Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Nursing Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Health Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of health information.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.United StatesDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Biosurveillance: Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksBiostatistics: The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.KansasFatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.ChicagoUnited States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.IllinoisVeterans Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Root Cause Analysis: Multi-step systematic review process used for improving safety by investigation of incidents to find what happened, why it happened, and to determine what can be done to prevent it from happening again.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.

The potential for research-based information in public health: identifying unrecognised information needs. (1/367)

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether there is a potential for greater use of research-based information in public health practice in a local setting. Secondly, if research-based information is relevant, to explore the extent to which this generates questioning behaviour. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus group discussions, observation and interviews. SETTING: Public health practices in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 52 public health practitioners. RESULTS: In general, the public health practitioners had a positive attitude towards research-based information, but believed that they had few cases requiring this type of information. They did say, however, that there might be a potential for greater use. During five focus groups and six observation days we identified 28 questions/cases where it would have been appropriate to seek out research evidence according to our definition. Three of the public health practitioners identified three of these 28 cases as questions for which research-based information could have been relevant. This gap is interpreted as representing unrecognised information needs. CONCLUSIONS: There is an unrealised potential in public health practice for more frequent and extensive use of research-based information. The practitioners did not appear to reflect on the need for scientific information when faced with new cases and few questions of this type were generated.  (+info)

A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology. (2/367)

BACKGROUND: An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. METHODS: A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. DISCUSSION: Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.  (+info)

Using automated medical records for rapid identification of illness syndromes (syndromic surveillance): the example of lower respiratory infection. (3/367)

BACKGROUND: Gaps in disease surveillance capacity, particularly for emerging infections and bioterrorist attack, highlight a need for efficient, real time identification of diseases. METHODS: We studied automated records from 1996 through 1999 of approximately 250,000 health plan members in greater Boston. RESULTS: We identified 152,435 lower respiratory infection illness visits, comprising 106,670 episodes during 1,143,208 person-years. Three diagnoses, cough (ICD9CM 786.2), pneumonia not otherwise specified (ICD9CM 486) and acute bronchitis (ICD9CM 466.0) accounted for 91% of these visits, with expected age and sex distributions. Variation of weekly occurrences corresponded closely to national pneumonia and influenza mortality data. There was substantial variation in geographic location of the cases. CONCLUSION: This information complements existing surveillance programs by assessing the large majority of episodes of illness for which no etiologic agents are identified. Additional advantages include: a) sensitivity, uniformity and efficiency, since detection of events does not depend on clinicians' to actively report diagnoses, b) timeliness, the data are available within a day of the clinical event; and c) ease of integration into automated surveillance systems. These features facilitate early detection of conditions of public health importance, including regularly occurring events like seasonal respiratory illness, as well as unusual occurrences, such as a bioterrorist attack that first manifests as respiratory symptoms. These methods should also be applicable to other infectious and non-infectious conditions. Knowledge of disease patterns in real time may also help clinicians to manage patients, and assist health plan administrators in allocating resources efficiently.  (+info)

Conceptual framework of public health surveillance and action and its application in health sector reform. (4/367)

BACKGROUND: Because both public health surveillance and action are crucial, the authors initiated meetings at regional and national levels to assess and reform surveillance and action systems. These meetings emphasized improved epidemic preparedness, epidemic response, and highlighted standardized assessment and reform. METHODS: To standardize assessments, the authors designed a conceptual framework for surveillance and action that categorized the framework into eight core and four support activities, measured with indicators. RESULTS: In application, country-level reformers measure both the presence and performance of the six core activities comprising public health surveillance (detection, registration, reporting, confirmation, analyses, and feedback) and acute (epidemic-type) and planned (management-type) responses composing the two core activities of public health action. Four support activities - communications, supervision, training, and resource provision - enable these eight core processes. National, multiple systems can then be concurrently assessed at each level for effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost. CONCLUSIONS: This approach permits a cost analysis, highlights areas amenable to integration, and provides focused intervention. The final public health model becomes a district-focused, action-oriented integration of core and support activities with enhanced effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost savings. This reform approach leads to sustained capacity development by an empowerment strategy defined as facilitated, process-oriented action steps transforming staff and the system.  (+info)

Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union. (5/367)

BACKGROUND: Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS) of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS) is presented here as a prototype. DISCUSSION: We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis) and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis). The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. SUMMARY: The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.  (+info)

Verbal autopsy of 48 000 adult deaths attributable to medical causes in Chennai (formerly Madras), India. (6/367)

BACKGROUND: In the city of Chennai, India, registration of the fact of death is almost complete but the cause of death is often inadequately recorded on the death certificate. A special verbal autopsy (VA) study of 48 000 adult deaths in Chennai during 1995-97 was conducted to arrive at the probable underlying cause of death and to measure cause specific mortality rates for Chennai. METHODS: Trained non-medical graduates with at least 15 years of formal education interviewed the surviving family members or an associate of the deceased to write a report on the complaints, symptoms, signs, duration and treatment details of illness prior to death. Each report was reviewed centrally by two physicians independently. The reliability was assessed by comparing deaths attributed to cancer by VA with records in Vital Statistics Department and Chennai Cancer Registry. RESULTS: The VA reduced the proportion of deaths attributed to unspecified medical causes and unknown causes from 37% to 7% in early adult life and middle age (25-69 yrs) and has yielded fewer unspecified causes (only 10%) than the death certificate. The sensitivity of VA to identify cancer was 94% in the age group 25-69. CONCLUSION: VA is practicable for deaths in early adult life or middle age and is of more limited value in old age. A systematic program of VA of a representative sample of deaths could assign broad causes not only to deaths in childhood (as has previously been established) but also to deaths in early adult life and middle age.  (+info)

The healthcare cost and utilization project: an overview. (7/367)

DATABASE: . Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)-a family of databases including the State Inpatient Databases (SID), the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID), and the outpatient databases State Ambulatory Surgery Data (SASD) and State Emergency Department Data (SEDD). DESCRIPTION: Multistate, inpatient (SID, NIS, KID) and outpatient (SASD, SEDD) discharge records on insured and uninsured patients. SOURCE: Partnership between the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and public and private statewide data organizations. AVAILABLE DATA: Selected data elements from inpatient and outpatient discharge records, including patient demographic, clinical, disposition and diagnostic/procedural information; hospital identification (ID); facility charges; and other facility information. DATA YEARS AVAILABLE: Varies by database: NIS 1988-2000; SID 1995-2000; KID 1997 and 2000; SASD 1995-2000; and SEDD in pilot phase. Future data years anticipated for all datasets and back years for SID and SASD. UNITS OF ANALYSIS: Patient (in states with encrypted patient identification), physician, market, and state. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Quality assessment, use and cost of hospital services, medical treatment variations, use of ambulatory surgery services, diffusion of medical technology, impact of health policy changes, access to care (inference), study of rare illness or procedures, small area variations, and care of special populations. STRENGTHS: Largest collection of all-payer, uniform, state-based inpatient and ambulatory surgery administrative data. LIMITATIONS: Lacks clinical detail (e.g., stage of disease, vital statistics) and laboratory and pharmacy data. Ability to track patients across time and setting varies by state. ACCESS TO DATA: Access available to all users who sign and abide by the Data Use Agreement. Application kits available at www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup. HCUPnet, an on-line interactive query tool, allows access to data without purchase (www.ahrq. gov/data/hcup/hcupnet.htm).  (+info)

Investigation of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks. (8/367)

The U.S. food supply is characterized increasingly by centralized production and wide distribution of products, and more foodborne disease outbreaks are dispersed over broad geographic areas. Such outbreaks may present as a gradual, diffuse, and initially unapparent increase in sporadic cases. Recognition and reporting by clinicians and local public health officials and the ordering of laboratory tests by clinicians continue to be cornerstones of detecting all outbreaks. New methods--such as active laboratory-based surveillance, automated algorithms for detecting increases in infection rates, and molecular subtyping--facilitate detection of diffuse outbreaks. Routines have evolved for the investigation of multistate outbreaks; they are characterized by rapid communication between local, state, and federal public health officials; timely review of epidemiologic data by expert panels; collaboration on tracebacks with food safety regulatory agencies; and communication with the public and media. Rapid, efficient investigation of multistate outbreaks may result in control of acute public health emergencies, identification and correction of hazardous food production and processing practices, and consequent improvement in food safety.  (+info)

  • J-BHI publishes original papers describing recent advances in the field of biomedical and health informatics where information and communication technologies intersect with health, healthcare, life sciences and biomedicine. (embs.org)
  • In this issue, vol. 22, issue 5, September 2018, 2 papers are published related to the topic Public Health Informatics. (embs.org)
  • Generally, AMIA focuses on those aspects of public health that enable the development and use of interoperable information systems for public health functions such as biosurveillance, outbreak management, electronic laboratory reporting and prevention. (amia.org)
  • She provides authoritative medical and epidemiological advice, guidance, assistance, interpretation, and recommendations regarding food safety, as well as working to promote collaboration with multiple partners from within and outside of FDA, including laboratory, public health, agriculture, and regulatory partners at the state and local levels. (groupbstrepinternational.org)
  • AMIA offers virtual distance learning informatics training through 10x10 courses presented by university partners . (amia.org)
  • AMIA is one of the primary societies that brings together informatics disciplines across the translational spectrum. (amia.org)
  • Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. (nih.gov)
  • He is the Director of the JHU/APL Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics. (wiley.com)
  • Public health informatics and the related population informatics, work on information and technology issues from the perspective of groups of individuals. (amia.org)
  • The Online Journal of Public Health Informatics (OJPHI) strives to satisfy the growing need for a public health informatics knowledge portal by practitioners, researchers, educators, and policy makers. (firstmonday.dk)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has awarded a total of $4.37 million in grants to fund four new Centers of Excellence in Public Health Informatics. (information-management.com)
  • He is the Director of the JHU/APL Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics. (wiley.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has awarded a $4.8 million grant to researchers at Indiana University and the Regenstrief Institute to create the Indiana Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics, one of only four such centers in the nation. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • General Preventive Medicine / Public Health Residency Program (PMRP) is a one or two-year program for physicians, in which participants obtain a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree within an affiliated California University followed by a training year within a local health department or a state department program mentored by a County Health Officer or public health physician. (ca.gov)
  • In this role, she was responsible for managing administrative financial operations and tracking funds received from the Prevention and Public Health Fund (PPHF) and CDC Foundation to support programmatic activities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). (cdc.gov)
  • Public health professionals explore the potential for prevention at all vulnerable points in the causal chains leading to disease, injury, or disability public health activities are not restricted to particular social, behavioral, or environmental contexts. (powershow.com)
  • Well-known publications include: International Journal of Public Health, AIDS and Behavior, Maternal and Child Health Journal, Implementation Science, Advances in Prevention Science, and SpringerBriefs in Public Health. (springer.com)
  • Society partners include: International Society for Urban Health, The Swiss School of Public Health+, Society for Prevention Research, and National Society of Genetic Counselors. (springer.com)
  • Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level. (nih.gov)
  • It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs. (nih.gov)
  • A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level. (nih.gov)
  • In 2006, when Common Ground was launched, many agencies lacked the ability to collect, store, analyze, and share the information needed for a coordinated response to disease prevention and control and large-scale health crises. (rwjf.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Deborah Tate, PhD, associate professor of health behavior and nutrition, has been appointed to serve a four-year term on the Psychosocial Risk and Disease Prevention (PRDP) Study Section for the Center for Scientific Review, a program of the National Institute of Health. (unchealthcare.org)
  • The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) in collaboration with your county public health office oversees a variety of research, response and prevention programs to protect your health. (ca.gov)
  • The Faculty also undertakes studies that inform the development of services, interventions and policies that address health disparities that occur as a consequence of exposures throughout the life course. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In addition, she is also the staff lead for the Tribal Health Epidemiology, Health Disparities, WestON, and SouthON Subcommittees and/or Workgroups. (cste.org)
  • The learning community states looked across screening, time to treatment and quality of treatment to measure the impact of health disparities. (astho.org)
  • Prior to joining the faculty at IUPUI, Dr. Dixon was an accomplished computer programmer as well as IT project manager who developed and implemented technologies that are now used by more than 100 hospitals and 20,000 physicians to exchange data necessary for caring for individual patients as well as monitoring the health of Indiana communities via the Indiana Health Information Exchange. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinicians collaborate with other health care and information technology professionals to develop health informatics tools which promote patient care that is safe, efficient, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of CER is to assist consumers, clinicians, purchasers, and policy makers to make informed decisions that will improve health care at both the individual and population levels. (pitt.edu)
  • Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Data Driven Research on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (R21) (LM-NOT-20-011) - Click here to view guidance on the need for and value of data harmonization and data sharing for the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency . (nih.gov)
  • The essential informatics techniques to extract and manage the biological knowledge from images are summarized in Table 1 . (hindawi.com)
  • Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health. (nih.gov)
  • The increasing use of apps provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs is meant to improve access to patient health and benefits information in convenient digital platforms. (healthdatamanagement.com)
  • the center's director, said it will be the first to take this comprehensive approach to expand and develop innovative public health information tools to improve patient care. (healthcareitnews.com)
  • It is a multidisciplinary field that uses health information technology (HIT) to improve health care via any combination of higher quality, higher efficiency (spurring lower cost and thus greater availability), and new opportunities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization, along with the United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization, also established the Information Food Safety Authorities Network, or INFOSAN, to try to improve the exchange of information about foodborne outbreaks worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • To continue your search for perfect health informatics grad schools, browse the list of links on this page. (gradschools.com)
  • Those with a high school education or less (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.63) and those with some college (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.89) were less likely to search for health information. (jmir.org)