A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.
A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Sexual activities of animals.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in veterinary practice.
The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.

Prolactin receptor expression in the developing human prostate and in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. (1/1150)

In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize and compare the expression of the long form of the human prolactin receptor in fetal, prepubertal, and adult prostate. Results were then compared with hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. Both receptor message and protein were predominately localized in epithelial cells of the fetal, neonatal, prepubertal, and normal adult prostate. In hyperplastic lesions the expression of the receptor was unchanged with respect to normal epithelial cells. Irrespective of grade, markedly enhanced expression of the receptor was evident in dysplastic lesions. In lower Gleason grade carcinomas the intensity of receptor signal at the message and protein levels approximated that found in normal prostatic epithelium. However, in foci within higher grade cancers, receptor expression appeared diminished. Results from our study suggest that prolactin action plays a role in the development and maintenance of the human prostate and may also participate in early neoplastic transformation of the gland. Diminution of receptor expression in high grade neoplasms could reflect the emergence of a population of cells that are no longer responsive to the peptide hormone.  (+info)

Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group. (2/1150)

OBJECTIVE: The predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in children with type 1 diabetes has not been defined. We describe the natural history of MA in a large cohort of children recruited at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 514 children (279 male) who developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 16 years (91% of those eligible from a region where ascertainment of new cases is 95%) were recruited for a longitudinal study with central annual assessment of HbAlc and albumin excretion (three urine samples). Dropout rates have been < 1% per year, and 287 children have been followed for > 4.5 years. RESULTS: MA (defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 3.5 and > or = 4.0 mg/mmol in boys and girls, respectively) developed in 63 (12.8%) and was persistent in 22 (4.8%) of the subjects. The cumulative probability (based on the Kaplan-Meier method) for developing MA was 40% after 11 years. HbAlc was worse in those who developed MA than in others (mean difference +/- SEM: 1.1% +/- 0.2, P < 0.001). In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes (< 5, 5-11, and > 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years' duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

Pelvic ultrasonography in Turner syndrome: standards for uterine and ovarian volume. (3/1150)

The purpose of this study was to investigate uterine and ovarian size according to age and pubertal stage in patients with Turner syndrome. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterus and the ovaries was performed in 93 patients with Turner syndrome, aged 12 days to 17.85 years. The data were compared with those of 190 healthy controls. One or both ovaries were detected in 41 of 93 patients (44%). Within the prepubertal group, mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume of the patients with Turner syndrome were significantly (P<0.001) lower than those of controls (0.5+/-0.2 ml versus 1.0+/-0.3 ml; 0.3+/-0.3 ml versus 0.6+/-0.4 ml, respectively). In prepubertal girls, no significant relationship was found between age and uterine size or ovarian size. Both uterine volume and ovarian volume of 19 women with spontaneous puberty increased during breast development, although mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume were significantly (P<0.01) lower than those of pubertal control patients.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone in prepubertal and pubertal renal transplant recipients. British Association for Pediatric Nephrology. (4/1150)

AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy (height velocity (HV), change in height standard deviation score (delta HSDS)), and safety (glomerular filtration rate (GFR), incidence of rejection, and calcium and glucose metabolism) of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment after renal transplantation. DESIGN: A two year randomised controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Fifteen prepubertal and seven pubertal children: mean (SD) age, 13.0 (2.6) and 15.2 (2.4) years, respectively; mean (SD) GFR, 51 (30) and 48 (17) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Six prepubertal and three pubertal children were controls during the first year; all received rhGH in the second year. RESULTS: In the first year, mean (SE) HV and delta HSDS in the prepubertal treated group increased compared with controls: 8.1 (0.9) v 3.7 (0.6) cm/year and 0.6 (0.1) v -0.3 (0.2), respectively. In the pubertal treated group, mean (SE) HV and delta HSDS were also greater: 10.1 (0.6) v 3.9 (1.3) cm/year and 0.6 (0.1) v -0.1 (0.2), respectively. Comparing all treated and control children, there was no significant change in GFR: treated group, mean (SE) 9.9 (5.4) ml/min/1.73 m2 v control group, -1.6 (7.6) ml/min/1.73 m2. There were also no differences in the incidence of rejection in the first year: eight episodes in 13 patients v five episodes in nine patients, respectively. Phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fasting insulin concentrations rose during the first year of treatment, but not thereafter. In the second year of treatment, HV remained above baseline. CONCLUSION: Treatment with rhGH improves growth in prepubertal and pubertal children with renal transplants, with no significant change in GFR or the incidence of rejection. Phosphate, ALP, PTH, and insulin increased during the first year of treatment.  (+info)

Serum galactosyl hydroxylysine as a biochemical marker of bone resorption. (5/1150)

BACKGROUND: Serum-based biochemical markers of bone resorption may provide better clinical information than urinary markers because direct comparison with serum markers of bone formation is possible and because the within-subject variability of serum markers may be lower. We describe a method for the measurement of free beta-1-galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl) in serum. METHODS: The assay used preliminary ultrafiltration of serum, dansylation, and separation by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Healthy subjects were recruited from population-based studies of bone turnover. RESULTS: The within-run (n = 15) and between-run (n = 15) CVs were 7% and 14%, respectively, at a mean value of 48 nmol/L. In women and pubertal girls, serum free Gal-Hyl correlated with urine free Gal-Hyl (r = 0.84; P <0.001). Serum Gal-Hyl was higher during puberty and increased after menopause. The fractional renal clearance of free Gal-Hyl relative to that of creatinine was 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.98). Serum free Gal-Hyl decreased by 36% (SE = 4%) in 14 patients with mild Paget disease treated with an oral bisphosphonate, and this decrease was significantly (P <0. 001) greater than that seen for either serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (9%; SE = 4%) or serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (19%; SE = 8%). CONCLUSION: Serum free Gal-Hyl may be useful as a serum marker of bone resorption.  (+info)

Whole-body protein turnover and resting energy expenditure in obese, prepubertal children. (6/1150)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is becoming more frequent in children; understanding the extent to which this condition affects not only carbohydrate and lipid metabolism but also protein metabolism is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the kinetics of protein metabolism in obese, prepubertal children in the static phase of obesity. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 9 obese children (x +/- SE: 44+/-4 kg, 30.9+/-1.5% body fat) were compared with 8 lean (28+/-2 kg ,16.8+/-1.2% body fat), age-matched (8.5+/-0.2 y) control children. Whole-body nitrogen flux, protein synthesis, and protein breakdown were calculated postprandially over 9 h from 15N abundance in urinary ammonia by using a single oral dose of [15N]glycine; resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed by indirect calorimetry (canopy) and body composition by multiple skinfold-thickness measurements. RESULTS: Absolute rates of protein synthesis and breakdown were significantly greater in obese children than in control children (x +/- SE: 208+/-24 compared with 137+/-14 g/d, P < 0.05, and 149+/-20 compared with 89+/-13 g/d, P < 0.05, respectively). When these variables were adjusted for fat-free mass by analysis of covariance, however, the differences between groups disappeared. There was a significant relation between protein synthesis and fat-free mass (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) as well as between protein synthesis and REE (r = 0.79, P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in prepubertal children is associated with an absolute increase in whole-body protein turnover that is consistent with an absolute increase in fat-free mass, both of which contribute to explaining the greater absolute REE in obese children than in control children.  (+info)

Plasma homocysteine concentration in a Belgian school-age population. (7/1150)

BACKGROUND: Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults. Data for children and adolescents are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a reference range for tHcy and to explore the relation between tHcy and nutritional indexes in a Belgian pediatric population. DESIGN: tHcy, folate, and vitamin B-12 were measured in 647 healthy children (353 girls and 294 boys) aged 5-19 y. RESULTS: The tHcy distribution was, as in adults, skewed to the right [geometric mean (-1 SD, +1 SD): 7.41 micromol/L (5.51, 9.96)]. Concentrations were lowest in younger children and increased with age. After the tHcy distribution was examined according to age, 3 age ranges were distinguished: 5-9 y [6.21 micromol/L (5.14, 7.50)], 10-14 y [7.09 micromol/L (5.69, 8.84)], and 15-19 y [8.84 micromol/L (6.36, 12.29)]. We observed no significant differences in tHcy values between girls and boys in children aged < 15 y; in postpubertal children, however, concentrations were higher in boys than in girls. In the 3 age groups, folate was inversely correlated with tHcy; the negative relation between tHcy and vitamin B-12 was less strong. Familial cardiovascular disease was more frequent in children who had hyperhomocysteinemia. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that in children, as in adults, genetic, nutritional, and endocrine factors are determinants of the metabolism of homocysteine. The significance of tHcy values in childhood and young adulthood in terms of predicting cardiovascular risk in adulthood should be investigated.  (+info)

Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on craniofacial growth in boys with delayed puberty. (8/1150)

Craniofacial growth was investigated in boys treated with low-dose testosterone for delayed puberty (> 14 years old; testicular volume < 4 ml; n = 7) and compared with controls (12-14 years; n = 37). Cephalometric radiographs, statural height and pubertal stage were recorded at the start of the study and after 1 year. Craniofacial growth was assessed by nine linear measurements. At the beginning of the study, statural height, mandibular ramus length, upper anterior face height, and total cranial base length were significantly shorter in the delayed puberty boys than in the controls. After 1 year, the growth rate of the statural height, total mandibular length, ramus length, and upper and total anterior face height was significantly higher in the treated boys than in the untreated height-matched controls (n = 7). The craniofacial measurements were similar in the treated boys as compared with the controls. These results show that statural height and craniofacial dimensions are low in boys with delayed puberty. Low doses of testosterone accelerate statural and craniofacial growth, particularly in the delayed components, thus leading towards a normalization of facial dimensions.  (+info)

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Precocious puberty is a medical condition where the onset of sexual maturation occurs at an unusually early age, typically before the age of 8 in girls and before the age of 9 in boys. It is characterized by the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development or growth of facial hair, as well as the start of menstruation in girls. This condition can be caused by various factors including central nervous system abnormalities, genetic disorders, or exposure to certain hormones. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent potential negative effects on growth, bone health, and psychosocial development.

Delayed puberty is a condition where the typical physical changes of puberty, such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth spurt, and fertility, do not begin to occur during the expected age range. In medical terms, delayed puberty is defined as the absence of signs of puberty by age 13 in girls (such as breast development or menstruation) and by age 14 in boys (such as testicular enlargement or growth of facial hair).

There are various factors that can contribute to delayed puberty, including genetic conditions, chronic illnesses, hormonal imbalances, eating disorders, and excessive exercise. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Delayed puberty can have significant emotional and social consequences for affected individuals, so it is important to seek medical evaluation and treatment if there are concerns about delayed puberty. Treatment options may include hormone replacement therapy or other interventions to support normal pubertal development.

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Kisspeptins are a family of peptides that are derived from the preproprotein kisspeptin. The most well-known member of this family is kisspeptin-54, which is also known as metastin. Kisspeptins play important roles in several physiological processes, including the regulation of growth, inflammation, and energy homeostasis. However, they are perhaps best known for their role in the reproductive system.

In the reproductive system, kisspeptins act as key regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is responsible for controlling reproductive function. Kisspeptins are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and bind to receptors on other neurons that release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH then stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which act on the gonads to promote the production of sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

Dysregulation of the HPG axis, including abnormal kisspeptin signaling, has been implicated in a number of reproductive disorders, such as precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility. As such, there is significant interest in understanding the role of kisspeptins in reproductive function and developing therapies that target this pathway.

Age determination by skeleton, also known as skeletal aging or skeletal maturation, is the process of estimating a person's age based on the analysis of their skeletal remains. This technique is commonly used in forensic anthropology to help identify unknown individuals or determine the time since death.

The method involves examining various features of the skeleton, such as the degree of fusion of epiphyseal growth plates, the shape and size of certain bones, and the presence or absence of degenerative changes. These features change in a predictable way as a person grows and develops, allowing for an estimation of their age at death.

It is important to note that while skeletal aging can provide useful information, it is not always possible to determine an exact age. Instead, forensic anthropologists typically provide a range of ages that the individual may have fallen into based on the skeletal evidence. Additionally, factors such as genetics, nutrition, and health can affect the rate at which skeletal features develop, making it difficult to provide a precise estimate in some cases.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

"Body height" is a measure of the vertical length of a person's body from the top of their head to the bottom of their feet. It is typically measured in units such as centimeters (cm) or inches (in). In medical settings, body height is often used as a basic anthropometric measurement to assess overall health status, growth and development, nutritional status, and aging-related changes.

There are different methods for measuring body height, but the most common one involves having the person stand upright against a vertical surface (such as a wall or a stadiometer) with their heels, buttocks, shoulders, and head touching the surface. The measurement is taken at the point where the top of the person's head meets the surface.

Body height can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, nutrition, health status, and environmental conditions. Changes in body height over time can provide important insights into a person's health trajectory and potential health risks. For example, a significant decrease in body height may indicate bone loss or spinal compression, while a rapid increase in height during childhood or adolescence may suggest optimal growth and development.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Growth disorders are medical conditions that affect a person's growth and development, leading to shorter or taller stature than expected for their age, sex, and ethnic group. These disorders can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, chronic illnesses, malnutrition, and psychosocial issues.

There are two main types of growth disorders:

1. Short stature: This refers to a height that is significantly below average for a person's age, sex, and ethnic group. Short stature can be caused by various factors, including genetic conditions such as Turner syndrome or dwarfism, hormonal deficiencies, chronic illnesses, malnutrition, and psychosocial issues.
2. Tall stature: This refers to a height that is significantly above average for a person's age, sex, and ethnic group. Tall stature can be caused by various factors, including genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Klinefelter syndrome, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions like acromegaly.

Growth disorders can have significant impacts on a person's physical, emotional, and social well-being. Therefore, it is essential to diagnose and manage these conditions early to optimize growth and development and improve overall quality of life. Treatment options for growth disorders may include medication, nutrition therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Adolescent development is a phase of growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, typically between the ages of 10-24 years old. This stage is characterized by significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as an individual transitions from dependence to independence.

Physical development during adolescence includes significant growth spurts, hormonal changes, and sexual maturation, leading to puberty. Cognitive development involves the acquisition of abstract thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Emotional development is marked by increased self-awareness, self-esteem, and the ability to regulate emotions. Social development includes the formation of peer relationships, romantic relationships, and the development of a sense of identity and independence from family.

It's important to note that adolescent development can vary widely among individuals, and cultural, social, and environmental factors can significantly influence the course and outcome of this stage.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Sexual development is a multidimensional process that includes physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects. It refers to the changes and growth that occur in an individual from infancy to adulthood related to sexuality, reproduction, and gender identity. This process involves the maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics, the development of sexual attraction and desire, and the acquisition of knowledge about sexual health and relationships.

Physical aspects of sexual development include the maturation of reproductive organs, hormonal changes, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males. Cognitive aspects involve the development of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and values. Emotional aspects refer to the emergence of sexual feelings, desires, and fantasies, as well as the ability to form intimate relationships. Social aspects include the development of gender roles and identities, communication skills related to sexuality, and the ability to navigate social norms and expectations around sexual behavior.

Sexual development is a complex and ongoing process that is influenced by various factors such as genetics, hormones, environment, culture, and personal experiences. It is important to note that sexual development varies widely among individuals, and there is no one "normal" or "correct" way for it to unfold.

Adrenarche is a phase of development in which the adrenal glands begin to produce androgens, specifically DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and its sulfate form DHEAS. This process usually begins between the ages of 6-8 in children, although it can vary. The androgens produced during adrenarche contribute to the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic and underarm hair, but do not play a significant role in the growth spurt or reproductive function. It is important to note that adrenarche is separate from puberty, which is initiated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland and involves the release of gonadotropins that stimulate the gonads to produce sex steroids.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic is a rare genetic disorder that affects the bone tissue. It is characterized by the replacement of normal bone tissue with fibrous (scar-like) tissue, leading to weak and fragile bones that are prone to fractures and deformities. The term "polyostotic" refers to the involvement of multiple bones in the body.

In this condition, there is an abnormal development of the bone during fetal growth or early childhood due to a mutation in the GNAS gene. This results in the formation of fibrous tissue instead of normal bone tissue, leading to the characteristic features of Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic.

The symptoms of this condition can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the affected bones. Common symptoms include:

* Bone pain and tenderness
* Bone deformities (such as bowing of the legs)
* Increased risk of fractures
* Skin pigmentation changes (cafe-au-lait spots)
* Hearing loss or other hearing problems (if the skull is affected)

Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic can also be associated with endocrine disorders such as precocious puberty and hyperthyroidism. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications to manage pain and prevent fractures, as well as surgical intervention to correct bone deformities or stabilize fractures.

Gonadal hormones, also known as sex hormones, are steroid hormones that are primarily produced by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). They play crucial roles in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. The three main types of gonadal hormones are:

1. Estrogens - predominantly produced by ovaries, they are essential for female sexual development and reproduction. The most common estrogen is estradiol, which supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and wider hips. Estrogens also play a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining bone health.

2. Progesterone - primarily produced by ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle.

3. Androgens - produced by both ovaries and testes, but primarily by testes in males. The most common androgen is testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and reproduction. Testosterone supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in men, such as facial hair, a deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. It also plays a role in regulating sex drive (libido) and bone health in both males and females.

In summary, gonadal hormones are steroid hormones produced by the gonads that play essential roles in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics.

Neurokinin B is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin A. It is encoded by the TAC3 gene in humans and is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurokinin B exerts its effects by binding to the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) and plays a role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, and nociception (pain perception). It has also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases, chronic pain, and certain types of cancer.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

Triptorelin pamoate is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It is used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and prostate cancer.

Triptorelin pamoate works by stimulating the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulate the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. However, with continued use, it causes downregulation of the pituitary gland, leading to a decrease in the production of FSH and LH, and therefore a reduction in the levels of sex hormones.

The pamoate salt is used to slow down the release of triptorelin, allowing for longer-acting formulations that can be administered monthly or quarterly. The medication is usually given as an injection into a muscle (intramuscularly).

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Estrus detection in veterinary medicine refers to the process of identifying when a female animal is in heat or estrus, which is the period of time when she is fertile and receptive to mating. This is an important aspect of managing breeding programs for livestock and other animals.

Detection of estrus can be done through various methods, including:

1. Observing behavioral changes: Female animals in heat may show signs of increased interest in males, becoming more vocal or restless, and may adopt a mating stance.
2. Physical examination: A veterinarian may perform a physical exam to check for signs of estrus, such as swelling or reddening of the vulva.
3. Hormonal assays: Blood or vaginal fluid samples can be tested for hormone levels, such as estradiol and progesterone, to determine if an animal is in heat.
4. Use of teaser animals: Intact males can be used to stimulate a response in females, indicating that they are in estrus.

Accurate detection of estrus is critical for successful breeding and management of animal reproduction.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid medication, which is a synthetic version of the hormone testosterone. Medically, it's used to help people gain weight after certain illnesses or injuries, and to treat conditions like HIV-related wasting, major burns, and some types of osteoporosis. It works by promoting muscle growth and increasing appetite.

It's important to note that oxandrolone is a controlled substance and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to the potential for serious side effects and abuse.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure where one or both of the testicles are removed. It is also known as castration. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or other conditions that may affect the testicles. It can also be done to reduce levels of male hormones in the body, such as in the case of transgender women undergoing gender affirming surgery. The specific medical definition may vary slightly depending on the context and the extent of the procedure.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a hormone that plays a crucial role in growth and development. It is a small protein with structural and functional similarity to insulin, hence the name "insulin-like." IGF-I is primarily produced in the liver under the regulation of growth hormone (GH).

IGF-I binds to its specific receptor, the IGF-1 receptor, which is widely expressed throughout the body. This binding activates a signaling cascade that promotes cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In addition, IGF-I has anabolic effects on various tissues, including muscle, bone, and cartilage, contributing to their growth and maintenance.

IGF-I is essential for normal growth during childhood and adolescence, and it continues to play a role in maintaining tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood. Abnormal levels of IGF-I have been associated with various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Gonads are the reproductive organs that produce gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones. In males, the gonads are the testes, which produce sperm and testosterone. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, which produce eggs and estrogen and progesterone. The development, function, and regulation of the gonads are crucial for reproductive health and fertility.

Adoption is a legal process in which the rights and responsibilities of being a parent are transferred from one person or couple to another. It permanently gives adoptive parents custody of the child and makes them legally responsible for the child's care and well-being. The birth parents' legal rights and responsibilities are typically terminated as part of the adoption process, although in some cases they may retain certain rights or have ongoing contact with the child. Adoption can involve infants, older children, or siblings, and can be arranged through private agencies, foster care systems, or international channels.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Overnutrition is a state that occurs when an individual consumes food and drinks in quantities that exceed their energy needs, leading to an excessive accumulation of nutrients, particularly macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and energy. This condition can result in an imbalance between nutrient intake and energy expenditure, which can contribute to the development of various health issues such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain types of cancer. It is important to note that overnutrition does not only refer to excessive calorie intake but also encompasses the consumption of nutrients in disproportionate amounts, such as an excessively high intake of saturated fats or sugars, which can have detrimental effects on health.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Leuprolide is a synthetic hormonal analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH). It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to the suppression of pituitary gland's secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). This, in turn, results in decreased levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

Leuprolide is used clinically for the treatment of various conditions related to hormonal imbalances, including:
- Prostate cancer: Leuprolide can help slow down the growth of prostate cancer cells by reducing testosterone levels in the body.
- Endometriosis: By lowering estrogen levels, leuprolide can alleviate symptoms associated with endometriosis such as pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities.
- Central precocious puberty: Leuprolide is used to delay the onset of puberty in children who experience it prematurely by inhibiting the release of gonadotropins.
- Uterine fibroids: Lowering estrogen levels with leuprolide can help shrink uterine fibroids and reduce symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pain.

Leuprolide is available in various formulations, such as injectable depots or implants, for long-term hormonal suppression. Common side effects include hot flashes, mood changes, and potential loss of bone density due to prolonged hormone suppression.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, most notably in the anterior pituitary gland. These receptors bind to LHRH, a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain.

When LHRH binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of two other hormones from the anterior pituitary gland: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones play critical roles in regulating reproductive function, including the development and maturation of sex cells (sperm and eggs), the production of sex steroid hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females.

Disorders of the LHRH receptor or its signaling pathway can lead to a variety of reproductive disorders, including precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility.

Virilism is a condition that results from excessive exposure to androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. It can occur in both males and females, but it is more noticeable in women and children. In females, virilism can cause various masculinizing features like excess body hair, deepened voice, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstrual cycles. In children, it can lead to premature puberty and growth abnormalities. Virilism is often caused by conditions that involve the adrenal glands or ovaries, including tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain medications.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

'46, XY Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a term used to describe conditions in which individuals are born with chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. In these cases, the individual has 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY), which would typically result in the development of male characteristics. However, for various reasons, the sexual differentiation process may be disrupted, leading to atypical development of the internal and/or external sex organs.

There are several possible causes of 46, XY DSD, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or anatomical abnormalities. These conditions can range from mild to severe in terms of their impact on physical health and sexual function, and they may also have psychological and social implications.

Examples of 46, XY DSD include complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and disorders of gonadal development such as Swyer syndrome. Treatment for 46, XY DSD may involve surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and/or psychological support.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

A hamartoma is a benign tumor-like growth that is composed of an unusual mixture of cells and tissues that are normally found in the affected area. These growths can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most commonly found in the skin, lungs, and brain. Hamartomas are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). They are usually harmless, but in some cases, they may cause symptoms or complications depending on their size and location. In general, hamartomas do not require treatment unless they are causing problems.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Kallmann Syndrome is a genetic condition that is characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (reduced or absent function of the gonads (ovaries or testes) due to deficient secretion of pituitary gonadotropins) and anosmia or hyposmia (reduced or absent sense of smell). It is caused by abnormal migration of neurons that produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during fetal development, which results in decreased production of sex hormones and delayed or absent puberty.

Kallmann Syndrome can also be associated with other symptoms such as color vision deficiency, hearing loss, renal agenesis, and neurological defects. It is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive pattern, and diagnosis usually involves a combination of clinical evaluation, hormonal testing, and genetic analysis. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain sexual function, as well as management of associated symptoms.

Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide neurokinin B, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including the regulation of nociception (pain perception), inflammation, and reproduction.

NK-3 receptors have been identified as key mediators of female reproductive function, particularly in the hypothalamus where they are involved in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Dysregulation of NK-3 receptor signaling has been implicated in several reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis.

In addition to their role in reproduction, NK-3 receptors have also been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. As a result, NK-3 receptor antagonists have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these disorders.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Ovulation detection refers to the process of identifying the time period during which an ovary releases an oocyte (mature egg) from its follicle, ready for fertilization. This is a crucial aspect of reproductive health and assisted reproduction technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are several methods to detect ovulation, including:

1. Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPKs): These are home-use test kits that detect the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation.
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting: This involves tracking and recording daily basal body temperature (the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest), as it tends to rise slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels.
3. Hormonal Monitoring: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone, throughout a menstrual cycle to detect ovulation.
4. Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique is often used in clinical settings to monitor follicular development and determine the exact time of ovulation by observing changes in the ovarian follicle and endometrial lining.
5. Saliva Ferning Tests: A microscope is used to examine the patterns formed by dried saliva, which can indicate increased estrogen levels prior to ovulation.

Accurate ovulation detection helps individuals or couples trying to conceive optimize their chances of success and provides valuable information for healthcare providers in managing reproductive health issues.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Sertoli cells, also known as sustentacular cells or nurse cells, are specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in mammals. They play a crucial role in supporting and nurturing the development of sperm cells (spermatogenesis). Sertoli cells create a microenvironment within the seminiferous tubules that facilitates the differentiation, maturation, and survival of germ cells.

These cells have several essential functions:

1. Blood-testis barrier formation: Sertoli cells form tight junctions with each other, creating a physical barrier called the blood-testis barrier, which separates the seminiferous tubules into basal and adluminal compartments. This barrier protects the developing sperm cells from the immune system and provides an isolated environment for their maturation.
2. Nutrition and support: Sertoli cells provide essential nutrients and growth factors to germ cells, ensuring their proper development and survival. They also engulf and digest residual bodies, which are byproducts of spermatid differentiation.
3. Phagocytosis: Sertoli cells have phagocytic properties, allowing them to remove debris and dead cells within the seminiferous tubules.
4. Hormone metabolism: Sertoli cells express receptors for various hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and estradiol. They play a role in regulating hormonal signaling within the testis by metabolizing these hormones or producing inhibins, which modulate FSH secretion from the pituitary gland.
5. Regulation of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells produce and secrete various proteins and growth factors that influence germ cell development and proliferation. They also control the release of mature sperm cells into the epididymis through a process called spermiation.

Luteolytic agents are substances that cause the breakdown or regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy in mammals. These agents work by inhibiting the secretion of prostaglandins, which are necessary for maintaining the integrity of the corpus luteum. By causing the breakdown of the corpus luteum, luteolytic agents can induce menstruation or cause the termination of an early pregnancy. Examples of luteolytic agents include prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α) and its analogs, as well as certain dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. These agents are used in various clinical settings, including reproductive medicine and veterinary medicine.

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

Salivary alpha-amylases are a type of enzyme that are secreted by the salivary glands in humans and other mammals. These enzymes play a crucial role in the digestion of carbohydrates, specifically starches and glycogen, by breaking down these complex molecules into simpler sugars such as maltose, isomaltose, and maltotriose.

Salivary alpha-amylases are part of a larger family of enzymes known as alpha-amylases, which also include pancreatic alpha-amylases that are secreted by the pancreas and play a similar role in digestion. However, salivary alpha-amylases have some unique properties, such as being more resistant to denaturation by heat and acid than pancreatic alpha-amylases.

Salivary alpha-amylases are also used as a biomarker in forensic science for the identification of individuals, as they exhibit variations in their protein structure that can be used to distinguish between different people. Additionally, changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been associated with various physiological and psychological states, such as stress, anxiety, and arousal.

Testolactone is a medication that is primarily used in the treatment of breast cancer. It is an oral steroidal aromatase inhibitor, which means it works by blocking the enzyme aromatase, thereby preventing the conversion of androgens into estrogens. This helps to reduce the amount of estrogen in the body, which can slow or stop the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells that need estrogen to grow.

Testolactone is not as commonly used as other aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane, but it may be prescribed in certain cases where these medications are not suitable or have not been effective. It is important to note that testolactone can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and changes in liver function tests. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

The arcuate nucleus is a part of the hypothalamus in the brain. It is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including appetite, satiety, and reproductive hormones. The arcuate nucleus contains two main types of neurons: those that produce neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein, which stimulate feeding and reduce energy expenditure; and those that produce pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript, which suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. These neurons communicate with other parts of the brain to help maintain energy balance and reproductive function.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body. This can lead to various symptoms such as hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility in women. It can be caused by conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands. Proper diagnosis and management of hyperandrogenism is important to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Endocrine disruptors are defined as exogenous (external) substances or mixtures that interfere with the way hormones work in the body, leading to negative health effects. They can mimic, block, or alter the normal synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis, reproduction, development, and/or behavior.

Endocrine disruptors can be found in various sources, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They have been linked to a range of health problems, such as cancer, reproductive issues, developmental disorders, neurological impairments, and immune system dysfunction.

Examples of endocrine disruptors include bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and certain pesticides like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin.

It is important to note that endocrine disruptors can have effects at very low doses, and their impact may depend on the timing of exposure, particularly during critical windows of development such as fetal growth and early childhood.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

Danazol is a synthetic, orally active androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties. It is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol works by suppressing the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn inhibits the growth of ovarian tissue and reduces the production of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to a decrease in the symptoms associated with endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. In the case of hereditary angioedema, danazol helps prevent attacks by increasing the levels of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor, which is necessary for regulating the immune system and preventing inflammation.

The common side effects of danazol include weight gain, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, changes in menstrual cycle, decreased breast size, deepening of the voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its potential virilizing effects on the fetus. It should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

The medical definition of danazol can be summarized as follows:

Danazol (dan-a-zole)

A synthetic androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties, used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, inhibiting ovarian tissue growth and reducing estrogen and progesterone production. In hereditary angioedema, danazol increases C1 esterase inhibitor levels to prevent attacks. Common side effects include weight gain, acne, increased hair growth, menstrual changes, decreased breast size, deepened voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may involve liver damage, blood clots, or adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to potential virilizing effects on the fetus and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

Cyproterone is an anti-androgen medication that works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones such as testosterone) in the body. It is used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and severe acne that have not responded to other treatments. Cyproterone is also used in conjunction with estrogen therapy to help reduce sexual desire in individuals with paraphilic disorders or gender identity disorder.

The medication comes in the form of tablets and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of cyproterone include breast tenderness, decreased sex drive, and irregular menstrual periods. More serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking cyproterone, as the medication can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects. Regular monitoring by a healthcare provider is also necessary to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects.

Diagnostic techniques in endocrinology are methods used to identify and diagnose various endocrine disorders. These techniques include:

1. Hormone measurements: Measuring the levels of hormones in blood, urine, or saliva can help identify excess or deficiency of specific hormones. This is often done through immunoassays, which use antibodies to detect and quantify hormones.

2. Provocative and suppression tests: These tests involve administering a medication that stimulates or suppresses the release of a particular hormone. Blood samples are taken before and after the medication is given to assess changes in hormone levels. Examples include the glucose tolerance test for diabetes, the ACTH stimulation test for adrenal insufficiency, and the thyroid suppression test for hyperthyroidism.

3. Imaging studies: Various imaging techniques can be used to visualize endocrine glands and identify structural abnormalities such as tumors or nodules. These include X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine scans using radioactive tracers.

4. Genetic testing: Molecular genetic tests can be used to identify genetic mutations associated with certain endocrine disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

5. Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of tissue may be removed from an endocrine gland for microscopic examination (biopsy). This can help confirm the presence of cancer or other abnormalities.

6. Functional tests: These tests assess the ability of an endocrine gland to produce and secrete hormones in response to various stimuli. Examples include the glucagon stimulation test for gastrinoma and the calcium infusion test for hyperparathyroidism.

7. Wearable monitoring devices: Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) are wearable devices that measure interstitial glucose levels continuously over several days, providing valuable information about glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

Zearalenone is a type of mycotoxin, which is a toxic compound produced by certain types of fungi. Specifically, zearalenone is produced by some strains of Fusarium fungi that can infect crops such as corn, wheat, and barley. It has estrogen-like properties and can cause reproductive problems in animals that consume contaminated feed. In humans, exposure to high levels of zearalenone may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, but the effects of long-term exposure are not well understood.

Medical Definition: Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by certain strains of Fusarium fungi that can infect crops such as corn, wheat, and barley. It has estrogen-like properties and can cause reproductive problems in animals that consume contaminated feed. In humans, exposure to high levels of zearalenone may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, but the effects of long-term exposure are not well understood.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Fluticasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid medication that is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of various conditions such as asthma, allergies, and skin disorders. It works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which leads to a decrease in the production of inflammatory chemicals called cytokines. This helps to reduce swelling, redness, and itching associated with inflammation.

Fluticasone is available in various forms, including inhalers, nasal sprays, and creams or ointments. It is important to use fluticasone exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, as improper use can increase the risk of side effects such as thrush (a type of fungal infection) in the mouth or throat.

Some common brand names of fluticasone include Flonase (for nasal allergies), Advair and Ventura HFA (for asthma), and Cutivate (for skin conditions).

Hybrid vigor, also known as heterosis or heterozygote advantage, is a phenomenon in genetics where the offspring of genetically diverse parents exhibit certain favorable traits that are not present in either parent. This results in increased growth, fertility, disease resistance, and overall hardiness in the offspring compared to the purebred parents.

In medical terms, hybrid vigor is often discussed in the context of breeding programs for livestock or plants used for agricultural purposes. By crossing two distinct lines or breeds with different genetic backgrounds, breeders can create offspring that have improved health and productivity traits, which can lead to better outcomes in farming and agriculture.

It's worth noting that while hybrid vigor is a well-established concept in genetics, its application in human medicine is limited. However, understanding the principles of hybrid vigor can still be useful for researchers studying genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in humans.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

"Octodon" is the genus name for a group of rodents that are native to South America, also known as "degu." They are small animals, typically weighing between 200-350 grams, with a body length of about 10-15 inches including their tail.

Octodons have a distinct appearance, with a pointed snout, large ears, and a bushy tail that is longer than their body. They are primarily herbivorous, feeding on a variety of plant materials such as grasses, leaves, and seeds.

In a medical context, "octodon" may be used in scientific research to refer to this species of animal. Researchers may study octodons to learn more about various aspects of biology and medicine, including their physiology, behavior, genetics, and responses to drugs or diseases. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research should always be done in an ethical and responsible manner, with careful consideration given to their welfare and well-being.

"Phodopus" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic genus that includes several species of small rodents commonly known as hamsters. The most common species within this genus are the Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian or Russian winter white hamster (Phodopus sungorus). These hamsters are often kept as pets and may be involved in biomedical research. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or treatments.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

Seminiferous tubules are the long, convoluted tubes within the testicles that are responsible for producing sperm in males. They are lined with specialized epithelial cells called Sertoli cells, which provide structural support and nourishment to developing sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules also contain germ cells, which divide and differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm) through the process of spermatogenesis.

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle called the tunica albuginea, which helps to maintain the structure and integrity of the testicle. The tubules are connected to the rete testis, a network of channels that transport sperm to the epididymis for further maturation and storage before ejaculation.

Damage or dysfunction of the seminiferous tubules can lead to male infertility, as well as other reproductive health issues.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Gonadal disorders refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the gonads, which are the primary reproductive organs. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, and in males, they are the testes. These disorders can result in issues related to sexual development, reproduction, and hormone production.

Examples of gonadal disorders include:

1. Ovarian dysfunction: This includes conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and ovarian insufficiency, which can affect menstruation, fertility, and hormone levels.
2. Testicular disorders: These include conditions such as undescended testes, Klinefelter syndrome, and varicocele, which can impact sperm production, male secondary sexual characteristics, and hormone levels.
3. Gonadal dysgenesis: This is a condition where the gonads do not develop properly during fetal development, leading to ambiguous genitalia or sex chromosome abnormalities.
4. Cancer of the gonads: Both ovarian and testicular cancers can affect gonadal function and require prompt medical attention.
5. Gonadal injury or trauma: Injuries to the gonads can impact their function, leading to fertility issues or hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for gonadal disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or assisted reproductive technologies.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

A pinealoma is a rare type of brain tumor that originates in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the center of the brain. The pineal gland is responsible for producing melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles. Pinealomas can be benign or malignant, with malignant pinealomas being more aggressive and likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Pinealomas are typically classified as either pineocytomas or pineoblastomas, depending on their appearance under a microscope. Pineocytomas are slow-growing and less aggressive, while pineoblastomas are fast-growing and more likely to spread. Symptoms of pinealomas can include headaches, nausea, vomiting, vision problems, and hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for pinealomas typically involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for pinealomas varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Photoperiod is a term used in chronobiology, which is the study of biological rhythms and their synchronization with environmental cycles. In medicine, photoperiod specifically refers to the duration of light and darkness in a 24-hour period, which can significantly impact various physiological processes in living organisms, including humans.

In human medicine, photoperiod is often considered in relation to circadian rhythms, which are internal biological clocks that regulate several functions such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, and metabolism. The length of the photoperiod can influence these rhythms and contribute to the development or management of certain medical conditions, like mood disorders, sleep disturbances, and metabolic disorders.

For instance, exposure to natural daylight or artificial light sources with specific intensities and wavelengths during particular times of the day can help regulate circadian rhythms and improve overall health. Conversely, disruptions in the photoperiod due to factors like shift work, jet lag, or artificial lighting can lead to desynchronization of circadian rhythms and related health issues.

Ovarian diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and health of the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs (oocytes) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can be categorized into functional disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and other conditions that impact ovarian function. Here's a brief overview of some common ovarian diseases:

1. Functional Disorders: These are conditions where the ovaries experience hormonal imbalances or abnormal functioning, leading to issues such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A condition characterized by hormonal imbalances that can cause irregular periods, cysts in the ovaries, and symptoms like acne, weight gain, and infertility.
* Functional Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary, usually as a result of normal ovulation (follicular or corpus luteum cysts). They're typically harmless and resolve on their own within a few weeks or months.
2. Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: These conditions are caused by infections or inflammation affecting the ovaries, such as:
* Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection that spreads to the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. It's often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
* Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that can spread to the ovaries and cause inflammation, abscesses, or scarring.
3. Neoplastic Diseases: These are conditions where abnormal growths or tumors develop in the ovaries, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Examples include:
* Ovarian Cysts: While some cysts are functional and harmless, others can be neoplastic. Benign tumors like fibromas, dermoids, or cystadenomas can grow significantly larger and cause symptoms like pain or bloating. Malignant tumors include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
4. Other Conditions: Various other conditions can affect the ovaries, such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts. It's associated with irregular periods, infertility, and increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
* Premature Ovarian Failure (POF): Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, it occurs when the ovaries stop functioning before age 40, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and early onset of menopause.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to your reproductive system or suspect an issue with your ovaries. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for many conditions affecting the ovaries.

'Growth' and 'development' are two interrelated concepts that are often used together to describe the changes an individual undergoes from conception until death. However, they refer to distinct yet complementary processes. Here are their medical definitions:

1. Growth: In a medical context, growth refers to the quantitative increase in size (e.g., height, weight, or organ dimensions) of an individual or an organ over time. It is typically measured using various anthropometric parameters and is influenced by genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors. Growth can be assessed at different stages of life, such as intrauterine growth, postnatal growth (infancy, childhood, adolescence), and adult growth.
2. Development: Development is a more complex and qualitative concept that encompasses the progressive series of changes in an individual's physical, cognitive, emotional, and social capabilities over time. These changes involve the acquisition, organization, and integration of new skills, abilities, and functions, which are essential for adapting to the environment and interacting with others. Development can be categorized into various domains, such as:
* Physical development (e.g., neuromotor, sensory-perceptual, and sexual maturation)
* Cognitive development (e.g., language acquisition, memory, problem-solving, and abstract thinking)
* Emotional development (e.g., self-regulation, attachment, empathy, and emotional expression)
* Social development (e.g., interpersonal relationships, social roles, and cultural understanding)

In summary, growth refers to the quantitative increase in size, while development involves the qualitative progression of various skills, abilities, and functions across different domains. Both processes are interconnected and contribute to an individual's overall maturation and well-being.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

... that starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, and puberty which starts later than usual is known as ... On average, females begin puberty at ages 10-11 and complete puberty at ages 15-17; males generally begin puberty at ages 11-12 ... puberty Eunuch Hebephilia Kallmann syndrome Precocious puberty Puberphonia Puberty blocker Seclusion of girls at puberty ... Several studies about puberty have examined the effects of an early or a late onset of puberty in males and females. In general ...
Excessive menstruation between puberty and 19 years of age is called puberty menorrhagia. Excessive menstruation is defined as ... In case of puberty menorrhagia due to immaturity of hypothalamic axis, hormonal therapy is beneficial. Treatment for blood loss ... The most common physiological reason for puberty menorrhagia is the immaturity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, leading ... The most common cause for puberty menorrhagia is dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The other reasons are idiopathic ...
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age. In most cases, the process is normal in every ... Though boys face fewer problems from early puberty than girls do, early puberty is not always positive for boys. Early sexual ... In its broadest sense, and often simplified as early puberty, "precocious puberty" sometimes refers to any physical sex hormone ... Other names for this type are complete or true precocious puberty. Causes of central precocious puberty can include: ...
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"Puberty Song" is a song by Australian alternative rock group, The Mavis's. The song was released in December 1998 as the fourth ... "The Mavis's - Puberty Song". Discogs. Retrieved 13 June 2018. Ryan, Gavin (2011). Australia's Music Charts 1988-2010 (PDF ed ...
Puberty (Norwegian: Pubertet) is an 1894-95 painting created by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch. Puberty has associations with ... like the female he has portrayed in Puberty) feared sex due to the loss of his virginity to his cousin's wife. Puberty was a ... Munch's painting Puberty depicts a young naked girl sitting on the edge of a bed. Her legs are pressed together. She holds her ... Munch gave a number of titles to various versions of the motif, originally The Young Model, later Puberty, and still later At ...
... affects about 2% of adolescents. Most commonly, puberty may be delayed for several years and still occur ... In the United States, the age of onset of puberty in girls depends heavily on their racial background. Delayed puberty means ... Puberty is considered delayed when the child has not begun puberty when two standard deviations or about 95% of children from ... "Dihydrotestosterone treatment in adolescents with delayed puberty: does it explain insulin resistance of puberty?". The Journal ...
... s (also called puberty inhibitors or hormone blockers) are medicines used to postpone puberty in children. The ... precocious puberty). Puberty blockers have been used on-label since the 1980s to treat precocious puberty in children, and were ... Centrally acting puberty blockers such as GnRH agonists are ineffective in peripheral precocious puberty, which is gonadotropin ... Puberty blockers prevent the development of biological secondary sex characteristics. Puberty blockers are sometimes prescribed ...
"Puberty 2 Mitski CD Album". CDJapan. Retrieved August 24, 2018. "Ultratop.be - Mitski - Puberty 2" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. ... "Puberty 2 by Mitski reviews". AnyDecentMusic?. Retrieved October 12, 2019. "Reviews for Puberty 2 by Mitski". Metacritic. ... Puberty 2 is the fourth studio album by American indie rock singer-songwriter Mitski, released on June 17, 2016, the first ... She also stated that in contrast to her previous album, Bury Me at Makeout Creek, Puberty 2's music would not be made with the ...
... at HanCinema Puberty Medley webtoon at Daum (in Korean) (CS1 uses Korean-language script (ko), CS1 Korean- ... Puberty Medley (Korean: 사춘기 메들리; RR: Sachungi Medeulli) is a 2013 South Korean television miniseries starring Kwak Dong-yeon, ... Puberty Medley / 사춘기 메들리 Ep.1 [2013 Drama Special / ENG / 2013.07.26]. YouTube. KBS World TV. Retrieved February 7, 2019. 사춘기 ...
Puberty Blues addresses the sexism of surf culture and youth culture in general in Australia in the 1970s. It also deals with ... Puberty Blues (1979) is a novel by the Australian writers Gabrielle Carey and Kathy Lette. It is their first published book. It ... But Kylie Minogue spoke for many when she said, "I don't recall reading Puberty Blues so much as devouring it. I was about ... In 1982, the novel was adapted to the film Puberty Blues directed by Bruce Beresford from a screenplay by Margaret Kelly. The ...
Puberty Blues may also refer to: Puberty Blues, a 1981 film based on the novel. "Puberty Blues" (song), a song written by Tim ... Puberty Blues (TV series), an Australian drama television series This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the ... Puberty Blues (novel), is a 1979 novel by the Australian writers Gabrielle Carey and Kathy Lette. ... title Puberty Blues. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
"Puberty Blues" "Adolescent Angst" (credited to The Morris Majors) "Puberty Blues" (PDF). Oz Movies. Retrieved 8 June 2017. " ... "Puberty Blues" is a song written by New Zealand musician Tim Finn for the 1981 Australian film of the same name. In the film, ...
"Producer plotting return of Puberty Blues to the screen". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. Retrieved 20 September 2012. "Puberty ... Puberty Blues is an Australian coming-of-age comedy-drama television series broadcast on Network Ten. It is based on the 1979 ... In January 2012, it was announced an eight-part adaptation of the coming-of-age novel Puberty Blues would be made in New South ... "Puberty Blues star Claudia Karvan warns show's '70s sexcapades will shock". News.com.au. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 20 September ...
... is a form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in which boys experience early onset and progression of puberty. Signs ... Familial male-limited precocious puberty, often abbreviated as FMPP, also known as familial sexual precocity or gonadotropin- ... As FMPP is a gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH agonists) are ... and precocious puberty Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Leydig cell hypoplasia (or LH insensitivity) Online Mendelian ...
"Puberty Blues - Mini Series". JB Hi Fi. Retrieved 4 March 2014. "Puberty Blues - Season 2". JB Hi Fi. Retrieved 14 April 2014 ... Puberty Blues is an Australian television drama. It premiered on the Network Ten on 15 August 2012. The show focuses on the ... Puberty Blues at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use dmy dates from April ... "Puberty Blues finishes with 707,000". Mumbrella. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. "Wednesday 5 March 2014". TV Tonight ...
According to him, the seclusion of Tukuna girls at puberty may be referred to as "being in the underworld".: 77 Such seclusion ... The seclusion of girls at puberty has been practised in societies around the world, especially prior to the early 20th century ... In many societies, including Brahmins of Bengal, girls undergoing puberty were not allowed to see any males, not even their ... I by Sir James George Frazer Rigby, Peter (1967). "The Structural Context of Girls' Puberty Rites". Man. 2 (3): 434-444. doi: ...
While "sexual infantilism" has also been used medically as a synonym for delayed puberty. Similarly, the term "psychosexual ... Greenspan, FS; Gardner DG (2004). "Puberty". Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill. pp. 617-627. ISBN ...
During puberty, bones become harder and more brittle. At the conclusion of puberty, the ends of the long bones close during the ... For girls, puberty begins around 10 or 11 years of age and ends around age 16. Boys enter puberty later than girls-usually ... Before puberty, there are nearly no sex differences in fat and muscle distribution; during puberty, boys grow muscle much ... The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys. Every person's individual timetable for puberty is ...
ISBN 978-81-961291-1-8) Padma-Uday, Pallavi (October 2022). "Puberty". the honest ulsterman. "Pallavi Singh". Queen's ...
Bhattacharjee R, Gozal D (September 2010). "Metabolic disease in sleep disordered breathing: puberty! puberty!". Sleep. 33 (9 ...
Other roles of KNDy neurons include influences on prolactin production; puberty; stress' effects on reproduction; and the ...
The duration of puberty also varies greatly: eighteen months to six years in girls and two to five years in boys. Chumlea WC, ... Adrenarche Delayed puberty Gonadarche Lina Medina, who had her menarche at age 8 months and is the youngest mother in history ... Early onset puberty causes emotional issues at preschool age Archived April 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Boaz, N.T. (1999 ... Although most children begin puberty between the ages of 10 and 12, it can start at any age from 8 to 16. The most obvious ...
Freud's book covered three main areas: sexual perversions; childhood sexuality; and puberty. Freud began his first essay, on " ... In his third essay, "The Transformations of Puberty", Freud formalised the distinction between the 'fore-pleasures' of ...
Kang said he was "inspired by the idea of exploring the worst place to go through puberty. A sleazy motel surrounded by sex ... "Puberty Sucks". www.pubertysucks.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2006. Retrieved November 27, 2022. Fowle, Noah ( ... Films about puberty, Films about bullying, Films about Korean Americans, Comedy-drama films about Asian Americans, American ...
Among the Saurashtrians, attaining puberty was the greatest event in a girl's life. They also perform a pre-puberty marriage. ... 1) the naming ceremony; (2) the sacred thread ceremony; (3) puberty; (4) marriage; (5) the attainment of the age of sixty; (6) ...
... it recommends puberty blockers be started when the child has started puberty (Tanner Stage 2 for breast or genital development ... it recommends puberty blockers be started when the child has started puberty (Tanner Stage 2 for breast or genital development ... Professionals who treat gender dysphoria in children sometimes prescribe puberty blockers to delay the onset of puberty until a ... Nevertheless, they recommend the use of puberty blockers for minors on a case-by-case basis, and the American Academy of ...
"Reviews for Puberty 2 by Mitski". Metacritic. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved December 23, 2016. "The ... "Puberty 2". Dead Oceans. June 17, 2018. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018. Schnipper, ... She announced her fourth studio album, Puberty 2, on March 1, 2016, and shared the lead single, "Your Best American Girl". She ... Rettig, James (June 8, 2016). "Q&A: Mitski Goes Back To Her Roots On Puberty 2". Stereogum. Archived from the original on ...
Constitutional delay of puberty is not due to a pathologic cause. It is considered a variant of the timeline of puberty. ... Constitutional delay of puberty is a diagnosis of exclusion that is made when the workup for primary amenorrhea does not reveal ... However, the incidence of spontaneous puberty varies between 8-40% depending on whether or not there is a complete or partial ... This may be due to genetics, as some cases of constitutional delay of puberty are familial. Physiologic amenorrhea is present ...
... delayed puberty. Unlike Marfan syndrome, the cardiovascular system and the lens of the eye are unaffected.[citation needed] ...
Puberty that starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, and puberty which starts later than usual is known as ... On average, females begin puberty at ages 10-11 and complete puberty at ages 15-17; males generally begin puberty at ages 11-12 ... puberty Eunuch Hebephilia Kallmann syndrome Precocious puberty Puberphonia Puberty blocker Seclusion of girls at puberty ... Several studies about puberty have examined the effects of an early or a late onset of puberty in males and females. In general ...
Puberty is the time in life when a boy or girl becomes sexually mature. It causes physical changes, and affects boys and girls ... Understanding Puberty (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) * What Are Normal Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty? ( ... What Are the Symptoms of Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty? (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ... Delayed puberty in boys (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Delayed puberty in girls (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
Puberty was awkward enough when you were the one going through it. So how can you help your kids through all the changes? ... When Does Puberty Start?. Most females will start puberty when theyre 8 to 13 years old, and most males will start between 9 ... What Physical Changes Happen During Puberty?. Males. For a male, the physical changes of puberty usually start with the ... What Emotional Changes Happen During Puberty?. The emotional changes of puberty can be challenging for kids and their parents. ...
The NHS found that there is not enough evidence to support the "safety or clinical effectiveness" of puberty-blocking drugs for ... Italian Psychoanalytic Society expresses great concern over use of puberty blockers. Jan 18, 2023 ... Englands health service to stop prescribing puberty blockers for kids. Jun 12, 2023 ...
Leptin Signaling in AgRP Neurons Modulates Puberty Onset and Adult Fertility in Mice Olivia K. Egan, Megan A. Inglis and Greg M ...
Puberty can be delayed for several reasons. Luckily, doctors usually can help teens with delayed puberty to develop more ... What Is Delayed Puberty?. Puberty is the time when your body grows from a childs to an adults. Youll know that you are going ... What Causes Delayed Puberty?. Puberty can be delayed for several reasons.. Family History. Most often, its simply a pattern of ... How Is Delayed Puberty Treated?. Often, doctors find no underlying physical problem. Most teens with delayed puberty are just ...
Going into puberty early can lead to a whole range of physical, emotional, behavioral, and social problems. Learn more. ... Puberty can begin very early in children with a disorder called central precocious puberty (CPP). Find out the signs of CPP in ... American Psychological Association: "The risks of earlier puberty.". Archives of Disease in Childhood: "Early puberty in 11- ... Bradley University: "Precocious Puberty & Body Image.". Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program: "Early Puberty and ...
Puberty describes the changes your body goes through as you become an adult. It includes growth spurts, periods and your voice ... Girls start puberty before boys.. How puberty affects boys. Body changes. As well as getting taller, boys usually put on a ... Puberty. Puberty describes the changes your body goes through as you become an adult. It includes growth spurts, periods and ... Talking about puberty. Puberty can be a confusing time and you may feel pressure if youre not developing as quickly as ...
Puberty is a big change, even when it happens on schedule. Early puberty can also cause problems with bone growth. Talk with ... Central Precocious Puberty (CPP) Medically Reviewed by Dan Brennan, MD on November 15, 2022 ... Puberty usually starts around age 8 in girls and around age 9 in boys. For some children, such as those who are African- ... American or Hispanic, normal puberty may happen as early as age 6 in girls and age 8 in boys. But with CPP, signs of puberty, ...
For many years, puberty was considered precocious in girls younger than 8 years; however, recent studies indicate that signs of ... Precocious puberty refers to the appearance of physical and hormonal signs of pubertal development at an earlier age than is ... early puberty (breasts and pubic hair) are often present in girls (parti... ... Signs of precocious puberty. Precocious puberty in girls is characterized as follows:. * The first and most obvious sign of ...
Puberty Blues (1981 Australia 83 mins). Source: ScreenSound Australia Prod Co: Limelight Productions Prod: Joan Long, Margaret ... What makes Puberty Blues so memorable and popular is the way it tapped into the trash-talking vernacular of the surfing ... Puberty Blues would not be complete without the panel van, the macho icon of Australian surfer culture. It is decorated with ... Jim Schembri, "Puberty Blues", Cinema Papers, January-February, 1982. *Tom ORegan, Australian National Cinema, Routledge, ...
Delayed Puberty. What is delayed puberty?. Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a childs physical ... Key points about delayed puberty. *Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a childs physical signs of ... What causes delayed puberty?. Delayed puberty most often has no known cause. In some cases, it may run in families. In other ... Delayed puberty can cause embarrassment and stress for adolescents.. How can I help my child live with delayed puberty? In time ...
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For many years, puberty was considered precocious in girls younger than 8 years; however, recent studies indicate that signs of ... Precocious puberty refers to the appearance of physical and hormonal signs of pubertal development at an earlier age than is ... early puberty (breasts and pubic hair) are often present in girls (parti... ... The timing of puberty has a genetic component. A history of early puberty in a parent or sibling is relevant and decreases the ...
Learn about why puberty might happen earlier, the causes of precocious puberty, and the outlook for children who begin puberty ... Precocious Puberty in Boys and Girls. Precocious puberty, or early onset puberty, can affect both boys and girls. Treatment ... Your FAQs Answered: Central Precocious Puberty. Central precocious puberty (CPP) causes puberty in girls younger than age 8 and ... The Emotional Impact of Central Precocious Puberty. Children with central precocious puberty (CPP) experience puberty at a very ...
Experts explains what precocious puberty is and the signs that parents should look out for. ... Is precocious puberty becoming more common?. While precocious puberty is rare, more children nowadays are going through puberty ... Although early puberty in boys is not common, studies suggest that the average age of puberty in boys decreased between 1993 to ... What causes precocious puberty?. Scientists have still not pinned down a single reason for precocious puberty, and many factors ...
First Signs of Puberty. Puberty often begins earlier than parents think: Girls. *Breast budding in girls starts around age ten ... Boys enter puberty about one year later than girls. The first sign is enlarge-ment of the testes and a thinning and reddening ... Pre-Puberty Changes A number of other changes occur during middle childhood:. *Children become stronger as their muscle mass ... Puberty is made up of a clear sequence of stages, affecting the skeletal, muscular, reproductive, and nearly all other bodily ...
The Subject Is Puberty (Safer Sex Version) DVD DVD / A468 Sale {{swfSkuListing.currentUnitPrice , currency}} {{swfSkuListing. ... Puberty: The Facts SET with rack Set / S124 Sale {{swfSkuListing.currentUnitPrice , currency}} {{swfSkuListing.sku.displayPrice ... The Subject Is Puberty (Abstinence Version) DVD DVD / A466 Sale {{swfSkuListing.currentUnitPrice , currency}} {{swfSkuListing. ... Puberty Facts Pamphlet / 182 (Available in 2 languages) Starting At You Save {{swfSkuListing.discountPercentage}}% Sale {{ ...
... parents peep-show penis size phone sex pillow pocket pool pole climbing pool pornography pre-cum privacy prostate puberty pubic ... for me to read many of the stories on JackinWorld where guys like me have recalled the joys of masturbation from pre-puberty to ...
Just as pregnancy and menopause can have an effect on a womans mouth, so too can puberty. ... During puberty, estrogen and progesterone hormones cause a girls body to mature. This increase of sex hormones triggers the ... This The Effects of Puberty on Oral Health page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your browser. ... Certain microbial changes that occur during puberty tend to shift from a "healthy" microbial flora to a more "destructive" or ...
Puberty in both girls and boys with type 1 diabetes has shifted forward over the last two decades, according to research ... Many factors that alter puberty in children, such as body weight, disease and genetics, have been associated with early puberty ... However, early puberty often does not have an obvious cause. Our research not only sheds light on the evolving landscape of ... Puberty in both girls and boys with type 1 diabetes has shifted forward over the last two decades, according to research ...
... have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as ... Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty. Dipak K. Sahoo. 1,2and Anita Roy1 ... the effects of persistent hypothyroidism on neonatal rats before their puberty need to be studied. The present study reports ... have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as ...
... whether the medication is being used to treat precocious puberty or as a part of gender affirming care. ... The effects of puberty blockers are not permanent, ... Now, heres where puberty blockers come in.. "Puberty blockers ... Puberty blockers are drugs that doctors prescribe to stop puberty. Are there different types of puberty blockers?. No. The ... The effects of puberty blockers are not permanent. If a person stops taking puberty blockers, the effects of puberty will ...
Nambiquara Puberty Ritual. Part of the Series : The Nambiquara DVD (Chaptered) Price: $169.95 Add to Cart *Add to Cart ... Nambiquara Puberty Ritual Overview (04:30). FREE PREVIEW See a description of the origins of a Nambiquara tradition in which a ... Resting During a Puberty Ritual (09:41). Nambiquara villagers take breaks while chanting and walking in a circle with the young ... Puberty Ritual Beginning (07:52). Nambiquara villagers chant and walk in a circle with the young girl; young male "godfathers" ...
Puberty is the time of change when young people begin to develop the outward signs of becoming an adult. ... As we are all different we can go through puberty at different times and at different rates. puberty brings both physical and ... Puberty is the time of change when young people begin to develop the outward signs of becoming an adult and when they become ... able to reproduce (have a baby). Puberty starts when hormones from part of the brain (pituitary gland) act on the ovaries or ...
American study shows the average puberty age for whites and Latinas may still be dropping ... For some girls, puberty keeps coming sooner and sooner. American study shows the average puberty age for whites and Latinas may ... More than ten years ago, a study found American girls were beginning puberty as early as age 7. A new study in the journal ... Compared with the 1997 data, the age at which puberty begins did not fall for African American girls, although they still ...
Stanford Medicine BGAP Study: Brains, Genes, And Puberty - A study of Klinefelter syndrome and male adolescent neurodevelopment ...
... and early puberty combined with low parental nurturance, communication, or parental knowledge of the childs activities ... Early puberty is a risk factor for delinquency, ... Positive Parenting and Early Puberty in Girls. Protective ... Early puberty is a risk factor for delinquency, and early puberty combined with low parental nurturance, communication, or ...
Tag Archives: puberty. Puberty and Your Child with Autism. Posted on October 5, 2020 by dclemen ... Facing Puberty. Posted on September 21, 2020 by dclemen When my son Jeremy was 13, he began to empty all the bookshelves in the ... Posted in Featured, Living with Autism , Tagged growing up, puberty, reality , Leave a comment ... The dreaded time has come: puberty. As we all know, our kids do grow up despite our protests. We have four children, boy-girl- ...
When is Puberty Too Early? Sep 28, 2021. Parents may wonder whether their child is moving into puberty too early. Many factors ... Geeky and awkward? Its puberty, girls! Look out for its signs Mar 29, 2014. ...
  • Puberty that starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, and puberty which starts later than usual is known as delayed puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Are Normal Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty? (medlineplus.gov)
  • How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Precocious Puberty and Delayed Puberty? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kids with central precocious puberty (CPP) go through these changes much sooner than their peers. (webmd.com)
  • Central precocious puberty (CPP) is a rare condition. (webmd.com)
  • In central precocious puberty, the brain releases GnRH at a younger-than-normal age and starts the process. (webmd.com)
  • Precocious puberty refers to the appearance of physical and hormonal signs of pubertal development at an earlier age than is considered normal. (medscape.com)
  • For boys, onset of puberty before age 9 years is still considered precocious. (medscape.com)
  • In central precocious puberty (CPP), which is gonadotropin-dependent, early maturation of the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis occurs, with the full spectrum of physical and hormonal changes of puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Premature adrenarche and premature thelarche are two common, benign, normal variant conditions that can resemble true precocious puberty but that progress slowly or not at all. (medscape.com)
  • Measurement of serum testosterone is useful in boys with suspected precocious puberty. (medscape.com)
  • When used to determine bone age, radiography of the hand and wrist is a quick and helpful means of estimating the likelihood of precocious puberty and its speed of progression. (medscape.com)
  • What is precocious puberty? (yahoo.com)
  • Precocious puberty is when signs of sexual maturity occur earlier than age 8 in a girl and age 9 in a boy. (yahoo.com)
  • However, about 1% of children in the U.S. experience early puberty, otherwise known as precocious puberty. (yahoo.com)
  • Dr. Emily Breidbart , a pediatric endocrinologist and assistant professor in the department of pediatrics at NYU Langone Health, tells Yahoo Life that most precocious puberty cases occur a little before age 8 for a girl and around age 9 for a boy. (yahoo.com)
  • But there are rare occasions where we need to treat a child who has precocious puberty. (yahoo.com)
  • Here's what you need to know about precocious puberty. (yahoo.com)
  • What is precocious puberty, and what are the first signs? (yahoo.com)
  • Dr. Fadiyla Dopwell Louis-Obike , a developmental-behavioral pediatrician at Pediatrix Developmental Medicine of Dallas, says precocious puberty involves more than one sign, however. (yahoo.com)
  • Scientists have still not pinned down a single reason for precocious puberty, and many factors can trigger it. (yahoo.com)
  • However, the National Organization for Rare Disorders says more recent research has shown that some precocious puberty cases originate in genetic mutations. (yahoo.com)
  • The researchers found that girls diagnosed with precocious puberty were more likely to have higher BMIs, with increased screen time (girls in the study averaged two hours per day on electronic devices) and a significant drop in physical activity (more than 88% stopped exercising) as possible contributing factors. (yahoo.com)
  • Is precocious puberty becoming more common? (yahoo.com)
  • While precocious puberty is rare, more children nowadays are going through puberty at a younger age. (yahoo.com)
  • If progressive signs of androgen excess occur in a boy without increased testicular size, consider possible causes of precocious pseudopuberty, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, and Leydig-cell tumors (a testicular nodule is usually palpable). (medscape.com)
  • A study from Israel estimated that precocious puberty was familial in one fourth of cases and that the predominant mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant. (medscape.com)
  • Children with central precocious puberty (CPP) experience puberty at a very young age, which may contribute to anxiety, depression, body image issues, and low self-esteem. (healthline.com)
  • Central precocious puberty (CPP) causes puberty in girls younger than age 8 and boys younger than age 9. (healthline.com)
  • Learn about why puberty might happen earlier, the causes of precocious puberty, and the outlook for children who begin puberty early. (healthline.com)
  • Precocious puberty, or early onset puberty, can affect both boys and girls. (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers are a safe and effective way to treat precocious puberty and gender dysphoria. (healthline.com)
  • This is true whether the medication is being used to treat precocious puberty or as part of gender affirming care. (healthline.com)
  • But pediatric endocrinologists have been using these medications for many years to treat precocious puberty, says Osipoff. (healthline.com)
  • Precocious puberty is puberty that happens earlier and more quickly than is considered healthy, she explains. (healthline.com)
  • The FDA approved the first puberty-blocking medication - a GnRH analog drug called Lupron - in 1993 to treat precocious puberty. (healthline.com)
  • Precocious puberty is defined as the onset of true puberty before 7 to 8 years of age in girls or 9 years of age in boys. (drgreene.com)
  • Precocious puberty is 10 times more common in girls than in boys. (drgreene.com)
  • Most precocious puberty is simply early maturation. (drgreene.com)
  • What to look for when considering a diagnosis of central precocious puberty for a child. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Central precocious puberty is the term used when boys or girls enter into the process of sexual development earlier than normal. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • When puberty begins before age 8 years in girls and age 9 years in boys, a diagnosis of central precocious puberty may be appropriate. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Diagnosing central precocious puberty takes more than just 1type of symptom, though. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • It's possible for children in these age ranges to experience premature thelarche (breast development) or early testicular growth and premature adrenarche separately, but they occur together when central precocious puberty is diagnosed. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Often a result of a mutation in the MKRN3 gene, true central precocious puberty is considered to be rare. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Kutney recommended that all children who are suspected to have central precocious puberty be referred to a pediatric endocrinologist for further examination. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Thyroid levels should also be checked, Kutney said, as there are rare situations where severe hypothyroidism can appear as precocious puberty, like with van Wyk Grumbach syndrome. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • This is a rare condition where juvenile hypothyroidism, delayed bone age, and precocious puberty are combined. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Endocrinology specialists will also conduct additional testing if hormone levels come back normal despite all signs pointing to central precocious puberty, Kutney added. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Making an accurate diagnosis in cases of suspected central precocious puberty is important to rule out other pathological causes of puberty symptoms, but also to treat early onset puberty and avoid long-term complications. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Treatment for central precocious puberty depends on when and why it develops. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • When central precocious puberty develops significantly earlier than the typical age range, medications like GnRH agonists may be used to lower sex hormone levels and stop puberty. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Now, experts are weighing in on appropriate approaches to evaluate and manage precocious puberty, leading to this week's top trending clinical topic. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, these changes reduced physical activity levels and increased consumption of unhealthy food, both of which are linked to a higher risk for precocious puberty. (medscape.com)
  • In a recent article , Mark P. Trolice, MD established that the first step in evaluating affected patients is determining whether central precocious puberty (CPP) or peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) is the cause. (medscape.com)
  • A recent study examined how to best approach the evaluation and management of precocious puberty in children with obesity. (medscape.com)
  • Basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are recommended as first-line testing in children with obesity and precocious puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Use of GnRH analogues leads to increased adult height in girls with precocious puberty and obesity. (medscape.com)
  • Given the rising case counts, interest in optimal strategies to assess and manage precocious puberty is likely to also increase, as it did this week. (medscape.com)
  • Learn more about precocious puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Trending Clinical Topic: Precocious Puberty - Medscape - Jul 29, 2022. (medscape.com)
  • Since the development of the computerized tomography, hipotalamic hamartoma is considered as one of the the most common cause of precocious puberty, representing the 16% of the subjects in girls and up to 50% in boys. (bvsalud.org)
  • Are Puberty Blockers Permanent? (healthline.com)
  • Typically, puberty blockers alone do not cause permanent changes. (healthline.com)
  • But this can vary depending on several factors, including any medical conditions a person has, when they start puberty blockers, how long they take this medication, and whether they also take gender affirming hormones. (healthline.com)
  • When a person stops taking puberty blockers, their body will resume puberty exactly as it would have if they had never taken the medication, says Jennifer Osipoff , MD, a pediatric endocrinologist at Stony Brook Children's Hospital in New York. (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers have been specifically used for decades to successfully delay the early onset of puberty in children with unusually early puberty. (healthline.com)
  • What do puberty blockers do? (healthline.com)
  • You may have learned about puberty blockers because of their role in gender affirming care . (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers tell your brain to stop releasing puberty hormones. (healthline.com)
  • In AFAB folks, puberty blockers typically decrease the production of estrogen . (healthline.com)
  • How do puberty blockers work? (healthline.com)
  • To understand exactly how puberty blockers work, you need to understand what's necessary for puberty to take place. (healthline.com)
  • Now, here's where puberty blockers come in. (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers release GnRH in a steady-state fashion," says Osipoff. (healthline.com)
  • What happens if puberty blockers are stopped? (healthline.com)
  • If no other medication is prescribed, puberty will resume exactly as it would have without the blockers. (healthline.com)
  • What are the benefits of using puberty blockers? (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers can be lifesaving. (healthline.com)
  • Puberty blockers are lifesaving for transgender, nonbinary , and gender questioning youth because they prevent these kinds of changes," says DeChants. (healthline.com)
  • The NHS gender identity service's own data shows that 96 per cent of children sent for assessment to endocrinology clinics were given puberty blockers . (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Separate figures show that 98 per cent of children who were given puberty blockers went on to be given cross-sex hormones that cause irreversible physical changes in their bodies. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Figures for 2019-20 uncovered by the Guardian newspaper show that 16 per cent of people discharged from Gids were referred to endocrinology clinics that decide whether they should be given puberty blockers, and of that 16 per cent, 96 per cent received the drugs. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Puberty blockers are controversial because clinicians say they buy time for children to decide whether they want to change sex by halting their physical development, but critics say they effectively "lock in" children on the path to becoming transgender. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Out of 44 children given puberty blockers who took part in a study by Gids and University College London Hospitals, all but one went on to take cross-sex hormones. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • She also recommended more rigorous research into the side effects of puberty blockers, which are known to reduce bone density in at least the short term. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The above graph shows insurance claims for puberty blockers in the United States by year, which delay the onset of secondary sexual characteristics - such as facial hair and a deeper voice in boys. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Puberty blockers delay the onset of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deeper voice in boys. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The data on puberty blockers did not include non-trans people who were prescribed the drug because they started puberty too early. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The judge stated that puberty blockers and hormone treatments had 'been recommended by their health care providers in light of their individual diagnoses and mental health needs. (zerohedge.com)
  • One series of questions in the poll sampled public opinion on LGBT-related issues, including the push to prescribe puberty blockers for children who exhibit confusion about their sex. (christianpost.com)
  • A plurality of those surveyed (39%) "strongly oppose" letting parents give their children puberty blockers as an additional 14% "somewhat oppose" it. (christianpost.com)
  • Fourteen percent of Americans "somewhat support" allowing parents to give their children puberty blockers and 18% "strongly support" the idea. (christianpost.com)
  • U.S. policymakers are seeking to make it easier for minors to access puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones based on the claim that doing so reduces suicide risk. (heritage.org)
  • A superior research design shows that easing access to puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones by minors without parental consent increases suicide rates. (heritage.org)
  • The main steroid hormones, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone as well as prolactin play important physiological functions in puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flood of hormones that set off puberty can also make a child more moody. (webmd.com)
  • The surge in hormones at puberty makes these conditions more likely to start. (webmd.com)
  • With all the hormones going around your body, people of both sexes can develop other conditions while they're going through puberty. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Your brain releases hormones to start puberty. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Hormones from the brain trigger the start of puberty. (kidshealth.org)
  • Other puberty hormones come from the adrenal glands, a pair of glands that sit at the top of the kidneys. (kidshealth.org)
  • For example, variations in the KISS1 gene and the KISS1 receptor can cause the hypothalamus to release hormones called gonadotropins, which then signal the start of puberty to the body. (yahoo.com)
  • Puberty begins when your daughter's body begins producing increased amounts of certain hormones, leading to physical and emotional changes. (childrens.com)
  • During puberty, estrogen and progesterone hormones cause a girl's body to mature. (empowher.com)
  • Our research not only sheds light on the evolving landscape of puberty timing in children with type 1 diabetes but also underscores the intricate interplay between metabolic factors, hormones, and environmental influences,' said Dr Reschke. (news-medical.net)
  • And because sex hormones are needed for people to go through puberty, puberty stops. (healthline.com)
  • If a doctor prescribes gender affirming hormones, the person will begin puberty as the gender they are , not as the sex or gender they were assigned at birth. (healthline.com)
  • Hormones that block the onset of puberty were given to almost every child who was referred to specialists by the Tavistock clinic, it has emerged. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Puberty starts when hormones from part of the brain (pituitary gland) act on the ovaries or testes to begin sexual changes in both boys and girls. (qld.gov.au)
  • If delayed puberty is causing a lot of stress or continues for a long time, doctors may prescribe sex hormones. (msdmanuals.com)
  • however, studies have come to indicate that signs of early puberty (breasts and pubic hair) are often present in girls (particularly Black girls) between ages 6-8 years. (medscape.com)
  • premature adrenarche refers to the appearance of pubic hair without other signs of puberty in girls or boys younger than 7-8 years. (medscape.com)
  • We have to be cautious, because if it's just one isolated thing, such as having pubic hair early, it doesn't mean you've entered all the stages of puberty," Louis-Obike tells Yahoo Life. (yahoo.com)
  • Other signs of puberty (eg, penis growth, reddening and thinning of the scrotum, increased pubic hair) are a consequence of increased testosterone production and occur within 1-2 years after testicular enlargement. (medscape.com)
  • Pubic hair growth that occurs without penis and testicular enlargement and other signs of increased androgen production indicate a condition such as premature adrenarche or a mild, nonclassic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia rather than true puberty. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, researchers from Germany analyzed data on the onset of puberty and pubic hair development of 65,518 children aged 6-18 years, all diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 2000 and 2021, from the German DPV registry. (news-medical.net)
  • Sometimes, kids can have hair appear on their genitals and under the arm, but it doesn't mean they are in true puberty. (webmd.com)
  • In a girl, the first signs of true puberty would be breast development, and in a boy, it would be testicular enlargement," says Breidbart. (yahoo.com)
  • The first sign of puberty is usually breast development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another sign of puberty is when children have a noticeable growth spurt. (yahoo.com)
  • As the World Championships continue in Budapest, swimming's governing body has voted to ban transgender athletes from female events who have gone through male puberty, Neil Connery reports. (itv.com)
  • Swimming's world governing body FINA has voted to ban athletes who have gone through male puberty from racing in women's events. (itv.com)
  • It stated: 'provided they have not experienced any part of male puberty beyond Tanner Stage 2 [which marks the start of physical development], or before age 12, whichever is later. (itv.com)
  • Given the growing use of pyrethroid insecticides, our findings have important implications for the assessment of children's health risk from these insecticides…[and] suggest pyrethroid exposure is a potential risk factor for earlier male puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Physical growth-height and weight-accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when an adult body has been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth spurts began at around 10-12, but markers of later stages of puberty such as menarche had delays that correlated with severe environmental conditions such as poverty, poor nutrition, air and pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kids who start puberty early have a quick growth spurt that makes them taller than their peers at first. (webmd.com)
  • Showing it in boys means [ LIN28B ] is more fundamental, not just to puberty, but to the timing of growth as well," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • Early puberty can also cause problems with bone growth. (webmd.com)
  • Later signs of puberty include the pubertal growth spurt, acne, voice change, and facial hair. (medscape.com)
  • About 25 per-cent of human growth in height occurs during puberty. (healthychildren.org)
  • A child's need for calories rises during times of rapid growth, gradually increasing as she moves through middle childhood into puberty. (healthychildren.org)
  • This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level. (hindawi.com)
  • Diet Plan for Patients of Young Girls during Puberty Teenage is an important phase of a child for proper growth and muscle development. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Kutney noted that although breast and testicular growth are the physiologic signs used to diagnose the onset of puberty, these rely on exposure to estrogens in girls or luteinizing hormone receptor activation in boys. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Most of the time, healthy children with delayed puberty will have a late growth spurt and eventually catch up to other children their age. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A new study shows a spike in early puberty in girls during the onset of the pandemic, which disrupted healthy habits for many. (yahoo.com)
  • In late March, a report copublished by The Washington Post and The Fuller Project detailed a worldwide spike in early puberty cases , specifically among girls (see Infographic below). (medscape.com)
  • Is there a history of early puberty in your family? (webmd.com)
  • A history of early puberty in a parent or sibling is relevant and decreases the likelihood that early puberty has an organic cause. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers attributed the early onset of puberty in boys to an increase in BMI (body mass index). (yahoo.com)
  • As a result, we now anticipate that the average onset of puberty in boys with diabetes will occur just before the age of 12 (11.98 years). (news-medical.net)
  • However, the relationship between body fat and puberty is complex and has many exceptions, and although body weight and fat mass are clearly among the factors that may influence puberty onset in girls, obesity is not definitely associated with early puberty in boys, with only some studies showing a relationship. (medscape.com)
  • Many factors that alter puberty in children, such as body weight, disease and genetics, have been associated with early puberty. (news-medical.net)
  • Every child goes through puberty, but not everyone experiences it at the same time. (yahoo.com)
  • Most girls who begin puberty early (especially those who begin before age 6) have the rapidly progressive variety. (drgreene.com)
  • For girls, estradiol measurements are usually elevated but are less reliable indicators of the stage of puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Jing Liu, PhD, of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, and colleagues assessed pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of more than 400 Chinese boys aged 9 to 16 and demonstrated that those who had a 10% increase in such metabolites were 100% to 200% more likely to be in an advanced stage of puberty. (medscape.com)
  • They analyzed 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) - a common metabolite of pyrethroids - in the urine of the boys and recorded Tanner Stage of puberty via assessment of genitalia development and testicular volume. (medscape.com)
  • Girls' bodies need enough fat before they can go through puberty or get their periods. (kidshealth.org)
  • Early puberty makes some girls more nervous about getting into friendships with their peers who look much younger than them. (webmd.com)
  • Girls who go into puberty early look more mature than their peers, and they can attract more sexual attention than other girls their age. (webmd.com)
  • Girls who start puberty early may be at higher risk for breast cancer when they're older. (webmd.com)
  • Girls start puberty before boys. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Girls also grow taller during puberty and their breasts will develop. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Puberty usually starts around age 8 in girls and around age 9 in boys. (webmd.com)
  • For some children, such as those who are African-American or Hispanic, normal puberty may happen as early as age 6 in girls and age 8 in boys. (webmd.com)
  • The average age that a child reaches sexual maturity differs between the genders: Girls experience puberty between 8 and 13 years old and boys experience it between 9 and 14 years old, according to the National Institutes of Health . (yahoo.com)
  • While type 1 diabetes has previously been associated with delaying puberty, a recent stud y found that boys and girls with diabetes are also trending toward early puberty onset. (yahoo.com)
  • Girls grow and develop at different rates, and the normal onset of puberty is sometime between the ages of 10 and 13. (childrens.com)
  • A longitudinal study of 354 girls by Lee et al found that increased BMI at age 3 years and the rate of increase in BMI from age 3-6 years were both positively associated with an earlier onset of puberty. (medscape.com)
  • CPP occurs when girls younger than 8 and boys younger than 9 begin puberty. (healthline.com)
  • Although boys and girls are generally of similar height during middle child-hood, that changes with the beginning of puberty. (healthychildren.org)
  • Puberty in both girls and boys with type 1 diabetes has shifted forward over the last two decades, according to research presented at the 61st Annual European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Meeting in The Hague. (news-medical.net)
  • In recent years, many studies have reported earlier puberty onset across the world, particularly in healthy girls. (news-medical.net)
  • They found that over two decades both girls and boys are going through puberty at about six months earlier than before. (news-medical.net)
  • He adds: 'Our study demonstrates that children with diabetes are also experiencing this trend towards an earlier puberty, which is already known in healthy girls, but not evident in boys yet. (news-medical.net)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early puberty is a risk factor for delinquency, and early puberty combined with low parental nurturance, communication, or parental knowledge of the child's activities presents a risk for aggressive behavior in early adolescent girls. (rand.org)
  • More than ten years ago, a study found American girls were beginning puberty as early as age 7. (macleans.ca)
  • A new study in the journal Pediatrics suggests the average age at which puberty begins may still be falling for white and Latina girls: almost 15 per cent of Latina girls have reached a stage of breast development marking the onset of puberty by age 7, as have more than 10 per cent of white girls and 25 per cent of African American girls. (macleans.ca)
  • These percentages are higher than those in the landmark 1997 study, which reported that girls were beginning puberty at earlier ages than in the mid-20th century. (macleans.ca)
  • Compared with the 1997 data, the age at which puberty begins did not fall for African American girls, although they still mature at younger ages than white or Latina girls. (macleans.ca)
  • It's puberty, girls! (themedguru.com)
  • Many girls, however (particularly those beginning puberty after their 7th birthdays), will start puberty early, but still go through each of the stages at a more typical pace. (drgreene.com)
  • Moving the lower limit has been considered to address the trend of decreasing age at puberty onset in both boys and girls, 1 but specialists have relied on these traditional ranges in order to avoid missed diagnoses for other pathological conditions that can cause the same effect. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Although there are many ways that puberty onset can be assessed, Katherine Kutney, MD, a pediatric endocrinologist at Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, said the gold standard is the presence of breast tissue before age 8 years in girls and an increase in testicular volume before age 9 years for boys. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Specifically, when it comes to girls with breast development who are aged between 6 and 8 years, many experts advocate for observation before deciding whether to begin treatment with a GnRH analog to suppress puberty. (medscape.com)
  • Puberty is the last part of childhood during which boys and girls become sexually mature. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Puberty usually starts between ages 8 to 13 for girls and ages 10 to 14 for boys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Puberty is delayed when it starts after age 13 for girls and after age 14 for boys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For girls, puberty begins around age 8 to 13 years and lasts about 4 years. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Girls who diet and exercise too much often have delayed puberty. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Concurrently, while it has been known for some time, from about the late 1990s, that there is a trend whereby girls are going through puberty earlier, it has only more recently become apparent that the same phenomenon is occurring in boys, she noted. (medscape.com)
  • Also, much of the prior research done on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and puberty has focused on girls rather than boys. (medscape.com)
  • Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derived from the Latin puberatum (age of maturity), the word puberty describes the physical changes to sexual maturation, not the psychosocial and cultural maturation denoted by the term adolescent development in Western culture, wherein adolescence is the period of mental transition from childhood to adulthood, which overlaps much of the body's period of puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • females attain reproductive maturity about four years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Puberty is the time when kids mature into young adults through physical and emotional changes. (kidshealth.org)
  • What Physical Changes Happen During Puberty? (kidshealth.org)
  • For a male, the physical changes of puberty usually start with the testicles getting bigger. (kidshealth.org)
  • For most females, the first physical change of puberty is breast development. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child's doctor suspects problems with your daughter's puberty development, he or she will conduct a physical exam - including breast and pelvic exams, when necessary - and take a complete medical history. (childrens.com)
  • Physical changes during puberty tend to be more gradual and steady. (healthychildren.org)
  • Going through puberty that causes you to develop physical attributes that aren't aligned with your gender identity is emotionally and mentally distressing, says Jonah DeChants, a research scientist with The Trevor Project . (healthline.com)
  • puberty brings both physical and emotional changes. (qld.gov.au)
  • What happened were puberty (physical changes) and adolescence (psychological and social changes), which occur when children begin maturing into adults. (additudemag.com)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric and Adolescent Puberty Problems? (childrens.com)
  • How are Pediatric and Adolescent Puberty Problems diagnosed? (childrens.com)
  • How are Pediatric and Adolescent Puberty Problems treated? (childrens.com)
  • For a person to go through puberty, the hypothalamus has to release a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and it specifically has to release it in a pulsing fashion," explains Osipoff. (healthline.com)
  • Puberty usually begins with the testicles and penis getting bigger. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But with CPP, signs of puberty, such as budding breasts and body hair, show up much sooner. (webmd.com)
  • ORLANDO - Justin Bieber, taking estrogen pills to avoid puberty, now has breasts! (weeklyworldnews.com)
  • It is crucial for both society and pediatricians to recognize this trend, and if necessary, we may need to reevaluate and adjust our clinical approaches to examining premature puberty accordingly,' said Dr Reschke. (news-medical.net)
  • Isolated breast development which doesn't progress to the rest of puberty is called premature thelarche, and is a different, benign condition). (drgreene.com)
  • The major landmark of puberty for females is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages 12 and 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more modern archeological research suggests that the rate of puberty as it occurs now is the intended way. (wikipedia.org)
  • During puberty, sexual development occurs in a set sequence. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Puberty brings about hormonal changes that can impact metabolic control in diabetes, for instance the body can become more resistant to insulin, increasing blood sugar levels. (news-medical.net)
  • Hormonal triggers - Your feelings about puberty may in fact be a symptom of hormonal surges upsetting your emotional balance. (teenissues.co.uk)
  • Your child's doctor may want to see your child every 6 months to see whether puberty has started. (msdmanuals.com)
  • None of the medications used to block puberty have been recognized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as official treatments for gender dysphoria , but the FDA has declared that these medications are safe when used as prescribed. (healthline.com)
  • In the 21st century, the average age at which children, especially females, reach specific markers of puberty is lower compared to the 19th century, when it was 15 for females and 17 for males (with age at first periods for females and voice-breaks for males being used as examples). (wikipedia.org)
  • Early puberty makes some children act out. (webmd.com)
  • How Early Is Too Early for Children to Reach Puberty? (healthline.com)
  • The figures show there were 1,390 puberty blocker prescriptions for children aged six to 17 years old in 2021. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Children who are near the normal age range for puberty may not be treated at all. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Children may be teased or bullied if they have delayed puberty. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children are more vulnerable to environmental exposure from the prenatal period through puberty. (cdc.gov)
  • Children continue to be vulnerable as they go through the developmental changes of puberty. (cdc.gov)
  • Puberty is made up of a clear sequence of stages , affecting the skeletal, muscular, reproductive, and nearly all other bodily sys-tems. (healthychildren.org)
  • If cows go through puberty then this suggests that cattle are deeply emotional creatures, just like humans. (scotsman.com)
  • Although research suggests that the onset of puberty is occurring earlier and earlier, experts still use traditional thresholds to diagnose puberty as abnormally early. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Evidence clearly suggests that stopping puberty before age 6 years benefits adult height. (medscape.com)
  • With delayed puberty, bone age is often less than calendar age. (uhhospitals.org)
  • However the rate of conversion from testosterone to estradiol (driven by FSH/LH balance) during early puberty is highly individual, resulting in very diverse development patterns of secondary sexual characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testosterone levels less than 30 ng/dL are in most cases prepubertal, while testosterone levels of 30-100 ng/dL are usually seen in cases where puberty is progressive and levels of greater than 100 ng/dL need further evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • This points to a more general role for the LIN28B in puberty and adolescent development, than menstruation alone, says Ong. (newscientist.com)
  • others may not accept the role of adolescent until long after puberty. (additudemag.com)
  • We anticipate the papers can embellish your adolescent courses , and, for junior scientists, we hope the many intriguing possibilities for future research on puberty will be apparent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, longer duration of diabetes, bigger waistlines, and lower blood sugar levels were associated with even earlier puberty onset. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, it's also not uncommon for ulcers and lesions to occur on and/or in the mouth during puberty. (empowher.com)
  • If your daughter's doctor discovers a problem with the onset or progression of her puberty, her treatment will depend on symptoms and the underlying cause of the problems. (childrens.com)
  • This means the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is prematurely activated, which leads to the normal progression of puberty. (medscape.com)
  • This brings them closer to their adult height, which they reach after puberty. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The NHS found that there is not enough evidence to support the "safety or clinical effectiveness" of puberty-blocking drugs for. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Treatment for delayed puberty depends on the cause of the problem. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Delayed puberty can cause embarrassment and stress for adolescents. (uhhospitals.org)
  • In time, most adolescents with delayed puberty will develop normally and not have ongoing problems. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Emotional support can help adolescents deal with their delayed puberty. (uhhospitals.org)
  • 2010), withholding puberty suppression and subsequent feminizing or masculinizing hormone therapy is not a neutral option for adolescents. (heritage.org)
  • Through a self-administrated questionnaire the adolescents were asked about puberty, marriage, birth spacing and AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. (who.int)