Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.

Pulmonary capillary perfusion: intra-alveolar fractal patterns and interalveolar independence. (1/4148)

Pulmonary capillary perfusion was analyzed from videomicroscopic recordings to determine flow switching characteristics among capillary segments in isolated, blood-perfused canine lungs. Within each alveolus, the rapid switching pattern was repetitive and was, therefore, nonrandom (fractal dimensions near 1.0). This self-similarity over time was unexpected in a network widely considered to be passive. Among adjacent alveoli, the relationship among the switching patterns was even more surprising, for there was virtually no relationship between the perfusion patterns (coefficients of determination approaching zero). These findings demonstrated that the perfusion patterns in individual alveolar walls were independent of their next-door neighbors. The lack of dependence among neighboring networks suggests an interesting characteristic: the failure of one alveolar-capillary bed would leave its neighbors relatively unaffected, a feature of a robust design.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (2/4148)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

Regulation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable channel by a beta2-adrenergic agonist, cytosolic Ca2+ and Cl- in fetal rat alveolar epithelium. (3/4148)

1. In cell-attached patches formed on the apical membrane of fetal alveolar epithelium, terbutaline (a specific beta2-adrenergic agonist) increased the open probability (Po) of an amiloride-sensitive Na+-permeable non-selective cation (NSC) channel (control, 0.03 +/- 0.04; terbutaline, 0.62 +/- 0.18; n = 8, P < 0. 00001) by increasing the mean open time 100-fold without any significant change in the mean closed time and without any change in the single channel conductance (control, 27.8 +/- 2.3 pS; terbutaline, 28.2 +/- 2.1 pS; n = 8). 2. The Po of the unstimulated channel increased when the apical membrane was depolarized due to a decrease in the closing rate and an increase in the opening rate, while the Po of the terbutaline-stimulated channel did not depend on the membrane potential. 3. Increased cytosolic [Ca2+] also increased the Po of the channel in a manner consistent with one Ca2+-binding site on the cytosolic surface of the channel. Terbutaline increased the sensitivity of the channel to cytosolic Ca2+ by shifting the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) required for half-maximal activation to a lower [Ca2+]c value, leading to an increase in Po. 4. An increase in the cytosolic Cl- concentration ([Cl-]c) decreased the Po of the channel consistent with two Cl--binding sites by increasing the closing rate without any significant change in the opening rate. Terbutaline increased Po by reducing the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing. 5. Taken together, these observations indicate that terbutaline activates a Ca2+-activated, Cl--inhibitable, amiloride-sensitive, Na+-permeable NSC channel in fetal rat alveolar epithelium in two ways: first, through an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity, and second, through a reduction in the effect of cytosolic Cl- to promote channel closing.  (+info)

Opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus). (4/4148)

P. carinii infection in red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus), born and maintained in a laboratory breeding colony, was examined by histopathologic examination postmortem. P. carinii cysts were detected in 6 of 10 red-bellied tamarins examined, by using Grocott's, toluidine blue O and immunostaining with avidin-biotin complex using antisera for rat-, simian-, and human-P. carinii. The results obtained from the present studies imply that P. carinii may be an important pathogen in this species.  (+info)

Acute saline infusion reduces alveolar-capillary membrane conductance and increases airflow obstruction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (5/4148)

BACKGROUND: Impaired alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is the major cause for the reduction in pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in heart failure. Whether this reduction is fixed, reflecting pulmonary microvascular damage, or is variable is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether DLCO and its subdivisions, alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), were sensitive to changes in intravascular volume. In addition, we examined the effects of volume loading on airflow rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and 8 healthy volunteers were studied. DM and Vc were determined by the Roughton and Forster method. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were also recorded. In patients with LVD, infusion of 10 mL. kg-1 body wt of 0.9% saline acutely reduced DM (12.0+/-3.3 versus 10.4+/-3.5 mmol. min-1. kPa-1, P<0.005), FEV1 (2.3+/-0.4 versus 2.1+/-0.4 L, P<0.0005), and PEFR (446+/-55 versus 414+/-56 L. min-1, P<0.005). All pulmonary function tests had returned to baseline values 24 hours later. In normal subjects, saline infusion had no measurable effect on lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Acute intravascular volume expansion impairs alveolar-capillary membrane function and increases airflow obstruction in patients with LVD but not in normal subjects. Thus, the abnormalities of pulmonary diffusion in heart failure, which were believed to be fixed, also have a variable component that could be amenable to therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

TNF-alpha increases ceramide without inducing apoptosis in alveolar type II epithelial cells. (6/4148)

Ceramide is a bioactive lipid mediator that has been observed to induce apoptosis in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous ceramide, generated in response to in vivo administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increases apoptosis in primary rat alveolar type II epithelial cells. Intratracheal instillation of TNF-alpha (5 microgram) produced a decrease in sphingomyelin and activation of a neutral sphingomyelinase. These changes were associated with a significant increase in lung ceramide content. TNF-alpha concomitantly activated the p42/44 extracellular signal-related kinases and induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation in the lung. Hypodiploid nuclei studies revealed that intratracheal TNF-alpha did not increase type II cell apoptosis compared with that in control cells after isolation. A novel observation from separate in vitro studies demonstrated that type II cells undergo a gradual increase in apoptosis after time in culture, a process that was accelerated by exposure of cells to ultraviolet light. However, culture of cells with a cell-permeable ceramide, TNF-alpha, or a related ligand, anti-CD95, did not increase apoptosis above the control level. The results suggest that ceramide resulting from TNF-alpha activation of sphingomyelin hydrolysis might activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways without increasing programmed cell death in type II cells.  (+info)

Pattern of total and regional lung function in subjects with bronchoconstriction induced by 15-me PGF2 alpha. (7/4148)

Closing volume (single breath nitrogen test), regional ventilation and perfusion (using intravenous xenon-133), and total lung function (TLC, VC, and FEV) were measured before and after intramuscular administration of 250 mug 15-methyl prostaglandin F2alpha (15-me PGF2alpha) in 10 healthy women. The cardiac output was measured with the Minnesota impedance cardiograph model 304A and the transthoracic impedance was used as an expression of the thoracic fluid volume. The slope of the alveolar plateau on the closing volume tracing showed a 271% increase 20 minutes after the prostaglandin administration, at which time the closing volume per cent (CV%) had decreased (P less than 0-01) and the closing capacity (CC%) had increased (P less than 0-05). Vital capacity (VC) decreased (P less than 0-01), residual volume (RV) increased (P less than 0-01), and the total lung capacity (TLC) remained unchanged. The maximal decrease (9%) in FEV1 was seen after 20 minutes. All these measurements except the slope of the alveolar plateau returned to control levels after 60 minutes. The redistribution of regional ventilation was more pronounced than that of the regional pulmonary blood flow. No change was observed in cardiac output and transthoracic impedance. None of the patients experienced any dyspnoea. Our results are consistent with a more pronounced effect of prostaglandin F2alpha on the small airways (the alveolar plateau) than on the larger airways (FEV1). In cases where an increase in the slope of the alveolar plateau is observed, the closing volume per cent should not be used as a measurement of the lung disease. It is concluded that the single breath nitrogen test (N2 closing volume) is more sensitive than the conventional tests.  (+info)

Apoptosis is a pathway responsible for the resolution of endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia in the rat. (8/4148)

Previous studies showed that intratracheal instillation of endotoxin induces transient type II cell hyperplasia in the rat lung and described some of the mechanisms involved in the proliferative response of type II cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how long the type II cell hyperplasia persists and how it is resolved. The portion of epithelial cells in hyperplastic lesions of the rat lung expressing cyclin D1, an indicator for cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, was greatest at 3 d post instillation and decreased after 4 and 6 d. The fate of the proliferating epithelial cells was traced by injecting the rats with 5-bromo-2' deoxy uridine (BrdU) 2 d post instillation, the peak time point for maximum incorporation of BrdU. Exfoliated BrdU-positive epithelial cells were detected in the alveolar spaces in tissue sections from rats 4, 5, and 6 d post instillation. BrdU-positive epithelial cells showed flattened nuclei at 6 and 10 d post instillation. Expression of the 116 kD poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was low in type II cells from control rats, and was increased at 3, 4, and 6 d post instillation. In cells obtained by lavage, only a 35 kD cleavage product of PARP was detected, which is an indicator of necrotic cell death. In isolated type II cells from rats 3, 4, and 6 d post endotoxin instillation, progressive cleavage of the PARP to its 89 kD residual fragment was detected, which is a direct evidence for the activation of caspases. Furthermore, apoptotic epithelial cells with condensed nuclei were identified by electron microscopy in rats 4 d post instillation. These results indicate that apoptosis is an additional mechanism for the resolution of endotoxin-induced lung epithelial hyperplasias.  (+info)

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

A pulmonary alveolus (PL: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity"), also known as an air sac or air space, is one of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pulmonary alveoli. Pulmonary+Alveoli at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare lung disorder of small stone formation in the alveoli. A pulmonary contusion is a ... Pulmonary edema is the buildup of fluid in the parenchyma and alveoli. An edema is usually caused by left ventricular heart ...
... misplaced pulmonary veins adjacent to pulmonary arteries, abnormal alveoli with thickened interstitia and abnormal capillary ... Pulmonary vasodilators like sildenafil or inhaled nitric oxide can be used to reduce pulmonary blood pressures. For those with ... MacMahon HE (July 1948). "Congenital alveolar dysplasia; a developmental anomaly involving pulmonary alveoli". Pediatrics. 2 (1 ... ACD-causing mutations result in abnormal development of lung vasculature and alveoli. In ACD, the interstitium of alveoli is ...
Desplechain C.; Foliguet B.; Barrat E.; Grignon G.; Touati F. (1983). "[The pores of Kohn in pulmonary alveoli]". Bull Eur ... 2005). Paediatric pulmonary function testing : 41 tables ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Basel [u.a.]: Karger. pp. 6. ISBN 3-8055-7753-2 ... The pores of Kohn (also known as interalveolar connections or alveolar pores) are discrete holes in walls of adjacent alveoli. ... They also equalize the pressure in adjacent alveoli and, combined with increased distribution of surfactant, thus play an ...
... which lead to the capillaries that surround the pulmonary alveoli. The pulmonary arteries are blood vessels that carry systemic ... Pulmonary circuit Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery.Deep ... The largest pulmonary artery is the main pulmonary artery or pulmonary trunk from the heart, and the smallest ones are the ... The pulmonary trunk splits into the right and the left main pulmonary artery. The left main pulmonary artery is shorter than ...
The surrounding alveoli and pulmonary interstitium remain relatively normal. Electron microscopy of the sample, although not ... GATA2 mutation-based pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with normal levels of GM-CSF and commonly improves or is ... Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of surfactant-derived ... Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a recessive genetic condition in which individuals are born with genetic mutations ...
... is an hyperplasia of pneumocytes lining pulmonary alveoli. Pulmonary atypical adenomatous hyperplasia ... v t e (Pulmonary lesion, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs). ...
West, John B. (1 February 2013). "Marcello Malpighi and the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli". American ... In 1661 he identified and described the pulmonary and capillary network connecting small arteries with small veins. Malpighi's ... structures now known as alveoli he used to describe the air pathway as continuous inhalation and exhalation with the alveoli at ... with the dissection of sheep and other mammals where he would inject black ink into the pulmonary artery. Tracing the inks ...
The pulmonary alveoli fill with fluid or pus making it difficult to breathe. Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, ... which cause leaking of fluid into the alveoli. The combination of cellular destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the ... There, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and the alveoli. This invasion often leads to cell death either through ... Colby, Thomas V.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Feddersen, Richard M.; Nolte, Kurt B. (October 2000). "Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Is ...
Its anticholinergic properties can theoretically relax the pulmonary alveoli and reduce phlegm production. Spasmolytic and ...
The frontal bone has no alveolus (hollow cavity in bone. Not the same structure as a pulmonary alveolus) above it. The front ...
This process occurs in the pulmonary capillaries adjacent to the alveoli of the lungs. The oxygen then travels through the ... This elevation may be caused by congenital heart disease, cor pulmonale, pulmonary fibrosis, too much erythropoietin, or ... such as those present in the alveoli), the relaxed (high affinity, R) state is favoured. Inversely, at low partial pressures ( ...
Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is a hyperplastic lesion of the epithelial lining of pulmonary alveoli. A multi-step ... v t e (Pulmonary lesion, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs). ...
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is the condition of air escaping overdistended alveoli into the pulmonary interstitium. It is ... Pulmonary vascular diseases are conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation. Examples are:[citation needed] Pulmonary ... Pulmonary edema, leakage of fluid from capillaries of the lung into the alveoli (or air spaces). It is usually due to ... Pulmonary hemorrhage, inflammation and damage to capillaries in the lung resulting in blood leaking into the alveoli. This may ...
The larvae then break through the walls of the pulmonary capillaries to enter the alveoli. The juvenile worms then migrate from ... From there, the larvae then pass through the heart to enter the pulmonary circulation. ... Accompanying pathological symptoms include pulmonary infiltration, eosinophilia (symptoms of the overabundance of eosinophils ... the alveoli, through the bronchioles and bronchi, and into the trachea. An acute inflammatory reaction can occur if some of the ...
"Mitochondrial transfer from bone-marrow-derived stromal cells to pulmonary alveoli protects against acute lung injury". Nature ... Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) injected into mice with acute lung injury transfer their mitochondria to lung alveoli ...
April 2012). "Mitochondrial transfer from bone-marrow-derived stromal cells to pulmonary alveoli protects against acute lung ...
Alveolar-arterial gradient Diffusing capacity Pulmonary alveolus Dugdale DC, Zieve D. Gasometría arterial. Medline Plus. 09/01/ ... The rest of the difference is due to the continual uptake of oxygen by the pulmonary capillaries, and the continual diffusion ... of CO2 out of the capillaries into the alveoli. The alveolar pO2 is not routinely measured but is calculated from blood gas ...
Most gas exchange occurs in the pulmonary region due to the alveoli, which contain a large surface area. Scientists have ... Insoluble particles that enter the pulmonary region cause swelling of the alveoli, coughing, and shortness of breath. Carbon ... Since the gas takes time to build up in the pulmonary region, an inhaled concentration of 600 ppm would cause a headache and ... High CO levels build up in the pulmonary region over several hours, and equilibrate with inhaled CO concentrations. Exposure to ...
2012). "Mitochondrial transfer from bone-marrow-derived stromal cells to pulmonary alveoli protects against acute lung injury ...
... hyperplasia of pneumocytes lining pulmonary alveoli). Several synonymous terms have been done for this entity: adenomatoid ... Well-demarcated, nodular lesions ranging 2-5 mm in pulmonary parenchyma. Type II pneumocytes without nuclear atypia lined ... Microscopical images Microscopical images Microscopical images v t e (Pulmonary lesion, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs) ... "Tuberous sclerosis complex complicated by pulmonary multinodular shadows". Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 45 (5): 275-8. doi ...
Eventually, the L3 larvae enter the lungs through the pulmonary capillaries and break out into the alveoli. They then travel up ... Additionally, cough and pneumonitis may result as the larvae begin to break into the alveoli and travel up the trachea. Then ...
Pulmonary alveolus - Hollow cavity found in the lungs, for a discussion of gas pressure in the lung. Apnea - Suspension of ... Suctioning of pulmonary oedema fluid should be balanced against the need for oxygenisation. The target of ventilation is to ... It is a protective reflex against pulmonary aspiration; this reflex may be triggered when the vocal cords or the area of the ...
Red hepatization is when there are red blood cells, neutrophils, and fibrin in the pulmonary alveolus/ alveoli; it precedes ...
The oxygen accumulation in the alveoli encourages ROS production which then leads to pulmonary damage. This pulmonary-specific ... Lung complications, such as pulmonary contusion and pulmonary edema, may result from other aspects of PCAS such as CPR and left ... However, during cardiac arrest, the body is in circulatory and pulmonary arrest. Oxygen is no longer being ventilated by the ... Finally, pneumonia is a common pulmonary complication due to multifactoral mechanisms including: loss of airway protection, ...
Aspirated water that reaches the alveoli destroys the pulmonary surfactant, which causes pulmonary edema and decreased lung ... Specifically, upon reaching the alveoli, hypotonic liquid found in freshwater dilutes pulmonary surfactant, destroying the ... Treatment of pulmonary complication from drowning is dependent on the amount of lung injury that occurred during the incident. ... Even small quantities can cause the extrusion of liquid into the lungs (pulmonary edema) over the following hours; this reduces ...
... scaffold contained 44 trillion voxels that laid out 4,000 kilometers of pulmonary capillaries and 200 million pulmonary alveoli ... The Remunity system is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients older than 22. In March 2015 ... Tyvaso and Tyvaso DPI are also indicated for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease ... Ongoing clinical trials of new medicines include ADVANCE OUTCOMES (Phase 3) for ralinepag in pulmonary arterial hypertension; a ...
... pulmonary alveoli, renal tubules, and the Bowman's capsules in renal corpuscles. TLR2 is also expressed by intestinal ...
Lung parenchyma is the substance of the lung that is involved with gas exchange and includes the pulmonary alveoli. The liver ...
... smoke inhaled by burning poison sumac leads to life-threatening pulmonary edema whereby fluid enters the alveoli. Tecnu - skin ...
Once there, it burrows through the pulmonary alveoli and travels up the trachea, where it is swallowed and carried to the small ...
A pulmonary alveolus (PL: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity"), also known as an air sac or air space, is one of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pulmonary alveoli. Pulmonary+Alveoli at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare lung disorder of small stone formation in the alveoli. A pulmonary contusion is a ... Pulmonary edema is the buildup of fluid in the parenchyma and alveoli. An edema is usually caused by left ventricular heart ...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with a worldwide distribution and an estimated incidence of 0.36 case ... Pathology of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Alveoli are filled with an eosinophilic granular material. Note the preservation ... Pathology of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Alveoli are filled with an eosinophilic granular material. Note the preservation ... What causes secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)?. What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis ...
Categories: Pulmonary Alveoli Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Particles or fibers depositing in the deep lung respiratory bronchioles or pulmonary alveoli will first contact the aqueous " ... Pulmonary and pleural fiber burdens were normalized to Day 5 data with areas under the curve equal to 100 on Day 5. ... Pulmonary effects of exposure to fine fiberglass: Irregular opacities and small airways obstruction. Br J Ind Med 1992;49:714- ... Pulmonary effects of exposure to fine fiberglass: Irregular opacities and small airways obstruction. Br J Ind Med 1993;50:381- ...
Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of breath. ... Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. This buildup of fluid leads to shortness of breath. ... As the pressure in these blood vessels increases, fluid is pushed into the air spaces (alveoli) in the lungs. This fluid ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure. When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood can back up ...
... destruction of alveoli, and impaired pulmonary function. Chronic exposures to low levels of phosgene may lead to chronic ... Pneumonia can complicate severe pulmonary edema and may cause death up to 48 hours after onset of pulmonary edema. ... Phosgene is a severe pulmonary irritant. However, serious pulmonary effects may be delayed up to 48 hours. ... Phosgene is a severe pulmonary irritant. However, serious pulmonary effects may be delayed up to 48 hours. ...
It is a syndrome characterized by marked pulmonary hypertension that causes hypoxemia and right-to-left intracardiac shunting ... Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is defined as the failure of the normal circulatory transition that ... fluid-filled alveoli causing compression of the pulmonary blood vessels, and the presence of vasoconstrictor mediators, such as ... Hypoplasia of the pulmonary vascular bed. Hypoplasia of the pulmonary vascular bed is another cause of persistent pulmonary ...
... pulmonary circulation and then to the alveoli. When the larvae are coughed up by the host, they are swallowed back into the ... Pulmonary manifestations of ascariasis are due to the larval migration through the lungs. Heavy infection with A. lumbricoides ...
Pulmonary Air-Leak Syndromes - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema (PIE) Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is leakage of air from alveoli into the pulmonary ... Pulmonary interstitial emphysema Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema (PIE) Pulmonary air-leak syndromes involve dissection of air ... Pneumothorax Pneumothorax Pulmonary air-leak syndromes involve dissection of air out of the normal pulmonary airspaces. (See ...
plural alveoli) a small cavity or space; socket of a tooth; air cell of the lungs ... alveolus - noun a) A small cavity or pit. b) an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity Syn: pulmonary ... Alveolus - Al*ve o*lus ([a^]l*v[=e] [ o]*l[u^]s), n.; pl. {Alveoli} ( l[imac]). [L., a small hollow or cavity, dim. of alveus: ... alveolus - [al vē′ə ləs] n. pl. alveoli [al vē′əlī΄, al vē′əlē΄] [L, dim. of alveus, a hollow, cavity < alvus, the belly, ...
Lung model at an enlarged scale showing the bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli with accompanying pulmonary and bronchial blood ... Lung model at an enlarged scale showing the bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli with accompanying pulmonary and bronchial blood ... A bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli are displayed with the accompanying pulmonary and bronchial blood vessels. Lung model ...
Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage). It is because the high vascular pressures cause stress failure of the pulmonary ... capillaries, resulting in hemorrhage into the alveoli. It is created by the excess fluid in the gas exchange region of the ...
Pulmonary Alveoli (1966-1991). Public MeSH Note:. 92. History Note:. 92. DeCS ID:. 29999 ... Macrophage, Pulmonary. Macrophages, Pulmonary. Pulmonary Macrophage. Pulmonary Macrophages. Tree number(s):. A11.329.372.600. ... Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in ... Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in ...
The embolic occlusion prevents blood flow to the vascular beds of the alveoli, thereby creating areas that are ventilated but ... Emergency TEE was performed and showed a large pulmonary embolus in the pulmonary trunk and the right and left pulmonary ... which shows a large embolus in the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary artery) and in both the right and the left pulmonary artery (see ... Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in the Operating Room * Sections Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in the ...
Therefore, MA abuse can induce pulmonary dysfunction and alveolus injury. The immunoactivity of MMVs is regulated by circ_ ... KEY POINTS: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse induces pulmonary dysfunction and alveoli injury. The immunoactivity of macrophage ... MA elevated peak velocity of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery accelerate time, reduced the number of alveolar sacs, ... RESULTS: Patients in three-dimensional group were associated with more chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23.9% vs 3.0%, p ...
Protein-rich fluid then exudates rapidly into the alveoli and pulmonary interstitium. Compliance is reduced, the alveolar- ... Pulmonary hypertension may result from the release of pulmonary inflammatory mediators, increasing right ventricular afterload ... Postobstructive pulmonary edema following laryngeal spasm and hypoxic neuronal injury with resultant neurogenic pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary effects. The target organ of submersion injury is the lung. Aspiration of as little as 1-3 mL/kg of fluid leads to ...
This compound has the task of keeping the pulmonary alveoli open, operational units of the respiratory system where the ...
The pulmonary veins originate in the alveoli and also receive drainage from the bronchial and pleural branches. After the ... Pulmonary vasculature. A close relation exists between the bronchial tree and the anatomy of the pulmonary vasculature, ... Emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by an ... The main pulmonary artery originates in the right ventricle and divides into 2 branches. The right pulmonary artery passes ...
The pulmonary veins originate in the alveoli and also receive drainage from the bronchial and pleural branches. After the ... Pulmonary vasculature. A close relation exists between the bronchial tree and the anatomy of the pulmonary vasculature, ... Emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by an ... The main pulmonary artery originates in the right ventricle and divides into 2 branches. The right pulmonary artery passes ...
... of emitted particles would deposit in the pulmonary region (alveoli). Benzaldehyde (1.0-2.3 ppb) and acetone (0.7-18.0 ppb) ... and pulmonary regions, respectively. If CNT-containing polymer particles are hazardous, it would be prudent to control ...
pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid within the lung parenchyma and alveoli as ... Based on etiology, pulmonary edema is classified as cardiogenic or noncardiogenic. Patients may present with progressive ... both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea. , stridor Stridor Laryngomalacia and Tracheomalacia. , wheezing Wheezing Wheezing ...
... alveoli, bronchi and other pulmonary cells. Human viruses have hemagglutinin (HA) with more affinity with sugars which ...
  • A pulmonary alveolus (PL: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity"), also known as an air sac or air space, is one of millions of hollow, distensible cup-shaped cavities in the lungs where pulmonary gas exchange takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alveoli make up the functional tissue of the mammalian lungs known as the lung parenchyma, which takes up 90 percent of the total lung volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alveoli are particular to mammalian lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical pair of human lungs contains about 480 million alveoli, providing a total surface area for gas exchange of between 70 and 80 square metres. (wikipedia.org)
  • after this point, both the number and size of alveoli increases until the development of lungs finishes at approximately 8 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary edema is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As the pressure in these blood vessels increases, fluid is pushed into the air spaces (alveoli) in the lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that damages the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. (inhousepharmacy.su)
  • All the damage to the lungs you see in CT scans are from the release of oxidative iron from the hemes, this overwhelms the natural defenses against pulmonary oxidative stress and causes that nice, always-bilateral ground glass opacity in the lungs. (holistiq.us)
  • When the red blood cell gets to the alveoli, or the little sacs in your lungs where all the gas exchange happens, that special little iron ion can flip between FE2+ and FE3+ states with electron exchange and bond to some oxygen, then it goes off on its little merry way to deliver o2 elsewhere. (holistiq.us)
  • Atelectasis has been defined by Van Allen and Lindskog1 as "an airless state of the lungs with collapse of the alveoli. (deepdyve.com)
  • Type II cells, also called type II pneumocytes or type II alveolar cells, release pulmonary surfactant to lower surface tension, and can also differentiate to replace damaged type I cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide at the blood-air barrier between the alveolar air and the pulmonary capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The respiratory bronchioles run for considerable lengths and become increasingly alveolated with side branches of alveolar ducts that become deeply lined with alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each duct opens into five or six alveolar sacs into which clusters of alveoli open. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each terminal respiratory unit is called an acinus and consists of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the alveolar walls there are interconnecting air passages between the alveoli known as the pores of Kohn. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alveolar septum that separates the alveoli in the alveolar sac contains some collagen fibers and elastic fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types are pneumocytes or pneumonocytes known as type I and type II cells found in the alveolar wall, and a large phagocytic cell known as an alveolar macrophage that moves about in the lumens of the alveoli, and in the connective tissue between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I cells, also called type I pneumocytes, or type I alveolar cells, are squamous, thin and flat and form the structure of the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of the earliest structures that will contain alveoli begins on day 22 and is divided into five stages: embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular, and alveolar stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of granular eosinophilic material within alveolar spaces. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] PAP has also been referred to as pulmonary alveolar phospholipoproteinosis or alveolar lipoproteinosis, reflecting the abundance of lipids within the granular exudate. (medscape.com)
  • Animal and human studies indicate that more than one pathway exists for the different forms of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is classified into two main categories: congenital (neonatal) and acquired. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum occur in 1 to 2% of normal neonates, probably because large negative intrathoracic forces created when the neonate starts breathing occasionally disrupt alveolar epithelium, which allows air to move from the alveoli into extra-alveolar soft tissues or spaces. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our goal in the present study nanoparticles (NPs) is associated with adverse opposite initial events of AM-particle interac- was to determine the long-term alveolar reten- cardiovascular effects in susceptible parts of tion lead to the same pulmonary clearance tion of these NPs and to compare our results populations (Ibald-Mulli et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is leakage of air from alveoli into the pulmonary interstitium, lymphatics, or subpleural space. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Alveoli are first located in the respiratory bronchioles that mark the beginning of the respiratory zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alveoli are first located in the respiratory bronchioles as scattered outpockets, extending from their lumens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overview of Perinatal Respiratory Disorders Extensive physiologic changes accompany the birth process (see also Neonatal Pulmonary Function), sometimes unmasking conditions that posed no problem during intrauterine life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It can also be classified according to its severity, which is determined on the basis of the presence or absence of hemodynamic instability, the presence or absence of respiratory symptoms, and the anatomic location of the embolism in the pulmonary vasculature. (medscape.com)
  • This compound has the task of keeping the pulmonary alveoli open, operational units of the respiratory system where the exchanges between air and blood take place, and when these do not open sufficiently, breathing becomes difficult so it is necessary to keep the babies incubated. (trendyqueen.net)
  • In our respiratory tract, the acid α2,6 prevails in the upper part, region of nasal cavities and pharynx, while the α2,3 occurs mainly in the lower respiratory tract, alveoli, bronchi and other pulmonary cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) and is primarily caused by smoking, although other factors such as air pollution and genetic predisposition may also play a role. (inhousepharmacy.su)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term used to describe a group of lung diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing difficulties. (inhousepharmacy.su)
  • Lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, avoiding lung irritants, and participating in pulmonary rehabilitation can also help improve the quality of life for individuals with emphysema or COPD. (inhousepharmacy.su)
  • This also accounts for the fact that longer fibers have proportionately more deposition in the airways as opposed to peripheral alveoli. (cdc.gov)
  • The airways divide by dichotomous branching, with approximately 23 generations of branches from the trachea to the alveoli (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • We have shown that in immature mice chronic airway exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces pulmonary inflammation, increased IL-17a expression, and hypoalveolarization, a BPD-like phenotype. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lung model at an enlarged scale showing the bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli with accompanying pulmonary and bronchial blood vessels. (anatomystuff.co.uk)
  • A bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli are displayed with the accompanying pulmonary and bronchial blood vessels. (anatomystuff.co.uk)
  • These arteries (except the thyroid artery) form a peribronchial plexus that follows the bronchial tree deep into the lung parenchyma to supply blood also to the visceral pleura and the walls of the pulmonary arteries and veins (vasa vasorum). (medscape.com)
  • The heart has two main pathways to where it makes blood circulate: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. (medicalstockimages.net)
  • Colloquially known as blood clots, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are forms of venous thromboembolism (VTE). (medscape.com)
  • Immature alveoli appear as bulges from the sacculi which invade the primary septa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is defined as the failure of the normal circulatory transition that occurs after birth. (medscape.com)
  • It is a syndrome characterized by marked pulmonary hypertension that causes hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood at the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus. (medscape.com)
  • Idiopathic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can present without signs of acute perinatal distress. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to adult primary pulmonary hypertension, the newborn syndrome is not defined by a specific pressure of the pulmonary circulation. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis is confirmed regardless of the pulmonary arterial pressure, as long as it is accompanied by a right-to-left shunt and absence of congenital heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • Lung deposition modeling indicates that about 15-37% of emitted particles would deposit in the pulmonary region (alveoli). (cdc.gov)
  • Oxygen is diffused across the membrane into the capillaries and carbon dioxide is released from the capillaries into the alveoli to be breathed out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary air-leak syndromes involve dissection of air out of the normal pulmonary airspaces. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Secondary septa are responsible for the final division of the sacculi into alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) damage may occur because of hypoxemia sustained during the drowning episode (primary injury) or may result from arrhythmias, ongoing pulmonary injury, reperfusion injury, or multiorgan dysfunction (secondary injury), particularly with prolonged tissue hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • At the browser ventricle-to-pulmonary, I 've the mosaic to contact a function beneficiation. (amc-senftenberg.com)
  • New alveoli continue to form until the age of eight years. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alveolus consists of an epithelial layer of simple squamous epithelium (very thin, flattened cells), and an extracellular matrix surrounded by capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acini are the basic units of respiration, with gas exchange taking place in all the alveoli present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Take all your medicines as directed if you have a disease that can lead to pulmonary edema or a weakened heart muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each alveolus is wrapped in a fine mesh of capillaries covering about 70% of its area. (wikipedia.org)