The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A health care system's ability to rapidly mobilize to meet an increased demand, to rapidly expand beyond normal services levels to meet the increased demand in the event of large-scale DISASTERS or public health emergencies.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Difficult or labored breathing.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The act of BREATHING in.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.

Expiratory and inspiratory chest computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in cigarette smokers. (1/343)

This study evaluated small airway dysfunction and emphysematous destruction of lung parenchyma in cigarette smokers, using chest expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). The degree of emphysematous destruction was classified by visual scoring (VS) and the average HRCT number at full expiration/full inspiration (E/I ratio) calculated in 63 male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers (group A). The Brinkman smoking index (BI), defined as cigarettes x day(-1) x yrs, was estimated. Sixty-three smokers were divided into three groups by PFT: group B1 (n=7), with normal PFT; group B2 (n=21), with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL,CO) > or = 80% predicted, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% pred and/or residual volume (RV) > 120% pred; and group B3 (n=35), with DL,CO < 80% pred, FEV1 < 80% pred and/or RV > 120% pred. Heavy smokers (BI > or = 600) (n=48) showed a significant increase in emphysema by both VS and E/I. E/I was significantly elevated in both group B2 (mean+/-SD 0.95+/-0.05) and B3 (0.96+/-0.06) compared with group B1 (0.89+/-0.03). VS could not differentiate group B2 (3.9+/-5.0) from B1 (1.1+/-1.6). These findings suggest that the expiration/inspiration ratio reflects hyperinflation and airway obstruction, regardless of the functional characteristics of emphysema, in cigarette smokers.  (+info)

Red cell distribution and the recruitment of pulmonary diffusing capacity. (2/343)

The distribution of red blood cells in alveolar capillaries is typically nonuniform, as shown by intravital microscopy and in alveolar tissue fixed in situ. To determine the effects of red cell distribution on pulmonary diffusive gas transport, we computed the uptake of CO across a two-dimensional geometric capillary model containing a variable number of red blood cells. Red blood cells are spaced uniformly, randomly, or clustered without overlap within the capillary. Total CO diffusing capacity (DLCO) and membrane diffusing capacity (DmCO) are calculated by a finite-element method. Results show that distribution of red blood cells at a fixed hematocrit greatly affects capillary CO uptake. At any given average capillary red cell density, the uniform distribution of red blood cells yields the highest DmCO and DLCO, whereas the clustered distribution yields the lowest values. Random nonuniform distribution of red blood cells within a single capillary segment reduces diffusive CO uptake by up to 30%. Nonuniform distribution of red blood cells among separate capillary segments can reduce diffusive CO uptake by >50%. This analysis demonstrates that pulmonary microvascular recruitment for gas exchange does not depend solely on the number of patent capillaries or the hematocrit; simple redistribution of red blood cells within capillaries can potentially account for 50% of the observed physiological recruitment of DLCO from rest to exercise.  (+info)

Effects of side lying on lung function in older individuals. (3/343)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar diffusing capacity, and inhomogeneity of ventilation in older individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen nonsmoking subjects (mean age=62.8 years, SD=6.8, range=50-74) with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease were tested over 2 sessions. The test positions were sitting and left side lying in one session and sitting and right side lying in the other session. In each of the positions, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA), and the slope of phase III (DN2%/L) of the single-breath nitrogen washout test to determine inhomogeneity of ventilation were measured. RESULTS: Compared with measurements obtained in the sitting position, FVC and FEV1 were decreased equally in the side-lying positions, but no change was observed in DLCO/VA or DN2%/L. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Side-lying positions resulted in decreases in FVC and FEV1, which is consistent with the well-documented effects of the supine position. These findings further support the need for prescriptive rather than routine body positioning of patients with risks of cardiopulmonary compromise and the need to use upright positions in which lung volumes and capacities are maximized.  (+info)

Does the cellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile reflect the severity of sarcoidosis? (4/343)

The aim of this study was to assess whether the cellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile, particularly the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), is associated with disease severity of sarcoidosis and its usefulness in determining remission. Twenty-six nonsmoking outpatients with sarcoidosis were included in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the absolute number of PMNs in BALF: < or =0.2x10(4) cells x mL(-1) (group 1; n = 15) and >0.2x10(4) cells x mL(-1) (group 2; n = 11). The radiographic stage, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, 67Ga lung uptake as well as lung function tests differed significantly between group 1 and 2. Follow-up revealed that 14 (93.3%) patients of group 1 compared to four (36.4%) of group 2 recovered spontaneously without the help of corticosteroids. In contrast, no differences were found in the number of lymphocytes in BALF nor in the serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) level between both groups. The number of PMNs, the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TL,CO), the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and one of the HRCT subscores discriminated between patients with different disease progression. Of these parameters the PMNs appeared to be the only one which differentiated patients who demonstrated remission and those who deteriorated. In conclusion, these results indicate that the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid distinguish between sarcoidosis patients who demonstrated remission and those having a more severe course of the disease. Whether polymorphonuclear neutrophils may be considered as markers of disease activity and/or prognosis in sarcoidosis needs further investigation.  (+info)

Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (5/343)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential.  (+info)

Impaired pulmonary diffusion during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. (6/343)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diffusion is impaired at rest in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has been implicated in the generation of symptoms and exercise intolerance. The aim of this study was to determine whether pulmonary diffusion is impaired during exercise in CHF, to examine its relationship to pulmonary blood flow, and to consider its functional significance in relation to metabolic gas exchange. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) and pulmonary blood flow (Q(C)) were measured by a rebreathe technique at rest and during steady-state cycling at 30 W in 24 CHF patients and 10 control subjects. Both patients and control subjects were able to raise TLCO and Q(C) during exercise. However, the patient group had a lower diffusion for a given blood flow (TLCO/Q(C)) both at rest (3.6+/-0.16 and 4.8+/-0.23 mL x L(-1) x mm Hg(-1); P<0.001) and during exercise (2.8+/-0.16 and 3.4+/-0.13 mL x L(-1) x mm Hg(-1) for CHF patients and control subjects, respectively; P<0.05). TLCO/Q(C) was related to the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VEVCO(2)) production at 30 W (TLCO/Q(c) versus VEVCO(2), r = -0.58, P<0.01) and to peak exercise oxygen consumption measured during a progressive test (TLCO/Qc versus VO(2peak), r = 0.57, P<0.01) in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CHF are able to recruit reserves of TLCO and Q(C) during exercise. However, the TLCO/Q(C) ratio is consistently impaired in these patients and relates to both exercise hyperpnea and peak exercise oxygen consumption. Whether this impairment in alveolar gas exchange is reversible in CHF and therefore is a potential target for therapy has yet to be determined.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of nitric oxide production by conducting and alveolar airways of humans. (7/343)

Human airways produce nitric oxide (NO), and exhaled NO increases as expiratory flow rates fall. We show that mixing during exhalation between the NO produced by the lower, alveolar airways (VL(NO)) and the upper conducting airways (VU(NO)) explains this phenomenon and permits measurement of VL(NO), VU(NO), and the NO diffusing capacity of the conducting airways (DU(NO)). After breath holding for 10-15 s the partial pressure of alveolar NO (PA) becomes constant, and during a subsequent exhalation at a constant expiratory flow rate the alveoli will deliver a stable amount of NO to the conducting airways. The conducting airways secrete NO into the lumen (VU(NO)), which mixes with PA during exhalation, resulting in the observed expiratory concentration of NO (PE). At fast exhalations, PA makes a large contribution to PE, and, at slow exhalations, NO from the conducting airways predominates. Simple equations describing this mixing, combined with measurements of PE at several different expiratory flow rates, permit calculation of PA, VU(NO), and DU(NO). VL(NO) is the product of PA and the alveolar airway diffusion capacity for NO. In seven normal subjects, PA = 1.6 +/- 0.7 x 10(-6) (SD) Torr, VL(NO) = 0.19 +/- 0.07 microl/min, VU(NO) = 0.08 +/- 0.05 microl/min, and DU(NO) = 0.4 +/- 0.4 ml. min(-1). Torr(-1). These quantitative measurements of VL(NO) and VU(NO) are suitable for exploring alterations in NO production at these sites by diseases and physiological stresses.  (+info)

Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (8/343)

Excessive inflammation seems important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly during exacerbations of the disease. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration ([NOexh]) is a sensitive marker of bronchial inflammation in asthma; it is unclear if this is also the case in COPD. This study: 1) quantifies [NOexh] in patients with COPD (during an exacerbation and while clinically stable); 2) investigates the response of [NOexh] to i.v. steroid therapy, and its potential relationship with other relevant physiological variables; and 3) assesses the relative contributions of the central and peripheral airways to [NOexh] by collecting exhaled air in two different bags connected in series. Seventeen COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 37.6+/-3.4% of the predicted value (+/-SEM)) hospitalized because of an exacerbation of the disease (arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) (7.46+/-0.72 kPa 56.1+/-5.4 mmHg), arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) 5.63+/-0.37 kPa 42.3+/-2.8 mmHg), pH 7.41+/-0.02) and 10 healthy subjects that served as controls were studied. On admission, [NOexh] in COPD was higher than normal (41.0+/-5.1 versus 13.3+/-0.8 parts per billion (ppb), respectively, p<0.001). Despite i.v. steroid therapy, [NOexh] remained elevated throughout recovery (37.9+/-4.8 ppb, p<0.001) until discharge (40.9+/-4.3 ppb, p<0.001). In contrast, when the patients were clinically stable (several months later), [NOexh] was significantly reduced (15.8+/-3.8 ppb, p<0.001), and no longer different from control values. [NOexh] was not related to any of the physiological variables measured during recovery (pulmonary gas exchange) or at discharge (forced spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity). Finally, the contribution of the central and peripheral airways to [NOexh] was not different at any point in time. These results indicate that during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the exhaled nitric oxide concentration: 1) is higher than normal; 2) is not reduced acutely by i.v. steroids but is normalized several months after discharge; 3) is unrelated to several physiological indices of disease severity; and 4) appears to be produced homogeneously in central and peripheral airways. Overall, these results are different from those reported in asthma, suggesting that different inflammatory mechanisms are operating in both diseases.  (+info)

BACKGROUND:: An increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference is frequent in anesthetized patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect on the lung of anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and a brief course of mechanical ventilation.METHODS:: Lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), including pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and conductance of the alveolar-capillary membrane (DM), and pulmonary surfactant protein type B (a marker of alveolar damage) were measured in 45 patients without pulmonary disease undergoing extrathoracic surgery.RESULTS:: Anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and mechanical ventilation led to impairment of gas exchange, with a reduction of DLCO values immediately after anesthetic induction due to a concomitant reduction of both DM and Vc. While changes in DM were due to the reduction of lung volume, changes in Vc were not limited to volume loss, since the Vc/alveolar volume ratio decreased significantly. Although DLCO and its components decreased immediately after ... DA: 25 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 78. of pulmonary function tests is in how they are interpreted PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AL-ASHKAR AND COLLEAGUES Key abbreviations and definitions used in pulmonary function tests DLCO Diffusing capacity of the lung;the capacity of the lungs to transfer carbon monoxide (mL/min/mm Hg) DLCOc The DLCO adjusted for hemoglobin (mL/min/mm Hg) ...
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Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic method used in order to keep gas exchange adequate to cell metabolism in patients with acute respiratory failure. It is currently proved that, although on one hand the use of this method keeps gas exchange, on the other hand it promotes and supports pulmonary inflammatory processes (VILI). A recent study about the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on DLCO (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide) in patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation has proved that patients without any evident pulmonary disease (negative medical history, negative chest clinical examination, normal chest X-ray radiography and normal arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]) after 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation show a significant worsening of pulmonary gas exchange properties. The authors have supposed that this worsening may be caused by an early alteration of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by mechanical ventilation itself. This hypothesis ...
Background In heart failure (HF) alveolar-capillary membrane is abnormal. Surfactant-derived proteins (SPs) and plasma receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) have been proposed as lung damage markers. Methods Eighty-nine chronic HF and 17 healthy subjects were evaluated by echocardiography, blood parameters, carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO) and cardiopulmonary exercise test. We measured immature SP-B, mature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE plasma levels. Results Immature SP-B (arbitrary units), mature SP-A (ng/ml) and SP-D (ng/ml), but not mature SP-B (ng/ml) and RAGE (pg/ml) levels, were higher in HF than in controls [immature SP-B: 15.6 (13.1, 75th-25th interquartile range) Vs. 11.1 (6.4), p|0.01; SP-A, 29.6 (20.1) Vs. 18.3 (13.5), p = 0.01; SP-D: 125 (90) Vs. 78 (58), p|0.01]. Immature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE values were related to DLCO, peak oxygen consumption, ventilatory efficiency, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), whereas plasma mature SP-B was not. The DLCO Vs. immature SP-B
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden progressive form of acute respiratory failure in which the alveolar capillary membrane becomes damaged and more permeable to intravascular fluid.
Women demonstrate lower diffusing capacity-to-cardiac output ratio (DlCO/Q̇), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) compared with height-matched men during exercise. However, these differences disappear after correction for lung size. The drop in DlCO/Q̇ was proportionally less in women, and pulmonary transit time did not drop below 0.3 s in either group. After differences in lung volume are accounted for, there is no intrinsic sex difference in DlCO, Vc, or Dm response to exercise. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fatty diabetic lung. T2 - Functional impairment in a model of metabolic syndrome. AU - Yilmaz, Cuneyt. AU - Ravikumar, Priya. AU - Bellotto, Dennis J.. AU - Unger, Roger H. AU - Hsia, Connie C. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF fa/fa) rat with genetic leptin insensitivity develops obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with age accompanied by hyperplastic changes in the distal lung (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298: L392-L403, 2010). To determine the functional consequences of structural changes, we developed arebreathing (RB) technique to simultaneously measure lung volume, pulmonary blood flow, lung diffusing capacity (DlCo), membrane diffusing capacity (DmCo), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and septal tissue volume in anesthetized tracheostomized male ZDF fa/fa and matched lean (+/+) control animals at 4, 8, and 12 mo of age. Results obtained by RB technique were compared with that measured by a singlebreath (SB) technique ...
1) General description of procedure, equipment, technique General description: In clinical medicine there are a variety of physiologic measurements that evaluate cardio-respiratory function. Many of these measurements are performed with patients at resting state or while patients carry out simple maneuvers. Prominent examples include spirometry, measurement of lung volumes, pulmonary diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide,…. ...
Airway Monitoring: The crew performed the Airway Monitoring US Airlock Session consisting of two different protocols, which are performed at both ambient, and reduced pressure (10.2 psi or 700 mbar) in the US airlock. These protocols are the low Nitric Oxide (NO) protocol which determines how much NO is exhaled with the respiration, and the high NO protocol which determines how much NO is diffused into the blood. Although some issues may have been experienced with the low NO measurement system, useful science objectives were still able to be obtained. The Airway Monitoring investigation aims to determine in detail the pulmonary nitric oxide turnover in weightlessness and in combined weightless, hypobaric and hypoxic environments. It also determines the lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide with dust particles present in the ISS atmosphere, and studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers. This will help to identify health impacts and support maintenance of ...
As part of major study on prevalence of pulmonary hypertention in outpatients with sarcoidosis, a sample of patients underwent prospective clinical, tomographic and lung function evaluation. Objective: to describe clinical, imaging and lung function data of 72 consecutive patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Between September 2008 and September 2010, 72 consecutive patients underwent evaluation in a prospective fashion. All patients underwent clinical interview, chest radiography, high resolution computerized tomography and lung function tests (spirometry, lung volumes by pletysmography and carbon monoxide diffusion DLCO). Results: Clinical characterization: 69.4% female, age 54.5 ± 12.6. Smoking status: 63% non-smokers. Disease duration was 9.2 ± 6.1 years. Pulmonary involvement was the most prevalent (91.7%), followed by lymph nodes and cutaneous envolvement. Number of extra pulmonary organ involvement was 1.6 ± 1.1 organ per patient. Near 62% of patients had interrupted working activities ...
Pulmonary function tests, or PFTs, typically include a spirometry reading, which tests how much air the patient can breathe in and out and how well the lungs transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the bloodstre... More » ...
Can you pick the right answers for gas Transfer and Transport?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CMUPA2014
Sample Gas Transfer Tubing Assembly from PerkinElmer. From our range of SMS 100 Mercury Analyzer Consumables that ensure the best for your research quality.
AIM: analyse the clinical and functional results during the first year of application of the ERS/ESTS guidelines on fitness for radical therapy in lung cancer (LC) patients.. Methods: prospective analysis of data of those patients proposed to surgical treatment for LC. We analysed pre FEV1, DLCO, VO2%, VO2/kg/min , complications in the first 30 days, mortality at 6 months and six months postFEV1, DLCO, VO2%, VO2/kg/min when available.. Results: during 2013,103 patients were proposed to surgical treatment because of LC .All of them were evaluated with FEV1 and DLCO. Of them, 52 needed a CPET (ERS/ESTS guidelines: FEV1 or DLCO,80%), in 30 patients due to FEV1,80, in 46 due to DLCO,80 and in 24 due to both factors.Using the previous protocol (ppoFEV1 or ppoDLCO,40%) we should use it in only 13 patients. The main functional data were: FEV1 78%(33-113), DLCO 64%(39-106), VO2% 92,4 (63-119), VO2/kg/min 21.6. Five cases were contraindicated for surgery and another patient refused intervention. Of these ...
n 1. емкость, электрическая емкость 2. мощность 3. производительность 4. установленная мощность
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BACKGROUND: Z4032 was a randomized study conducted by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group comparing sublobar resection alone versus sublobar resection with brachytherapy for high-risk operable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This evaluates early impact of adjuvant brachytherapy on pulmonary function tests, dyspnea, and perioperative (30-day) respiratory complications in this impaired patient population. METHODS: Eligible patients with stage I NSCLC tumors 3 cm or smaller were randomly allocated to undergo sublobar resection with (SRB group) or without (SR group) brachytherapy. Outcomes measured included the percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percentage predicted carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO%), and dyspnea score per the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire. Pulmonary morbidity was assessed per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 3
As the pulmonary edema progresses, alveolar edema develops with disruption of the alveolar capillary membrane. There is bi-basal diffuse haziness of lung fields, Kerley B lines, loss of distinct vascular margins, increased bronchovascular margins (bats wing sign) and ares of consolidation, lung mottling and pleural effusion on chest x-ray. Cardiomegaly may also be present. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a type of non cardiogenic pulmonary edema may resemble cardiac pulmonary edema. But within next 24-48 hours following the onset of symptoms, ARDS becomes more uniform. Differentiation of cardiac pulmonary edema from non cardiogenic pulmonary edema, can be done by the time it takes for the edema to develop and to vanish. If substantial improvement occurs within 24 hours, it is usually cardiac pulmonary edema ...
This semi-invasive procedure requires blind esophageal intubation. Transesophageal imaging is a valuable technique to visualize the heart and great vessels in patients with suboptimal transthoracic imaging windows. 5 MHz). Therefore, transesophageal imaging is particularly valuable in the routine clinical setting for the detection of atrial thrombi, small vegetations, diseases of the aorta, atrial septal defects, patent foramen ovale, and the assessment of prosthetic valve function. It is used in the operating or catheter suites to monitor and assess the repair of cardiac structures. In the infant, it may result from hypoplastic left heart syndrome or total anomalous pulmonary venous connection below the diaphragm. Noncardiogenic or permeability edema is the accumulation of fluid in the lungs in the presence of normal left atrial pressures. This has many complex causes that disrupt the alveolar capillary membrane. Fluid and Water Exchange FIGURE 1-33. Primary pulmonary artery hypertension. The ...
Physiology Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of physiology.
Transfer velocities of 5 sparingly soluble gases were measured in two different wind wave tanks at wind speeds between u10=1.2 m/s and 67 m/s. Two different gas analysis techniques were used, FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. Additionally, a method was developed that allows the parallel measurement of gas transfer velocity and the solubility. The fast controlled leakage method for the measurement of gas transfer velocities was found to be not precise enough to measure Schmidt number exponents and transfer velocities in the Aeolotron. Gas transfer velocities measured spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude, lying between 0.5 cm/h and 1100 cm/h. At lower wind speeds, measured in the Heidelberg Aeolotron, the change of the Schmidt number exponent from 2/3 for a smooth to 1/2 for a wavy water surface was confirmed. A surfactant, which inhibits wave growth, was used in 3 of the 7 experiments. For all surfactant conditions, the change of the Schmidt number exponent spanned a wide range of wind speeds with ...
HCA has the facilities to measure how efficiently oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged in your lungs using a gas transfer test (KCO) or TLco test.
transfer factor - MedHelps transfer factor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for transfer factor. Find transfer factor information, treatments for transfer factor and transfer factor symptoms.
Title: Versatile microanalytical system with porous polypropylene capillary membrane for calibration gas generation and trace gaseous pollutants sampling applied to the analysis of formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonia in outdoor ...
Frew, N M, Bock, E J, McGilles, W R, Karachintsev, A, Hara, T, Münsterer, T, Jähne, B and Jähne, B (1995). Variation of air--water gas transfer with wind stress and surface viscoelasticity. Air-water Gas Transfer, Selected Papers from the Third International Symposium on Air-Water Gas Transfer. AEON. 529--541 ...
MasterScreen PFT System combines instrument hardware renowned for its accuracy and stability over timesuite for lung function tests ranging from simple spirometry to complete lung function testing.. Customers preferring to measure FRC using the Helium Rebreathing technique, of Diffusing Capacity either and real-time gas analysis for both Single Breath Hold and non-breath hold DLCO techniques.. ...
Researched Nutritionals Transfer Factor L-Plus is a targeted formula developed to support the body´s immune system. This uniquely formulated transfer factor is derived from chicken based transfer factor. Suggested Use:As a dietary supplement, take on an empty stomach (two hours after eating or one hour before eating) o
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Looking for online definition of alveolar-capillary membrane in the Medical Dictionary? alveolar-capillary membrane explanation free. What is alveolar-capillary membrane? Meaning of alveolar-capillary membrane medical term. What does alveolar-capillary membrane mean?
Pulmonary capillary blood flow was measured in man during slow breathing by a modification of the body plethysmograph technique for measuring N2O uptake. In seated subjects breathing slowly, flow was significantly higher during inhalation. In supine subjects whose legs were raised, the difference between inhalation and exhalation was not significant. Flow was usually greater during tidal inhalation than exhalation, but there was considerable variation. The changes in flow were not directly related to intrathoracic pressures or lung volumes. The results suggest that it is the amount and pressure of the venous blood available for aspiration into the thorax that influences pulmonary capillary blood flow during the course of a respiratory cycle.. ...
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were treated with either colchicine at 1.0mg/kg or saline intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to phosgene at 0.5 parts per million for 60 minutes and air. Lavage surfactant
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in intensive care (1,2). ALI and ARDS are associated with similar characteristics, including increased alveolar epithelial and pulmonary microvascular endothelial permeability, pulmonary edema and fibrosis (3). However, the pathogenesis of these diseases has not been fully elucidated, and no specific and effective pharmacological intervention for ALI/ARDS is currently available (4). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycoprotein that is present on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacilli, is a potent proinflammatory molecule that leads to strong inflammatory responses. LPS triggers ALI/ARDS by directly or indirectly damaging pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECS), resulting in increased alveolar capillary membrane permeability and subsequent pulmonary edema, refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension (5).. Vitamin D3, also termed ...
Definition of Alveolar-capillary barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Alveolar-capillary barrier? Meaning of Alveolar-capillary barrier as a finance term. What does Alveolar-capillary barrier mean in finance?
In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively. ...
The validity of the indicator dilution method for measuring the capillary diffusion capacity for 51Cr-EDTA in hyperaemic skeletal muscle ...
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Get info about St Edwards University intersession classes. You can start working in a high-paying field with just an associates or a bachelors degree. To begin, browse accredited college degree programs and certificate courses online.
Of course we know how horrified doctors are over Vitamin E because it might cause blood thinning. Be this at it may, high quality, non-soy vitamin E is an effective natural agent that does protect you from cardiovascular insults. It keeps your blood cells from aggregating and is protective against colon cancer. Vitamin E also helps oxygen cross the alveolar membrane in the lungs and eases menopausal symptoms ...
Risk factors associated with the presence of irreversible airflow limitation and reduced transfer coefficient in patients with asthma after 26 years of follow up ...
Risk factors associated with the presence of irreversible airflow limitation and reduced transfer coefficient in patients with asthma after 26 years of follow up ...
This flexible, unified, and portfolio-centered approach to attribution treats attribution questions that occur before the fact (ex ante) and after the fact (ex post) symmetrically. Three important aspects of an analysis of a portfolio ex ante are its predicted risk, the information ratio (which measures the potential to add value), and the transfer coefficient (which shows the managers ability to capture that potential).The product of these three variables is the portfolios predicted alpha. Ex post analogues of these concepts are the predicted risk, the opportunity set (which shows how well the manager could do with perfect foresight), and the realized information coefficient (which measures the correlation between the forecast and the outcome). The product of these three quantities is the return of the portfolio. The author shows how to attribute the transfer coefficient and realized information coefficient to sources in a general manner.. TOPICS: Equity portfolio management, quantitative ...
Transfer Factor RioVida Tri-Factor Formula is the one and only beverage supplement in the world that combines the immune-boosting benefits of transfer factors with antioxidant-rich superfruits.
The increase of DLco in cases of asthma was hard to understand, so i did some searching and made sense of it to myself like this. ...
Research outputs, collaborations and relationships for NIH NCI Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (LCO) published between 1 June 2019 - 31 May 2020 as tracked by the Nature Index.
The LCO method is the latest natural hair trend for moisturizing your strands. Here, get the scoop on this hair care method and learn if this trendy technique is right for you.
Ok heres my question I am a fireman and an LCO on my days off Lic.and insured Thank YA and have been thinking of just doing lawn care but what is...
This maximises surface area (optimising gas transfer) and makes the cells flexible enough to pass through capillary beds (which are narrower than the cell ...
This paper reports on an investigation of a novel approach to the cooling of brake discs, based on the application of impinging air jets. This has the capacity to enhance the heat transfer coefficients at the disc surface ...
I dont know what to think. My pulmonologist told me my lung capacity is decreased. My results are: FVC 69% TLC 66% DLCO 76% What is considered normal...
1 Answer - Posted in: autoimmune disorders, side effect - Answer: You should contact the manufacturers directly. I could not not find any ...
Developing a Capacity Plan is vital if you want to understand how much capacity will be required to support your IT systems and, by extension, the infrastructure that supports it. Think about it. If you plan to install a new large-scale solution, for example, IBM WebSphere or SAP, you also need to consider the impact […]. ...
  • It has been postulated that sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and pulmonary artery vasodilator, may improve gas exchange in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by preferentially increasing perfusion to well-ventilated areas of lung. (
  • The authors conclude that the therapeutic efficacy of sildenafil in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains uncertain and that further trials are necessary. (
  • the Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network. (
  • A controlled trial of sildenafil in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) , also known as Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis , is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. (
  • [3] Autoantibodies, a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, are found in a minority of patients with truly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which in turn is a type (or group) of interstitial lung diseases . (
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is slightly more common in males and usually presents in patients greater than 50 years of age. (
  • Two patients had a CT pattern of pulmonary fibrosis indistinguishable from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • 6] In addition, although data regarding the association between MUC5B promoter polymorphism and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis appear to be clear, the data are mixed about the MUC5B promoter variant being a potential genetic risk factor for asbestosis. (
  • Angiotensinogen gene G-6A polymorphism influences idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression. (
  • Because of unanswered questions about prediction equations for the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and as part of a larger collaborative project, standardized DLCO measurements were carried out in a selected sample of 361 healthy nonsmoking volunteers (194 men and 167 women) living in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain). (
  • Specifically, this section addresses the interpretation of spirometry, bronchodilator response, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity ( D L,CO ) and lung volumes. (
  • Small significant improvements were seen in secondary outcome measures at 12 weeks in the sildenafil treatment group including carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, oxygen partial pressure, St George's respiratory questionnaire total score and SF-36 general health score. (
  • Tests included chest radiographs read by a certified expert ("B") reader, forced vital capacity (FVC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco). (
  • 1 , 4 WHO group 1 refers to pulmonary arterial hypertension, characterized by the progressive remodelling, narrowing and obliteration of small pulmonary arteries due to proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells, vascular wall inflammation and fibrosis. (
  • Cirrhosis is defined histologically as a diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and conversion of the normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. (
  • Chemotherapy with the alkylating agent BCNU (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea) is a therapeutic option even though its efficacy and safety, particularly the risk of pulmonary fibrosis, remains controversial. (
  • One patient presented with a clinically apparent pulmonary fibrosis CTCAE IV requiring temporary mechanical ventilation. (
  • Occupations such as sandblasting, silica flour milling, rock drilling, and tunneling are associated with relatively high risks of pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Objectives: This report aims to describe the relationships between radiographic grading of interstitial and pleural fibrosis and a key test of pulmonary function, the diffusing capacity, which measures gas exchange and has rarely been assessed in large groups, and to confirm the relationship to an independent test of pulmonary function, the vital capacity, which measures a mechanical property of the lungs. (
  • We sought to determine the influence of the T663 variant on exhaled ions, pulmonary function, and the diffusing capacity of the lungs in healthy subjects as well as in patients with cystic fibrosis. (
  • Pulmonary fibrosis has often been called an autoimmune disease . (
  • Moreover, many autoimmune diseases associated with "pulmonary fibrosis", such as scleroderma, are more frequently associated with a related but more inflammatory disease, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. (
  • A CT scan of the chest demonstrated extensive pneumomediastinum in addition to changes consistent with pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Asbestosis is a process of diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lung due to exposure to asbestos dust. (
  • A wedge biopsy showed predominantly upper-lobe fibrosis and multiple, confluent, necrotizing granulomas harboring yeasts, establishing the diagnosis of pulmonary histoplasmosis ( Appendix Figure). (
  • We performed spirometry study and CO pulmonary diffusion tests (DLCO) by single breath method to determine two components: pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and membrane diffusion factor (Dm). (
  • The single-breath method was used to measure lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and one-way repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to evaluate the statistical analysis. (
  • Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were consistent with a restrictive pattern, decreased diffusing capacity (DLCO), and a preserved residual volume over total lung capacity ratio. (
  • 1 week) myocardial infarction, systemic hypotension or severe hypertension, significant atrial/ventricular arrhythmia, noncompensated heart failure, uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension, acute cor pulmonale, clinically unstable pulmonary embolism, and a history of syncope associated with forced exhalation. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious and progressive lung disease, defined by elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure. (
  • We searched MEDLINE (1980 to present) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews using a variety of search terms, including "pulmonary hypertension," "pulmonary arterial hypertension," "chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension" and "pulmonary endarterectomy. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs for many reasons, most commonly as a complication of cardiopulmonary or systemic disease. (
  • Medical therapy targets control of disease activity in general and management of specific organ involvement, while monitoring for and mitigating the risks of complications either of the condition itself (eg, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung disease) or of its treatment (eg, infection). (
  • The speculated mechanisms of exercise limitation in PLCH include ventilatory limitation, dynamic hyperinflation (DH), cardiocirculatory limitation that encompasses pulmonary hypertension (PH) and impaired gas exchange. (
  • Risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis. (
  • Borderline elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (BoPAP) -- 21 to 24 mm Hg -- may represent an intermediate stage between normal pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with systemic sclerosis, researchers stated. (
  • 60% predicted, and no prior diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Patients eligible for the current study had a pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤15 mm Hg, no significant interstitial lung disease, no systemic hypertension, and no left atrial enlargement. (
  • Based on the DETECT study, this post-hoc analysis examined patient characteristics of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with normal mPAP, BoPAP and elevated mPAP, fulfilling pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) criteria. (
  • Adult patients with a duration of SSc more than 3 years, a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide less than 60% predicted, and no previous diagnosis of any form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) underwent screening tests followed by right heart catheterization. (
  • Although there are 14 different Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for treating World Health Organization (WHO) Group 1 pulmonary hypertension (PH) (pulmonary arterial hypertension, or PAH), there remains a need for treatments that can be used across varying classifications of PH. (
  • In 2017, the Critical Care Medicine Department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center and the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA) organized a joint symposium to discuss challenges in treating different types of PH. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurs frequently with ILD and is associated with a poor prognosis . (
  • Spirometry is used to establish baseline lung function, evaluate dyspnea, detect pulmonary disease, monitor effects of therapies used to treat respiratory disease, evaluate respiratory impairment or disability, evaluate operative risk, and perform surveillance for occupational-related lung disease. (
  • They stress the importance of patient history and physical examination for predicting airflow obstruction, spirometry for screening or diagnosis of COPD, and assessing management strategies including inhaled medications, pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen. (
  • On admission, a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan revealed diffuse interstitial infiltrates with a nodular pattern superimposed on the infiltrates. (
  • Diagnosis typically involves assessing pulmonary function and examining high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. (
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) images at the level of the upper third and the lower third of the lung in a patient with pulmonary histoplasmosis, Switzerland. (
  • A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a diffuse reticulonodular pattern with predominantly upper lung opacifications and bronchiectases indicating fibrotic lung disease ( Figure , panels A, B). Reversed halo signs and right upper lobe nodules were found. (
  • They accept that assessment of the relation between treatment effect and severity of pulmonary vascular disease would have been valuable. (
  • Additional well-planned, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed for each of these conditions, along with studies from research programs like the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics Program (PVDOMICS), with additional support from the PHA. (
  • IPS can cause anatomic and, possibly, functional changes in the developing pulmonary vascular bed. (
  • COVID-19appears to have a vascular tropism responsible for diffuse vasculitis-like cell damage. (
  • In January 2001, three machinists at an automobile brake manufacturing facility in Ohio (plant A) were hospitalized with respiratory illness characterized by dyspnea, cough, fatigue, weight loss, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. (
  • In mid-January 2001, a male machinist aged 45 years who had been employed at plant A for 26 years was hospitalized for worsening respiratory symptoms, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. (
  • Symptoms of high-concentration zinc chloride exposure include dyspnea, cough, pleuritic chest pain, bilateral diffuse infiltrations, pneumothorax, and acute pneumonitis, resulting from respiratory tract irritation. (
  • Any eye, upper respiratory and pulmonary symptoms among these workers require investigation. (
  • With all the millions of patients with respiratory diseases, the need for widespread access to easy-to-use pulmonary function testing equipment has never been higher. (
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease characterized by long-term poor airflow, resulting in chronic pulmonary heart disease, chronic respiratory failure or even death. (
  • After six-month observation, the investigators will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the treatment by measuring a serial of indicators, including occurrence of adverse events, pulmonary function, the CT imaging, 6 minute walk distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), modified medical research council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test (CAT). (
  • The deposited solvent diffuses radially into the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract and transfers to the mucosal blood flow. (
  • The solvent molecules deposited in the mucus layer diffuse radially into the mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract and transfer to the mucosal blood flow. (
  • A subanalysis of a large multicenter study of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients at risk for PAH found clinical and laboratory features that may differentiate patients with BoPAP from those with normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PAH, according to Scott H. Visovatti, MD , of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and colleagues. (
  • Measurements in healthy individuals show a normal mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) to be 14 ± 3.3 mmHg [ 12 ], with 2 SD extending the normal range up to 20.6 mm Hg. (
  • This section is written to provide guidance in interpreting pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to medical directors of hospital-based laboratories that perform PFTs, and physicians who are responsible for interpreting the results of PFTs most commonly ordered for clinical purposes. (
  • Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) revealed improvement in initial restrictive findings and diffusing capacity ( Table 1 ). (
  • In addition to the standard treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, specific therapy consisting of infusion of purified alpha-1 antitrypsin is currently available. (
  • The aim of our work has been the study of CO diffusion capacity in mitral valve stenosis patients. (
  • Mitral valve stenosis patients present a increase of CO pulmonary diffusion capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volumen without changes in membrane diffusion factor. (
  • The high rate of comorbid medical illness and poor baseline pulmonary function in this population, however, make many such early-stage patients medically inoperable. (
  • While surgical resection with pathologic nodal staging remains the standard of care in patients with early-stage disease, the high rate of comorbid medical illness in this population often raises concern about perioperative morbidity, postoperative pulmonary function, and long-term quality of life. (
  • An evidence-based multidisciplinary evaluation of patient age, cardiovascular health, and baseline pulmonary function can accurately predict which patients may benefit from lobectomy. (
  • Lung volume reduction (LVR) treatment in patients with severe emphysema has been shown to have a positive effect on hyperinflation, expiratory flow, exercise capacity and quality of life. (
  • In 2003 the large multicenter National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) demonstrated improvement in lung function, dyspnoea, exercise capacity and survival with LVR surgery compared to medical treatment, mainly in the subset of patients with upper lobe dominant emphysema and low baseline exercise capacity [ 4 ]. (
  • Objectives: To evaluate the mechanisms of exercise limitation and to define the exercise capacity, the prevalence of PH and clinical, functional and hemodynamic characteristics in patients with PLCH. (
  • Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 35 patients with PLCH underwent clinical evaluation, transthoracic echocardiography, six-minute walk test, pulmonary function tests, and incremental treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with evaluation of DH. (
  • Mean TPG and DWG measurements in the BoPAP group were intermediate between those in the normal PAP and PAH groups, leading the investigators to suggest that a subset of systemic sclerosis patients with BoPAP may have early pulmonary vasculopathy. (
  • In CF patients, the T663 variant had significantly lower baseline pulmonary function, weight, and body mass index. (
  • In response to exercise, patients with the T663 variant had a greater increase in the diffusing capacity of the lungs, possibly due to purinergic inhibition of ENaC. (
  • Finally, we recruited additional CF patients to confirm our pulmonary function findings. (
  • Patients with mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) of 21 to 24 mm Hg have a so-called borderline elevation of mPAP (BoPAP)-a condition thought to represent early-stage pulmonary arterial vasculopathy. (
  • Till now, the damaged pulmonary bronchus structures in COPD patients cannot be repaired by recent clinical methods so far. (
  • Case Report 1 and Case Report 2 are fictionalised cases representative of the typical patients frequently encountered in the post-Covid pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) in our institution. (
  • Patients with isolated valvular pulmonary stenosis may have a reactive infundibular hypertrophy that could elicit a reactive infundibular obstruction. (
  • An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) -- emphysema and chronic bronchitis. (
  • The key issue facing clinicians is whether the presenting history, symptoms/signs, radiology, and pulmonary function testing are collectively in keeping with the diagnosis of IPF (which carries the relatively poor prognosis described above) or whether the findings are due to another process. (
  • Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. (
  • Risk factors of acute exacerbations of IPF include low forced vital capacity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and greater area of disease on high-resolution CT scan. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity and blood gases in chronic obstructive lung diseases. (
  • Pulmonary diffusing capacity (TLco) of 19 cases of chronic obstructive lung diseases (Chronic obstructive bronchitis and chronic obstructive emphysema) in the age group of 39 to 58 years (mean age: 49.8 +/- 5.5 SD years) are reported at rest in this investigation. (
  • Parmet, A.J. and S. Von Essen, Rapidly progressive, Fixed Airway Obstructive Disease in Popcorn Workers: A New Occupational Pulmonary Illness? (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition in which there is reduced airflow in the lungs. (
  • Most clinicians know that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , or COPD, is a major problem around the world. (
  • In this review, the possible mechanisms by which LVR treatment can affect diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ) and arterial gas parameters are discussed, the use of D LCO in LVR treatment is evaluated and other diagnostic techniques reflecting diffusing capacity and regional ventilation ( V ′)/perfusion ( Q ′) mismatch are considered. (
  • In Europe, pulmonary histoplasmosis is rarely diagnosed except in travelers. (
  • We report a probable autochthonous case of severe chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent man in Switzerland without travel history outside of Europe. (
  • Introduction: Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a smokingrelated diffuse cystic disease, which determines reduced exercise capacity. (
  • It has been proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the silica-induced cyde of pulmonary inflamma- tion and damage (2). (
  • This is an important part of lung testing , because the major function of the lungs is to allow oxygen to "diffuse" or pass into the blood from the lungs, and to allow carbon dioxide to "diffuse" from the blood into the lungs. (
  • in addition to impairment in oxygen transport capacity, high altitude exposure impairs the homeostatic regulation of immune balance (ie. (
  • Some researchers postulate this decreased medial muscular layer is caused by a higher oxygen tension of the blood perfusing the fetal pulmonary circulation. (
  • Standard pre-transplant evaluation includes measurements of cardiac function (multi gated acquisition scan [MUGA] scan, echocardiogram, stress tests), pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, the diffusing capacity [DL CO ]), and laboratory tests measuring liver and kidney function. (
  • The Unit for Clinical Physiology at Lohja Hospital operates a pacemaker clinic and we carry out pulmonary function tests and heart examinations. (
  • Pulmonary function tests showed mild airway obstruction, with no improvement after albuterol inhalation. (
  • Other pulmonary function tests may be done together with this test. (
  • According to the authors, this can be aided by a series of tests, such as CT scans, diffusing lung capacity of carbon monoxide (D L CO), arterial blood gas analysis and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) with pulse oximetry. (
  • Based on initial illness severity, it could be anticipated that this group may have ongoing pulmonary abnormalities and require pulmonary rehabilitation. (
  • Results were promising and in recent years multiple randomised clinical trials have been published in which EBV placement shows statistically significant and clinically relevant effects on lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life [ 6 - 10 ]. (
  • However, the effects on diffusing capacity of the lungs and gas exchange are less clear. (
  • abstract = "We present a simple geometric model of a pulmonary capillary segment containing a variable number of red blood cells. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified PH into five groups on the basis of distinct pathophysiology, pulmonary hemodynamics and management strategies ( Box 2 ). (
  • Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos -related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. (
  • Its effect on pulmonary function is further impacted by asbestos related pleural thickening. (
  • Conclusions: Both radiographic severity graded by the profusion score and pleural thickening are correlated with two independent measures of pulmonary function. (
  • In this study, BCNU was rarely associated with severe side effects, particularly pulmonary toxicity, and, in case of recurrent glioblastoma, even conferred a favorable outcome. (
  • Such reversal and cyanosis can occur when the RV is hypoplastic, even with less severe pulmonary stenosis. (
  • In neonates with severe pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary blood flow depends on the patency of the ductus arteriosus. (
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation may offer benefits to people who experienced a recent exacerbation of COPD. (
  • In the ULR analyses BoPAP versus normal mPAP and PAH versus BoPAP, the statistically significant predictors were, amongst others: demographic, clinical, pulmonary function, echocardiographic and hemodynamic variables. (
  • The prognosis of infundibular pulmonary stenosis (IPS) mainly depends on the severity of stenosis in the absence of any additional lesions. (
  • This volume, the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the forced expiratory volume in the first second of the forceful exhalation (FEV 1 ), should be repeatable to within 0.15 L upon repeat efforts in the same measurement unless the largest value for either parameter is less than 1 L. In this case, the expected repeatability is to within 0.1 L of the largest value. (
  • For example, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), and FEV 1 /FVC should come from the same reference source. (
  • His lung examination is significant for diffuse expiratory wheezing, use of accessory muscles of respiration and a prolonged expiratory phase of respiration. (
  • However, it is perhaps better characterized as an abnormal and excessive deposition of fibrotic tissue in the pulmonary interstitium with minimal associated inflammation. (
  • Cigarette smoking and pulmonary diffusing capacity. (
  • Markers of cellular senescence is associated with persistent pulmonary pathology after COVID-19 infection. (
  • It is believed that these cases represent a new and potentially lethal occupational pulmonary disease, Popcorn Workers' Lung [5]. (
  • Repeatedly measuring the diffusing capacity can help determine whether the disease is improving or getting worse. (
  • The condition is caused by overload of the pulmonary capillary bed due to exercise that demands high cardiac output, by the need to redistribute that volume due to the temperature of the water, by the position of the chest, and sometimes by unnecessary overhydration. (
  • All terms and abbreviations used here are based on a report of the American College of Chest Physicians/ATS Joint Committee on Pulmonary Nomenclature 1 . (

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