The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The act of constricting.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (1/5022)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block. (2/5022)

We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (+info)

Transcriptional down-regulation of the rabbit pulmonary artery endothelin B receptor during phenotypic modulation. (3/5022)

1. We confirmed that endothelium-independent contraction of the rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) is mediated through both an endothelin A (ET(A)R) and endothelin B (ET(B2)R) receptor. 2. The response of endothelium-denuded RPA rings to endothelin-1 (ET-1, pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03) was only partially inhibited by BQ123 (10 microM), an ET(A)R antagonist. 3. Pretreatment with 1 nM sarafotoxin S6c (S6c), an ET(B)R agonist, desensitized the ET(B2)R and significantly attenuated the response to ET-3 (pD2 = 7.40 +/- 0.02 before, <6.50 after S6c). 4. Pretreatment with S6c had little effect on the response to ET-1, but BQ123 (10 microM) caused a parallel shift to the right of the residual ETAR-mediated response to ET-1 (pD2 = 7.84 +/- 0.03 before S6c, 7.93 +/- 0.03 after S6c, 6.81 +/- 0.05 after BQ123). 5. Binding of radiolabelled ET-1 to early passage cultures of RPA vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) displayed two patterns of competitive displacement characteristic of the ET(A)R (BQ123 pIC50 = 8.73 +/- 0.05) or ET(B2)R (S6c pIC50 = 10.15). 6. Competitive displacement experiments using membranes from late passage VSMC confirmed only the presence of the ET(A)R (ET-1 pIC50 = 9.3, BQ123 pIC50 = 8.0, S6c pIC50 < 6.0). 7. The ET(A)R was functionally active and coupled to rises in intracellular calcium which exhibited prolonged homologous desensitization. 8. Using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rabbit ET(B2)R, we demonstrated the absence of mRNA expression in phenotypically modified VSMC. 9. We conclude that the ET(B2)R expressed by VSMC which mediates contraction of RPA is rapidly down-regulated at the transcriptional level during phenotypic modulation in vitro.  (+info)

Protein kinase C-activated oxidant generation in endothelial cells signals intercellular adhesion molecule-1 gene transcription. (4/5022)

We tested the hypothesis that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and generation of oxidants are critical sequential signals mediating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and transcription of the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 gene. Stimulation of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAE) cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml) induced the activation of PKC and, subsequently, generation of oxidants. Pretreatment with calphostin C, a specific PKC inhibitor, prevented oxidant generation after TNF-alpha stimulation, indicating that PKC activation mediated the production of oxidants in HPAE cells. In contrast, pretreatment of HPAE cells with N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant and a precursor of glutathione, failed to prevent PKC activation, indicating that PKC activation was not secondary to the oxidant production. These findings suggest that oxidant generation in endothelial cells occurs downstream of PKC activation. However, both PKC activation and oxidant generation were necessary for ICAM-1 mRNA expression because the pretreatment of HPAE cells with either calphostin C or N-acetylcysteine inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB and prevented the activation of ICAM-1 promoter. Prolonged exposure of HPAE cells to the phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, which is known to deplete all except atypical PKC isozymes, failed to prevent TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. We conclude that TNF-alpha-induced oxidant generation secondary to the activation of a phorbol ester-insensitive PKC isozyme signals the activation NF-kappaB and ICAM-1 gene transcription.  (+info)

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: natural history and normal pregnancies. (5/5022)

Two female patients are described with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery who sustained an anterolateral myocardial infarction in infancy. Neither patient received surgical treatment although both have lived to middle age with minimal cardiovascular problems and have had uncomplicated pregnancies. Good exercise tolerance and long term survival may be possible even without surgery for patients with this anomaly.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (6/5022)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells. (7/5022)

1. We have studied the modulation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) by the small GTPase Rho and by one of its targets, Rho kinase, in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 2. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that both RhoA and Rho kinase are expressed in CPAE cells. 3. ICl,swell, the chloride current through VRACs, was activated by challenging CPAE cells with a 25 % hypotonic extracellular solution (HTS) or by intracellular perfusion with a pipette solution containing 100 microM GTPgammaS. 4. Pretreatment of CPAE cells with the Clostridium C2IN-C3 fusion toxin, which inactivates Rho by ADP ribosylation, significantly impaired the activation of ICl,swell in response to the HTS. The current density at +100 mV was 49 +/- 13 pA pF-1 (n = 17) in pretreated cells compared with 172 +/- 17 pA pF-1 (n = 21) in control cells. 5. The volume-independent activation of ICl,swell by intracellular perfusion with GTPgammaS was also impaired in C2IN-C3-pretreated cells (31 +/- 7 pA pF-1, n = 11) compared with non-treated cells (132 +/- 21 pA pF-1, n = 15). 6. Activation of ICl,swell was pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive. 7. Y-27632, a blocker of Rho kinase, inhibited ICl,swell and delayed its activation. 8. Inhibition of Rho and of Rho kinase by the above-described treatments did not affect the extent of cell swelling in response to HTS. 9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade.  (+info)

Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum increases mitochondrial [Ca2+] in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. (8/5022)

1. The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to measure mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) in single smooth muscle cells from the rat pulmonary artery, while simultaneously monitoring cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with fura-2. 2. Application of caffeine produced an increase in [Ca2+]i and also increased [Ca2+]m. The increase in [Ca2+]m occurred after the increase in [Ca2+]i, and remained elevated for a considerable time after [Ca2+]i had returned to resting values. 3. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), which causes the mitochondrial membrane potential to collapse, markedly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]m following caffeine application and also increased the half-time for recovery of [Ca2+]i to resting values. 4. Activation of purinoceptors with ATP also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m in these smooth muscle cells. In some cells, oscillations in [Ca2+]i were observed during ATP application, which produced corresponding oscillations in [Ca2+]m and membrane currents. 5. This study provides direct evidence that Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, either through ryanodine or inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, increases both cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells. These results have potential implications both for the role of mitochondria in Ca2+ regulation in smooth muscle, and for understanding how cellular metabolism is regulated.  (+info)

Two-dimensional suprasternal notch echocardiograms of the right pulmonary artery were obtained in 50 normal infants and children to determine the right pulmonary artery diameter. An excellent nonlinear correlation between the right pulmonary artery diameter (RPA) in cm and body surface area (BSA) in m2was observed: RPA (systole) = 1.41 (BSA)051, r = 0.94 and RPA (diastole) = 1.28 (BSA)0.52, r = 0.93. These data were utilized to calculate the normal range (3rd and 97th percentiles) of right pulmonary artery diameter as a function of body surface area. The right pulmonary artery diameter was also measured in 37 patients with tetralogy of Fallot, 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect and 12 patients with pulmonary valve insufficiency of various causes. Pulmonary artery diameter was less than the 3rd percentile for body surface area in 16 of the 37 patients with tetralogy of Fallot, but it exceeded the 97th percentile in 17 of the 30 patients with an atrial septal defect and 8 of the 12 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA expression profile of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and the effect of let-7d in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. AU - Wang, Lei. AU - Guo, Li Juan. AU - Liu, Jie. AU - Wang, Wang. AU - Yuan, Jason X.J.. AU - Zhao, Lan. AU - Wang, Jun. AU - Wang, Chen. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by single or recurrent pulmonary thromboemboli, which promote pulmonary vascular remodeling. MicroRNA (miRNA), is a small, noncoding RNA that is involved in multiple cell processes and functions and may participate in the pathogenesis of CTEPH. Our aims were to identify the miRNA expression signature in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) of CTEPH patients and to study the role of let-7d in CTEPH pathogenesis. The miRNA expression profile was analyzed by microarray in PASMCs of CTEPH and control patients. Differentially expressed miRNAs were selectively validated ...
Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality in developed countries. A noted exception is the low mortality of CHD in France, particularly the southwest region. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the French paradox, may be associated with high consumption of red wine. We investigate whether the cardioprotective activity of red wine may involve the grape skin-derived polyphenol, resveratrol. We further test the possibility that resveratrol acts by modulating structural and functional changes in endothelial cells lining the blood vessel wall. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) were incubated with resveratrol, with and without concurrent exposure to simulated arterial shear stress. Resveratrol significantly affected proliferation and shape of BPAEC; growth was suppressed and cells became elongated, based on morphologic analysis of rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin stained F-actin by confocal microscopy. Using selective signaling
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic stretch induces inducible nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. AU - Shah, Monica R.. AU - Wedgwood, Stephen. AU - Czech, Lyubov. AU - Kim, Gina A.. AU - Lakshminrusimha, Satyanarayana. AU - Schumacker, Paul T.. AU - Steinhorn, Robin H. AU - Farrow, Kathryn N.. PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - In the pulmonary vasculature, mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch induce changes in vascular signaling, tone and remodeling. Nitric oxide is a potent regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which drives cGMP production, causing vasorelaxation. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and while iNOS expression increases during late gestation, little is known about how cyclic stretch impacts this pathway. In this study, PASMC were subjected to cyclic stretch of 20% amplitude and frequency of 1 Hz for 24 h and compared to control cells maintained under static conditions. ...
Nitric oxide (NO), which is known to inhibit systemic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, is used in the management of neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if endogenous NO production by neonatal porcine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) varied with oxygen tension in vitro, and (2) the effect of exogenous NO and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) stimulators and inhibitors on PASMC proliferation and apoptosis. PASMCs were exposed to different conditions (varying PO2, NO donors and scavengers, iNOS stimulators and inhibitors) and proliferation, apoptosis, and cyclic guanosine 5-monophosphate (cGMP) assessed. PASMCs proliferated best between 5 and 10% O2 but cGMP levels were similar at all oxygen levels. NO donors (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, NOC-12, NOC-18) inhibited PASMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with associated cGMP increases, while NO scavengers (carboxy-PTIO), iNOS stimulators (interleukin-1β, lipopolysaccharide), and iNOS ...
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension may complicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and result in right ventricular (RV) failure and premature death. There are limited data of the effects of childhood HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). OBJECTIVES: To establish if there is an association between childhood ... read more HIV infection or its treatment and pulmonary artery pressure. METHODS: The study conducted a cross-sectional study of 102 HIV-infected (48 ART-naïve, 54 ART-exposed) and 51 HIV-uninfected children in Jakarta, Indonesia, to estimate PAP using echocardiography parameters: tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity (TRV), left ventricular systolic index and diastolic eccentricity index (EI), and RV systolic function, assessed by tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion. The association between either ART-naive or ART-exposed HIV and PAP was explored using general linear modelling adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: ...
The results of this study demonstrate that in unoperated infants with TOF/PA, transthoracic echocardiography can be used to differentiate between patients with and without APCs. Specifically, branch pulmonary artery diameter Z score ≤−2.5, PDA diameter ≤2 mm, and evidence of APCs by color Doppler flow mapping were each sensitive and specific tests with an area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.92 to 0.97. The test performance of transthoracic echocardiography further improved when a branch pulmonary artery diameter Z score ≤−2.5 or PDA diameter ≤2 mm were combined, yielding 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity.. The concept that branch pulmonary artery diameter is inversely related to the extent of APCs in TOF/PA has been previously demonstrated in an autopsy study (12). Acherman et al. (11)demonstrated that patients having a PDA had larger branch pulmonary arteries than patients having no PDA and that the main sources of pulmonary blood flow in this disease can be determined by ...
1. The mechanical and pharmacological properties of small pulmonary arteries (100-300 μm normalized lumen diameter) were directly compared with those of the left main pulmonary artery (1-2 mm) from the rat. The active and passive length-tension characteristics and responses to a variety of agonists and antagonists were dependent on arterial diameter.. 2. Maximum contractile function was obtained in both groups of vessels when stretched so as to give an equivalent transmural pressure of 30 mmHg. This is substantially lower than that found for systemic vessels, and reflects the normal low pulmonary arterial pressure.. 3. Noradrenaline was a powerful vasoconstrictor in large but not small pulmonary arteries (P, 0.001). In contrast, bradykinin produced a significantly greater response in the small arteries (P , 0.001). In comparison with large pulmonary arteries, small arteries were more sensitive to noradrenaline (P,0.05) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (P , 0.001), less sensitive to endothelin-1 (P, ...
Exposure to perinatal hypoxia results in alteration of the adult pulmonary circulation, which is linked among others to alterations in K(+) channels in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells. In particular, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels protein expression and activity were increased in adult PA from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. We evaluated long-term effects of perinatal hypoxia on the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway-mediated activation of BK(Ca) channels, using isoproterenol, forskolin, and dibutyryl-cAMP. Whole-cell outward current was higher in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. Spontaneous transient outward currents, representative of BK(Ca) activity, were present in a greater proportion in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of mice born in hypoxia than in controls. Agonists induced a greater relaxation in PA of mice born in hypoxia compared with controls, and BK
Our previous studies suggested that enhanced pulmonary artery contractions to arachidonic acid in females compared with males were mediated by an LO metabolite.6 The purpose of the current study was to systematically characterize the LO pathways in female and male pulmonary arteries. First, it was shown that the protein expression of both 15- and 5-LO was greater in females compared with males. Although pulmonary arteries from both male and females produced the corresponding LO metabolites, 15- and 5-HETE, only the synthesis of 15-HETE was enhanced in females. The increase in 15-HETE was correlated with an increased 15-HETE-mediated pulmonary artery vasoconstriction in females compared with males. These findings are significant because it is the first report that the 15-LO pathway is regulated in a sex-specific way. These results may impact what is known about the sex differences in the incidence of PAH.. The enhanced vasoconstriction in females compared with males could be because of increased ...
In open-chest dogs, the greater and lesser circulations were perfused by a system of pumps and oxygenator. All blood was drained from the right heart and from the left atrium. in most experiments, there was no dissection around the pulmonary hila, the aorta, or the pulmonary artery. A 30-ml. balloon (Foley catheter) was inserted into the pulmonary artery through a stab wound in the wall of the right ventricle. Pressures were recorded in the pulmonary-artery balloon and in a femoral artery. In other experiments, the main pulmonary artery was distended with blood at known pressures after hydraulic isolation with ligatures and snares.. When the main pulmonary artery was distended proximal to its bifurcation, constriction of the systemic arteries occurred. This phenomenon was abolished by local anesthesia of the wall of the main pulmonary artery, by interrupting conduction in the vagi, by a sympatholytic drug, and by reflex systemic hypotension elicited by multiple small pulmonary emboli. The ...
Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells cryopreserved at passage 3. The endothelial cells express von Willebrand factor and are negative for alpha smooth muscle actin. Axol pulmonary artery endothelial cells can be passaged more than 4 times in Artery Endothelial Cell Culture Medium (ax3810). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unilateral pulmonary artery thromboembolic occlusion in patients. T2 - Is distal arteriopathy a consequence?. AU - Hirsch, A.. AU - Moser, K. M.. AU - Auger, W. R.. AU - Channick, R. N.. AU - Fedullo, P. F.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - The characteristics and post-operative outcomes of eleven patients with total unilateral (UNI)pulmonary artery (PA) thromboembolic occlusion were compared with those of some 600 patients who underwent bilateral (BI) thromboendarterectomies during the same time period. METHODS: Pre-operative historical, physical and laboratory features and post-operative outcomes of these two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The UNI group had no distinct historical features; however, they were younger (32± 10 years) than the BI group (57 ± 15) and dominantly female (10/11) versus a male predominance (62%) in the BI group. A small lung by chest X-Ray was common (7/11) in the UNI group. Pre-operatively, significantly lower PA mean pressures (30± 12 vs 46 ± 12 ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare form of high blood pressure. It occurs in the pulmonary arteries, which flow from your heart and throughout your lungs. Constricted and narrowed arteries prevent your heart from pumping adequate blood.. How the Main Pulmonary Artery Delivers Blood to the Lungs. The right pulmonary artery carries blood to the right lung while the left pulmonary artery carries it to the left lung. The pulmonary arteries are unique in that unlike most arteries which carry oxygenated blood to other parts of the body, the pulmonary arteries carry de-oxygenated blood…. The specific role of the pulmonary arteries is to carry blood thats low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide waste to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs, where this exchange takes place. When the blood is enriched with oxygen and cleared of carbon dioxide waste, it flows back through your pulmonary veins to your hearts right ventricle.. Pulmonary Arteries Diagram - ...
Exposure to hypoxia leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a consequence of pulmonary smooth mus-cle hyperplasia. Hypoxia concomitantly stimulates lung expres-sion of angiogenic factors. To investigate the role of angiogenesis processes in development of hypoxic PH, we examined the effects of lung overexpression of angiostatin, an angiogenesis inhibitor, on development of hypoxic PH and lung endothelial cell (EC) density. Angiostatin delivery was achieved by a defective adeno-virus expressing a secretable angiostatin K3 molcule driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (Ad.K3). Comparison was made with a control vector containing no gene in the expression cassette (Ad.CO1). Treatment with Ad.K3 (300 plaque-forming units [pfu]/cell) inhibited cultured human pulmonary artery EC migration by 100% and proliferation by 50%, but was without effects on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. After intratracheal administration of Ad.K3 (10 9 pfu) to mice, angios-tatin protein became
Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate blood flow in the pulmonary artery in 14 patients 2 to 42 months (mean (SD) 17 (12) months) after a modified Fontan operation incorporating a direct atriopulmonary anastomosis. Preoperatively six patients had tricuspid atresia, six had a double inlet left ventricle, and two had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum. The postoperative rhythm was sinus in 11 patients, junctional in one, ventricular pacing in one, and atrioventricular sequential pacing in one. In one patient the Doppler trace was unsatisfactory for analysis. In all patients forward flow in the pulmonary artery had biphasic peaks related to both atrial and ventricular contraction. The mean (SD) peak flow velocity that was synchronous with atrial contraction was 80 (30) cm/s and that synchronous with ventricular contraction was 74 (23) cm/s. The atrial contribution to total pulmonary artery flow, assessed by velocity-time integrals, varied between 22% and 73% (mean (SD) 45 ...
20-HETE is pro-proliferative, -inflammatory, and -migratory (49, 66), all of which contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Although the increase in 20-HETE by hypoxia inhibited acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery constriction (2, 69), it time and dose dependently increased superoxide production from NADPH oxidases in the cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells (37). Also, studies have reported that 20-HETE-induced superoxide mediated flow-induced constriction of cerebral arteries (58). Our current results further demonstrated that inhibition of 20-HETE biosynthesis by DDMS decreased mitochondrial superoxide generation and conversely application of 20-HETE to endothelium denuded pulmonary arteries for 12 h elicited superoxide generation from mitochondria but not from extra-mitochondrial sources. This led us to the question of how does 20-HETE increase mitochondrial superoxide generation? One potential explanation was 20-HETE passed through the gap junctions ...
The clinical entity of unilateral pulmonary artery absence or hypoplasia can be readily diagnosed on the basis of routine clinical evaluation. This report is based upon 5 patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected and eventually confirmed with the aid of special studies. Characteristic hemodynamic findings were demonstrated by means of cardiac catheterization and contrast visualization of the cardiopulmonary system.. ...
Culture of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells from Pulmonary Artery Catheter Balloon Tips: Considerations for Use in Pulmonary Vascular Disease The authors cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from pulmonary artery catheter balloons used during right heart catheterization, to characterize successful culture attempts and to describe PAEC behavior. [Eur Respir J] Abstract Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Prime Naïve CD8+ T Cells into Memory Cells under Steady-State Conditions Researchers showed that while many proliferating lymphatic endothelial cell-educated T cells entered early apoptosis, the remainders comprised a long-lived memory subset, with transcriptional, metabolic, and phenotypic features of central memory and stem cell-like memory T cells. [Nat Commun] Full Article Endothelial ZEB1 Promotes Angiogenesis-Dependent Bone Formation and Reverses Osteoporosis Investigators showed that the zinc-finger transcription factor ZEB1 was predominantly expressed in CD31hiendomucinhi ...
A complete solution to propagate pulmonary artery endothelial cells in low serum conditions with or without the addition of human recombinant VEGF.
In this study we have shown that patients with COPD receiving LTOT tolerate invasive haemodynamic assessment, including ambulatory PAP monitoring, and can safely perform cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a low workload. The number of patients presented is small because of difficulties encountered in recruiting frail patients in respiratory failure for invasive haemodynamic monitoring but, nevertheless, we found significant changes in haemodynamics.. Previous studies of PAP in patients with COPD have shown that values are modestly increased and progression slow.8 However, most of these measurements have been of resting pressure which has been shown to be of relatively poor prognostic value.9 Furthermore, it has also been shown that even routine daily activities in patients with mild COPD and normal resting oxygen saturations are associated with reductions in oxygen saturation.5. In this study we have measured PAP in a variety of situations in patients with respiratory failure receiving LTOT and ...
Continuous or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia can lead to long-term contraction of the pulmonary artery and structural changes in the pulmonary vascular wall known as hypoxic pulmonary vessel remodelling (HPVR) [20]. HPVR is characterised by thickening of small pulmonary artery wall and muscularizing of pulmonary arteriole, which can result in sustained high pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy [21]. It has become clear that pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are closely related to the development of pulmonary hypertension, which are regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and calmodulin (CaM) [1]. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration has also been suggested to regulate gene expression and cellular proliferation [2, 6, 22-25]. Intracellular calcium levels in PASMCs are mainly regulated by extracellular calcium influx and the release of intracellular calcium stores. Chelation of extracellular calcium in human PASMCs can significantly inhibit serum or ...
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats. Kv1.5 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were determined. We found that IUGR increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and resulted in thicker pulmonary artery smooth muscle layer in 14-week-old rats ...
Genistein, a Soy Phytoestrogen, Reverses Severe Pulmonary Hypertension and Prevents Right Heart Failure in Rats - Hypertension. 2012 Jul 2 - PH was induced in male rats by 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline. After 21 days, when PH was well established, rats received daily injection of genistein (1 mg/kg per day) for 10 days or were left untreated to develop RHF by day 30. Effects of genistein on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy were assessed in vitro. Severe PH was evident 21 days after monocrotaline, as peak systolic right ventricular pressure increased to 66.35+/-1.03 mm Hg and right ventricular ejection fraction reduced to 41.99+/-1.27%. PH progressed to RHF by day 30 (right ventricular pressure, 72.41+/-1.87 mm Hg; RV ejection fraction, 29.25+/-0.88%), and mortality was ≈75% in RHF rats. Genistein therapy resulted in significant improvement in lung and heart function as right ventricular pressure was ...
Mouse Pulmonary Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from tissue of pathogen-free laboratory mice. Mouse Pulmonary Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Cell Culture Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and is delivered frozen ...
Figure 1: Relaxation of bovine pulmonary arteries under basal conditions. A: Representative tracing. Endothelium deprived artery strip (detector) was precontracted with 10-5 M histamine (HA). In the upper panel significant relaxation was induced by perfusing the detector with effluent of an endothelium intact pulmonary artery (generator) which was collected and stored prior to perfusion for five minutes (CE). Following direct superfusion (G), additional relaxation was induced. In control experiments (lower panel) only direct superfusion (G) was performed; W = wash. B: Average relaxation. Data shown as mean +/- SEM ...
A complete solution to propagate pulmonary artery endothelial cells in low serum conditions with or without the addition of human recombinant VEGF.
A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level.. ...
Browsing Research Articles (Cardiothoracic Surgery) by Title Aneurysm of a peripheral pulmonary artery : case report and brief review of the literature ...
Small, muscular pulmonary arteries (PAs) constrict within seconds of the onset of alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood flow to better-ventilated lobes, thereby matching ventilation to perfusion and optimizing systemic PO2. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is enhanced by endothelial derived vasoconstrictors, such as endothelin, and inhibited by endothelial derived nitric oxide. However, the essence of the response is intrinsic to PA smooth muscle cells in resistance arteries (PASMCs). HPV is initiated by inhibition of the Kv channels in PASMCs which set the membrane potential (EM). It is currently uncertain whether this reflects an initial inhibitory effect of hypoxia on the K+ channels or an initial release of intracellular Ca2+, which then inhibits K+ channels. In either scenario, the resulting depolarization activates L-type, voltage gated Ca2+ channels, which raises cytosolic calcium levels [Ca2+]i and causes vasoconstriction. Nine families of Kv channels are recognized from cloning ...
The pulmonary vasculature comprises a complex network of branching arteries and veins all functioning to reoxygenate the blood for circulation around the body. The cell types of the pulmonary artery are able to respond to changes in oxygen tension in order to match ventilation to perfusion. Stem and progenitor cells in the pulmonary vasculature are also involved, be it in angiogenesis, endothelial dysfunction or formation of vascular lesions. Stem and progenitor cells may be circulating around the body, residing in the pulmonary artery wall or stimulated for release from a central niche like the bone marrow and home to the pulmonary vasculature along a chemotactic gradient. There may currently be some controversy over the pathogenic versus therapeutic roles of stem and progenitor cells and, indeed, it is likely both chains of evidence are correct due to the specific influence of the immediate environmental niche a progenitor cell may be in. Due to their great plasticity and a lack of specific markers
Perfusion scintigraphy demonstrated large bilateral perfusion defects, and the MR angiogram showed significant stenoses of the proximal portions of both pulmonary arteries (figure 1B, D). The coronal CT image highlighted narrowing of the left pulmonary artery secondary to the large mass-like perihilar lesions of PMF (arrow, figure 1C). There was no evidence of large airway obstruction secondary to these lesions.. On right heart catheterisation there was evidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 39 mm Hg and a moderate elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (6 Wood units). The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (4 mm Hg), right atrial pressure (3 mm Hg) and cardiac index (3.26 L/min/m2) were in the normal range. There was a wide pulmonary artery pulse pressure (83/16 mm Hg), consistent with proximal rather than distal involvement of the pulmonary vasculature. A diagnosis of PH secondary to bilateral central pulmonary artery stenoses was made.. The ...
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The early phases of PAH are considered to be histologically nonspecific, with medial pulmonary arterial and adventitial thickening and the appearance of muscle in the walls of normally nonmuscular arteries being the only abnormalities.20 Many current screening modalities depend on detecting an increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, and thus the early stages of pulmonary vascular disease are likely to be overlooked.21 One mechanism of vascular remodeling is VSMC proliferation.20 We previously reported that sLR11 is a biomarker of VSMC proliferation in atherosclerosis.11,13,15 That prospective study of a small cohort of naive patients uncovered a relationship between sLR11 and mean pulmonary arterial pressure or pulmonary vascular resistance. Levels of sLR11 were significantly increased in patients with, rather than without, PAH. Serum sLR11 levels were 7.8±1.6 ng/mL in 56 healthy volunteers (data not shown). These levels significantly differed between healthy volunteers and patients with PAH ...
Gross Appearance The right ventricle and pulmonary arteries are opened to show a fresh, coiled thromboembolus in the ventricle and in the main, left, and right pulmonary arteries. No infarcts were found in the lungs.. Because this cause of death is usually not suspected, standard autopsy procedure includes exploring the proximal pulmonary arteries for emboli immediately after the chest is opened so as not to displace possible emboli. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Original Research. T2 - Role of phosphodiesterases in modulation of BK Ca channels in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. AU - Zhu, Shu. AU - White, Richard E.. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - BK Ca channels regulate pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits BK Ca channels, but little is known about PKC-mediated modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. Studies were carried out to determine mechanisms of PKC modulation of BK Ca channel activity in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) of the fawn-hooded rat (FHR), an animal model of pulmonary hypertension. Forskolin opened BK Ca channels in FHR PASMC, which was blocked by PKC activation, and reversed by the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors IBMX, milrinone, and zaprinast. PDE inhibition also blocked the vasoconstrictor response to PKC activation in FHR pulmonary arteries. These results indicate that PKC inhibits cAMP-induced ...
Imatinib is an anti-proliferative agent that was originally designed to inhibit the oncogenic Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia [41]. Imatinib also has an inhibitory effect on platelet-derived growth factor and c-KIT signalling. These compounds are both important in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and hyperplasia and have been implicated in the development of PH [42-44].. Imatinib has been shown to reverse pulmonary vascular disease in animal models of PAH [45], and has been shown to have in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells taken from patients with PAH [46].. An initial case study reported the effects of imatinib in a patient with PAH classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV, whose condition was deteriorating despite receiving combination therapy with oral bosentan, inhaled iloprost and sildenafil (but who refused intravenous prostacyclin therapy) [47]. Treatment with ...
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for eNOS. Sepiapterin (Sep) is converted into BH4 by the salvage pathway. BH4 is labile at physiological pH and easily oxidized to BH3 or BH2, making it useless as a cofactor for eNOS dependent •NO generation. Loss of BH4, whether through increased oxidation or impaired synthesis, has been linked to pulmonary hypertension. Previously we showed that NADPH oxidase derived superoxide (O2•−) impaired angiogenesis of Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells (PAEC) isolated from in utero pulmonary hypertension fetal lambs (HTFL). As increased NADPH oxidase activity has been linked to oxidation of BH4 and in turn, impaired eNOS activity, we hypothesized that restoring BH4 with Sep might improve PAEC function isolated from HTFL. To test this hypothesis we supplemented PAEC isolated from normotensive fetal lambs and HTFL with Sep (30 μM) and then examined its effects on angiogenesis. Angiogenesis was quantified with respect to tube length, cell ...
Discontinuity of central intrapericardial pulmonary arteries requires reconstruction of a pulmonary artery confluence before cavopulmonary connection, whether this connection be by bidirectional Glenn or Fontan procedure. Reconstruction of the centra
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is supposed to be identical to nitric oxide (NO). A characteristic of NO is its half-life of 6-50 seconds. We report here bioassay experiments suggesting the presence of a long-acting EDRF. An endothelium intact segment of the main bovine pulmonary artery (generator) and an endothelium deprived artery strip (detector) were seperately perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The effluent of the generator was collected and permitted to stand in an open beaker at 37 °C for periods exceeding five minutes. Following this the collected effluent (CE) perfused the histamine precontracted detector, causing significant relaxation. The same degree of relaxation could be observed after storing CE for 80-120 minutes. After reaching steady state generator effluent (G) was directly superfused over the detector (time delay about two seconds) resulting in a more pronounced relaxation. Addition of pharmacological stimuli of EDRF mediated relaxation augmented, addition of ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease which manifests itself in the lungs of both adults and children. Vascular proliferation and remodeling are the hallmarks of PH and are found mainly in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The cause of PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in PH is poorly understood. Hypoxia, or low oxygen content, underlies many forms of PH. Hypoxia results in alterations in the redox balance of the PASMC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the role of the thioredoxin system, an antioxidant system in the cell, in hypoxia-induced proliferation in PASMC. Protein was isolated from human PASMC which were exposed to either hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2, balance N2) or normoxia (21% O2, 5% CO2 and balance N2) to determine the protein levels of thioredoxin 1 and 2 (Trx1 and Trx2), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), by Western blotting. Proliferation studies were also done by seeding 6 well plates with 10,000 PASMC
Sudden death due to massive pulmonary embolism is a relatively common autopsy finding, and the medical literature is replete with studies of cases in this category. However, chronic thrombosis of the main pulmonary artery or of the right or left main branches is, in contrast, a rare finding and reported cases are limited in number. As one descends the pulmonary arterial tree, thrombosis becomes more common, depending upon the diligence with which prosection is done. Certainly lobular thrombosis is seen more frequently than lobar and, in turn, arteriolar thrombosis is far more common than either.. A total of 11,511 consecutive ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (uapa) is a heart defect that is present from birth. the pulmonary artery takes blood from the heart to the lungs. in the absence of a pulmonary artery, other blood vessels compensate by supplying blood to the lungs. pressure can build inside these vessels and lead to heart and lung complications. uapa can be left sided or right sided. it most often occurs alone, but can occur with other heart anomalies and birth defects. signs and symptoms include repeat lung infections, lower exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fluid in the lungs. risk for these symptoms increase with age. complications of uapa include, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), respiratory hemorrhage, and high blood pressure in the arteries to the lung (pulmonary hypertension). serious complications may be triggered by stress on the body, such as pregnancy and altitude sickness. last updated: 2/26/2014 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary vascular effects of prostaglandin D2, but not its systemic vascular or airway effects, are mediated through thromboxane receptor activation. AU - King, L. S.. AU - Fukushima, M.. AU - Banerjee, M.. AU - Kang, Kyung Ho. AU - Newman, J. H.. AU - Biaggioni, I.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) can cause pulmonary vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on animal species and age. Because the constrictor effects of PGD2 in some vascular beds may be mediated through thromboxane receptors, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the vascular or bronchial effects of PGD2 are mediated through thromboxane/endoperoxide (TX/E) receptor activation. In chronically instrumented awake sheep, PGD2 (5-25 μg/kg i.v.) produced a dose-dependent increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and in systemic arterial blood pressure. These changes were due to increases in resistance, because cardiac output remained unchanged. PGD2 also decreased dynamic ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, progressive disorder characterized by high blood pressure (hypertension) in the arteries of the lungs (pulmonary artery) for no apparent reason. The pulmonary arteries are the blood vessels that carry bloo
The extraction and analysis of the pulmonary artery in computed tomography (CT) of the chest can be an important, but time-consuming step for the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease, in particular in non-contrast data, where the pulmonary artery has low contrast and frequently merges with adjacent tissue of similar intensity. We here present a new method for the automatic segmentation of the pulmonary artery based on an adaptive model, Hough and Euclidean distance transforms, and spline fitting, which works equally well on non-contrast and contrast enhanced data. An evaluation on 40 patient data sets and a comparison to manual segmentations in terms of Jaccard index, sensitivity, specificity, and minimum mean distance shows its overall robustness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary artery sling. T2 - Primary repair by tracheal resection in infancy. AU - Jonas, R. A.. AU - Spevak, P. J.. AU - McGill, T.. AU - Castaneda, A. R.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Two case reports illustrate a new technique of tracheal resection for primary one-stage correction of pulmonary artery sling. This allows both for removal of the stenotic tracheal segment and for left pulmonary arteriopexy without need for vascular anastomosis.. AB - Two case reports illustrate a new technique of tracheal resection for primary one-stage correction of pulmonary artery sling. This allows both for removal of the stenotic tracheal segment and for left pulmonary arteriopexy without need for vascular anastomosis.. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/s0022-5223(19)34545-3. DO - 10.1016/s0022-5223(19)34545-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 2486055. AN - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia on [Ca2+]i mobilization in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. AU - Nishio, Kazumi. AU - Suzuki, Yukio. AU - Takeshita, Kei. AU - Aoki, Takuya. AU - Kudo, Hiroyasu. AU - Sato, Nagato. AU - Naoki, Katsuhiko. AU - Miyao, Naoki. AU - Ishii, Makoto. AU - Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro. PY - 2001/6. Y1 - 2001/6. N2 - The hydrogen ion is an important factor in the alteration of vascular tone in pulmonary circulation. Endothelial cells modulate vascular tone by producing vasoactive substances such as prostacyclin (PGI2) through a process depending on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). We studied the influence of CO2-related pH changes on [Ca2+]i and PGI2 production in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs). Hypercapnic acidosis appreciably increased [Ca2+]i from 112 ± 24 to 157 ± 38 nmol/l. Intracellular acidification at a normal extracellular pH increased [Ca2+]i comparable to that observed during hypercapnic acidosis. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical determinants of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in early systemic sclerosis. AU - EUSTAR co-authors. AU - Carreira, Patricia E.. AU - Carmona, Loreto. AU - Joven, Beatriz E.. AU - Loza, Estibaliz. AU - Andreu, José Luis. AU - Riemekasten, Gabriela. AU - Vettori, Serena. AU - Allanore, Yannick. AU - Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra. AU - Airò, Paolo. AU - Walker, Ulrich A.. AU - Damjanov, Nemanja. AU - Ananieva, Lidia P.. AU - Rednic, Simona. AU - Czirják, L.. AU - Distler, Oliver. AU - Farge, Dominique. AU - Hesselstrand, Roger. AU - Corrado, Ada. AU - Caramaschi, Paola. AU - Tikly, Mohammed. AU - Matucci-Cerinic, Marco. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective. To explore the prevalence and clinical associations of elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), measured by Transthoracic Dopplerechocardiography (TTE) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of ...
Isolated unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery without any intracardiac anomaly is a rare congenital cardiovascular disorder. We performed a successful surgical reconstruction with autologous tissue of this anomaly. The patient was a 1-month-old boy who had been transferred to our center at 3 days of age because of tachypnea and heart murmur. Multi-detector CT and radial angiography imaging revealed isolated unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery and left patent ductus arteriosus. Conservative treatment did not help his progressive heart failure and pulmonary hypertension due to an acute increase of pulmonary blood flow. Therefore surgical correction was determined to avoid the worsening of those symptoms. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the right pulmonary artery branching off from the brachiocephalic artery was removed and anastomosed to the main pulmonary artery with an autologous pericardium roll. Symptoms improved postoperatively and he was discharged in good condition on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary artery rupture induced by a pulmonary artery catheter. T2 - A case report and review of the literature. AU - Abreu, Alexandre. AU - Campos, Michael A. AU - Krieger, Bruce P.. PY - 2004/9/1. Y1 - 2004/9/1. N2 - Placement and use of pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) carry potential risks. The authors describe a case of a patient who developed massive hemoptysis after placement of a PAC that caused a rupture of the pulmonary artery with pseudoaneurysm formation. Treatment was successfully achieved with transcatheter coil embolization. Pulmonary artery rupture and pseudoaneurysm formation are among the most serious complications of PAC use because of the associated risk of mortality. Patients with this complication may be asymptomatic or may present with variable amounts of hemoptysis immediately or days after using a PAC. The gold standard diagnostic test is pulmonary angiography, and the treatment of choice for most patients is transcatheter embolization. Physicians and ...
Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Pulmonary artery sling 1 found (4 total). alternate case: pulmonary artery sling. Acute severe asthma (1,007 words) [view diff] case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A fractal continuum model of the pulmonary arterial tree. AU - Krenz, G. S.. AU - Linehan, J. H.. AU - Dawson, C. A.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The extant morphometric data from the intrapulmonary arteries of dog, human, and cat lungs produce graphs of the log of the vessel number, (N) or length (l) in each level vs. the log of the mean diameter (D) in each level that are sufficiently linear to suggest that a scale-independent self-similar or fractal structure may underlie the observed relationships.. AB - The extant morphometric data from the intrapulmonary arteries of dog, human, and cat lungs produce graphs of the log of the vessel number, (N) or length (l) in each level vs. the log of the mean diameter (D) in each level that are sufficiently linear to suggest that a scale-independent self-similar or fractal structure may underlie the observed relationships.. KW - compliance. KW - hemodynamics. KW - inertance. KW - resistance. UR - ...
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on ALCAPA at PatientsLikeMe. 7 patients with ALCAPA experience fatigue, insomnia, depressed mood, pain, and anxious mood.
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, ba...
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Learn more about anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in children and how Boston Childrens Hospital can help.
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Learn more about Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery -- Child at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery -- Child at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Right pulmonary artery to left atrial fistula in a neonate: case report and review of the literature. AU - Mongé, M. C.. AU - Russell, H. M.. AU - Popescu, A. M.. AU - Robinson, J. D.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - A communication between the right pulmonary artery (RPA) and the left atrium is a rare congenital anomaly that presents with cyanosis and heart failure. We describe the surgical repair of an RPA to left atrial fistula using cardiopulmonary bypass in a neonate. Advanced imaging (computed tomography scan) guided the surgical approach. Although previous reports have associated a patent ductus arteriosus with high neonatal mortality, in our case, the ductus arteriosus was actually important for maintaining enough total pulmonary blood flow.. AB - A communication between the right pulmonary artery (RPA) and the left atrium is a rare congenital anomaly that presents with cyanosis and heart failure. We describe the surgical repair of an RPA to left atrial fistula using ...
OBJECTIVE Significant and balanced pulmonary artery (PA) growth following arterial duct (AD) stenting has already been reported in literature. However, no data are so far available about the role of this percutaneous approach in promoting PA growth in the case of congenital heart disease (CHD) with completely duct-dependent pulmonary blood flow (CDD-PBF). Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AD stenting in this pathophysiological setting. METHODS PA growth was evaluated as Nakata index and McGoon ratio as well as individual PA z-score changes in 49 patients submitted to neonatal AD stenting according to their pathophysiology (CDD-PBF (n=15) versus multiple PBF sources (n=34)). RESULTS Control angiography was performed 7.2±6.4 months (range 1-8, median 6) after AD stenting. In the whole population, significant and balanced PA growth was recorded (Nakata index+122±117%; left pulmonary artery (LPA) z-score +84±52%; right pulmonary artery (RPA) z-score +92±53% versus preprocedure, p|0
Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly often associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities. It is usually diagnosed and surgically treated in childhood. Subjects without associated cardiac anomalies (isolated unilatera
TY - JOUR. T1 - Successful extracorporeal circulatory support after aorticreimplantation of anomalous left coronary artery. AU - Alexi-Meskishvili, V.. AU - Hetzer, R.. AU - Weng, Y.. AU - Loebe, M.. AU - Lange, P. E.. AU - Ishino, K.. PY - 1994/10. Y1 - 1994/10. N2 - The development of severe heart failure is the main cause ofpostoperative mortality after the surgical treatment of anomalous origin ofthe left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). Two patientswith ALCAPA who developed low cardiac output and could not be weaned fromcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after aortic reimplantation of the anomalousleft coronary artery were successfully treated with a centrifugal leftventricular assist device (LVAD) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO). The circulation of a 10-month-old infant with severe leftventricular dysfunction was supported 192 h postoperatively with a LVAD anda 9-year-old boy with severe right ventricular failure received ECMOsupport for 99 h following surgery. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of noninvasive MRI-based methods of estimating pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary hypertension. AU - Roeleveld, Roald J. AU - Marcus, J Tim. AU - Boonstra, Anco. AU - Postmus, Pieter E. AU - Marques, Koen M. AU - Bronzwaer, Jean G F. AU - Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of several noninvasive MRI-based estimators of pulmonary artery pressure by comparing them with invasive pressure measurement.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared five MRI methods with invasive pressure measurement by catheterization, in one group of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients. Doppler echocardiography was included as a reference method. Main inclusion criterion was a mean pulmonary artery pressure above 25 mmHg at catheterization. MRI velocity quantification was used to obtain pulmonary flow acceleration and ejection times, and pulse wave velocity. The ventricular mass index was also assessed on MRI. Two commercially available 1.5-T ...
We report clinical, CT, invasive coronary angiography and intra-operative findings of a symptomatic elderly man with anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). ALCAPA is a rare syndrome with anomalous origin of left main coronary artery (LMCA) from main pulmonary artery (MPA). Survival into adulthood is rare and our case is probably the oldest survivor who has undergone two coronary system repairs for this anomaly. The unique features of our case include: 1) Absence of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary artery rupture as a complication of pulmonary hypertension. T2 - Report of a case and review of the literature. AU - Reagin, K. B.. AU - Tazelaar, Henry D.. AU - Edwards, William D.. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. N2 - A 57-year-old woman with severe thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension died suddenly, approximately 3 hours after pulmonary angiography. Autopsy revealed a hemopericardium (350 mL) due to rupture of the pulmonary artery. Three acute partial intimal-medial tears also were observed. Fatal rupture of the mediastinal pulmonary arteries is a rare complication of severe pulmonary hypertension. A review of eight similar cases indicates that rupture tends to occur in patients with systemic levels of pressure, thrombotic (rather than plexogenic) forms of pulmonary hypertension, and survival longer than two years (mean, 4.5 years) from diagnosis.. AB - A 57-year-old woman with severe thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension died suddenly, approximately 3 hours after ...
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a female dominant, fatal disease characterized by progressive increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and loss of compliance. The role of estrogen in these pulmonary vascular changes with PAH progression remains unclear. Our objective was to study the effects of estrogen on pulmonary arterial (PA) remodeling in a mouse model of progressive PAH, created via a combination of a VEGF inhibitor Sugen and chronic hypoxia (SuHx). To quantify PA hemodynamics, we measured in vivo pressure and flow simultaneously in live mice in order to obtain pulmonary vascular impedance, a comprehensive measure of RV afterload. Our results demonstrate that estrogen modifies the relationship between PA resistance and compliance by attenuating PA stiffening, which provides insight into sex differences in PAH progression. ...
A method and apparatus for determining right heart ejection fraction by injecting a cold indicator into the right ventricle or locations in the heart upstream thereof during an injection period and allowing the indicator to be diluted with blood and flow to the pulmonary artery whereby the temperature of the fluid in the pulmonary artery falls and then rises, measuring the temperature of the fluid in the pulmonary artery at least during the time that the temperature in the pulmonary artery is rising, measuring a prebolus temperature of the blood in the pulmonary artery prior to the time that the cold indicator reaches the pulmonary artery, establishing a post bolus baseline temperature which is lower than said prebolus baseline temperature, comparing at least some of the measured temperatures during the time that the temperatures of the fluid in the pulmonary artery are rising to the post bolus baseline temperature to establish temperature differentials, and using at least some of the temperature
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wandering bullet embolizing to the pulmonary artery. T2 - A case report. AU - Agarwal, Surendra K.. AU - Singh, Amrendra. AU - Kathuria, Manoj. AU - Ghosh, Probal K.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Whilst a missile embolizing to the right side of the heart is a common occurrence, embolization to the pulmonary arteries is rare. We report a case of a bullet entering through the right internal jugular vein to the right ventricle, and then migrating to the left pulmonary artery, and its management. To our knowledge, this is the first reported such case from the Indian subcontinent.. AB - Whilst a missile embolizing to the right side of the heart is a common occurrence, embolization to the pulmonary arteries is rare. We report a case of a bullet entering through the right internal jugular vein to the right ventricle, and then migrating to the left pulmonary artery, and its management. To our knowledge, this is the first reported such case from the Indian subcontinent.. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Notch3 signaling promotes the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. AU - Li, Xiaodong. AU - Zhang, Xiaoxue. AU - Leathers, Robin. AU - Makino, Ayako. AU - Huang, Chengqun. AU - Parsa, Pouria. AU - MacIas, Jesus. AU - Yuan, Jason X.J.. AU - Jamieson, Stuart W.. AU - Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.. PY - 2009/11/1. Y1 - 2009/11/1. N2 - Notch receptor signaling is implicated in controlling smooth muscle cell proliferation and in maintaining smooth muscle cells in an undifferentiated state. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by excessive vascular resistance, smooth muscle cell proliferation in small pulmonary arteries, leading to elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and death. Here we show that human pulmonary hypertension is characterized by overexpression of NOTCH3 in small pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and that the severity of disease in humans and rodents correlates with the amount of NOTCH3 protein in the lung. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Feasibility of oxygen sensitive cardiac magnetic resonance of the right ventricle in pulmonary artery hypertension. AU - Raman, Karthigesh Sree. AU - Stokes, Michael. AU - Walls, Angela. AU - Perry, Rebecca. AU - Steele, Peter M.. AU - Burdeniuk, Christine. AU - De Pasquale, Carmine G.. AU - Celermajer, David S.. AU - Selvanayagam, Joseph B.. N1 - This journal is a peer reviewed, open access journal. All content of the journal is published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute as defined by the applied license.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Background: Progressive right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) which is contributed by RV ischemia leads to adverse clinical outcomes. Oxygen-sensitive (OS) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery. T2 - A Systematic Review. AU - Guenther, Timothy M.. AU - Sherazee, Elan A.. AU - Wisneski, Andrew D.. AU - Gustafson, Joshua D.. AU - Wozniak, Curtis J.. AU - Raff, Gary W.. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Background: Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital cardiac lesion that has been diagnosed in both children and adults with symptoms ranging from an asymptomatic murmur to sudden cardiac death. The aim of this review was to characterize published cases of ARCAPA to better understand this rare congenital coronary anomaly. Methods: A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for cases of ARCAPA. Keywords searched included: anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and ARCAPA. Results: A total of 223 cases of ARCAPA were identified in 193 case reports. There was a slight male ...
Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare and highly malignant tumor that originates in the pulmonary artery. The majority of reported cases of PAS are confirmed by pathological examination subsequent to surgery or by autopsy. The present study reports the clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotypes of three cases of PAS, and aims to facilitate the identification of this lethal disease. In the present study, the data from clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of three patients with PAS, whose diagnoses were confirmed by surgical biopsy conducted at the Beijing Anzhen Hospital (Beijing, China) between 2008 and 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients (two women and one man; average age, 41.3 years old) presented with dyspnea on exertion. In addition, two of the patients experienced chest tightness, and one patient experienced intermittent syncope. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed that two of the patients ...
Idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), previously referred to as primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), is a relatively recently described entity with an unclear etiology. IPAH is a serious syndrome, with significant morbidity and mortality.
Autori: Ginghina C, Popescu BA, Enache R, Ungureanu C, Deleanu D, Platon P. Editorial: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, 9 (7), p.747-750, 2008.. Rezumat:. Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.. Cuvinte cheie: angina, extrinsic compression, pulmonary artery dilatation, stenting, the left main ...
Video articles in JoVE about pulmonary circulation include Induction and Characterization of Pulmonary Hypertension in Mice using the Hypoxia/SU5416 Model, Surgical Placement of Catheters for Long-term Cardiovascular Exercise Testing in Swine, Videomorphometric Analysis of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction of Intra-pulmonary Arteries Using Murine Precision Cut Lung Slices, 2-Vessel Occlusion/Hypotension: A Rat Model of Global Brain Ischemia, Induction of Right Ventricular Failure by Pulmonary Artery Constriction and Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function in Mice, Synthesis, Functionalization, and Characterization of Fusogenic Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Oligonucleotide Delivery, The Left Pneumonectomy Combined with Monocrotaline or Sugen as a Model of Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats, Induction and Phenotyping of Acute Right Heart Failure in a Large Animal Model of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension, Lung microRNA Profiling Across the Estrous Cycle in Ozone-exposed
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a syndrome of dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain and syncope defined by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of unknown cause. The pathobiology of PAH remains incompletely understood. The gene of the idiopathic form of PAH (IPAH) has been located on chromosome 2, and shown to present mutations of a sequence that encodes for a transforming growth factor receptor, bone morphogenenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2). Severe pulmonary hypertension is associated with an increased expression of the angiogenic factor, angiopoietin-1, which shuts off the expression of BMPR1A, a transmembrane protein necessary for BMPR2 signalling, and thereby causes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. Additional biological abnormalities have been identified at all pulmonary arterial wall compartments of PAH patients. The endothelium produces an excess of endo-thelin, a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic mediator, while synthesis and release of antagonistic ...
Introduction: Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare Cardiovascular Disease presented with an incidence of 1:300000 live births. Case Presentation: In this manuscript, four cases of ALCAPA in infancy were described. Two infants were presented with respiratory distress and two with heart a murmur. Their coronary artery was ...
Noninvasive pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) is calculated by summing the right ventricular systolic pressure obtained from Doppler velocity of regurgitant flow through the tricuspid valve and the right atrial (RA) pressure. The RA pressure is generally assumed from different formulas. An accurate KA pressure estimation will add precision to PASP calculation. One of the methods to estimate RA pressure is the inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVCCI). In 45 patients referred for right heart catheterization, the authors tested a formula for the calculation of PASP based on the estimation of RA pressure from IVCCI and compared this method with two other formulas. ...
BACKGROUND: Since pulmonary artery balloon flotation catheterization was first introduced in 1970, by HJ Swan and W Ganz, it has been widely disseminated as a diagnostic tool without rigorous evaluation of its clinical utility and effectiveness in critically ill patients. A pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is inserted through a central venous access into the right side of the heart and floated into the pulmonary artery. PAC is used to measure stroke volume, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation and intracardiac pressures with a variety of additional calculated variables to guide diagnosis and treatment. Complications of the procedure are mainly related to line insertion. Relatively uncommon complications include cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary haemorrhage and infarct, and associated mortality from balloon tip rupture.. OBJECTIVES: To provide an up-to-date assessment of the effectiveness of a PAC on mortality, length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital and cost of care ...
PAH is characterized by dysregulated cell proliferation and infiltration of activated inflammatory cells leading to progressive narrowing and obliteration of the distal pulmonary arteries. Persistent increases in pulmonary vascular resistance lead to right heart failure and ultimately death. While current therapeutics reduce pulmonary arterial pressure, and increase time to death or transplant, median survival is remains only five to seven years from the time of diagnosis. Unlike selective pulmonary vasodilators alone, approaches directed at inflammatory vascular remodeling have the potential to arrest or even reverse the disease.. Dr. Elinoffs research focus is the contributions of pulmonary vascular endothelium and immune effector cells to the development and progression of PAH. Current work includes in vitro profiling of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells with heterogeneous PAH-associated molecular defects in order to investigate molecular mechanisms that can exploited therapeutically. ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare-albeit deadly-disease that affects the arteries of the lung. In PAH, abnormal growth of cells of the vascular media-or the elastic wall-of the pulmonary arteries, called pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), results in thickening of the walls. This leads to the narrowing and/or obstruction of small pulmonary arteries, thus causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance and arterial pressure-ultimately leading to right heart failure. Over the years, various drugs have been approved for PAH treatment, but the survival of PAH patients three years after diagnosis still remains at approximately 60%, which is not ideal.. In a recent study published in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, researchers in Japan, including Professor Mitsunobu R. Kano and Dr Aiko Ogawa, found a new way to tackle PAH. They reasoned that to find a solution for PAH, a detailed understanding of the processes involved in this disease is crucial. To this end, ...
Photo: 2020 Mitsunobu R. Kano Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare--albeit deadly--disease that affects the arteries of the lung. In PAH, abnormal growth of cells of the vascular media--or the elastic wall--of the pulmonary arteries, called pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), results in thickening of the walls. This leads to the narrowing and/or obstruction of small pulmonary arteries, thus causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance and arterial pressure--ultimately leading to right heart failure. Over the years, various drugs have been approved for PAH treatment, but the survival of PAH patients three years after diagnosis still remains at approximately 60%, which is not ideal. In a recent study published in Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, researchers in Japan, including Professor Mitsunobu R. Kano and Dr. Aiko Ogawa, found a new way to tackle PAH. They reasoned that to find a solution for PAH, a detailed understanding of the processes
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, also known as Abcc4) regulates intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP in arterial SMCs. Here, we report our studies of the role of MRP4 in the development and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe vascular disease characterized by chronically elevated pulmonary artery pressure and accompanied by remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries as a prelude to right heart failure and premature death. MRP4 expression was increased in pulmonary arteries from patients with idiopathic PAH as well as in WT mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. Consistent with a pathogenic role for MRP4 in PAH, WT mice exposed to hypoxia for 3 weeks showed reversal of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) following oral administration of the MRP4 inhibitor MK571, and Mrp4-/- mice were protected from hypoxic PH. Inhibition of MRP4 in vitro was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels and PKA and PKG activities, implicating cyclic ...
The present study was undertaken to determine whether the two ubiquitously expressed Ca(2+)-independent phosphatases PP1 and PP2A regulate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I(Cl(Ca))) elicited by 500 nM [Ca(2+)](i) in rabbit pulmonary artery (PA) myocytes dialyzed with or without 3 mM ATP. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments revealed the expression of PP1alpha, PP1beta/delta, PP1gamma, PP2Aalpha, PP2Abeta, PP2Balpha (calcineurin (CaN) Aalpha), and PP2Bbeta (CaN Abeta) but not PP2Bgamma (CaN Agamma) in rabbit PA. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments confirmed the presence of all three PP1 isoforms and PP2A. Intracellular dialysis with a peptide inhibitor of calcineurin (CaN-AIP); the non-selective PP1/PP2A inhibitors okadaic acid (0.5, 10, or 30 nM), calyculin A (10 nM), or cantharidin (100 nM); and the selective PP1 inhibitor NIPP-1 (100 pM) potently antagonized the recovery of I(Cl(Ca)) in cells dialyzed with no ATP, whereas the PP2A-selective antagonist fostriecin (30 or 150 nM) was
BioAssay record AID 211903 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro binding affinity towards Tachykinin receptor 2 using rabbit pulmonary artery tissues.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial cardiopulmonary disease characterized by an elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), which can lead to right ventricular (RV) failure, multi-organ dysfunction, and ultimately to premature death. dysfunction (7). Open in a separate window Figure 1 Pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. PAH is associated with vascular and cardiac remodeling. In PAH, vascular remodeling is characterized by smooth muscle and endothelial cell dysfunction. Indeed, both cell types contribute to muscularization, obstruction, and constriction of distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) which progressively increase the vascular resistance to induce right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and eventually RV dysfunction. Representative photos from the vascular redesigning in pulmonary arterioles have already been previously released by Dr Hadri and collaborators (185). PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension; Rolapitant cost PASMC, pulmonary ...
en] The acid-sensitive, two-pore domain K(+) channel, TASK-1, contributes to the background K(+) conductance and membrane potential (Em) of rat and human pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells (SMC), but its role in regulating tone remains elusive. This study aimed to clarify the role of TASK-1 by determining the functional properties of PA from mice in which the TASK-1 gene was deleted (TASK-1/3 KO), in comparison with wild type (WT) C57BL/6 controls. Small vessel wire myography was used to measure isometric tension developed by intact PA. Em and currents were recorded from freshly isolated PASMC using the perforated patch-clamp technique. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to estimate K(+) channel expression. We could find no difference between PA from WT and TASK-1/3 KO TASK KO mice. They showed similar constrictor responses to a range of agonists and K(+) concentrations, the K(+) channel blockers 4-aminopyridine, tetraethylammonuim ions and XE991. ...
Pulmonary circuit Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery.Deep ... The largest pulmonary artery is the main pulmonary artery or pulmonary trunk from the heart, and the smallest ones are the ... The pulmonary trunk splits into the right and the left main pulmonary artery. The left main pulmonary artery is shorter than ... These in turn branch into subsegmental pulmonary arteries. These eventually form intralobular arteries. The pulmonary arteries ...
... pulmonary artery, and the filling pressure (pulmonary wedge pressure) of the left atrium. The pulmonary artery catheter is ... is a balloon-tipped catheter that is inserted into a pulmonary artery in a procedure known as pulmonary artery catheterization ... The standard pulmonary artery catheter has two lumens (Swan-Ganz) and is equipped with an inflatable balloon at the tip, which ... "Pulmonary Artery Catheterization: Background, Settings in Which Use of a PAC Is Appropriate, Settings in Which Use of a PAC Is ...
... narrowing the diameter of the pulmonary artery to reduce blood flow to the lungs and reduce pulmonary artery pressure. PAB ... The goal of PAB is to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and excess pulmonary blood flow. PAB involves the insertion of a band ... as minimal changes to the diameter of the pulmonary artery can have drastic effects on resistance and blood flow. The pulmonary ... "Mortality of Pulmonary Artery Banding in the Current Era: Recent Mortality of PA Banding." The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 74.4 ...
In pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery anomalously originates from a normally positioned right pulmonary artery. ... Pulmonary artery sling is a rare condition in which the blood vessels between the heart and the lungs have formed incorrectly ... The left pulmonary artery arises anterior to the right main bronchus near its origin from the trachea, courses between the ... The first known case of pulmonary artery sling was diagnosed and surgically repaired by Willis J. Potts at Lurie Children's ...
Stenosis of the pulmonary artery is a condition where the pulmonary artery is subject to an abnormal constriction (or stenosis ... Both stenosis of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary valve stenosis are causes of pulmonic stenosis.[citation needed]In some ... For peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in Alagille syndrome". Tex Heart Inst J. 25 (1): 79-82. PMC 325508. PMID 9566070. v t ... "Pulmonary Artery Stenosis". Retrieved 2009-01-18. Saidi AS, Kovalchin JP, Fisher DJ, Ferry GD, Grifka RG (1998). "Balloon ...
... (ALCAPA, Bland-White-Garland syndrome or White-Garland syndrome) is a ... The anomalous left coronary artery (LCA) usually arises from the pulmonary artery instead of the aortic sinus. In fetal life, ... "Long-Term Outcome of the Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA) in Children After ... "Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: collective review of surgical therapy". The Annals of ...
"Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure • LITFL • CCC Equipment". Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog. 2019-01-04. Retrieved ... Pulmonary wedge pressure will overestimate left ventricle pressure in people with mitral valve stenosis, pulmonary hypertension ... "CV Physiology , Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure". Retrieved 2019-10-06. "Pulmonary: Heart Failure". ... When both the heart and lungs are healthy, pulmonary wedge pressure is equal to left ventricle diastolic pressure and can be ...
... knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. Pulmonary Artery Catheter Study Group". JAMA. 264 (22): 2928-32. doi:10.1001/jama. ... The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) introduced to clinical practice in 1970, also known as the Swan-Ganz catheter, provides ... The average velocity in a vessel, i.e., the aorta or the pulmonary artery, is quantified by measuring the average signal ... Phillips RA, Hood SG, Jacobson BM, West MJ, Wan L, May CN (2012). "Pulmonary Artery Catheter (PAC) Accuracy and Efficacy ...
Nodules, consolidations, cavities and ground glass lesions are common in patients with pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary artery ... and in severe cases can be life-threatening if the outlet pulmonary artery develops an aneurysm which ruptures causing severe ... ElGuindy MS, ElGuindy AM (October 2017). "Aneurysmal coronary artery disease: An overview". Global Cardiology Science and ... Although infrequent, myocardial infarction (heart attack) with angiographically identified acute coronary artery thrombosis has ...
Pulmonary artery catheterization should be considered. Hypotension should be treated preferentially with fluids, but systemic ... Pulmonary edema and pulmonary infections are commonly seen in patients with ALF. Mechanical ventilation may be required. ... Pulmonary complications occur in up to 50% of patients. Severe lung injury and hypoxemia result in high mortality. Most cases ... Pulmonary haemorrhage, pleural effusions, atelectasis, and intrapulmonary shunts also contribute to respiratory difficulty. In ...
Flores, RM (Feb 2011). "Reply to difference in outcome in the transection of the pulmonary artery and vein". The Journal of ... Garcia, A; Byrne, JG; Bueno, R; Flores, RM (Dec 2008). "Aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery". Annals of Thoracic and ...
... systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery; mean pressure of the pulmonary artery (only required of sarcoidosis patients); ... cystic fibrosis Pulmonary Fibrosis, etc.); age of the patient; body mass index; presence or absence of diabetes mellitus; ... pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCW pressure); flow rate of supplemental oxygen required at rest; distance walked in six ... article on page 7 of the Winter 2007 Pathlight newsletter of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Grady, Denise: "Updated ...
The pulmonary artery is not seen. An echocardiogram of a coiled PDA: One can see the aortic arch, the pulmonary artery, and the ... to the pulmonary artery. Symptoms are uncommon at birth and shortly thereafter, but later in the first year of life there is ... resulting in an abnormal transmission of blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. PDA is common in newborns with ... usually from aorta to pulmonary artery, with higher flow during systole and lower flow during diastole) cardiomegaly (enlarged ...
Specifically, endartectomy is associated with reperfusion pulmonary edema and "pulmonary artery steal". Reperfusion pulmonary ... Pulmonary artery steal occurs in 70% of patients. It is related to changes in blood flow over areas of pulmonary vasculature ... Reperfusion pulmonary edema after pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy. Levinson RM, Shure D, Moser KM. Am Rev Respir Dis. ... from the pulmonary arteries, which supply blood to the lungs.[citation needed] Surgery is indicated in patients with pulmonary ...
Behind the pulmonary artery is the bronchus. The right main pulmonary veins (contains oxygenated blood) pass behind the right ... At the root of the lung, the right superior pulmonary vein lies in front of and a little below the pulmonary artery; the ... Bronchial anatomy Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. Pulmonary vessels, seen in a dorsal view ... The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation. There are four main pulmonary veins, two from each lung - an ...
Pulmonary artery aneurysms are rare. Historically, pulmonary artery aneurysms were believed to be a common cause of hemoptysis ... the actual bronchial bleeding may be from the bronchial artery, rather than from the pulmonary artery.[medical citation needed ... Rasmussen's aneurysm is a pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with a cavitary lung lesion. It was originally described by ... "Aneurysms of the Pulmonary Arteries". Chest. 94 (5): 1065-1075. doi:10.1378/chest.94.5.1065. PMID 3053058. v t e (All articles ...
Therefore, the main causes of RVH are pathologies of systems related to the right ventricle such as the pulmonary artery, the ... PH leads to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The right ventricle tries to compensate for this increased pressure by ... Treatment of pulmonary hypertension will depend on the specific cause of the pulmonary hypertension. On top of this, the ... Common causes of PH include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary embolism, and other restrictive lung ...
The surgery involved making a tiny incision in the aorta and a tiny incision in the pulmonary artery and then sewing the two ... In 1953, Potts was the first surgeon to successfully repair a pulmonary artery sling, an abnormality in which the lung blood ... In addition, Potts performed the first successful repair of a cardiovascular abnormality known as a pulmonary artery sling. He ... to the nearby pulmonary artery (which sends blood to the lungs). In 1946, Potts and Smith devised an operation for blue baby ...
This blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery. At the pulmonary artery, it is met with high pulmonary vascular resistance as a ... Lastly, due to the decreased pulmonary vascular resistance, the pressure of the pulmonary artery will fall until it is lower ... Because the aorta has lower pressure than the pulmonary artery, most of the blood flows across the ductus arteriosus away from ... As the oxygen-rich blood from the aorta flows across the ductus arteriosus to the pulmonary artery, the ductus arteriosus will ...
... common to it and the pulmonary artery. The ascending aorta is covered at its commencement by the trunk of the pulmonary artery ... with the pulmonary artery. The only branches of the ascending aorta are the two coronary arteries which supply the heart; they ... it rests upon the left atrium and right pulmonary artery. On the right side, it is in relation with the superior vena cava and ...
Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter insertion and monitoring. Intra-operative blood salvage setup, operating and monitoring. ...
The bullet perforated his pulmonary artery, killing him. Both doctors' funerals were held the next day in the Metropolitan ...
... pulmonary artery hypertension; pulmonary ventilation and diffusion defects as defined by pulmonary function testing that may ... The regimen also improves or normalizes lung function in cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and pulmonary artery ... Lung: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (unlike most other cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, the GATA2 deficiency-induced ... Other presentations and/or developments (see Signs and symptoms) include: 1) pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; 2) tumors caused ...
The syndrome is also identified as being "characterized by pulmonary/bronchial artery aneurysms and thrombophlebitis, without ... Hughes, JP; Stovin, PG (January 1959). "Segmental pulmonary artery aneurysms with peripheral venous thrombosis". British ... the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysms". QJM: An International Journal of Medicine ... Multiple pulmonary aneurysms Peripheral venous thrombosis Recurrent fever Chills Hemoptysis Cough There is no rigid set of ...
Hughes, JP; Stovin, PG (January 1959). "Segmental pulmonary artery aneurysms with peripheral venous thrombosis". British ... Angiography of bronchial arteries can be performed to locate the bleeding, and it can often be embolized. Bronchial artery ... Acute pulmonary edema". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (26): 2788-96. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp052699. PMID 16382065. "Endometriosis". The ... November 2013). "Bronchial artery embolization to control hemoptysis: comparison of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and polyvinyl ...
... the pulmonary artery takes it to the lungs. Later, the pulmonary vein then mixes air from the lungs with blood to form arterial ... Blood enhanced with pneuma, which means wind or breath, is carried by the arteries. The path that blood take is as follows: ... He also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse and the former do not. Thus, while working at ... Michael Servetus (1511-1553). Known as the first European to correctly describe pulmonary circulation. Andreas Vesalius (1514- ...
Surrounds heart and bases of pulmonary artery and aorta. Deep to sternum and anterior chest wall. The right phrenic nerve ... Another feature is the sharp delineation of pulmonary artery and transverse aorta due to lung deposition between these two ... Pericardial arteries supply blood to the dorsal portion of the pericardium. The pericardium sets the heart in mediastinum and ... This junction occurs at two areas: the ventricular outflow tracts where the aorta and pulmonary trunk leave the heart, and the ...
"Left Lung Replantation with Immediate Right Pulmonary Artery Ligation". Annals of Surgery. 174 (1): 34-43. doi:10.1097/00000658 ...
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. The arch of the aorta, and its branches. Deep lymph nodes ... The duct extends vertically in the chest and curves posteriorly to the left carotid artery and left internal jugular vein. At ...
Pulmonary hypertension* is high pressure in the pulmonary artery. In dogs it can be caused by heartworm disease, pulmonary ... Heartworms live in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle of the heart. Heartworm disease in dogs is spread by mosquitoes ... Most commonly the narrowing occurs at the pulmonary valve but it can also occur below the valve (subvalvular) or above the ... However, a large defect can result in heart failure or in pulmonary hypertension leading to a right-to-left shunt. Atrial ...
417.0 Arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels 417.1 Aneurysm of pulmonary artery 417.8 Other specified diseases of pulmonary ... 415 Acute pulmonary heart disease 415.0 Acute cor pulmonale 415.1 Pulmonary embolism and infarction 415.11 Iatrogenic pulmonary ... of iliac artery 443.23 Dissection of renal artery 443.24 Dissection of vertebral artery 443.29 Dissection of other artery 443.8 ... pulmonary embolism 415.19 Other pulmonary embolism and infarction 416 Chronic pulmonary heart disease 416.0 Primary pulmonary ...
Pulmonary angiography assists in detecting the presence of pulmonary artery branches, differentiating pulmonary agenesis to ... Verwey, Charl; Van der Merwe, Cornelis; Pillay, Tanyia (April 28, 2017). "Pulmonary agenesis, pulmonary aplasia and pulmonary ... pulmonary agenesis and aplasia differ from pulmonary hypoplasia in their underlying cause. Unlike pulmonary hypoplasia which in ... The difference between pulmonary agenesis and aplasia is that pulmonary agenesis has complete absence of lung tissue, airways, ...
2005). "Human urotensin II is a novel activator of NADPH oxidase in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells". Arterioscler. ... 2005). "Systemic regulation of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity and nox isoform expression in human arteries and veins". ...
Pulmonary DCS is very rare in divers. The table below classifies the effects by affected organ and bubble location. If the ... The results may range from pain in the joints where the bubbles form to blockage of an artery leading to damage to the nervous ... Neuman, Tom S (2003). "10.5: Arterial Gas Embolism and Pulmonary Barotrauma". In Brubakk, Alf O; Neuman, Tom S (eds.). Bennett ... Neuman, Tom S (2003). "10.5: Arterial Gas Embolism and Pulmonary Barotrauma". In Brubakk, Alf O; Neuman, Tom S (eds.). Bennett ...
... and an absence of pulmonary arteries. Its skin is filled with capillaries that penetrate the epidermis, allowing gas exchange. ...
He carried out a number of Ross procedures, where the diseased aortic valve is replaced with the person's own pulmonary valve, ... in older people with transposition of the great arteries with an intact ventricular septum (IVS). Yacoub began the transplant ... With A. C. Yankah and R. Hetzer "Vagotomy through mediastinoscopy for pulmonary osteoarthropathy. British Journal of Diseases ... Torres, Enrique Garcia (11 July 2012). "Ross Procedure With Pulmonary Autograft Reinforcement". CTSNet. Mark Ruzmetov, Karl F. ...
... synostosis syndactyly jejunal atresia Coronaro-cardiac fistula Coronary arteries congenital malformation Coronary artery ... Congenital v Congenital toxoplasmosis Congenital unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia Congenital vagal hyperreflexivity Congenital ... Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Carnosinase deficiency Carnosinemia Caroli disease Carotenemia Carotid artery ... leukemia Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia Chronic necrotizing vasculitis Chronic neutropenia Chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
These arteries branch from the pulmonary and bronchial arteries, and run together through the center of the segment. Veins and ... "Naming the bronchopulmonary segments and the development of pulmonary surgery". Ann Thorac Surg. 55 (1): 184-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
Pulmonary (lung) circulation undergoes hypoxic vasoconstriction, which is a unique mechanism of local regulation in that the ... the splanchnic artery. Skeletal muscle is influenced by multiple factors. First, metabolites that are produced by active muscle ... "Pulmonary Blood Flow Regulation". Retrieved 2019-12-18. "CV Physiology , Active Hyperemia". www. ...
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) Transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) ... Truncus arteriosus (Persistent) Tricuspid atresia Interrupted aortic arch Coarctation of aorta Pulmonary atresia (PA) Pulmonary ... valve stenosis Pulmonary valve stenosis Mitral insufficiency/regurgitation Tricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation Pulmonary ... Acyanotic heart defect Atrial septal defect Cor triatriatum Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries Double aortic arch ...
... pulmonary artery occlusion, pulmonary artery rupture, or coronary artery compression impeding blood flow. Death is rare, and is ... October 2000). "Percutaneous replacement of pulmonary valve in a right-ventricle to pulmonary-artery prosthetic conduit with ... Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI), also known as transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR), is the ... PPVI can be used to repair congenital defects in the pulmonary valve or right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction, such as ...
Remington TL, Fuller J, Chiu I (November 2015). "Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with diabetes and ... particularly those with some degree of coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease, poses greater risks due to the resulting ...
In the hybrid procedure, bilateral pulmonary artery bands are positioned to limit pulmonary flow while, at the same time, ... The atrial septum is removed, the aortic arch is reconstructed to remove any hypoplasia, and then the main pulmonary artery is ...
Contrast is injected into the pulmonary trunk, left or right pulmonary artery, or segment of the pulmonary artery.[citation ... This device is implanted into the pulmonary artery to permit real-time measurement of the pulmonary artery pressure over time.[ ... arteries are not used. Values are commonly obtained for the right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary ... Right ventricular pressure Pulmonary artery pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Systemic vascular resistance Pulmonary ...
Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, Volumes 1 - 16, 1972 - 1988 (Yearly). "Pulmonary blood volume in health and disease," by Paul N. ... and key observations about the care of patients with coronary artery disease. He cared for prominent individuals such as the ... Yu performed pioneering research in cardiac physiology, making seminal observations about the pulmonary circulation in health ... co-editor of the 16-volume Progress in Cardiology and author of the textbook Pulmonary Blood Volume in Health and Disease. The ...
The most severe variant involves the presence of severely hypoplastic main pulmonary arteries and branch pulmonary arteries, ... septal defect involves pulmonary atresia with normally developed main pulmonary artery and branch pulmonary arteries, the blood ... these arteries usually develop but then start deteriorating after pulmonary arteries grow, in fetuses with PAVSD, the pulmonary ... Catheter procedure for pulmonary artery branches Systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt Neonatal complete repair One-stage complete ...
Shunt between superior vena cava and distal right pulmonary artery report of a clinical application. N Engl J Med 259: 117, ... if there is no pulmonary valve stenosis, a pulmonary valve banding is necessary to prevent pulmonary hypertension and the ... The goal of all of these is separating the pulmonary and the systemic circulation. Usually, DILV is associated with other ... There is a big shunt left-right with a quickly evolutive pulmonary hypertension. Without life-prolonging interventions, the ...
... while anteriorly it is hidden by the pulmonary artery and aorta. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page ...
A fragment on pulmonary consumption was found among his papers. His collected writings occupy about 600 pages 8vo, in the Latin ... To him is attributed the prescient dictum, "A man is as old as his arteries." Thomas Sydenham was born at Wynford Eagle in ... Weber T, Mayer CC (November 2020). ""Man Is as Old as His Arteries" Taken Literally: In Search of the Best Metric". ... " "A man is as old as his arteries." "The arrival of a good clown exercises a more beneficial influence upon the health of a ...
Martín Gaitán was forced to withdraw from the squad on 18 August after it was discovered he had a blocked artery in his heart, ... Squad released 21 July 2007 Pierre Spies was withdrawn from the squad after developing a condition believed to be a pulmonary ...
During these steps it is important not to break through the lateral border of the disk space, otherwise the vertebral artery ... if the animal does not suffer from pulmonary complications." In terms of today's statistical basis surgeons are not able to ...
... break in the bone hospital acquired infections blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches by a blood clot ... that has traveled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (pulmonary embolism) pneumonia breathing difficulty that ...
The heart has to work very hard to pump blood through the narrowed arteries in the lungs and eventually the patient develops ... This condition is called pulmonary hypertension, which leads to pulmonary vascular disease (PVD), the progressive obstruction ... guidelines and consensus articles exclusively in the fields of the pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular disease. It is ... The Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI) is a UK registered medical research charity. It is registered Charity in the ...
To screen patients who have chest pain and risk factors for coronary artery disease, to assess for ischaemia which may be ... including acute pulmonary oedema and cardiac arrest (occurring in ≈1 in 1000 patients).[citation needed] Rieber, J. (2005). " ... It is becoming increasingly established as a marker of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. There are two main ... enters more slowly due to a narrowing of the coronary artery supplying it. This is called a perfusion defect and usually ...
There was no clot in the pulmonary artery, but the right ventricle was full of dark clot. The left was firmly contracted as to ... The arteries and other vessels contained in the sheath were all cut through. The cut through the tissues on the right side was ... From this, it was evident that the haemorrhage was caused through the partial severance of the left carotid artery and a small ... As the blood vessels on only one side of Stride's neck had been cut, with her carotid artery only partially severed, Blackwell ...
In the latter condition, inhaled NO is used as a diagnostic test of the response of the pulmonary arteries to vasodilators ( ... Today, NO is not only used in breath tests but also as a therapeutic agent for conditions such as pulmonary arterial ... Exhaled NO is minimally increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but levels may rise in sudden worsenings of the ... In 1987, experiments with coronary arteries showed that nitric oxide was the long sought endothelium-derived relaxing factor. ...
Exposure to aerosolized PFASs is associated with alveolic edema, polymer fume fever, severe dyspnea, decreased pulmonary ... "Probable Link Evaluation for heart disease (including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease)" (PDF). ...
CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is used to examine the pulmonary arteries in the lungs, most commonly to rule out pulmonary ... CTA can be used assess acute stroke patients by identifying clots in the arteries of the brain. It can also be used to identify ... CTA is also used in the assessment of native and transplant renal arteries. While CTA is great for imaging of the kidneys, it ... CTA can be used in the legs to detect atherosclerotic disease that has narrowed the arteries. It can also be used to image ...
The elevated number of white blood cells leads to pulmonary hypertension, a major cause of death by pertussis. In infants who ... and vertebral artery dissection. Violent coughing can cause the pleura to rupture, leading to a pneumothorax. Vomiting after a ...
They are given following a heart attack to dissolve the thrombus blocking the coronary artery; experimentally after a stroke to ... It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial ... allow blood flow back to the affected part of the brain; and in the event of pulmonary embolism. Thrombolysis refers to the ...
... sling is created by anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the posterior aspect of the right pulmonary artery. The ... anomalous left pulmonary artery courses over the right mainstem bronchus and then from right to left, posterior to the trachea ... encoded search term (Pulmonary Artery Sling) and Pulmonary Artery Sling What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pulmonary Artery Sling Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Jun 13, 2017 * Author: Stuart Berger, MD; Chief Editor: Howard S Weber ...
A ratio of pulmonary artery to aorta diameter that is greater than 1 is significantly and independently associated with risk ... A pulmonary artery:aorta (PA:A) ratio greater than 1 is significantly associated with a risk for future severe exacerbation; ... September 28, 2012 (Vienna, Austria) - The ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the diameter of the aorta is a ... Cite this: Enlarged Pulmonary Artery Signals Risk for COPD Exacerbation - Medscape - Sep 28, 2012. ...
The pulmonary arteries take blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary arteries take blood from the heart to the lungs. ...
Modaghegh, M.H.S., Kazemzadeh, G.H. & Jokar, M.H. (‎2010)‎. A case of Behcet disease with pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: long ... A case of Behcet disease with pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: long term follow-up. ...
... our pediatric heart specialists can narrow a main artery as a temporary fix. Learn more at Childrens Health. ... The main pulmonary artery band creates a narrowing of the main pulmonary artery to reduce blood flow to the lungs and decrease ... What are the benefits of Pediatric Main Pulmonary Artery Band?. By reducing extra blood flow to the lungs, the main pulmonary ... Other times a pulmonary artery band is placed in an infant born with a hole in their heart. This gives the infant a chance to ...
What are the challenges of diagnosing pulmonary arterial hypertension in this patient? ... Diagnosis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Patient With Systemic Sclerosis Jörg HW Distler, MD; Marius M Hoeper, MD; ... The 2022 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension With First Author, Marc Humbert ... Cite this: Diagnosis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Patient With Systemic Sclerosis - Medscape - Mar 01, 2008. ...
... sling is created by anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the posterior aspect of the right pulmonary artery. The ... anomalous left pulmonary artery courses over the right mainstem bronchus and then from right to left, posterior to the trachea ... encoded search term (Pulmonary Artery Sling) and Pulmonary Artery Sling What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pulmonary Artery Sling Clinical Presentation. Updated: Jun 13, 2017 * Author: Stuart Berger, MD; Chief Editor: Howard S Weber, ...
Our Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction program providing innovative treatment and care for patients with pulmonary artery disease. ... Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program. Leading the way in innovative care for patients with pulmonary artery disease ... Co-Director of Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program. Watch Dr. Bauser-Heaton explain what makes the Pulmonary Artery ... This program treats patients with the diagnosis of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), isolated pulmonary artery ...
Modaghegh, M.H.S., Kazemzadeh, G.H. & Jokar, M.H. (‎2010)‎. A case of Behcet disease with pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: long ... A case of Behcet disease with pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: long term follow-up. ...
The account alleges that a pulmonary artery was perforated during the procedure. The account does not believe the device ...
... there are a few described cases of artery aneurysms or pseudoaneurysms of the pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary ... Figure 2 Pulmonary artery of an adult female "Churra Galega Bragançana" sheep. The wall of the artery is thin (aneurysm) (1.135 ... Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary neoplasia have been rarely reported in humans and, to the authors ... The morphologic diagnosis was aneurysm of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary adenocarcinoma, with bronchopneumonia. ...
Copyright © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society. All rights reserved.. ...
... pediatric cardiologists and heart surgeons provide top-notch treatment for anomalous origin of the right or left pulmonary ... origin of the pulmonary artery, the left or right coronary arteries branch off the pulmonary artery and carries blood from the ... We offer anomalous origin of the right or left pulmonary artery care at Nemours Childrens Health, Pensacola and our hospital ... We offer care for newborns and children with anomalous origin of the right or left pulmonary artery at Nemours Childrens ...
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Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93 :e75. ... Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery Citation:. Warraich H, Matyal R, Shahul S, Senthilnathan V, ... Mahmood F. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93 :e75. ...
Posture, Exercise and Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease P. B. Anderson; P. B. Anderson ... P. B. Anderson, S. R. Brennan, P. Howard; Posture, Exercise and Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Chronic Obstructive Airways ...
In peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, both are low, analogous to the situation after pulmonary artery banding to reduce ... pulmonary hypertension is used imprecisely. Pulmonary hypertension implies a pulmonary artery pressure higher than normal but ... If the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure is high, the pulmonary component of the second sound is likely to be accentuated. In ... The intensity of the pulmonary component of the second heart sound depends primarily on the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure ...
... indicating a large pulmonary artery aneurysm Figure 2 Digital subtraction angiography showing a cavity at the pulmonary artery ... pulmonary artery aneurysm), thrombotic occlusion, mainly in the vena cava, pulmonary infarction and pulmonary haemorrhage. ... Pulmonary manifestations in patients are mainly related to vasculitis of the pulmonary arteries, veins and septal capillaries. ... More than 200 cases of BD with pulmonary involvement have been reported in the literature. The pulmonary arteries are the ...
Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) in a patient with diffuse interstitial lung disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary ... Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) in a patient with diffuse interstitial lung disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary ... Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) in a patient with diffuse interstitial lung disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary ... Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) in a patient with diffuse interstitial lung disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary ...
Percutaneous retrieval of a jugular catheter fragment from the pulmonary artery of a foal published on 01 Jan 2002 by American ... Percutaneous retrieval of a jugular catheter fragment from the pulmonary artery of a foal ...
Pulmonary arterial pressure of the patients was measured using echocardiography. Preoperative average pulmonary artery systolic ... Material and Methods: Data from files of 31 patients with systolic pulmonary artery pressure over 50 mm Hg and with pure severe ... We believe that AVR may be performed in severe aortic stenosis cases with high pulmonary pressure with acceptable ortality, ... Pulmonary hypertension development in pure severe aortic stenosis is a situation that affects mortality and morbidity. ...
The final diagnosis was a solitary peripheral pulmonary artery saccular aneurysm. The patient was submitted to a pulmonary ... Peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysms that arise from segmental or intrapulmonary branches are extremely rare, and their ... We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient who was evaluated due to a solitary pulmonary nodule. ...
Endothelial function, Fontan operation, Pulmonary artery size, Shear stress Persistent URL, hdl. ... Pulmonary artery size and function after fontan operation at a young age. Publication. Publication. Journal of Magnetic ... Purpose: To assess pulmonary artery (PA) size, flow variables, and wall shear stress (WSS) in patients after Fontan operation ... Pulmonary artery size and function after fontan operation at a young age. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 28(5), 1101- ...
N2 - Background: Occasionally pulmonary artery banding is necessary to reduce pulmonary arterial blood flow and pressure in ... AB - Background: Occasionally pulmonary artery banding is necessary to reduce pulmonary arterial blood flow and pressure in ... Background: Occasionally pulmonary artery banding is necessary to reduce pulmonary arterial blood flow and pressure in patients ... Endoluminal pulmonary artery banding alone is preferred when controlled pulmonary blood flow and cardiopulmonary bypass are ...
The main pulmonary artery was finally strangulated using a 24-mm band, resulting in a peak pressure gradient of 41.9 mmHg at ... There was a discrete mosaic jet moving from the descending aorta toward the pulmonary artery (Fig. 1), suggesting incomplete ... Subsequently, when the surgeon was adjusting the diameter of band on the main pulmonary artery during PAB, TEE monitoring ... that decreased pulmonary arterial pressure caused by PAB greatly increased the pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery ...
This examination confirmed abnormal division of the right pulmonary artery into 2 vessels: the proper pulmonary artery and the ... Interventional treatment using a 3D model of a right pulmonary artery to left atrial fistula in an infant. Anna Wałdoch ... We present the case of a 3-month-old boy with a large right pulmonary artery to left atrial fistula successfully treated by ... The position of the device was stable and did not hinder the free insertion of the catheter into the right pulmonary artery ( ...
... beware the unsuspected primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery.",. abstract = "Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PA) is ... Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Two patients with primary ... N2 - Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Two patients with ... AB - Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Two patients with ...
... And Aortopulmonary Collaterals In Pulmonary Atresia. Read more! ... CT, Publications > Helical CT Evaluation Of Pulmonary Arteries And Aortopulmonary Collaterals In Pulmonary Atresia. Our Blog. ... Helical CT Evaluation Of Pulmonary Arteries And Aortopulmonary Collaterals In Pulmonary Atresia. * 3rd July 2010 3/07/10 ... M. Srikanth,Singh J, Kalyanpur A. Helical Ct Evaluation Of Pulmonary Arteries And Aortopulmonary Collaterals In Pulmonary ...
Cangrelor Dosing and Monitoring for Prevention of Acute Systemic-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Thrombosis in Neonates Pilar Anton- ... Systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts are amongst the most common palliative procedures performed in neonates with congenital ... Ten neonates receiving cangrelor post systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt placement were included in the study. Median age and ... Cangrelor Dosing and Monitoring for Prevention of Acute Systemic-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Thrombosis in Neonates Pilar Anton- ...
Contrast-enhanced doppler ultrasound for noninvasive assessment of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise in patients with ... Noninvasive evaluation of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise by saline-enhanced Doppler echocardiography in chronic ... Noninvasive estimation of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure from spectral Doppler recordings of tricuspid and pulmonic ... Exercise ventilation and pulmonary artery wedge pressure in chronic stable congestive heart failure. American Journal of ...
  • Pulmonary hypertension likely represents the majority of the cases of an elevated PA:A ratio, but other factors could also be responsible, such as heart failure, sleep apnea, thromboembolic disease, and obesity," he added. (
  • This procedure helps protect the heart from working too hard and helps prevent pulmonary hypertension from developing over time. (
  • By reducing extra blood flow to the lungs, the main pulmonary artery band protects the heart from working too hard and protects the lungs from developing pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Marius M Hoeper, MD , is Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Pneumology at Hanover Medical School, Germany, where he is in charge of the pulmonary hypertension program and Director of the medical intensive care unit. (
  • 1 Furthermore, the term 'pulmonary hypertension' is used imprecisely. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension implies a pulmonary artery pressure higher than normal but whether this is systolic, diastolic, or mean has different connotations. (
  • No patient experienced distal pulmonary hypertension, distortion, or band occlusion. (
  • A 6-month-old girl (2.7 kg) diagnosed with PDA, ventricular septal defect, and accompanying pulmonary hypertension was scheduled for PDA ligation and PAB. (
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) dysfunction. (
  • In particular, it would be useful if the relationship were maintained when treating pulmonary hypertension because this would allow different methods of measurement to be compared, such as SPAP from echocardiography and MPAP from right heart catheterization. (
  • Methods: Data were reviewed from both healthy subjects and those with pulmonary hypertension (n = 65) who had a micromanometer-tipped, high-fidelity pulmonary artery catheter inserted for between 6 and 36 h in the Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit between 1997 and 2003. (
  • Tadalafil is used to treat excessive blood stress inside the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). (
  • In this CritCases blog - a collaboration between STARS Air Ambulance Service, Mike Betzner and EM Cases we discuss a challenging case of pulmonary hypertension where a fine balance in volume resuscitation, oxygenation and ventilation is critical. (
  • CT-determined pulmonary artery diameters in predicting pulmonary hypertension. (
  • This study was to determine if the diameters of pulmonary arteries measured from computed tomographic (CT) scans could be used 1) as indicators of pulmonary artery hypertension and 2) as a reliable base for calculating mean pulmonary artery pressure. (
  • In these patients, a diameter of the main pulmonary artery above 28.6 mm readily predicted the presence of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Because CT allows precise, noninvasive measurement of the diameter of pulmonary arteries, it can be of value in detecting pulmonary hypertension and estimating mean pulmonary artery pressure. (
  • A CT sign of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension: the ratio of main pulmonary artery to aortic diameter. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the ratio of the diameters of the main pulmonary artery and of the ascending aorta (rPA), as assessed on computed tomography (CT), is predictive of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (
  • Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure with no apparent cause. (
  • IPAH is also termed WHO Group I pulmonary hypertension (PH), precapillary pulmonary hypertension, and, previously, primary pulmonary hypertension. (
  • In approximately a third of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), Doppler echocardiography demonstrates right-to-left shunting across a patent foramen ovale. (
  • Chest radiography: A chest radiograph may help identify secondary causes of, or contributors to, pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Equally important, the echocardiogram helps to exclude secondary causes of, or contributors to, pulmonary hypertension, such as left-sided heart disease (eg, left ventricular dysfunction, valvular heart disease). (
  • Nuclear lung ventilation/perfusion scanning: This is performed to exclude chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (Group IV PH). (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. (
  • I. Pulmonary Hypertension: What every physician needs to know. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is defined as mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension therefore is a description rather than a diagnosis. (
  • Once pulmonary hypertension is detected, careful diagnostic steps are necessary to ensure accurate diagnosis, followed by appropriate evidence-based treatment. (
  • Despite the growth in the field of pulmonary hypertension, in particular with expansion of available medical therapeutics, we need to recognize that these therapeutics are only indicated for a specific subtype of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Accordingly, detection of elevated pulmonary artery pressure should not immediately result in treatment, but instead lead to an additional and careful diagnostic workup, including confirmation of the presence of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Diagnostic Confirmation: Are you sure your patient has Pulmonary Hypertension? (
  • Pulmonary hypertension is often first suspected or discovered by echocardiography. (
  • Despite advances in echocardiography, pulmonary hypertension still requires a right heart catheterization (RHC) demonstrating mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg at rest for confirmation. (
  • For patients with World Health Organization (WHO) group I cause of pulmonary hypertension, also known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the Pawp should be less than 15 mm Hg. (
  • This is primarily to rule out the more common secondary pulmonary hypertension related to various left heart conditions or pulmonary venous hypertension-PH classified under WHO group II. (
  • The history of PAH can be traced back to the aminorex (diet pill) epidemic in Europe causing primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH, the prior term for what we now call idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension) back in the 1960s and 70s. (
  • Fast forwarding to the current era, the typical PAH patient tends to be older and with other comorbidities either linking with pulmonary hypertension or challenging its timely diagnosis and treatment. (
  • PAH remains a rare condition and infrequent cause of pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiogram. (
  • C. History Part 3: Competing diagnoses that can mimic Pulmonary Hypertension? (
  • If we were to start with pulmonary hypertension detected by echocardiogram, then the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension at the end of our workup are also the common conditions we see on a regular basis. (
  • In other words, common things are common-with pulmonary hypertension related to left heart condition (WHO group II) or chronic lung disease/hypoxemia (WHO group III) being the two most common causes of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • The various diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary hypertension have been designed with this important recognition. (
  • Another major and unique cause of pulmonary hypertension worthy of a separate classification group is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH, WHO group IV). (
  • Risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis. (
  • Borderline elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (BoPAP) -- 21 to 24 mm Hg -- may represent an intermediate stage between normal pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with systemic sclerosis, researchers stated. (
  • 60% predicted, and no prior diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Patients eligible for the current study had a pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤15 mm Hg, no significant interstitial lung disease, no systemic hypertension, and no left atrial enlargement. (
  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an uncommon but progressive condition. (
  • Congestive heart failure can also occur when the right ventricle is unable to overcome increased pressure in the pulmonary artery, which usually results from left heart failure, chronic lung disease or high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension). (
  • Positive Topline Data for Sotatercept in PAH: STELLAR Sotatercept added to standard therapy led to improves exercise capacity in adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a phase 3 trial. (
  • ESC 2022 New ESC Pulmonary Hypertension Guidelines Urge Earlier Diagnosis The diagnostic algorithm has been revamped and clinicians should be thinking of arterial hypertension at an earlier (lower) arterial pulmonary pressure, the authors say. (
  • TCT 2022 Pulmonary Artery Denervation Takes Next Step in Hypertension A sham-controlled trial in this progressive, often debilitating disease showed patients treated with a radiofrequency device had longer 6-minute walk times and other benefits. (
  • Biomarker Predicts Survival in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Plasma cell-free DNA, a marker of cellular injury, is elevated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, correlates with disease severity, and predicts worse survival, new research shows. (
  • Identifying Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients With COPD Patients with COPD and severe pulmonary hypertension may benefit from individualized treatment. (
  • Patients With More Severe PH in COPD May Respond to Treatment Male sex, low 6-minute walking distance, and high pulmonary vascular resistance at baseline were predictive of poorer outcomes for pulmonary hypertension and COPD. (
  • b) Hypertension, Coronary artery disease. (
  • This can also lead to pulmonary gland hypertension, making someone feel anxious and claustrophobic. (
  • Persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension can be treated with various pulmonary vasodilators such as inhaled nitric oxide and sildenafil, and endothelin receptor inhibitors such as bosentan. (
  • Different kinds of echo and how diseases like congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, and coronary artery diseases etc. (
  • Cardiac disease secondary to occupational lung disease was a result of pulmonary hypertension. (
  • Our heart surgeons have the skill and experience to know when a main pulmonary artery band will benefit a child. (
  • The main pulmonary artery band creates a narrowing of the main pulmonary artery to reduce blood flow to the lungs and decrease pulmonary artery pressure. (
  • What are the benefits of Pediatric Main Pulmonary Artery Band? (
  • For some babies waiting for surgery, the main pulmonary artery band may make it possible for them to go home before the next operation. (
  • What are the risks of Pediatric Main Pulmonary Artery band? (
  • Your baby will probably outgrow the main pulmonary artery band in 3 to 10 months. (
  • What to expect with Pediatric Main Pulmonary Artery band? (
  • The surgeons will open the sternum to insert the band around the main pulmonary artery. (
  • What questions should I ask my provider about Pediatric Main Pulmonary Artery Band? (
  • Will my child be able to go home after getting a main pulmonary artery band? (
  • Endoluminal pulmonary artery banding fenestrations of 2 to 8 mm were centrally placed in a Dacron patch that was attached circumferentially and intraluminally in the main pulmonary artery. (
  • Subsequently, when the surgeon was adjusting the diameter of band on the main pulmonary artery during PAB, TEE monitoring revealed a residual PDA shunt on color Doppler imaging. (
  • The main pulmonary artery was finally strangulated using a 24-mm band, resulting in a peak pressure gradient of 41.9 mmHg at the PAB site when the systemic arterial pressure was 74/45 mmHg. (
  • Dextro-Transposition (pronounced DECKS-tro trans-poh-ZI-shun) of the Great Arteries or d-TGA is a birth defect of the heart in which the two main arteries carrying blood out of the heart - the main pulmonary artery and the aorta - are switched in position, or "transposed. (
  • Dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries or d-TGA is a birth defect of the heart in which the two main arteries carrying blood out of the heart - the main pulmonary artery and the aorta - are switched in position, or "transposed. (
  • Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs entering the heart is pumped straight back to the lungs through the main pulmonary artery. (
  • The procedure involves placement of an extracardiac conduit between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery stump. (
  • The upper limit of normal diameter for the main pulmonary artery was found to be 28.6 mm (mean + 2 SD). (
  • Multiple regression analysis gave the useful equation: mean pulmonary artery pressure = -10.92 + 0.07646 X area of main pulmonary artery/BSA + 0.08084 X area of thright interlobar pulmonary artery/BSA (r = 0.93, P less than 0.0001). (
  • Two independent observers made measurements of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery and of the ascending aorta on a single defined CT section. (
  • Video 11-1-2: 2-D image on TTE of a large embolism in the main pulmonary artery in the parasternal short-axis view. (
  • September 28, 2012 (Vienna, Austria) - The ratio of the diameter of the pulmonary artery to the diameter of the aorta is a metric that not only indicates arterial enlargement and possible pulmonary disease, it also identifies patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are at risk of experiencing an exacerbation, a new study suggests. (
  • In a healthy heart, both the left and right coronary arteries branch off the aorta. (
  • The aorta is the major artery that carries this oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. (
  • The pulmonary arteries are the second most common site of arterial involvement after the aorta. (
  • There was a discrete mosaic jet moving from the descending aorta toward the pulmonary artery (Fig. 1 ), suggesting incomplete PDA ligation. (
  • We believe that decreased pulmonary arterial pressure caused by PAB greatly increased the pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, which made the residual PDA shunt detectable in our case. (
  • In transposition of the great arteries, the aorta is in front of the pulmonary artery and is either primarily to the right (dextro) or to the left (levo) of the pulmonary artery. (
  • The aorta is usually behind the pulmonary artery. (
  • Instead of coming from the pulmonary trunk, supply develops from the aorta and other systemic arteries. (
  • Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are persistent tortuous fetal arteries that arise from the descending aorta and supply blood to pulmonary arteries in the lungs usually at the posterior aspect of hilum. (
  • The Takeuchi procedure involves creation of an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the aorta to the ostium of the anomalous left coronary artery. (
  • In this technique, the collateral vessels supplying blood from the aorta directly to the lungs are brought into continuity in a single vessel that supplies the pulmonary circulation usually via a conduit from the right ventricle or a shunt. (
  • The model includes whole heart as well as following seven heart structures: left and right ventricles, left and right atrium, myocardium, aorta, and pulmonary artery. (
  • It includes 7 parts including the aorta, left and right atrium, left and right ventricles, and pulmonary artery. (
  • ABSTRACT The anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare congenital heart disease , generally diagnosed based on the clinical information and on echocardiographic and computed tomography angiography findings. (
  • This second pump, the 'left heart,' receives the blood from the lungs during contraction, pumps it out through the great artery called the aorta. (
  • The aorta branches out to supply the entire body with blood through a series of arteries. (
  • The oxygen-rich blood then returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and finally leaves your heart through another large artery, the aorta. (
  • Blood Flow Away from the Heart With each rhythmic pump of the heart blood is pushed under high pressure and velocity away from the heart initially along the main artery the aorta. (
  • From the aorta blood flows into the arteries and arterioles and ultimately to the capillary beds. (
  • Blood then flows to the pulmonary artery and aorta. (
  • The aorta, which is the body's largest artery, carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body. (
  • The HRCT imaging showed signs of chronic pulmonary embolism of the left pulmonary artery with infarction formation, which was confirmed with VP scan. (
  • Over-insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) can cause serious complications, such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary artery rupture. (
  • However, if left untreated, DVT can result in a pulmonary embolism, which occurs when the blood clot travels from the leg to the lungs. (
  • IVC filters are implanted in the body in an effort to prevent pulmonary embolism, in which blood flow in the arteries is blocked by air or blood clots. (
  • Bikdeli and his colleagues studied 556,658 Medicare beneficiaries admitted to the hospital between 1999 and 2010 for pulmonary embolism. (
  • The researchers reportedly learned that more than 15 percent of the Medicare patients received an IVC filter to treat pulmonary embolism. (
  • In 1999, the number of hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism in which IVC filters were used was 5,003. (
  • During the same time period, the number of deaths from pulmonary embolism went down, whether or not patients had been implanted with an IVC filter. (
  • The use of IVC filters to treat pulmonary embolism is expensive. (
  • Indeed, Bikdeli noted, IVC filter procedures are not without complications and do not always succeed in preventing pulmonary embolism. (
  • That creates what's called a pulmonary embolism (PE). (
  • Kwak JG, Kim WH, Min J, Lee C, Jang W, Lee CH. Is tracheoplasty necessary for all patients with pulmonary artery sling and tracheal stenosis? (
  • E ditor ,-We read with interest this report of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in congenital generalised lipodystrophy but query the physical findings, particularly in case 1. (
  • In peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, both are low, analogous to the situation after pulmonary artery banding to reduce pulmonary blood flow in certain congenital cardiac defects. (
  • We were surprised at Drs Carvalho and Shinebourne's comments on clinical signs in patients with peripheral pulmonary stenosis-they state that pulmonary artery diastolic pressure is low in these patients and that the pulmonary component of the second heart sound is, therefore, not accentuated (as it was in one of our cases). (
  • Stenosis, Pulmonary Artery" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Stenosis, Pulmonary Artery" by people in this website by year, and whether "Stenosis, Pulmonary Artery" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Stenosis, Pulmonary Artery" by people in Profiles. (
  • Commentary: Branch pulmonary artery stenosis after the arterial switch operation: Is prevention better than cure? (
  • Rhodes JF, Jackson L. Tipping Point: When Does Unilateral Branch Pulmonary Artery Stenosis Impede Exertional Performance? (
  • First described by Elliotson, infundibular pulmonary stenosis (IPS) refers to obstruction of outflow from the right ventricle (RV) within the body of the RV, as opposed to obstruction at the pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery (PA), or its branches. (
  • In this article, IPS refers to isolated infundibular pulmonary stenosis with an intact ventricular septum. (
  • Infundibular pulmonary stenosis (IPS) has two forms. (
  • Such reversal and cyanosis can occur when the RV is hypoplastic, even with less severe pulmonary stenosis. (
  • In neonates with severe pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary blood flow depends on the patency of the ductus arteriosus. (
  • Patients with isolated valvular pulmonary stenosis may have a reactive infundibular hypertrophy that could elicit a reactive infundibular obstruction. (
  • The prognosis of infundibular pulmonary stenosis (IPS) mainly depends on the severity of stenosis in the absence of any additional lesions. (
  • Cataracts/congenital glaucoma, congenital heart disease (most commonly patent ductus arteriosus or peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis), hearing impairment, pigmentary retinopathy. (
  • Transesophageal echocardiography was used in 1 patient and did not detect a right pulmonary artery stenosis. (
  • One patient underwent revision of a pulmonary artery stenosis with a period of warm ischemia and subsequent fatal lung injury. (
  • The pulmonary arteries take blood from the heart to the lungs. (
  • The pediatric cardiac care team at Children's Health can surgically place a small band around the main artery leading to the lungs to limit the amount of blood. (
  • Sometimes a pulmonary artery band is placed in a child whose heart has only one pumping chamber (called a single ventricle heart) to protect their lungs while the child waits for the next stage of relief for their symptoms. (
  • Pulmonary vascular disease is the general term for conditions affecting the blood vessels that go between the heart and lungs and supply the blood with oxygen. (
  • The causes and kinds of pulmonary vascular disease can vary depending on which of the lungs' blood vessels are affected. (
  • At post mortem examination, the lungs failed to collapse and were enlarged and heavy with multifocal to coalescing subpleural pearly-white nodules, located in diaphragmatic pulmonary lobes ( figure 1A ). (
  • In a heart with anomalous (abnormal) origin of the pulmonary artery, the left or right coronary arteries branch off the pulmonary artery and carries blood from the heart to the lungs instead. (
  • In a baby without a congenital heart defect, the right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. (
  • PAC manufacturer instructions state that the best position for the tip is at the hilum of the lungs in the right pulmonary artery (see Additional file 1, p. 148). (
  • A surgery called unifocalization, performed soon after birth, can reroute the MAPCAs into the pulmonary artery in addition to repairing the Tetralogy of Fallot, restoring normal circulation from the lungs to the heart. (
  • April 2012) Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (or MAPCAs) are arteries that develop to supply blood to the lungs when native pulmonary circulation is underdeveloped. (
  • The 'right heart,' during contraction, pumps the blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. (
  • Swan-Ganz catheterization is the passing of a thin tube (catheter) into the right side of the heart and the arteries leading to the lungs. (
  • PH occurs when the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which carry oxygen and blood from the heart to the lungs, is much higher than normal. (
  • Pulmonary oedema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. (
  • A number of things can cause fluid to accumulate in your lungs, but most have to do with your heart (cardiac pulmonary edema). (
  • Normally, deoxygenated blood from all over your body enters the right atrium and flows into the right ventricle, where it's pumped through large blood vessels (pulmonary arteries) to your lungs. (
  • Cardiac pulmonary oedema - also known as congestive heart failure - occurs when the diseased or overworked left ventricle isn't able to pump out enough of the blood it receives from your lungs. (
  • The pulmonary artery carries blood to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and then leaves the lungs to return to the heart through the pulmonary vein. (
  • Blood flow away from the heart AB A C. Blood leaves the heart through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonary artery and flows to the lungs. (
  • The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. (
  • Sometimes they travel to an artery in the lungs and block blood flow. (
  • The pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is used for many diagnostic applications, including measuring pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, and mixed venous oxygen saturation [1]. (
  • Pulmonary artery pressure response to exercise was assessed using contrast enhancement of tricuspid regurgitation peak velocities in 19 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. (
  • Common conditions meeting home oxygen requirements include congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) . (
  • Rapid weight gain when pulmonary oedema develops as a result of congestive heart failure, a condition in which your heart pumps too little blood to meet your body's needs. (
  • Heart disease (such as congenital heart helpful, especially if the sick person is in a group at high risk for serious disease, congestive heart failure, and coronary complications (see list in sidebar) or is very sick from flu (for example, artery disease) hospitalized from flu). (
  • In unifocalization, the misdirected blood vessels are rerouted into a single vessel (or into the pulmonary artery if it is present), which is then attached to the right ventricle of the heart through a conduit called a homograft. (
  • Typically, the echocardiogram demonstrates evidence of increased pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure, accompanied by an enlarged right ventricle (see the image below). (
  • When Lillian was born, her pulmonary artery did not reach the right ventricle of her heart. (
  • PHENOTYPE: Homozygotes exhibit double outlet right ventricle {SDD}, pulmonary atresia/hypolastic pulmonary artery, atrioventricular septal defect, and right aortic arch. (
  • Background: The relationships among systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP), diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (DPAP), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) have been found to be constant in humans breathing air, at rest, while supine. (
  • The calculated cross-sectional areas of the main and interlobar pulmonary arteries (normalized for body surface area [BAS]) were found to give the best estimates of mean pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.89, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.66, P less than 0.001). (
  • In 175 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (157 chronic bronchitic and 18 emphysematous patients) exhibiting moderate to severe airway obstruction (mean FEV1/vital capacity = 40.2 +/- 11.1%), cumulative survival rates calculated by the actuarial method were compared in subgroups according to the initial level of mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary volumes, and arterial blood gases. (
  • A subanalysis of a large multicenter study of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients at risk for PAH found clinical and laboratory features that may differentiate patients with BoPAP from those with normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and PAH, according to Scott H. Visovatti, MD , of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and colleagues. (
  • This program treats patients with the diagnosis of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), isolated pulmonary artery of ductal origin (IPADO), pulmonary vascular disease associated with Alagille syndrome and Williams syndrome, and other difficult pulmonary artery surgical repairs. (
  • What are major Aortopulmonary collateral arteries? (
  • A unifocalisation procedure is a corrective surgical technique used in patients with complete pulmonary artery atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). (
  • This examination confirmed abnormal division of the right pulmonary artery into 2 vessels: the proper pulmonary artery and the vessel leading to a 21 × 10 mm reservoir, which then in the place of the lower right pulmonary vein escaped through a wide opening (11 mm) into the left atrium. (
  • Approximately 90% of injuries occur at the medial and inferior branches of the right pulmonary artery, because a PAC inserted from the right internal jugular vein will most often enter the right pulmonary artery [2]. (
  • Participants were patients in whom a PAC was inserted from the right internal jugular vein to the main or right pulmonary artery and who underwent surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass in the supine position. (
  • Differentiate between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein. (
  • The blood then returns to the 'left heart' via the pulmonary vein. (
  • for fixing multi-lumen catheter,pulmonary artery catheter,hemodialysis catheter,jujuakar vein and carotiod catheter. (
  • Video 10-3-1: Two-dimensional multiplanar TEE image at 75° in the mid-esophagus, showing the left atrium, left atrial appendage, left ventricle, and left upper pulmonary vein. (
  • Its duet ' or vesical artery vein of the anterior tuberosity. (
  • Morrow R, Huhta J. Aortic arch and pulmonary artery anomalies. (
  • Body surface area (BSA, n = 48), pulmonary arteriolar resistance (n = 39), total lung capacity (n = 40), and aortic pressures (n = 50) were also recorded. (
  • Once the ventricles have filled with blood, they begin to contract, forcing the pulmonary and aortic valves to open. (
  • This 11th IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, and the first in a series focusing on Tobacco Control, presents a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and a thorough evaluation, made by an international group of experts, of the evidence for changes in the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed following smoking cessation. (
  • We describe our technique, applications, and results of endoluminal pulmonary artery banding (EPAB) with and without creation of an aortopulmonary window (APW) for complex cardiac anomalies. (
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve quality of life and reduce cardiac-related mortality. (
  • The death certificate, completed by the county chief deputy coroner, and the autopsy report, completed by the pathologist, listed "cardiac dysrhythmia due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and myocardial bridging of anterior descending coronary artery" as the cause of death. (
  • PCWP: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. (
  • When waveform obtained from the tip of the PAC with the balloon inflated shows correct pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), the tip must be in the pulmonary artery, and the balloon is deflated. (
  • A second critical information from the RHC that is central to the diagnosis is the pulmonary arterial occlusion or wedge pressure (Pawp). (
  • Intravenous injection of KETANSERIN TARTRATE can reduce the right atrial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. (
  • Two-thirds of the cases with PA are associated with major aorto pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). (
  • We undertook a retrospective review of 50 patients with a wide range of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, who had undergone both chest CT and pulmonary arterial pressure measurements at right heart catheterization. (
  • Aneurysm of the pulmonary artery is a rare condition in animals, and to our knowledge it has never been reported in association with pulmonary neoplasia. (
  • This report describes a case of an adult female sheep of the "Churra Galega Bragançana" breed with an aneurysm of the pulmonary artery associated with lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma). (
  • The pulmonary artery had a focal dilatation at base of ~ 2.5 cm, interpreted as aneurysm, apparently with reduced wall thickness ( figure 1C ). (
  • Surgical repair of pulmonary artery aneurysm in BD carries a high risk, with high rates of morbidity and mortality [11]. (
  • The final diagnosis was a solitary peripheral pulmonary artery saccular aneurysm. (
  • The intensity of the pulmonary component of the second heart sound depends primarily on the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure dependent in turn on pulmonary vascular resistance. (
  • In many cases, they have normal pulmonary artery pressures and healthy ventricles, with full repair of their vascular disease. (
  • Left pulmonary artery sling presenting as unilateral echogenic lung on 20-week detailed antenatal ultrasound examination. (
  • Our program is unique because our team uses surgical techniques to treat complex areas of pulmonary vascular disease well past the midpoint of the lung, where the pulmonary vessels and arteries enter and leave, to perform high-quality surgical repairs, and we provide close surveillance over time. (
  • Radiography revealed a nodular pattern with small and diffuse nodules in the pulmonary parenchyma and a larger lesion in the cause-dorsal lung field. (
  • We evaluated the sheep pulmonary artery (PA) for the presence or absence of a septum, which may increase PA resistance and affect artificial lung flow. (
  • We describe a case of pulmonary artery (PA) pseudoaneurysm related to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung tumor. (
  • Microwave Ablation of the Lung in a Porcine Model: Vessel Diameter Predicts Pulmonary Artery Occlusion. (
  • Since chronic lung disease is common in survivors of pulmonary hypoplasia, these infants and children have an increased risk of fatality and serious morbidity from upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). (
  • The fetal lung 2: Pulmonary hypoplasia. (
  • To test this, we investigated the relationship between acute brain ischemia, lung inflammation, and CNS reperfusion injury in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke. (
  • We retrospectively identified 5 of 109 consecutive patients undergoing lung transplantation who had postopreative pulmonary arterial or venous obstruction. (
  • ERS 2022 Hybrid ERS Congress 2022 a Breath of Fresh Air The hybrid meeting promises education, collaboration, and curbside consults for professionals in pulmonary and critical care medicine. (
  • In an accompanying editorial , Matthew B. Stanbrook, MD, PhD, from the Asthma and Airway Centre of the University Health Network at the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, notes that there are existing medications that are expected to reduce the risk for exacerbations in patients with COPD, but there is no evidence that they will work in patients with increased artery size. (
  • In patients with pulmonary artery sling, the history is predictable and usually not subtle. (
  • These specialists meet regularly to discuss all of the important aspects of care for our patients with pulmonary vascular disease. (
  • In the Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program, we are a team with one goal in mind: to make our patients as healthy as possible and help them remain that way for the rest of their lives. (
  • Patients in our Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program are often able to lead normal lives after treatment. (
  • This may indeed be the case in some patients with a limited number of discrete pulmonary artery stenoses (diastolic pressure being low because of flow occurring through the low resistance vessels which are unaffected by the disease). (
  • Aneurysms associated with BD tend to be multiple and pulmonary artery aneurysms are relatively common, with an associated rate of 1%-10% of patients with BD [9]. (
  • Purpose: To assess pulmonary artery (PA) size, flow variables, and wall shear stress (WSS) in patients after Fontan operation at a young age. (
  • Background: Occasionally pulmonary artery banding is necessary to reduce pulmonary arterial blood flow and pressure in patients who cannot be repaired in a single stage. (
  • Two patients with primary sarcoma of the PA that mimicked pulmonary thromboembolic diseases who presented with complications requiring surgical intervention are described. (
  • The diameters of the main, left, proximal right, distal right, interlobar, and left descending pulmonary arteries were measured from CT scans in 32 patients with cardiopulmonary disease and in 26 age- and sex-matched control subjects. (
  • Certain other parameters ("driving" pressure across the pulmonary circulation, FEV1 and Paco2) appear to be equally good at predicting survival as PAP in these obstructed patients. (
  • In 64 patients who underwent a second right heart catheterisation at least three years after the first (average delay: 5.5 +/- 2 years), the prognostic value of changes in PAP, arterial blood gases, and pulmonary volumes was studied but with the exception of Pao2 was unremarkable. (
  • Mean TPG and DWG measurements in the BoPAP group were intermediate between those in the normal PAP and PAH groups, leading the investigators to suggest that a subset of systemic sclerosis patients with BoPAP may have early pulmonary vasculopathy. (
  • In Long COVID, CPET Finds Abnormalities Other Tests Don't Dysfunctional breathing, hypocapnia, and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome were seen in symptomatic patients post-acute COVID-19 despite normal chest imaging and pulmonary function. (
  • provide a rigorous summary of the available evidence on pulmonary histopathological findings in patients with COVID-19. (
  • abstract = "Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. (
  • Tetrology of Fallot (TOF) comprises 3.9% of congenital heart disease,[1] of which approximately 5-10% have pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD). (
  • In contrast, when there are multiple severe peripheral pulmonary artery stenoses and a paucity of low resistance vessels remaining then diastolic pressure in the proximal pulmonary arteries rises and the pulmonary second sound may be accentuated, as described in our report 1-1 (our patient's pressure was 85/30 with mean of 55 mm Hg). (
  • In rings of pulmonary artery suspended for isometric tension recording (37°C, 16% O 2 and 5% CO 2 ), moderate hypoxia (10% and 4% O 2 ) caused endothelium-dependent relaxation in distal arteries but transient endothelium-dependent contraction in proximal arteries. (
  • In both proximal and distal arteries, the initial response to anoxia (0% O 2 ) was a transient endothelium-dependent contraction. (
  • This was followed by a slowly developing, sustained endothelium-dependent contraction in proximal arteries, or by an endothelium-independent relaxation in distal arteries. (
  • Transient endothelium-dependent contractions to moderate hypoxia (proximal arteries) or anoxia (all arteries) were abolished by L- NAME, but the late endothelium-dependent anoxic contraction observed in proximal arteries was not reduced by L-NAME and/or indomethacin. (
  • If the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure is high, the pulmonary component of the second sound is likely to be accentuated. (
  • We suggest that, in surgery for PDA closure in combination with PAB, the existence of residual PDA shunt flow should be evaluated again after the pulmonary artery pressure decreases with banding. (
  • Prognostic value of pulmonary artery pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Enough air pressure is pumped into the cuff to close the artery. (
  • When the pressure in the cuff is equal to the pressure on the artery, the artery opens and the blood begins to return to the part of the artery that was closed. (
  • The cuff is connected by tubing to a manometer, which shows the amount of pressure on the artery. (
  • Elevation of pulmonary pressure can be caused by a wide range of conditions with very different prognoses and treatment implications. (
  • As a result, pressure increases inside the left atrium and then in the pulmonary veins and capillaries, causing fluid to be pushed through the capillary walls into the air sacs. (
  • Ventricular contraction ejects blood into the major arteries resulting in flow from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure as blood encounters smaller arteries and arterioles then capillaries then the venules and veins of the venous system. (
  • Blood arteries constrict due to this illness, making the heart work harder to pump blood and raise blood pressure levels. (
  • Complications comprised two right-sided and two left-sided pulmonary artery stenoses and one combined left pulmonary arterial and venous obstruction. (
  • Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rarely seen in humans or animals. (
  • Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary neoplasia have been rarely reported in humans and, to the author's knowledge, have not yet been reported in veterinary medicine. (
  • Peripheral pulmonary artery aneurysms that arise from segmental or intrapulmonary branches are extremely rare, and their management is still controversial. (
  • The expansion and contraction is what causes the blood to flow through the heart and to the veins and arteries which are the delivery system of blood to your body. (
  • The ECMO machine is connected with the veins or arteries of the patient through thick tubes. (
  • Blood clots most often happen in the veins, instead of the arteries, because blood travels slower than in the arteries. (
  • Pulmonary artery sling: current results with cardiopulmonary bypass. (
  • Endoluminal pulmonary artery banding alone is preferred when controlled pulmonary blood flow and cardiopulmonary bypass are required to address intracardiac abnormalities. (
  • METHODS AND MODELS: Acute ischemic RV dysfunction was induced by progressive embolization of microsphere in the right coronary artery to mimic RV dysfunction clinically experienced during cardiopulmonary bypass separation caused by air microemboli. (
  • Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) from Cell Applications, Inc. provide an excellent model system to study many aspects of cardiovascular function and disease. (
  • Most heart attacks are caused by a blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries. (
  • The coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to the heart. (
  • Myocardial ischemia occurs when the blood flow through one or more of your coronary arteries is decreased. (
  • Double trouble: fetal diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sling and vascular ring. (
  • Tretter JT, Tretter EM, Rafii DY, Anderson RH, Bhatla P. Fetal diagnosis of abnormal origin of the left pulmonary artery. (
  • Experimental construction of the pulmonary trunk in fetal lambs is accompanied by relatively thin-walled PA resistance vessels. (
  • Some researchers postulate this decreased medial muscular layer is caused by a higher oxygen tension of the blood perfusing the fetal pulmonary circulation. (
  • It is unclear how COPD medications such as inhaled glucocorticoids, phospodiesterase-4 inhibitors, or macrolides, which reduce the risk of exacerbations primarily on the basis of their antiinflammatory properties, would be effective against exacerbations driven by heart disease, thromboembolic disease, or impaired pulmonary reserve," he writes. (
  • Smoking is an independent and modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (5), heart disease (6), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (7). (
  • We present the case of a 3-month-old boy with a large right pulmonary artery to left atrial fistula successfully treated by percutaneous closure. (
  • Based on the echocardiographic examination, the diagnosis of right pulmonary artery to left atrial fistula was made. (
  • Zhuan B , Wang X , Wang M , Li Z , Yuan Q , Xie J , Yang Z , . Hypoxia induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle dysfunction through mitochondrial fragmentation-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. (
  • PASMC dysfunction accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation and ER stress was observed in the pulmonary arteries of hypoxia-induced rats with PAH, as well as isolated PASMCs under hypoxia. (
  • These results suggest that hypoxia induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle dysfunction through mitochondrial fragmentation-mediated ER stress and that mitochondrial morphology is a potential target for treatment of hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle dysfunction. (
  • The response of porcine pulmonary arteries to hypoxia depended on their location in the vasculature and the degree and duration of the hypoxic challenge. (
  • The endothelium- dependent relaxation to moderate hypoxia in distal arteries was inhibited only by combined inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)- nitric oxide (NO) synthase [N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), suggesting mediation by EDRF-NO and prostacyclin. (
  • Therefore, hypoxia/anoxia may initiate contraction of pulmonary arteries by decreasing the activity of EDRF-NO, but the contractions appear to be maintained by an increased activity of an endothelium-derived contracting factor. (
  • 25. Zhang R, Zhou L, Li Q, Liu J, Yao W, Wan H. Upregulation of two actin- associated proteins prompts pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell migration under hypoxia. (
  • Conclusions: Endoluminal pulmonary artery banding provided a consistently effective and durable reduction in pulmonary arterial blood flow with no pulmonary artery distortion. (
  • Pulse is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery caused by the impact of blood pumped by the heart. (
  • As the blood returns to the artery, pulse sounds begin. (
  • Over time, the arteries that supply blood to your heart can become narrow from fatty deposits (plaques). (
  • In animal studies cinnamon improved blood vessel dilation and blood flow in the coronary artery which supplies blood to the heart. (
  • Pumping deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery. (
  • Blood flow towards the heart C. Myocardial ischemia can develop slowly as arteries become blocked over time. (
  • When the heart beats the ventricle pushes blood through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonary artery. (
  • Angina is not a condition, instead, it is a symptom of coronary artery disease or clogged blood vessels that go to and from the heart. (
  • Once their it multiples within your pet's pulmonary artery, leading to constricted blood flow, heart disease and major organ failure. (
  • However, blood clots in the arteries can also happen. (
  • Flow variables, distensibility, and WSS are significantly lower compared to healthy controls, and do not show adequate reactions with stress-testing, which is suggestive of pulmonary artery endothelial and/or vascular dysfunction. (
  • Early detection of RV dysfunction may be facilitated by continuous monitoring of RV waveform obtained from a pulmonary artery catheter. (
  • Anomalous left pulmonary artery causing obstruction to the right main bronchus: report of a case. (
  • We offer care for newborns and children with anomalous origin of the right or left pulmonary artery at Nemours Children's Hospital, Delaware (Wilmington, Del. (
  • We offer anomalous origin of the right or left pulmonary artery care at Nemours Children's Health, Pensacola and our hospital affiliate, West Florida Healthcare , with outpatient and follow-up appointments also available at select Nemours locations. (
  • Evaluation of left pulmonary artery sling, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography. (
  • Surgical management of pulmonary artery sling in children. (
  • Other times a pulmonary artery band is placed in an infant born with a hole in their heart. (
  • The Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program at the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Heart Center is comprised of a multidisciplinary group of physicians from our cardiothoracic surgery , interventional cardiology, intensive care and anesthesia teams, as well as outpatient cardiologists, pulmonologists , otolaryngologists , geneticists and researchers . (
  • We are one of only two pediatric heart programs in the United States that offer specialized treatment for children with pulmonary vascular disease and the only such program on the East Coast. (
  • When Nathan's family was told that his rare heart condition couldn't be treated, the Children's Heart Center's Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction team stepped up with innovative treatments to save his life. (
  • Watch Dr. Bauser-Heaton explain what makes the Pulmonary Artery Reconstruction Program unique and why it is the right place for your child's heart care. (
  • This condition can also cause another rare congenital heart defect called pulmonary artery sling . (
  • MRI showed marked enlargement of the right heart (ventricle 64.2 mm, atrium 57 mm), pericardial effusion and dissection of the left branch of the pulmonary artery with flap formation. (
  • Systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts are amongst the most common palliative procedures performed in neonates with congenital heart defects. (
  • Fragata, JIG 2009, ' Early results of bilateral pulmonary artery banding for hypoplastic left heart syndrome discussion ', European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery , vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 978-979. (
  • In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary oedema. (
  • To treat the hypertrophic scar, dilate the coronary artery, heal the liver injury and the pulmonary heart disease. (
  • People with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or heart failure may experience worsening of their conditions and have difficulty breathing. (