quit smoking. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Jared Curtis, MD is a Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Disease Specialist in Seattle, WA. (sharecare.com)
  • Disentangling the role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer development is important from an etiological perspective, for refining disease susceptibility mechanisms, and for informing precision prevention and risk stratification strategies. (nature.com)
  • The prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema widely varies with the population studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to other inhaled irritants can contribute to emphysema. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. (nature.com)
  • Although rare, pulmonary embolism, infections, or neoplasms in the allograft may be diagnosed in this manner, which would affect the decision to use the donor lung. (medscape.com)
  • Directed gene transfer into specific cell lineages in vivo is an attractive approach for both modulating gene expression and correcting inherited mutations such as emphysema caused by human α1 antitrypsin (hAAT) deficiency. (jci.org)
  • Dysregulation of elastin expression by fibroblasts in pulmonary emphysema: role of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2. (hal.science)
  • RESULTS: ATRA at 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M increased median elastin mRNA expression by 182% and 126% in control but not in emphysema fibroblasts. (hal.science)
  • RAR-beta mRNA expression was induced by ATRA in control as well as emphysema fibroblasts. (hal.science)
  • RARs, RXRs and CRABP1 mRNAs were similarly expressed in control and emphysema fibroblasts while CRABP2 mRNA and protein were lower in emphysema fibroblasts. (hal.science)
  • Pulmonary and critical care medicine, thoracic surgery and thoracic imaging are adjacent to one another, making accessibility and appointment scheduling seamless. (brighamandwomens.org)
  • Different treatments have been used to manage pulmonary interstitial emphysema with variable success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatments include: Lateral decubitus position with the affected side down High-frequency ventilation Lobectomy Selective Main Bronchial Intubation and Occlusion Pulmonary interstitial emphysema often resolves gradually and may take 2-3 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the treatments for emphysema? (medlineplus.gov)