The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A health care system's ability to rapidly mobilize to meet an increased demand, to rapidly expand beyond normal services levels to meet the increased demand in the event of large-scale DISASTERS or public health emergencies.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Difficult or labored breathing.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The act of BREATHING in.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.

Expiratory and inspiratory chest computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in cigarette smokers. (1/343)

This study evaluated small airway dysfunction and emphysematous destruction of lung parenchyma in cigarette smokers, using chest expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). The degree of emphysematous destruction was classified by visual scoring (VS) and the average HRCT number at full expiration/full inspiration (E/I ratio) calculated in 63 male smokers and 10 male nonsmokers (group A). The Brinkman smoking index (BI), defined as cigarettes x day(-1) x yrs, was estimated. Sixty-three smokers were divided into three groups by PFT: group B1 (n=7), with normal PFT; group B2 (n=21), with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DL,CO) > or = 80% predicted, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 80% pred and/or residual volume (RV) > 120% pred; and group B3 (n=35), with DL,CO < 80% pred, FEV1 < 80% pred and/or RV > 120% pred. Heavy smokers (BI > or = 600) (n=48) showed a significant increase in emphysema by both VS and E/I. E/I was significantly elevated in both group B2 (mean+/-SD 0.95+/-0.05) and B3 (0.96+/-0.06) compared with group B1 (0.89+/-0.03). VS could not differentiate group B2 (3.9+/-5.0) from B1 (1.1+/-1.6). These findings suggest that the expiration/inspiration ratio reflects hyperinflation and airway obstruction, regardless of the functional characteristics of emphysema, in cigarette smokers.  (+info)

Red cell distribution and the recruitment of pulmonary diffusing capacity. (2/343)

The distribution of red blood cells in alveolar capillaries is typically nonuniform, as shown by intravital microscopy and in alveolar tissue fixed in situ. To determine the effects of red cell distribution on pulmonary diffusive gas transport, we computed the uptake of CO across a two-dimensional geometric capillary model containing a variable number of red blood cells. Red blood cells are spaced uniformly, randomly, or clustered without overlap within the capillary. Total CO diffusing capacity (DLCO) and membrane diffusing capacity (DmCO) are calculated by a finite-element method. Results show that distribution of red blood cells at a fixed hematocrit greatly affects capillary CO uptake. At any given average capillary red cell density, the uniform distribution of red blood cells yields the highest DmCO and DLCO, whereas the clustered distribution yields the lowest values. Random nonuniform distribution of red blood cells within a single capillary segment reduces diffusive CO uptake by up to 30%. Nonuniform distribution of red blood cells among separate capillary segments can reduce diffusive CO uptake by >50%. This analysis demonstrates that pulmonary microvascular recruitment for gas exchange does not depend solely on the number of patent capillaries or the hematocrit; simple redistribution of red blood cells within capillaries can potentially account for 50% of the observed physiological recruitment of DLCO from rest to exercise.  (+info)

Effects of side lying on lung function in older individuals. (3/343)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar diffusing capacity, and inhomogeneity of ventilation in older individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen nonsmoking subjects (mean age=62.8 years, SD=6.8, range=50-74) with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease were tested over 2 sessions. The test positions were sitting and left side lying in one session and sitting and right side lying in the other session. In each of the positions, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA), and the slope of phase III (DN2%/L) of the single-breath nitrogen washout test to determine inhomogeneity of ventilation were measured. RESULTS: Compared with measurements obtained in the sitting position, FVC and FEV1 were decreased equally in the side-lying positions, but no change was observed in DLCO/VA or DN2%/L. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Side-lying positions resulted in decreases in FVC and FEV1, which is consistent with the well-documented effects of the supine position. These findings further support the need for prescriptive rather than routine body positioning of patients with risks of cardiopulmonary compromise and the need to use upright positions in which lung volumes and capacities are maximized.  (+info)

Does the cellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile reflect the severity of sarcoidosis? (4/343)

The aim of this study was to assess whether the cellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile, particularly the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), is associated with disease severity of sarcoidosis and its usefulness in determining remission. Twenty-six nonsmoking outpatients with sarcoidosis were included in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the absolute number of PMNs in BALF: < or =0.2x10(4) cells x mL(-1) (group 1; n = 15) and >0.2x10(4) cells x mL(-1) (group 2; n = 11). The radiographic stage, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, 67Ga lung uptake as well as lung function tests differed significantly between group 1 and 2. Follow-up revealed that 14 (93.3%) patients of group 1 compared to four (36.4%) of group 2 recovered spontaneously without the help of corticosteroids. In contrast, no differences were found in the number of lymphocytes in BALF nor in the serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) level between both groups. The number of PMNs, the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TL,CO), the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and one of the HRCT subscores discriminated between patients with different disease progression. Of these parameters the PMNs appeared to be the only one which differentiated patients who demonstrated remission and those who deteriorated. In conclusion, these results indicate that the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid distinguish between sarcoidosis patients who demonstrated remission and those having a more severe course of the disease. Whether polymorphonuclear neutrophils may be considered as markers of disease activity and/or prognosis in sarcoidosis needs further investigation.  (+info)

Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (5/343)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential.  (+info)

Impaired pulmonary diffusion during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. (6/343)

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diffusion is impaired at rest in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has been implicated in the generation of symptoms and exercise intolerance. The aim of this study was to determine whether pulmonary diffusion is impaired during exercise in CHF, to examine its relationship to pulmonary blood flow, and to consider its functional significance in relation to metabolic gas exchange. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) and pulmonary blood flow (Q(C)) were measured by a rebreathe technique at rest and during steady-state cycling at 30 W in 24 CHF patients and 10 control subjects. Both patients and control subjects were able to raise TLCO and Q(C) during exercise. However, the patient group had a lower diffusion for a given blood flow (TLCO/Q(C)) both at rest (3.6+/-0.16 and 4.8+/-0.23 mL x L(-1) x mm Hg(-1); P<0.001) and during exercise (2.8+/-0.16 and 3.4+/-0.13 mL x L(-1) x mm Hg(-1) for CHF patients and control subjects, respectively; P<0.05). TLCO/Q(C) was related to the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VEVCO(2)) production at 30 W (TLCO/Q(c) versus VEVCO(2), r = -0.58, P<0.01) and to peak exercise oxygen consumption measured during a progressive test (TLCO/Qc versus VO(2peak), r = 0.57, P<0.01) in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CHF are able to recruit reserves of TLCO and Q(C) during exercise. However, the TLCO/Q(C) ratio is consistently impaired in these patients and relates to both exercise hyperpnea and peak exercise oxygen consumption. Whether this impairment in alveolar gas exchange is reversible in CHF and therefore is a potential target for therapy has yet to be determined.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of nitric oxide production by conducting and alveolar airways of humans. (7/343)

Human airways produce nitric oxide (NO), and exhaled NO increases as expiratory flow rates fall. We show that mixing during exhalation between the NO produced by the lower, alveolar airways (VL(NO)) and the upper conducting airways (VU(NO)) explains this phenomenon and permits measurement of VL(NO), VU(NO), and the NO diffusing capacity of the conducting airways (DU(NO)). After breath holding for 10-15 s the partial pressure of alveolar NO (PA) becomes constant, and during a subsequent exhalation at a constant expiratory flow rate the alveoli will deliver a stable amount of NO to the conducting airways. The conducting airways secrete NO into the lumen (VU(NO)), which mixes with PA during exhalation, resulting in the observed expiratory concentration of NO (PE). At fast exhalations, PA makes a large contribution to PE, and, at slow exhalations, NO from the conducting airways predominates. Simple equations describing this mixing, combined with measurements of PE at several different expiratory flow rates, permit calculation of PA, VU(NO), and DU(NO). VL(NO) is the product of PA and the alveolar airway diffusion capacity for NO. In seven normal subjects, PA = 1.6 +/- 0.7 x 10(-6) (SD) Torr, VL(NO) = 0.19 +/- 0.07 microl/min, VU(NO) = 0.08 +/- 0.05 microl/min, and DU(NO) = 0.4 +/- 0.4 ml. min(-1). Torr(-1). These quantitative measurements of VL(NO) and VU(NO) are suitable for exploring alterations in NO production at these sites by diseases and physiological stresses.  (+info)

Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (8/343)

Excessive inflammation seems important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly during exacerbations of the disease. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration ([NOexh]) is a sensitive marker of bronchial inflammation in asthma; it is unclear if this is also the case in COPD. This study: 1) quantifies [NOexh] in patients with COPD (during an exacerbation and while clinically stable); 2) investigates the response of [NOexh] to i.v. steroid therapy, and its potential relationship with other relevant physiological variables; and 3) assesses the relative contributions of the central and peripheral airways to [NOexh] by collecting exhaled air in two different bags connected in series. Seventeen COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 37.6+/-3.4% of the predicted value (+/-SEM)) hospitalized because of an exacerbation of the disease (arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) (7.46+/-0.72 kPa 56.1+/-5.4 mmHg), arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) 5.63+/-0.37 kPa 42.3+/-2.8 mmHg), pH 7.41+/-0.02) and 10 healthy subjects that served as controls were studied. On admission, [NOexh] in COPD was higher than normal (41.0+/-5.1 versus 13.3+/-0.8 parts per billion (ppb), respectively, p<0.001). Despite i.v. steroid therapy, [NOexh] remained elevated throughout recovery (37.9+/-4.8 ppb, p<0.001) until discharge (40.9+/-4.3 ppb, p<0.001). In contrast, when the patients were clinically stable (several months later), [NOexh] was significantly reduced (15.8+/-3.8 ppb, p<0.001), and no longer different from control values. [NOexh] was not related to any of the physiological variables measured during recovery (pulmonary gas exchange) or at discharge (forced spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity). Finally, the contribution of the central and peripheral airways to [NOexh] was not different at any point in time. These results indicate that during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the exhaled nitric oxide concentration: 1) is higher than normal; 2) is not reduced acutely by i.v. steroids but is normalized several months after discharge; 3) is unrelated to several physiological indices of disease severity; and 4) appears to be produced homogeneously in central and peripheral airways. Overall, these results are different from those reported in asthma, suggesting that different inflammatory mechanisms are operating in both diseases.  (+info)

BACKGROUND:: An increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference is frequent in anesthetized patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect on the lung of anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and a brief course of mechanical ventilation.METHODS:: Lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), including pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and conductance of the alveolar-capillary membrane (DM), and pulmonary surfactant protein type B (a marker of alveolar damage) were measured in 45 patients without pulmonary disease undergoing extrathoracic surgery.RESULTS:: Anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and mechanical ventilation led to impairment of gas exchange, with a reduction of DLCO values immediately after anesthetic induction due to a concomitant reduction of both DM and Vc. While changes in DM were due to the reduction of lung volume, changes in Vc were not limited to volume loss, since the Vc/alveolar volume ratio decreased significantly. Although DLCO and its components decreased immediately after ... DA: 25 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 78. of pulmonary function tests is in how they are interpreted PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AL-ASHKAR AND COLLEAGUES Key abbreviations and definitions used in pulmonary function tests DLCO Diffusing capacity of the lung;the capacity of the lungs to transfer carbon monoxide (mL/min/mm Hg) DLCOc The DLCO adjusted for hemoglobin (mL/min/mm Hg) ...
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Mechanical ventilation is a therapeutic method used in order to keep gas exchange adequate to cell metabolism in patients with acute respiratory failure. It is currently proved that, although on one hand the use of this method keeps gas exchange, on the other hand it promotes and supports pulmonary inflammatory processes (VILI). A recent study about the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on DLCO (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide) in patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation has proved that patients without any evident pulmonary disease (negative medical history, negative chest clinical examination, normal chest X-ray radiography and normal arterial oxygen tension [PaO2]) after 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation show a significant worsening of pulmonary gas exchange properties. The authors have supposed that this worsening may be caused by an early alteration of alveolar-capillary membrane caused by mechanical ventilation itself. This hypothesis ...
Background In heart failure (HF) alveolar-capillary membrane is abnormal. Surfactant-derived proteins (SPs) and plasma receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) have been proposed as lung damage markers. Methods Eighty-nine chronic HF and 17 healthy subjects were evaluated by echocardiography, blood parameters, carbon monoxide lung diffusion (DLCO) and cardiopulmonary exercise test. We measured immature SP-B, mature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE plasma levels. Results Immature SP-B (arbitrary units), mature SP-A (ng/ml) and SP-D (ng/ml), but not mature SP-B (ng/ml) and RAGE (pg/ml) levels, were higher in HF than in controls [immature SP-B: 15.6 (13.1, 75th-25th interquartile range) Vs. 11.1 (6.4), p|0.01; SP-A, 29.6 (20.1) Vs. 18.3 (13.5), p = 0.01; SP-D: 125 (90) Vs. 78 (58), p|0.01]. Immature SP-B, SP-A, SP-D and RAGE values were related to DLCO, peak oxygen consumption, ventilatory efficiency, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), whereas plasma mature SP-B was not. The DLCO Vs. immature SP-B
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden progressive form of acute respiratory failure in which the alveolar capillary membrane becomes damaged and more permeable to intravascular fluid.
Women demonstrate lower diffusing capacity-to-cardiac output ratio (DlCO/Q̇), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) compared with height-matched men during exercise. However, these differences disappear after correction for lung size. The drop in DlCO/Q̇ was proportionally less in women, and pulmonary transit time did not drop below 0.3 s in either group. After differences in lung volume are accounted for, there is no intrinsic sex difference in DlCO, Vc, or Dm response to exercise. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fatty diabetic lung. T2 - Functional impairment in a model of metabolic syndrome. AU - Yilmaz, Cuneyt. AU - Ravikumar, Priya. AU - Bellotto, Dennis J.. AU - Unger, Roger H. AU - Hsia, Connie C. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF fa/fa) rat with genetic leptin insensitivity develops obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with age accompanied by hyperplastic changes in the distal lung (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 298: L392-L403, 2010). To determine the functional consequences of structural changes, we developed arebreathing (RB) technique to simultaneously measure lung volume, pulmonary blood flow, lung diffusing capacity (DlCo), membrane diffusing capacity (DmCo), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and septal tissue volume in anesthetized tracheostomized male ZDF fa/fa and matched lean (+/+) control animals at 4, 8, and 12 mo of age. Results obtained by RB technique were compared with that measured by a singlebreath (SB) technique ...
1) General description of procedure, equipment, technique General description: In clinical medicine there are a variety of physiologic measurements that evaluate cardio-respiratory function. Many of these measurements are performed with patients at resting state or while patients carry out simple maneuvers. Prominent examples include spirometry, measurement of lung volumes, pulmonary diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide,…. ...
Airway Monitoring: The crew performed the Airway Monitoring US Airlock Session consisting of two different protocols, which are performed at both ambient, and reduced pressure (10.2 psi or 700 mbar) in the US airlock. These protocols are the low Nitric Oxide (NO) protocol which determines how much NO is exhaled with the respiration, and the high NO protocol which determines how much NO is diffused into the blood. Although some issues may have been experienced with the low NO measurement system, useful science objectives were still able to be obtained. The Airway Monitoring investigation aims to determine in detail the pulmonary nitric oxide turnover in weightlessness and in combined weightless, hypobaric and hypoxic environments. It also determines the lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide with dust particles present in the ISS atmosphere, and studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers. This will help to identify health impacts and support maintenance of ...
As part of major study on prevalence of pulmonary hypertention in outpatients with sarcoidosis, a sample of patients underwent prospective clinical, tomographic and lung function evaluation. Objective: to describe clinical, imaging and lung function data of 72 consecutive patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Between September 2008 and September 2010, 72 consecutive patients underwent evaluation in a prospective fashion. All patients underwent clinical interview, chest radiography, high resolution computerized tomography and lung function tests (spirometry, lung volumes by pletysmography and carbon monoxide diffusion DLCO). Results: Clinical characterization: 69.4% female, age 54.5 ± 12.6. Smoking status: 63% non-smokers. Disease duration was 9.2 ± 6.1 years. Pulmonary involvement was the most prevalent (91.7%), followed by lymph nodes and cutaneous envolvement. Number of extra pulmonary organ involvement was 1.6 ± 1.1 organ per patient. Near 62% of patients had interrupted working activities ...
Pulmonary function tests, or PFTs, typically include a spirometry reading, which tests how much air the patient can breathe in and out and how well the lungs transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the bloodstre... More » ...
Can you pick the right answers for gas Transfer and Transport?? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CMUPA2014
Sample Gas Transfer Tubing Assembly from PerkinElmer. From our range of SMS 100 Mercury Analyzer Consumables that ensure the best for your research quality.
AIM: analyse the clinical and functional results during the first year of application of the ERS/ESTS guidelines on fitness for radical therapy in lung cancer (LC) patients.. Methods: prospective analysis of data of those patients proposed to surgical treatment for LC. We analysed pre FEV1, DLCO, VO2%, VO2/kg/min , complications in the first 30 days, mortality at 6 months and six months postFEV1, DLCO, VO2%, VO2/kg/min when available.. Results: during 2013,103 patients were proposed to surgical treatment because of LC .All of them were evaluated with FEV1 and DLCO. Of them, 52 needed a CPET (ERS/ESTS guidelines: FEV1 or DLCO,80%), in 30 patients due to FEV1,80, in 46 due to DLCO,80 and in 24 due to both factors.Using the previous protocol (ppoFEV1 or ppoDLCO,40%) we should use it in only 13 patients. The main functional data were: FEV1 78%(33-113), DLCO 64%(39-106), VO2% 92,4 (63-119), VO2/kg/min 21.6. Five cases were contraindicated for surgery and another patient refused intervention. Of these ...
n 1. емкость, электрическая емкость 2. мощность 3. производительность 4. установленная мощность
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BACKGROUND: Z4032 was a randomized study conducted by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group comparing sublobar resection alone versus sublobar resection with brachytherapy for high-risk operable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This evaluates early impact of adjuvant brachytherapy on pulmonary function tests, dyspnea, and perioperative (30-day) respiratory complications in this impaired patient population. METHODS: Eligible patients with stage I NSCLC tumors 3 cm or smaller were randomly allocated to undergo sublobar resection with (SRB group) or without (SR group) brachytherapy. Outcomes measured included the percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percentage predicted carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO%), and dyspnea score per the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire. Pulmonary morbidity was assessed per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 3
As the pulmonary edema progresses, alveolar edema develops with disruption of the alveolar capillary membrane. There is bi-basal diffuse haziness of lung fields, Kerley B lines, loss of distinct vascular margins, increased bronchovascular margins (bats wing sign) and ares of consolidation, lung mottling and pleural effusion on chest x-ray. Cardiomegaly may also be present. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a type of non cardiogenic pulmonary edema may resemble cardiac pulmonary edema. But within next 24-48 hours following the onset of symptoms, ARDS becomes more uniform. Differentiation of cardiac pulmonary edema from non cardiogenic pulmonary edema, can be done by the time it takes for the edema to develop and to vanish. If substantial improvement occurs within 24 hours, it is usually cardiac pulmonary edema ...
This semi-invasive procedure requires blind esophageal intubation. Transesophageal imaging is a valuable technique to visualize the heart and great vessels in patients with suboptimal transthoracic imaging windows. 5 MHz). Therefore, transesophageal imaging is particularly valuable in the routine clinical setting for the detection of atrial thrombi, small vegetations, diseases of the aorta, atrial septal defects, patent foramen ovale, and the assessment of prosthetic valve function. It is used in the operating or catheter suites to monitor and assess the repair of cardiac structures. In the infant, it may result from hypoplastic left heart syndrome or total anomalous pulmonary venous connection below the diaphragm. Noncardiogenic or permeability edema is the accumulation of fluid in the lungs in the presence of normal left atrial pressures. This has many complex causes that disrupt the alveolar capillary membrane. Fluid and Water Exchange FIGURE 1-33. Primary pulmonary artery hypertension. The ...
Physiology Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of physiology.
Transfer velocities of 5 sparingly soluble gases were measured in two different wind wave tanks at wind speeds between u10=1.2 m/s and 67 m/s. Two different gas analysis techniques were used, FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. Additionally, a method was developed that allows the parallel measurement of gas transfer velocity and the solubility. The fast controlled leakage method for the measurement of gas transfer velocities was found to be not precise enough to measure Schmidt number exponents and transfer velocities in the Aeolotron. Gas transfer velocities measured spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude, lying between 0.5 cm/h and 1100 cm/h. At lower wind speeds, measured in the Heidelberg Aeolotron, the change of the Schmidt number exponent from 2/3 for a smooth to 1/2 for a wavy water surface was confirmed. A surfactant, which inhibits wave growth, was used in 3 of the 7 experiments. For all surfactant conditions, the change of the Schmidt number exponent spanned a wide range of wind speeds with ...
HCA has the facilities to measure how efficiently oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged in your lungs using a gas transfer test (KCO) or TLco test.
transfer factor - MedHelps transfer factor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for transfer factor. Find transfer factor information, treatments for transfer factor and transfer factor symptoms.
Title: Versatile microanalytical system with porous polypropylene capillary membrane for calibration gas generation and trace gaseous pollutants sampling applied to the analysis of formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonia in outdoor ...
MasterScreen PFT System combines instrument hardware renowned for its accuracy and stability over timesuite for lung function tests ranging from simple spirometry to complete lung function testing.. Customers preferring to measure FRC using the Helium Rebreathing technique, of Diffusing Capacity either and real-time gas analysis for both Single Breath Hold and non-breath hold DLCO techniques.. ...
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Pulmonary capillary blood flow was measured in man during slow breathing by a modification of the body plethysmograph technique for measuring N2O uptake. In seated subjects breathing slowly, flow was significantly higher during inhalation. In supine subjects whose legs were raised, the difference between inhalation and exhalation was not significant. Flow was usually greater during tidal inhalation than exhalation, but there was considerable variation. The changes in flow were not directly related to intrathoracic pressures or lung volumes. The results suggest that it is the amount and pressure of the venous blood available for aspiration into the thorax that influences pulmonary capillary blood flow during the course of a respiratory cycle.. ...
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were treated with either colchicine at 1.0mg/kg or saline intraperitoneally 30 minutes prior to exposure to phosgene at 0.5 parts per million for 60 minutes and air. Lavage surfactant
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In this study, experimental and simulation studies of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of R-134a flowing through corrugated tubes are conducted. The test section is a horizontal counter-flow concentric tube-in-tube heat exchanger 2.0 m in length. A smooth tube and corrugated tubes with inner diameters of 8.7 mm are used as the inner tube. The outer tube is made from a smooth copper tube with an inner diameter of 21.2 mm. The corrugation pitches used in this study are 5.08, 6.35, and 8.46 mm. Similarly, the corrugation depths are 1, 1.25, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The results show that the maximum heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop obtained from the corrugated tube are up to 22 and 19 % higher than those obtained from the smooth tube, respectively. In addition, the average difference of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop between the simulation model and experimental data are about 10 and 15 %, respectively. ...
The validity of the indicator dilution method for measuring the capillary diffusion capacity for 51Cr-EDTA in hyperaemic skeletal muscle ...
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Of course we know how horrified doctors are over Vitamin E because it might cause blood thinning. Be this at it may, high quality, non-soy vitamin E is an effective natural agent that does protect you from cardiovascular insults. It keeps your blood cells from aggregating and is protective against colon cancer. Vitamin E also helps oxygen cross the alveolar membrane in the lungs and eases menopausal symptoms ...
Risk factors associated with the presence of irreversible airflow limitation and reduced transfer coefficient in patients with asthma after 26 years of follow up ...
Risk factors associated with the presence of irreversible airflow limitation and reduced transfer coefficient in patients with asthma after 26 years of follow up ...
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The increase of DLco in cases of asthma was hard to understand, so i did some searching and made sense of it to myself like this. ...
Research outputs, collaborations and relationships for NIH NCI Laboratory of Cellular Oncology (LCO) published between 1 June 2019 - 31 May 2020 as tracked by the Nature Index.
The LCO method is the latest natural hair trend for moisturizing your strands. Here, get the scoop on this hair care method and learn if this trendy technique is right for you.
Ok heres my question I am a fireman and an LCO on my days off Lic.and insured Thank YA and have been thinking of just doing lawn care but what is...
This maximises surface area (optimising gas transfer) and makes the cells flexible enough to pass through capillary beds (which are narrower than the cell ...
This paper reports on an investigation of a novel approach to the cooling of brake discs, based on the application of impinging air jets. This has the capacity to enhance the heat transfer coefficients at the disc surface ...
I dont know what to think. My pulmonologist told me my lung capacity is decreased. My results are: FVC 69% TLC 66% DLCO 76% What is considered normal...
1 Answer - Posted in: autoimmune disorders, side effect - Answer: You should contact the manufacturers directly. I could not not find any ...
Developing a Capacity Plan is vital if you want to understand how much capacity will be required to support your IT systems and, by extension, the infrastructure that supports it. Think about it. If you plan to install a new large-scale solution, for example, IBM WebSphere or SAP, you also need to consider the impact […]. ...
Zavorsky, Gerald S. (2012). "The rise in carboxyhemoglobin from repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity tests". Respiratory ... Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) allows for the evaluation and assessment of airways, lung function, as well as specific ... To discover whether or not to perform a set of advanced Pulmonary Function Testing will be based on abnormally high values in ... Methods such as gas dilution techniques and plethysmography help determine the functional residual capacity and total lung ...
Nairn JR, Power GG, Hyde RW, Forster RE, Lambertsen CJ, Dickson J (October 1965). "Diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary ... Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (May 1971). "Rate of development of pulmonary O2 toxicity in man during O2 breathing at 2.0 Ata". J ... Fisher AB, Hyde RW, Puy RJ, Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (April 1968). "Effect of oxygen at 2 atmospheres on the pulmonary mechanics ... Puy RJ, Hyde RW, Fisher AB, Clark JM, Dickson J, Lambertsen CJ (April 1968). "Alterations in the pulmonary capillary bed during ...
Similarly, an association between pleural plaques and a restrictive impairment with diminished diffusing capacity on pulmonary ... causing a decrease in forced vital capacity, reducing total lung capacity and diffusing capacity. The restrictive impairment is ... It is defined as diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis secondary to asbestos exposure. It initially affects the lung bases ... Kee ST, Gamsu G, Blanc P. Causes of pulmonary impairment in asbestos- exposed individuals with diffuse pleural thickening" ...
... pulmonary diffusing capacity MeSH G09.772.765.650 - pulmonary ventilation MeSH G09.772.765.650.300 - forced expiratory flow ... total lung capacity MeSH G09.772.765.850.250 - closing volume MeSH G09.772.765.850.390 - functional residual capacity MeSH ... vital capacity MeSH G09.772.765.850.970.360 - expiratory reserve volume MeSH G09.772.765.850.970.500 - inspiratory capacity ... pulmonary gas exchange MeSH G09.772.770.820 - sneezing MeSH G09.772.770.980 - yawning The list continues at List of MeSH codes ...
... pulmonary gas exchange MeSH E01.370.386.700.650.650 - pulmonary diffusing capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.650.900 - ventilation- ... total lung capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.150 - closing volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.275 - functional residual ... vital capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900.260 - expiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900.350 - ... inspiratory capacity MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900.350.350 - inspiratory reserve volume MeSH E01.370.386.700.485.750.900.350 ...
Burgess, J. H.; Bishop, J. M. (1963). "Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and ITS Subdivisions in Polycythemia Vera". Journal of ... AUCHINCLOSS JH, Jr; GILBERT, R; EICH, RH (February 1959). "The pulmonary diffusing capacity in congenital and rheumatic heart ... ISBN 978-1-4511-0713-5. Pulmonary+diffusing+capacity at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner RM (1982). "Reference values for pulmonary tissue volume, membrane diffusing capacity, and ...
Alveolar-arterial gradient Diffusing capacity Pulmonary alveolus Dugdale DC, Zieve D. Gasometría arterial. Medline Plus. 09/01/ ... The rest of the difference is due to the continual uptake of oxygen by the pulmonary capillaries, and the continual diffusion ...
... as well as damage to the capillary bed Pulmonary embolism Cardiac insufficiency Pulmonary hypertension Bleomycin (upon ... "Using and Interpreting Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (Dlco) Correctly". Consultant. Diffusion lung capacity for carbon ... DLCO or TLCO (diffusing capacity or transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (CO),) is the extent to which oxygen passes ... Diffusing capacity Macintyre N, Crapo RO, Viegi G, et al. (October 2005). "Standardisation of the single-breath determination ...
... low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide that corrects with alveolar volume High-resolution CT scan: diffuse ... Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease which often ... Lee, JS; Brown, KK; Cool, C (2002). "Diffuse pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: radiologic and clinical features". J ... Wirstschafter, E; Walts, A; Marchevsky, A (2012). "Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of the lung ( ...
... lung volumes and diffusing capacity in 2012. Changes in lung volumes and capacities are generally consistent with the pattern ... The four lung capacities are total lung capacity (TLC), inspiratory capacity (IC), functional residual capacity (FRC) and vital ... The primary purpose of pulmonary function testing is to identify the severity of pulmonary impairment. Pulmonary function ... Measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is a fast and safe tool in the evaluation of ...
The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is invariably reduced in IPF and may be the only abnormality in mild or early ... 2011). "Pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CAPACITY): two randomised trials". The Lancet. 377 (9779): ... The number of published studies on the role of pulmonary rehabilitation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is small, but most of ... December 2011). "Familial pulmonary fibrosis is the strongest risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis". Respiratory ...
... and O2 diffusing capacity are normal in the initial stages of PAM. As the disease progresses, pulmonary function tests reveal ... 2004). "Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: report on 576 cases published in the literature". Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ... causing pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis". Proc Am Thorac Soc. 3: A102. Hagiwara, K; Johkoh, T; Tachibana, T (2009). Pulmonary ... Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, inherited disorder of lung phosphate balance that is associated with small ...
... and cause a slight decrease in their diffusing capacity. The presence of multiple pulmonary cysts may indicate a need to ... The cyst for example in pneumocystis pneumonia is not the same as the pulmonary cyst.[citation needed] Cystic lung diseases ... "Pulmonary cyst". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 2019-05-01. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hansell, DM.; Bankier, AA.; ... "Pulmonary bullae , Radiology Reference Article ,". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 16 June 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Diffuse scleroderma can cause musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, and other complications. Patients with ... The earliest manifestation of this may be a decreased diffusion capacity on pulmonary function testing.[citation needed] Other ... Lungs Some impairment in lung function is almost universally seen in patients with diffuse scleroderma on pulmonary function ... Some patients can develop pulmonary hypertension, or elevation in the pressures of the pulmonary arteries. This can be ...
Tazelaar, HD; Kerr, D; Yousem, SA; Saldana, MJ; Langston, C; Colby, TV (1993). "Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis". Hum ... as assessed by the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), described in 82% to 97% of patients. It is not unusual for ... Although resting pulmonary hypertension appears to be unusual in LAM, pulmonary arterial pressure often rises with low levels ... even when the chest radiograph and pulmonary function assessments are normal. The typical CT shows diffuse round, bilateral, ...
Diffusing capacity (DLCO)[edit]. Diffusing capacity (or DLCO) is the carbon monoxide uptake from a single inspiration in a ... and pulmonary hemorrhage (excess RBC's in the interstitium or alveoli can absorb CO and artificially increase the DLCO capacity ... Forced vital capacity (FVC)[edit]. Forced vital capacity (FVC) is the volume of air that can forcibly be blown out after full ... Slow vital capacity (SVC). Slow vital capacity (SVC) is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled slowly after slow maximum ...
... but extended exposure leads to increasing diffuse shadowing throughout both lungs. Pulmonary function measurements are reduced ... Shykoff, Barbara E (2007). "Performance of various models in predicting vital capacity changes caused by breathing high oxygen ... Clark, John M; Lambertsen, Christian J (1970). "Pulmonary oxygen tolerance in man and derivation of pulmonary oxygen tolerance ... of oxygen was a pulmonary irritant. Pulmonary toxicity may be referred to as the "Lorrain Smith effect". The first recorded ...
... the pulmonary arteries are still able to extract oxygen.[page needed] Birds also have a high capacity for oxygen delivery to ... This arrangement allows for more oxygen to be extracted compared to mammalian concurrent gas exchange; as oxygen diffuses down ... The respiratory system of birds moves oxygen across the pulmonary surface during both inhalation and exhalation, making it more ... Penaloza, D; Arias-Stella, J (2007). "The heart and pulmonary circulation at high altitudes: healthy highlanders and chronic ...
Diffuse scleroderma can cause musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal and other complications.[5] Patients with ... The earliest manifestation of this may be a decreased diffusion capacity on pulmonary function testing. ... Some impairment in lung function is almost universally seen in patients with diffuse scleroderma on pulmonary function testing; ... Other pulmonary complications in more advanced disease include aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage and pneumothorax.[5] ...
The major signs of indium lung are pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Symptoms include dyspnea (shortness ... Other symptoms seen in some but not all cases include digital clubbing, low DLCO (capacity to move oxygen from the alveoli into ... It is classified as an interstitial lung disease (diffuse parenchymal lung disease). ... Treatment options include pulmonary lavage and corticosteroid therapy. Prognostic factors were a matter of research as of 2012 ...
Pulmonary function tests show reduced diffusion capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Many patients have hypoxemia at ... On chest radiographs, a diffuse micronodular interstitial pattern (at times with ground-glass density in the lower and middle ... Much like the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic HP is related to increased expression of Fas antigen and ... Enelow, RI (2008). Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 1161-72. ISBN 978-0-07-145739-2. ...
People with COPD also exhibit a decrease in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) due to decreased surface ... and may be beneficial for pulmonary function and pulmonary capacity when compared to a regular treatment program. Tai Chi was ... nonspecific chronic pulmonary disease, and diffuse obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema ... If pulmonary rehabilitation improves mortality rates or hospital readmission rates is unclear. Pulmonary rehabilitation has ...
It is different from airway restriction (which prevents air from diffusing into the pulmonary arteries because of some kind of ... An airway restriction would not produce a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, but would reduce the vital capacity. The ventilation is ... that reduces the amount of air inhaled in each breath and the oxygen that reaches the pulmonary arteries. ...
The DPPC is the strongest surfactant molecule in the pulmonary surfactant mixture. It also has a higher compaction capacity ... The components for these lipids diffuse from the blood into type II alveolar cells where they are assembled and packaged for ... There are a number of types of pulmonary surfactants available. Synthetic pulmonary surfactants Colfosceril palmitate (Exosurf ... As a medication, pulmonary surfactant is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in ...
Diffuse alveolar damage can be a cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) a severe inflammatory disease of the lung. ... pneumonitis Almost any type of lung tumor or lung cancer can compress the alveoli and reduce gas exchange capacity. In some ... Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare lung disorder of small stone formation in the alveoli. A pulmonary contusion is a ... A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cup-shaped cavity found in the lung ...
... but extensive exposure to birds combined with reduced diffusing capacity are strongly suggestive of this disease. X-ray or CT ... In the chronic form there is usually anorexia, weight loss, extreme fatigue and progressive pulmonary fibrosis, which is ... Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) can occur with acute respiratory failure; progressive interstitial fibrosis is typical of the ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Farmer's lung Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya; Smith, Maxwell L. (2018), "Chronic Diffuse Lung ...
The presence of diffuse lung disease in chronic cases. Presentation of antibodies when exposed to thermophilic Actinomyces. ... Reyes CN, Wenzel FJ, Lawton BR, Emanuel DA (February 1982). "The pulmonary pathology of farmer's lung disease". Chest. 81 (2): ... Examination procedures may include: • taking a blood test • taking a chest x-ray • administering a breathing capacity test • ... Organic dust toxic syndrome Enelow RI (2008). Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 1161-1172 ...
Adsorption capacity of activated cloth is greater than that of activated charcoal (BET theory) surface area: 500-1500 m2/g, ... Incorrect application (e.g. into the lungs) results in pulmonary aspiration, which can sometimes be fatal if immediate medical ... These carbons are suitable for adsorption of gases and vapors, because they diffuse rapidly. Granulated carbons are used for ... The iodine capacity, mg/g, (ASTM D28 Standard Method test) may be used as an indication of total surface area. ...
People with COPD also exhibit a decrease in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) due to decreased surface ... and may be beneficial for pulmonary function and pulmonary capacity when compared to a regular treatment program.[116] Tai Chi ... nonspecific chronic pulmonary disease, and diffuse obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The terms chronic bronchitis and emphysema ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. *Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at Curlie ...
Single-breath diffusing capacity dapat membantu membedakan asma dari PPOK.[41] Sebaiknya pemeriksaan spirometri dilakukan ... Textbook of pulmonary and critical care medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. hlm. 242. ISBN 978-93-5025-073 ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs (Edisi ke-9th). Philadelphia: ... George, Ronald B. (2005). Chest medicine : essentials of pulmonary and critical care medicine (Edisi ke-5th ed.). Philadelphia ...
Oxygen can easily diffuse through the red blood cell's cell membrane. Hemoglobin in the red blood cells also carries some of ... Anemias (or anaemias) are diseases characterized by low oxygen transport capacity of the blood, because of low red cell count ... is transported back to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs as bicarbonate (HCO3−) dissolved in the blood plasma. Myoglobin, ...
2 diffuses through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O. 2, changing color from bluish red to ... 2 partial pressure more than 60 kPa can eventually lead to permanent pulmonary fibrosis.[123] Exposure to a O. 2 partial ... Molar heat capacity. (O2) 29.378 J/(mol·K) Vapor pressure. P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k ... some disorders that cause increased pulmonary artery pressure, and any disease that impairs the body's ability to take up and ...
This is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, or "HPV".[33] Chronic[edit]. When the pulmonary capillary pressure remains ... Oxygen passively diffuses in the lung alveoli according to a pressure gradient. Oxygen diffuses from the breathed air, mixed ... The binding capacity of hemoglobin is influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment, as described in the ... pulmonary capillary pressures of 40 to 45 mm Hg have been measured without the development of lethal pulmonary edema.[Guytun ...
Pulmonary surfactant is produced in lungs in order to facilitate breathing by increasing total lung capacity, TLC, and lung ... Surfactants will diffuse in water and adsorb at interfaces between air and water or at the interface between oil and water, in ... The process has been successfully used to prepare organs such as the liver and heart for transplant in rats.[23] Pulmonary ... One example of pharmaceutical pulmonary surfactants is Survanta (beractant) or its generic form Beraksurf produced by Abbvie ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]. Main article: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Organs involved in transmission of air to and from the point where gases diffuse into tissue ... The accumulation of this tar could eventually lead to lung cancer, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[5] ...
... reduction of pulmonary capacity characterised by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputum, and damage to the ... Champaneria MC, Modlin IM, Kidd M, Eick GN (2006). "Friedrich Feyrter: a precise intellect in a diffuse system". ... Pulmonary[edit]. Since establishing causation through experimental trials was not possible due to ethical restrictions, a ... Smoking is a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (including emphysema ...
are not able to diffuse across the blood-brain barrier into the CSF. Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, ... via altered pulmonary stretch receptor activity). Respiratory arrest and circulatory shock (these conditions decrease arterial ... as carbon dioxide easily diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. ...
Diffuse compromise of the pulmonary system resulting in ARDS generally occurs in the setting of critical illness. ARDS may be ... functional residual capacity), a positive effect on cardiac output[16] (due to the negative inflection from the elevated ... Pulmonary: barotrauma (volutrauma), pulmonary embolism (PE), pulmonary fibrosis, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) ... pulmonary artery wedge pressure , 18 mmHg (obtained by pulmonary artery catheterization). *if no measured LA pressure available ...
These tests generally include electrocardiography (ECG), pulmonary function tests including lung diffusion capacity for carbon ... This nitric oxide diffuses into neighboring cells (including vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets), where it increases ... "How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?". National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.. *^ a b c d e f g Frank Gaillard. " ... pulmonary hypertension or 'pulmonary venous hypertension'). However, in some patients, the raised pressure in the pulmonary ...
... chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary emboli, and pulmonary hemorrhage. ... They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. For the purpose of identifying ... Certain types of lupus nephritis such as diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis require intermittent cytotoxic drugs. These ... "Shrinking lung syndrome as a manifestation of pleuritis: a new model based on pulmonary physiological studies". The Journal of ...
... but extended exposure leads to increasing diffuse shadowing throughout both lungs.[25] Pulmonary function measurements are ... The curves show typical decrement in lung vital capacity when breathing oxygen. Lambertsen concluded in 1987 that 0.5 bar could ... of oxygen was a pulmonary irritant.[29] Pulmonary toxicity may be referred to as the "Lorrain Smith effect".[14] The first ... "Pulmonary oxygen tolerance in man and derivation of pulmonary oxygen tolerance curves". IFEM Report No. 1-70. Philadelphia, PA ...
Several species of fish, sharks, and rays have the capacity to sense changes in electric fields in their immediate vicinity. ... Pulmonary stretch receptors are found in the lungs and control the respiratory rate. ... Some stimuli are ions and macromolecules that affect transmembrane receptor proteins when these chemicals diffuse across the ... and some use these electric field generating and sensing capacities for social communication. The mechanisms by which ...
An eye examination revealed a central corneal ulcer about 8 mm with a greyish-white slough, feathery edges and diffuse corneal ... In another case, an 8-year-old boy with ALL developed febrile neutropenia with ecthyma gangrenosum, sinus and pulmonary ... Another common characteristic of fungi isolated from desert sands is their rapid development and vast reproductive capacity. ...
Vascular diseases (e.g., pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension). *Infectious, environmental and other " ... Volumes that include the residual volume (i.e. functional residual capacity of about 2.5-3.0 liters, and total lung capacity of ... 19).[39][41][44] The partial pressure of oxygen in the parabronchi declines along their lengths as O2 diffuses into the blood. ... with which the pulmonary capillary blood equilibrates, and the blood gas tensions in the pulmonary arterial (blue blood ...
Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution ... impairment of pulmonary function, and evidence of interstitial pneumonitis.[115] Acute exposure to mercury vapor has been shown ... Molar heat capacity. 27.983 J/(mol·K) Vapor pressure. P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k ...
... particularly the vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC). The TLC may be reduced through alveolar wall thickening; ... Lung cancer, mesothelioma, pleural fibrosis, pulmonary heart disease[1][2]. Usual onset. ~10-40 years after long-term exposure[ ... Asbestosis resembles many other diffuse interstitial lung diseases, including other pneumoconiosis. The differential diagnosis ... "Asbestosis - Pulmonary Disorders". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. May 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2017.. ...
Pulmonary plethysmographs are used to measure functional residual capacity.[72] Functional residual capacity cannot be measured ... Another test is that of the lung's diffusing capacity - this is a measure of the transfer of gas from air to the blood in the ... Smokers have a lower capacity than nonsmokers. Thinner persons tend to have a larger capacity. Lung capacity can be increased ... A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that becomes lodged in the pulmonary arteries. The majority of emboli arise because of ...
As late as four years post-injury, decreased functional residual capacity has been found in most pulmonary contusion patients ... When accompanied by a fracture, it is usually concentrated into a specific location-the contusion is more diffuse when there is ... Lacerations can result in pulmonary hematomas; these are reported to develop in 4-11% of pulmonary contusions. Pulmonary ... Pulmonary contusion and laceration are injuries to the lung tissue. Pulmonary laceration, in which lung tissue is torn or cut, ...
Pulmonary reserve is measured by spirometry. If there is no evidence of undue shortness of breath or diffuse parenchymal lung ... poor exercise capacity, and significant improvements were seen in exercise capacity in the LVRS group.[24] ... atrium to pulmonary artery Fontan procedure. left ventricle to aorta Rastelli procedure. right ventricle to pulmonary artery ... The surgical treatment of malformations of the heart in which there is pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. JAMA 1948; 128 ...
These selected lines of mice also show increased endurance capacity in tests of forced endurance capacity on a motorized ... Cl− ions also diffuse into the sarcoplasm to aid the repolarization phase. During intense muscle contraction, the ion pumps ... These may include age differences, pregnancy, joint diseases, obesity, pulmonary disease, etc.[86] ... Oxygen carrying capacity is often the target of exercise (ergogenic aids) aids used in endurance sports to increase the volume ...
2004). "The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... 2002). "Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) ( ... 2008). "A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 359 (15): 1543-54. doi:10.1056 ... Fishman AP (2005). "One hundred years of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171 (9): 941-8 ...
It was shown that in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to congenital heart diseases the level of homocysteine ... sulfur dioxide protects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and increases myocardial antioxidant capacity in rats ... Diffuse interstellar band. *Earliest known life forms. *Extraterrestrial life. *Extraterrestrial liquid water ... Moreover, these biochemical parameters strongly correlated to the severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Authors ...
In response to higher altitude, the body's diffusing capacity increases in order to process more air. Also, due to the lower ... These are the basic elements of a ventilatory pulmonary function test. Determination of the residual volume is more difficult ... Total lung capacity 5.8 4.2 IRV + TV + ERV + RV The tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve ... Inspiratory capacity: the sum of IRV and TV. IVC. Inspiratory vital capacity: the maximum volume of air inhaled from the point ...
How are patients diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) values adjusted in pulmonary function testing? ... Which factors affect diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) values in pulmonary function testing? ... levels can affect the diffusing capacity and, if known, should be used to mathematically correct the measured diffusing ... Diffusing Capacity of Lung for Carbon Monoxide. Synonyms. Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO, mmol/min/ ...
Miller, A., Warshaw, R., Nezamis, J. Diffusing capacity and forced vital capacity in 5,003 asbestos-exposed workers: ... Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity. J. Vis. Exp. (95), e52216, doi:10.3791/52216 ( ... Fallica, J., Das, S., Horton, M. R., Mitzner, W. Application of Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity in the Mouse Lung. J Appl ... A standardized breath holding technique for the clinical measurement of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. ...
... carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, membrane diffusing capacity, pulmonary capillary blood flow and pulmonary capillary blood ... Pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, membrane diffusing capacity, pulmonary capillary blood flow ... Reference values for pulmonary tissue volume, membrane diffusing capacity, and pulmonary capillary blood volume Bull Eur ... In contrast to the other variables, normalized pulmonary tissue volume did not correlate with any of the independent variables ...
The purpose of this study is to determine and compare changes in lung diffusing capacity, cardiac output, and pulmonary ... A Study Comparing Changes in Lung Diffusing Capacity, Cardiac Output, and Pulmonary Vascular Pressures During Exercise in ...
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and Gas Exchange during Halothane Anesthesia You will receive an email whenever this article is ... Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and Gas Exchange during Halothane Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 4 1970, Vol.32, 317-324. doi: ... Norman A. Bergman; Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and Gas Exchange during Halothane Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1970;32(4):317-324 ...
Pulmonary gas exchange, diffusing capacity in natives and newcomers at high altitude.. @article{Vincent1978PulmonaryGE, title={ ... Pulmonary gas exchange, diffusing capacity in natives and newcomers at high altitude.}, author={J. S. Vincent and Marie France ... Influence of hemoglobin concentration on lung diffusing capacity for CO at high altitude. *Pierre Pasquis, Phillipe Denis, ... High-altitude exposure of three weeks duration increases lung diffusing capacity in humans.. *Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Erik R ...
Influence of Mouth Pressure on Measurement of Diffusing Capacity in the Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratory. David A ... Influence of Mouth Pressure on Measurement of Diffusing Capacity in the Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratory ... Influence of Mouth Pressure on Measurement of Diffusing Capacity in the Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratory ... Influence of Mouth Pressure on Measurement of Diffusing Capacity in the Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratory ...
pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide. DLNO/DLCO ratio. ratio of pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide to ... Pulmonary diffusing capacity. Details on the methods can be found elsewhere [20]. In brief, pulmonary diffusing capacity ... DLCO diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, DLNO diffusing capacity of the lung for nitric oxide, FEV 1 forced ... Diurnal variation in pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. J Appl Physiol. 1966;21:539-42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Keywords: D reference values; Lung Diffusing Capacity; Pulmonary Function Tests; altitude; children. ... Diffusing Capacity of the Lung for Carbon Monoxide in Mexican/Latino Children. Quality Control and Reference Values Ann Am ... Rationale: Single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DlCOsb) values are used to evaluate gas exchange; ...
PULMONARY DIFFUSING CAPACITY DURING REST AND EXERCISE. A STUDY OF NORMAL PERSONS AND PERSONS WITH ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT, ... The effect of changes in ventilation and pulmonary blood flow on the diffusing capacity of the lung. ... A study of the mechanism by which exercise increases the pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. ... The effect of increased physical activity on pulmonary diffusing capacity in unfit women. ...
Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity, Measurement of the Pressure-volume Curve in ... and Fixation of the Lung to Study the Impact of Obesity and Impaired Metabolism on Pulmonary Outcomes, Visualizing Macrophage ... Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity. Nathachit Limjunyawong1, Jonathan Fallica1, ... Unlike pathology in other body systems, many pulmonary disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ...
Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) , 40% predicted. *Elevation of bilirubin to , 3 mg/dL ...
... and lung diffusing capacity in response to alterations in thoracic blood volume. The role of pulmonary smooth muscle tone was ... and lung diffusing capacity in response to alterations in thoracic blood volume. The role of pulmonary smooth muscle tone was ... and lung diffusing capacity in response to alterations in thoracic blood volume. The role of pulmonary smooth muscle tone was ... and lung diffusing capacity in response to alterations in thoracic blood volume. The role of pulmonary smooth muscle tone was ...
The effect of repeat exercise on pulmonary diffusing capacity and EIH in trained athletes. McKENZIE, DONALD C.; LAMA, IRIS L.; ... The effect of repeat exercise on pulmonary diffusing capacity and EIH in trained athletes. McKENZIE, DONALD C.; LAMA, IRIS L.; ... The effect of repeat exercise on pulmonary diffusing capacity and EIH in trained athletes. McKENZIE, DONALD C.; LAMA, IRIS L.; ... The effect of repeat exercise on pulmonary diffusing capacity and EIH in trained athletes. McKENZIE, DONALD C.; LAMA, IRIS L.; ...
Pulmonary function testing has a rich and diverse history. Since the time of ancient Greece, we have endeavored to understand ... The pulmonary diffusing capacity in normal subjects. J Physiol. 1955;129(2):237-52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Carbon monoxide uptake and pulmonary diffusing capacity in normal subjects at rest and during exercise. J Clin Investig. 1954; ... with special reference to true diffusing capacity of pulmonary membrane and volume of blood in the lung capillaries. J Appl ...
Pulmonary diffusing capacity in chronic dialysis patients.. Herrero JA, Alvarez-Sala JL, Coronel F, Moratilla C, Gámez C, ... Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium szulgai.. Sánchez-Alarcos JM, De Miguel-Díez J, Bonilla I, Sicilia JJ, Alvarez-Sala JL ... Positron emission tomography for the study of solitary pulmonary nodules].. Márquez Rodas I, de Miguel Díez J, Alvarez-Sala JL. ... Role in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.. Frazziano G, Moreno L, Moral-Sanz J, Menendez C, Escolano L, Gonzalez C, ...
Effects of Iron (113mIn) Hydroxide Particles on Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and Pulmonary Artery Pressure. Brashear, Richard E ...
"Diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood flow at hyperbaric pressures". J. Clin. Invest. 44 (10): 1591-9. doi:10.1172/ ... Lambertsen CJ, Clark JK (December 1949). "The pulmonary oxygen diffusion coefficient". Am. J. Med. Sci. 218 (6): 715. PMID ... Wright WB, Fisher AB, Hendricks PL, Brody JS, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Pulmonary function studies during a 14-day continuous ... A multiple anomaly of the human heart and pulmonary veins. Anat. Record 78(3): 383-388, 1940. ...
Clinical usefulness of the single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity test. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1961;84:789-806. ... to identify specific asbestos isotypes for linking the pulmonary asbestos-related disease to previous workplace exposure, (iii ...
Adjusted diffusing capacity , 50% on pulmonary function testing*. *Serum creatinine , 1.5 mg/dL ...
... while physiologic techniques have been used to determine diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Morphometric estimates ... Morphometric estimates of diffusion capacity have traditionally been calculated for oxygen (DLO2) ... Pulmonary Circulation. Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: HL-23805/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; HL-25044/HL/ ... Comparison of total lung diffusion capacity and the membrane component of diffusion capacity as determined by physiologic and ...
PFT including spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, oximetry, and arterial blood gases has been used to assess the ... Pulmonary function testing (PFT) has been used to evaluate the risk for postoperative complications since the 1950s. ... Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity. Respiratory Function Tests / methods. Risk Factors. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S ... diffusing capacity would be helpful to evaluate the ability of the pulmonary capillary bed to expand and increase its capacity ...
... corrected diffusing capacity (DLCO) , 60% predicted and in children, room air oxygen saturation ,92%. ... 6. Hepatic function: direct bilirubin, ALT or AST , 2 x upper limit of normal 7. Pulmonary function: In adults, ...
Corrected pulmonary-diffusing capacity of less than 35%. *A cardiac ejection fraction of less than 30% ...
Clinical measurements of membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume.. Crapo RO. ... Long-term intersession variability for single-breath diffusing capacity.. Hegewald MJ, Jensen RL, Teeter JG, Wise RA, Riese RJ ... Intersession variability in single-breath diffusing capacity in diabetics without overt lung disease. ... Standardization of the single-breath diffusing capacity in a multicenter clinical trial. ...
Reference values for spirometric, pulmonary diffusing capacity and body pletysmographic studies. Scand Clin Invest 1982; 42( ... Pertti Mustajoki, consultant in pulmonary medicinec. *. a Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology, Helsinki University ... Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by means of a mini-Wright ... Effect of weight loss and body position on pulmonary function and gas-exchange abnormalities in morbid obesity. Int J Obesity ...
Pulmonary function tests typically show a low diffusing capacity.. The room air resting PaO2 is used to grade severity of HPS: ... Vascular obstruction to pulmonary arterial flow, reflected by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, is an important ... if treatment can improve pulmonary hemodynamics (reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure to less than 35 mm Hg). The post-LT ... increased pulmonary venous congestion (pulmonary venous hypertension), and vascular constriction or obstruction of the ...
... defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 25 mm Hg at rest or greater than 30 mm Hg during exercise, is often ... characterized by a progressive and sustained increase in pulmonary vascular resistance that eventually may lead to right ... Pulmonary Function Testing. Pulmonary function tests (ie, spirometry and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) should be ... performed in patients with pulmonary hypertension to exclude an underlying pulmonary disorder. Diffusing capacity is ...
Further, the plasma levels of visfatin correlated negatively with pulmonary diffusing capacity (. , ). Neither of the ... Pulmonary diffusing capacity was measured with Vmax 20C, Sensor-Medics.. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration at ... and pulmonary diffusing capacity per unit of alveolar volume standardized for haemoglobin concentration (Hb-. /. ) were ... Interestingly, we also found a negative correlation between visfatin and pulmonary diffusing capacity suggesting that visfatin ...
Weinreich, U. M., Thomsen, L. P., Brock, C., Karbing, D. S., & Rees, S. E. (2015). Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon ... Weinreich, UM, Thomsen, LP, Brock, C, Karbing, DS & Rees, SE 2015, Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a ... T1 - Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. T2 - a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic ... Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic deconditioning ...
  • In each position, echocardiography was performed to calculate mPAP and Q, and lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) was assessed. (
  • Furthermore, mPAP is an important determinant of pulmonary capillary blood volume distribution (DLNO/DLCO), regardless of age. (
  • Morphometric estimates of diffusion capacity have traditionally been calculated for oxygen (DLO2) while physiologic techniques have been used to determine diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). (
  • Multiple gas rebreathing techniques were used to measure total lung diffusion capacity (DLCO), membrane component of diffusion capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in five anesthetized dogs. (
  • Restrictive lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis most often decrease diffusing capacity (DLCO) because of scarring and thickening of the area between the alveoli and capillaries. (
  • Pulmonary function tests included spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and body plethysmography. (
  • alveolar volume (VA) and diffusion lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) being the most frequently reduced variables. (
  • Serial pulmonary function tests including single-breath carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity (DLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec were performed in a relatively homogeneous group of male patients with germ cell tumors treated with vinblastine, bleomycin, and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum. (
  • Of the pulmonary function tests used, the DLCO was shown to be the most sensitive indicator of subclinical bleomycin pulmonary effects. (
  • When routine volumetric tests (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) and DLCO are used in a systematic manner, DLCO is the most sensitive indicator of the subclinical pulmonary effects of bleomycin in germ cell tumor patients treated with vinblastine, bleomycin, and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum. (
  • Authors: Taytard J, Boizeau P, Alberti C, Beydon N Abstract INTRODUCTION: The reference technique to measure the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) is the single-breath method (sb). (
  • DLco has many clinical indications: identification of the cause of disproportionate dyspnea or hypoxemia higher than what would be expected from spirometry, monitoring of the progress of interstitial lung diseases, screening for the development of interstitial or pulmonary vascular involvement in patients exposed to chemotherapy, inhaled agents, transplants, or collagen diseases, and preoperative evaluations in lung resection. (
  • PFTs take approximately 15 minutes for adults, 15 to 30 minutes for children, 45 minutes for pre- and postbronchodilator testing, and one hour for full PFTs with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) testing. (
  • Pulmonary function tests often show a restrictive process with reduced diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). (
  • Of the noninvasive gas exchange measures of pulmonary vascular function, GxCap was most closely associated with DLCO, DLCO/Qc, and VO 2 peak. (
  • COPD patients who can expand gas exchange surface area as assessed with DLCO during exercise relative to pulmonary blood flow have a more preserved exercise capacity. (
  • Diffusing capacity (DLCO) provides information on the efficiency of gas transfer from alveolar air into the bloodstream. (
  • Spirometry is used to establish baseline lung function, evaluate dyspnea, detect pulmonary disease, monitor effects of therapies used to treat respiratory disease, evaluate respiratory impairment or disability, evaluate operative risk, and perform surveillance for occupational-related lung disease. (
  • We have therefore chosen to organize this chapter by test, as one would see on a typical PFT result sheet: spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, and bronchoprovocation. (
  • PFT including spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, oximetry, and arterial blood gases has been used to assess the postoperative risk of lung resection. (
  • They include spirometry, lung volumes and diffusing capacity. (
  • To assess the pulmonary function, patients underwent spirometry test (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF) without bronchodilator and then the results were evaluated using SPSS software version 24. (
  • Office-based pulmonary function testing, also known as spirometry, is a powerful tool for primary care physicians to diagnose and manage respiratory problems. (
  • There is no difference between PFT measurements obtained in the office (spirometry) and those obtained in a pulmonary function laboratory, as long as trained personnel calibrate, administer, and interpret the results. (
  • Pulmonary function testing refers to a battery of routinely performed lung function tests that include spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusing capacity. (
  • Spirometry is one of the most commonly ordered tests of pulmonary function. (
  • Spirometry, which can be performed either in specialized pulmonary function laboratories or in physicians' offices, measures airflow during forceful exhalation. (
  • Because spirometry requires active patient participation, the patient must be cooperative and able to follow requests of the pulmonary technician. (
  • American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines suggest that spirometry be terminated if sequential maneuvers demonstrate a 20 percent or greater decrease in either the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) or forced vital capacity (FVC). (
  • Health literacy and health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • The general public's knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its determinants: current situation and recent changes. (
  • This is crucial in all patients suspected of having PAH, as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is often curable by surgical endarterectomy. (
  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a common lung disease characterized by airflow limitation and systemic inflammation. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disorder characterized by persistent airflow limitation with systemic manifestations [ 1 ]. (
  • Diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide: a potential marker of impaired gas exchange or of systemic deconditioning in chronic obstructive lung disease? (
  • Although research has consistently demonstrated that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQL), little agreement has been evidenced regarding the factors identified as contributing to impaired HRQL. (
  • Physiological, functional and psychosocial consequences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are only poorly to moderately related to each other. (
  • The present study concludes that a comprehensive assessment of the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requires a battery of instruments that not only tap the disease-specific effects, but also the overall burden of the disease on everyday functioning and emotional wellbeing. (
  • In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) are nowadays frequently used as descriptive instruments or as outcome measures 1 - 6 . (
  • Smoking causes an increase in free radicals, reactive nitrogen and oxygen, and cigarette smoking is associated with increases in the incidence and severity of several diseases including cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Open biopsy for chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease: clinical, roentgenographic, and physiological correlations in 502 patients. (
  • We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL)-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α) is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB). (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with signs of local inflammation in the airways involving neutrophils, macrophages, and T-cells. (
  • 1 There is also emerging evidence that signs of systemic inflammation involving neutrophils are linked to the clinical course in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Cleveland Clinic Akron General specialists diagnose and treat diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, acute and chronic respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung infections. (
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis caused by chronic inhalation of agents that injure the lung, by causing inflammation and eventually leading to scarring (fibrosis) of the lung. (
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease that occurs predominantly in older adults. (
  • 8 Conventional delivery (NO CD ), which distributes inhaled NO throughout the lungs, can, however, worsen gas exchange in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Jaja et al11 have said that the reduced lung function in tions.This article aims to review the chronic pulmonary sickle cell patients may also be related to their smaller complications of SCD in order to increase awareness of stature. (
  • Chronic pulmonary disease in SCD anaemia (SCA) (including SCCLD) is the result of the Prevalence interaction of the s-gene-cluster haplotype and the - The chronic pulmonary complications of SCD are usually gene status, with the Benin haplotype being associated collectively referred to as sickle cell chronic lung disease with decreased severity. (
  • Length of Survival of Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (
  • The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population. (
  • The Pulmonary Functions Laboratory provides diagnostic screening and state-of-the-art testing that assists our medical staff in the diagnosis of lung conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and chronic bronchitis. (
  • You submitted a medical report dated February 23, 1991, from Lowell F. Roberts, M.D., which indicates a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), shortness of breath, and dyspnea. (
  • Asthma is typically reversible, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not. (
  • Current American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend that patients hold their breath with minimum effort at total lung capacity during measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO ) to avoid excessively positive or negative mouth pressures. (
  • Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) allows for the evaluation and assessment of airways, lung function, as well as specific benchmarks to diagnose an array of respiratory tract infections. (
  • There were no significant changes in respiratory symptoms or pulmonary function in response to these exposures. (
  • This pulmonary function technology course is designed to improve the respiratory therapist's knowledge in various aspects of pulmonary function testing beyond the bedside. (
  • Respiratory Symptom Questionnaires: The presence or development of respiratory symptoms may also be critical to the identification of possible pulmonary injury from exposure to nano-materials. (
  • The Pulmonary Fibrosis/Interstitial Lung Disease Program at The Respiratory Institute treats patients with the full spectrum of interstitial lung disease (ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and related conditions. (
  • Inhaled NO is a selective pulmonary vasodilator, 1 2 and in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it improves gas exchange. (
  • If, during quiet breathing, the pressure difference of oxygen averages 11 mm Hg, a total of approximately 220 ml of oxygen diffuses through the respiratory membrane each minute. (
  • Pulmonary diseases that damage the respiratory membrane greatly interfere with the capacity of the oxygen to pass through the membrane and oxygenate the blood. (
  • Symptoms of high-concentration zinc chloride exposure include dyspnea, cough, pleuritic chest pain, bilateral diffuse infiltrations, pneumothorax, and acute pneumonitis, resulting from respiratory tract irritation. (
  • Pulmonary Medicine and Respiratory Care addresses a broad spectrum of conditions that affect the way we breathe. (
  • The Respiratory Care Department at Good Samaritan Hospital assists in improving pulmonary function and quality of life for many people. (
  • Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are useful for diagnosing the cause of unexplained respiratory symptoms and monitoring patients with known respiratory disease. (
  • The present results introduce adipocytokines NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and visfatin as novel factors associated with systemic inflammation in COPD and suggest that visfatin may mediate impaired pulmonary diffusing capacity. (
  • Piirila P, Smith HJ, Hodgson U, Sovijärvi AR (2016) Work of Breathing in Obesity Assessed with Body Plethysmography Comparison with Emphysematic COPD and Pulmonary Fibrosis. (
  • To quantify measures of alveolar-capillary recruitment during exercise and the relationship to exercise capacity in a cohort of COPD patients. (
  • Diagnosis of some pulmonary diseases requires certain types of testing. (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common entities of the family of disorders known as the interstitial lung diseases. (
  • Diffusing capacity is a measure of how well oxygen and carbon dioxide are transferred (diffused) between the lungs and the blood, and can be a useful test in the diagnosis and to monitor treatment of lung diseases. (
  • Diffusing capacity may be reduced in a few ways, and doctors usually use the measure along with other pulmonary function tests to diagnose and determine the severity of either restrictive or obstructive lung diseases. (
  • Diffusing capacity may be low if lung disease is present that causes the membrane to be thicker, for example, in diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis. (
  • Understanding a low diffusing capacity requires looking at the differences between obstructive and restrictive lung diseases and how these affect lung function. (
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the relevance of work of breathing measured by body plethysmography in obese subjects and to compare the results with those of healthy controls and patients with pulmonary diseases of different pulmonary mechanics. (
  • The diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (commonly referred to as 'interstitial lung diseases' or 'ILDs') include a heterogeneous group of mainly non-neoplastic disorders. (
  • See also Overview of Eosinophilic Pulmonary Diseases . (
  • We investigated the influence of aging on changes in cardiac output (Q), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), and lung diffusing capacity in response to alterations in thoracic blood volume. (
  • Currently, the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has approved automatic higher priority for LT (exception points via the Model for End Stage Liver Disease, or MELD) if treatment can improve pulmonary hemodynamics (reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure to less than 35 mm Hg). (
  • Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with Doppler analysis should be used as an initial screening measure to estimate the pulmonary artery pressure and assess ventricular function. (
  • In supine animals, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP), and right atrial pressure (RAP) in 9 animals, together with right carotid artery pressure (SAP), were measured. (
  • The isolated lung was perfused with autologous blood and circulated to the pulmonary artery with a roller pump (model 5001R, Watson Marlow, Manchester). (
  • For example, a blood clot in an artery in the lungs (pulmonary embolism) may result in carbon monoxide brought into the alveoli being unable to be transferred to the capillaries which the artery supplies. (
  • In 2014 the US Food and Drug Administration approved pirfenidone and nintedanib, two antifibrotic agents for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. (
  • There are multiple types of pulmonary fibrosis that our patients may encounter. (
  • Of these the most serious is that known as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. (
  • This diagnosis requires the exclusion of known causes of or associations with the other types of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). (
  • Radiation therapy may also have secondary effects that result in pulmonary fibrosis. (
  • While holding promise for slowing the disease and improve the outcomes in our patients with pulmonary fibrosis, the quest continues for agents that will arrest or reverse the damage in IPF. (
  • Asbestos is was characterized by diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lung parenchyma, often accompanied by thickening of the visceral pleura, and sometimes calcification of the pleura. (
  • Pulmonary fibrosis in surgical lung biopsies is said to have a 'usual interstitial pneumonia- pattern ' (UIP- pattern ) of disease when scarring of the parenchyma is present in a patchy, 'temporally heterogeneous' distribution. (
  • UIP is the expected histopathological pattern in patients with clinical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but the UIP- pattern can be seen in other conditions on occasion. (
  • Dominant among these is 'usual interstitial pneumonia' (UIP) which is the most common histopathological form of diffuse lung fibrosis occurring in older adults, first described by Liebow in 1969. (
  • 1 According to Liebow, UIP was idiopathic in about half the affected patients, and the idiopathic form of UIP was referred to clinically as 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis' (IPF). (
  • The other half of UIP patients had other causes of diffuse lung fibrosis. (
  • The common use of the term UIP by pathologists to describe diffuse fibrosis is often confusing to clinicians who tend to assume that a pathological designation of UIP denotes a diagnosis of IPF, not realising that some forms of the UIP- pattern of advanced fibrosis can have other aetiologies. (
  • Our goal in this review is to shed light on the multidisciplinary clues that are most helpful in distinguishing those forms of UIP that are manifestations of pulmonary fibrosis from other causes. (
  • Isolated DAH has also been described without demonstrable capillaritis, in which case the term "idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis" is often applied. (
  • To augment this understanding, there are many extensive published histories of pulmonary function and physiology, and the reader is advised to seek out further details as listed in the Selected References. (
  • On the day of your scheduled test, report to room A310a in the Pulmonary Physiology Services(PPS). (
  • If you have questions please call Pulmonary Physiology Services at 303.398.1530. (
  • The Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory is committed to providing comprehensive, state of the art diagnostic testing to all patients over the age of thirteen with known or suspected pulmonary disease. (
  • The Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory is registered by the American Thoracic Society and adheres to their standards. (
  • 1 week) myocardial infarction, systemic hypotension or severe hypertension, significant atrial/ventricular arrhythmia, noncompensated heart failure, uncontrolled pulmonary hypertension, acute cor pulmonale, clinically unstable pulmonary embolism, and a history of syncope associated with forced exhalation. (
  • Elevations in diffusing capacity represent an acute exercise-induced effect not sustained post-exercise. (
  • Role in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. (
  • By far the most common extrapulmonary feature is acute glomerulonephritis (GN), and the presence of DAH with GN is sometimes referred to as the pulmonary-renal syndrome. (
  • The most common histopathologic features on biopsy include eosinophilic infiltration with acute and organizing diffuse alveolar damage, but few patients have undergone lung biopsy. (
  • Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) refers to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension in patients with liver disease or portal hypertension can be due to multiple mechanisms, including hyperdynamic (high-flow) state, increased pulmonary venous congestion (pulmonary venous hypertension), and vascular constriction or obstruction of the pulmonary arterial bed. (
  • Vascular obstruction to pulmonary arterial flow, reflected by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, is an important parameter that defines POPH. (
  • The immediate goal of PAH-specific treatment for POPH is to improve pulmonary hemodynamics by reducing the obstruction to pulmonary arterial flow. (
  • This can also be useful for assessment of the reversibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with vasodilatory therapy. (
  • Given this, European guidelines recommend first evaluating for significant group 2 or 3 disease by ordering a TTE, pulmonary function tests with arterial blood gas assessment, and chest imaging. (
  • In patients at risk for heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), screening for gene mutations such as BMPR2 also may be considered. (
  • The classic finding on a chest radiograph from a patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is enlargement of central pulmonary arteries, attenuation of peripheral vessels, and oligemic lung fields (see the first and second images below). (
  • The patient was found to have severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. (
  • The Pulmonary Function Lab provides pulmonary function testing and diagnostics along with arterial blood gas analysis. (
  • How well oxygen that is inhaled can pass (diffuse) from the alveoli into the blood, and how well carbon dioxide can pass from the blood capillaries into the alveoli and be exhaled, depends on how thick this membrane is, and how much surface area is available for the transfer to take place. (
  • Diffusing capacity may also below if there is less surface area available for the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide, for example, with emphysema or if a lung or part of a lung is removed for lung cancer. (
  • Diffusing capacity can show how well your lungs move oxygen from the lungs to the blood. (
  • Because of their high affinity for hemoglobin, both oxygen and carbon monoxide are limited in their rate of diffusion by their diffusing capacity. (
  • The diffusing capacity of the lung for these gases is symbolized by D l O 2 and D l CO . The parameter usually measured is D l CO . The normal value for the diffusing capacity of oxygen is 20 ml/min/mm Hg. (
  • Of most interest for oxygen, since it determines the efficacy of oxygen intake, but usually estimated in terms of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide which is more straightforward to measure. (
  • Pulmonary function tests may show a decrease in diffusing capacity, an increase in alveolararterial oxygen gradient, airflow limitation, restrictive lung volumes, or a decrease in compliance. (
  • The preferred method to diagnose restrictive ventilatory defects is body plethysmographic assessed total lung capacity (TLC). (
  • Pulmonary function studies showed restrictive ventilatory impairments with a low CO diffusing capacity in all 13 patients. (
  • However, ventilatory dysfunction (restrictive or obstructive) and results of recent work in Nigeria show that SCCLD pulmonary hypertension which may later progress to might not be as uncommon as previously thought. (
  • Pulmonary function tests usually demonstrated a restrictive impairment with reduced diffusing capacity. (
  • An August 6, 1999 pulmonary function test from William Culberson, M.D. indicates a diagnosis of moderately severe restrictive disease. (
  • If a restrictive pattern is present, full pulmonary function tests with diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide testing should be ordered to confirm restrictive lung disease and form a differential diagnosis. (
  • Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a distinct pulmonary complication of end-stage liver disease (ESLD), occurring in between 5 to 32 percent of patients with cirrhosis or portal hypertension or both. (
  • Findings from the history, physical examination, chest radiography, and electrocardiography (ECG) may suggest the presence of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction. (
  • Right-sided cardiac catheterization is recommended as the confirmatory test for pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Further studies should then be performed to assess for the etiology of the pulmonary hypertension, as the etiology determines treatment options and prognosis. (
  • PAH is a diagnosis of exclusion, and so it is imperative that the practitioner first assess for WHO groups 2-5 pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Chest radiograph of patient with nonidiopathic pulmonary hypertension shows enlarged pulmonary arteries. (
  • Methods and Results -NO min was studied in 16 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension and in 16 isolated porcine lungs with experimentally induced pulmonary hypertension. (
  • A new method of delivery is needed for them because inhaled NO can be used to treat pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Higher doses of inhaled NO are needed to reduce pulmonary hypertension than to improve gas exchange in ARDS. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine and compare changes in lung diffusing capacity, cardiac output, and pulmonary vascular pressures during exercise for younger versus older individuals. (
  • Aging is associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling and reduced distensibility. (
  • Severe POPH with right ventricular failure despite PAH-specific therapy is associated with adverse outcomes in the setting of liver transplantation (LT) and is therefore considered a contraindication to LT unless PAH-specific therapy is able to lower the pulmonary vascular resistance to safe levels. (
  • NO CD and NO min were studied in 4 pigs after inhibition of NO synthase with N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (1 to 2 mg/kg IV) had raised the pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) from 4.4±0.8 to 10.0±1.6 mm Hg · L −1 · min −1 · kg −1 . (
  • With evidence for accelerated pulmonary vascular aging, destruction of alveolar-capillary bed, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the ability to functionally expand surface area during exercise may become a primary limitation. (
  • We measured effects on pulmonary function, symptoms, airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide [NO] and induced sputum), blood leukocyte activation, and cardiac electrophysiologic function. (
  • Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization? (
  • 41.6% of the patients had obstructive changes due to the high rate of pulmonary involvement between paraquat poisoning and pulmonary function and pulmonary function of patients. (
  • A February 26, 1991 medical report from M.Y. Jarfar, M.D. indicated that pulmonary function tests showed mild obstructive defects and mild diffusing lung capacity defects. (
  • An obstructive defect is indicated by a low forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio, which is defined as less than 70% or below the fifth percentile based on data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in adults, and less than 85% in patients five to 18 years of age. (
  • The Relationship Between Dyspnea and Pulmonary Functions in Pregnancy: What About the Perinatal Outcome? (
  • Despite initiation of oral prednisolone, his exertional dyspnea and decline in pulmonary functions continued to be aggravated. (
  • We analyzed mouth pressures measured during clinical single-breath D LCO testing in an academic pulmonary function laboratory over a 3-month period. (
  • Mouth pressures varied widely during single-breath D LCO measurement but were not associated with the measurement of single-breath D LCO in the clinical setting of pulmonary function testing. (
  • Overall, these findings indicate that pulmonary function technologists need not discard efforts made during measurement of single-breath D LCO if only mild changes in mouth pressure occur. (
  • Long-term intersession variability for single-breath diffusing capacity. (
  • 34 Cotton D, Mink J, Graham B. Effect of high negative inspiratory pressure on single breath CO diffusing capacity. (
  • Role of single-breath carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in monitoring the pulmonary effects of bleomycin in germ cell tumor patients. (
  • Correspondence: David A Kaminsky MD, Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Given D-213, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405. (
  • Cournand A, Richards D Jr, Darling R. Graphic tracings of respiration in study of pulmonary disease. (
  • It is not known whether systemic inflammation is a spillover of the inflammation present in the lungs or if pulmonary manifestations are one form of expression of this systemic disease [ 3 , 5 ]. (
  • When needed, our pulmonary specialists routinely collaborate with hematologist/oncologists, infectious disease specialists and cardiothoracic surgeons to provide the best possible care for patients. (
  • At Mount Sinai, we provide diagnostic evaluation, therapeutic interventions and compassionate, state of the art comprehensive care for the patient with diffuse lung disease and we advance knowledge of the field through education and research. (
  • and to examine associations between pulmonary function impairment, high-resolution CT (HRCT) abnormalities and other disease variables in patients with JDM. (
  • In adult polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM), interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent complication being associated with high morbidity and mortality, 1 while the data on pulmonary involvement in JDM is sparse. (
  • Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos -related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. (
  • A variety of tests are performed to assess and diagnose pulmonary disease. (
  • The three major categories of the pulmonary-renal syndrome (DAH with GN) are 1) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, 2) anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (AGBMA) disease (Goodpasture's syndrome), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (
  • Pulmonary medicine A measure of a substance's efficiency in transversing a particular barrier, which in the lungs corresponds to the ability of gases in the alveolar space to enter the blood, and of the gases in the blood to enter the alveoli for removal from the body by exhalation. (
  • Next, 100 mg sildenafil was administered to reduce pulmonary smooth muscle tone, after which the protocol was repeated. (
  • Physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the adult pulmonary circulation. (
  • Pulmonary function testing (PFT) has been used to evaluate the risk for postoperative complications since the 1950s. (
  • Since diffusing capacity at rest has been shown to be a good predictor of postoperative complications following lung resection, and since exercise testing has been also useful in preoperative evaluation prior to lung resection, we reasoned that evaluation of the effect of exercise on diffusing capacity would be helpful to evaluate the ability of the pulmonary capillary bed to expand and increase its capacity to transfer gas during exercise. (
  • 3 Serious or fatal pulmonary complications in JDM have been described in case reports. (
  • Lung clearance index for early detection of pulmonary complications after allo-HSCT in children. (
  • Pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, membrane diffusing capacity, pulmonary capillary blood flow and pulmonary capillary blood volume were measured in ninety (54 men and 36 women) healthy lifetime nonsmokers using an inert gas rebreathing technique. (
  • We found no differences in absolute changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity and its components between experiments, except a higher V A immediately post-exercise favoring experiment A ( P = 0.032). (
  • In selected cases, additional evaluation may include radionuclide lung scanning, exercise testing, invasive pulmonary hemodynamic measurements, and risk stratification analysis. (
  • issue, flow and diffusing capacity during exercise. (
  • Long-Term Lung Function and Exercise Capacity in Postinfectious chILD. (
  • During strenuous exercise or other conditions that increase pulmonary activity, the diffusing capacity may increase to three times as much as that during rest. (
  • If pulmonary function test results are normal, but the physician still suspects exercise- or allergen-induced asthma, bronchoprovocation (e.g., methacholine challenge, mannitol inhalation challenge, exercise testing) should be considered. (
  • Within the confines of the present book, this chapter will focus on selected highlights relevant to clinical pulmonary function testing, through which we hope that the reader can gain a deeper understanding of the different tests as each is done today. (
  • Clinical outcomes of pulmonary Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis in adults. (
  • The Pulmonary/Critical Care Fellowship Program is a 3-year program designed to provide the fellow with the education, training, and clinical skills necessary to pursue an academic career in pulmonary and critical care medicine. (
  • Numerous in-house conferences and seminars are available both within the Department of Medicine and the Pulmonary/Critical Care Division as well as other clinical and basic science departments within the College of Medicine. (
  • Required conferences for the pulmonary/CC fellow include medical grand rounds, medicine noon conference and two weekly pulmonary division conferences including core curriculum conference and clinical conferences (which includes case based as well as critical care and research conferences). (
  • also applied to other gases such as carbon monoxide, which is used in the standard clinical measure of diffusing capacity. (
  • An August 19, 1998 CT-scan from James D. Van Hoose, indicates diagnoses of pleural thickening and pulmonary calcifications. (
  • 32 Smith T, Rankin J. Pulmonary diffusing capacity and the capillary bed during Valsalva and Müller maneuvers . (
  • Pulmonary function tests in preoperative pulmonary evaluation. (
  • Pulmonary function tests are specialized breathing tests performed to "fingerprint" the breathing cycle. (
  • Testing for diffusing capacity is often done along with other pulmonary function tests . (
  • There are different types of breathing tests that can be done during pulmonary function testing. (
  • Pulmonary function tests showed decreased lung volumes and hypoxemia at rest. (
  • The routine battery of pulmonary function tests described here may be supplemented with more specialized tests of lung function when clinically indicated. (
  • See "Specialized Tests of Pulmonary Function. (
  • There are few absolute contraindications to pulmonary function testing, but several conditions should raise the level of caution in conducting the tests that may adversely affect results. (
  • Apart from an increase in the sitting posture 30 minutes after the dive, pulmonary capacity for carbon monoxide diffusion and cardiac index decreased, mostly 60 minutes after the dive (−9%, p = 0.0003 and −20%, p = 0.0002 respectively). (
  • General Comment: The recommended medical screening and surveillance recommendations are not specific for possible pulmonary injuries that may occur from inhalation of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers. (
  • Comparison of total lung diffusion capacity and the membrane component of diffusion capacity as determined by physiologic and morphometric techniques. (
  • The morphometric estimate of diffusion capacity was three times higher than the physiologic estimate. (
  • The major components of diffusion capacity, Dm and theta Vc were found to be of approximately equal size when measured physiologically (Dm = 34 and theta Vc = 27 ml X min-1 X mm Hg-1). (
  • The widely different ratios of the two major subcomponents of the total lung diffusion capacity as measured by these two different techniques suggest that the same lung function is not being accurately measured by at least one of these two techniques. (
  • Whereas the O 2 transport capacity of the blood was not different, we found a larger capillary density (+31%) in the mole rat muscle, resulting in a reduced diffusion distance to mitochondria. (
  • Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. (
  • Nasu, Yasutomo 2018-04-26 00:00:00 Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) has been well described in patients with germ cell tumors treated with bleomycin etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy (BEP). (
  • Although lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is a histologically distinct pulmonary lesion, it occurs with a variety of immune disorders. (
  • Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) occurs in a number of immune-mediated disorders, but can also occur in non-immune conditions. (
  • The Pulmonary Functions Laboratory provides comprehensive diagnostic services in both inpatient and outpatient settings. (
  • Located on the second floor at Good Samaritan Hospital, the Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) laboratory is open Monday through Friday, 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. (
  • The Pulmonary Function Laboratory brings together state-of-the-art testing equipment and the largest team of pediatric pulmonary specialists of any hospital in California to confidently diagnose and treat infants, kids and teens with any lung or breathing condition. (
  • Physicians can use the following stepwise approach to not only interpret PFTs from their office or a pulmonary function laboratory, but also determine when to order further testing and how to use PFT results to formulate a differential diagnosis. (
  • Methods such as gas dilution techniques and plethysmography help determine the functional residual capacity and total lung capacity. (
  • Serum phosphatidylethanolamine levels distinguish benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules and represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer. (
  • Pulmonary capillaritis with DAH can also occur in the absence of any measurable pathologic antibodies in serum. (
  • We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies to quantify mitochondrial oxidative capacity and efficiency. (
  • Lung biopsies in all cases showed diffuse interstitial infiltrations, consisting of mature lymphocytes and plasma cells. (