Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Shared Paranoid Disorder: A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Paranoid Disorders: Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.QatarPsychoanalytic Interpretation: Utilization of Freudian theories to explain various psychologic aspects of art, literature, biographical material, etc.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Palau: A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Early Medical Intervention: Action taken to reduce susceptibility or exposure to health problems and to detect and treat disease in early stages.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.2',3'-Cyclic Nucleotide 3'-Phosphodiesterase: A phosphodiesterase that specifically cleaves the 3'-phosphate linkage of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides. It is found at high level in the cytoplasm of cells that form the MYELIN SHEATH.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.MarylandUnited States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.FinlandCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Schizophrenia and Disorders with Psychotic Features: Marked disorders of thought (delusions, hallucinations, or other thought disorder accompanied by disordered affect or behavior), and deterioration from a previous level of functioning.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.

Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (1/2081)

Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed.  (+info)

Depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. (2/2081)

This prospective research investigated the occurrence and persistence of depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. The research goals were to (1) compare depression in schizophrenia with that in schizoaffective and major depressive disorders, (2) assess whether some schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to depression, and (3) assess the relationship of depression to posthospital adjustment in schizophrenia. A total of 70 schizophrenia, 31 schizoaffective depressed, 17 psychotic unipolar major depressed, and 69 nonpsychotic unipolar major depressed patients were assessed during hospitalization and prospectively assessed for depression, psychosis, and posthospital functioning at 4.5- and 7.5-year followups. A large number (30% to 40%) of schizophrenia patients evidenced full depressive syndromes at each followup, including a subgroup of patients who evidenced repeated depression. Even when considering the influence of psychosis on outcome, depression in schizophrenia was associated with poor overall outcome, work impairment, lower activity, dissatisfaction, and suicidal tendencies. During the post-acute phase assessed, neither the rates nor the severity of depressive syndromes differentiated depression in schizophrenia from schizodepressive or major depressive disorders. However, the depressed schizophrenia patients showed poorer posthospital adjustment in terms of less employment, more rehospitalizations, and more psychosis than the patients with primary major depression. The high prevalence of depression in schizophrenia warrants its incorporation into theory about the disorder. A continuum of vulnerability to depression contributes to the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, with some schizophrenia patients being prone to depression even years after the acute phase. Depression in schizophrenia is one factor, in addition to psychosis, associated with poor outcome and requires specific attention to the treatment strategies by psychiatrists.  (+info)

Ziprasidone 80 mg/day and 160 mg/day in the acute exacerbation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a 6-week placebo-controlled trial. Ziprasidone Study Group. (3/2081)

In this double-blind study, patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to receive either ziprasidone 80 mg/day (n = 106) or 160 mg/day (n = 104) or placebo (n = 92), for 6 weeks. Both doses of ziprasidone were statistically significantly more effective than placebo in improving the PANSS total, BPRS total, BPRS core items, CGI-S, and PANSS negative subscale scores (p < .05). Ziprasidone 160 mg/day significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with clinically significant depression at baseline (MADRS > or = 14, over-all mean 23.5) (p < .05) as compared with placebo. The percentage of patients experiencing adverse events was similar in each treatment group, and resultant discontinuation was rare. The most frequent adverse events associated with ziprasidone were generally mild dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness, and transient somnolence. Ziprasidone was shown to have a very low liability for inducing movement disorders and weight gain. The results indicate that ziprasidone is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of the positive, negative, and depressive symptoms of an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.  (+info)

Cyclosporin A mono-therapy in nephrotic syndrome with contra-indication of steroid therapy. (4/2081)

We describe three cases of nephrotic syndrome with a contra-indication for steroid therapy successfully treated with cyclosporin A (CsA). A 21-year-old man with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) complicated by necrosis of the femoral head, and a 34-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man with minimal change disease (MCD) complicated by psychogenic reaction and diabetes mellitus, respectively, were given CsA at initial dosages of 3.8-5.0 mg/kg/day and immediately remitted completely. However, two of these patients suffered relapses when CsA was tapered. They are currently maintained in complete or partial remission on CsA at dosages of 3.2-4.7 mg/kg/day. These findings suggest that CsA mono-therapy may be useful in nephrotic syndrome patients contra-indicated for steroid therapy.  (+info)

Informed consent for antipsychotic medication. (5/2081)

OBJECTIVE: To determine family physicians' attitudes and practices regarding documentation of informed consent for antipsychotic medication. DESIGN: Pilot cross-sectional study. SETTING: Teaching and non-teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty family physicians were selected in equal numbers from teaching and non-teaching hospitals with no more than five physicians from a given hospital. Participants were treating at least 10 patients with antipsychotic medication. Participants' mean age was 44.3 years; 83% were men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Documentation of consent and of disclosure of consent for antipsychotic medication in patients' charts. RESULTS: Documentation was found in only 13% of charts. Whether it was there or not did not correlate with information disclosed, score on an attitude scale, or demographics. Physicians who found documentation time-consuming were less likely to document. Most physicians disclosed reasons for antipsychotic medication, but less than half described tardive dyskinesia, a potentially irreversible movement disorder that affects about 25% of patients on long-term treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of documentation observed in this sample was consistent with reports of similar samples and might indicate that family physicians are unaware of recommendations for documentation or simply do not have time to keep abreast of current recommendations. Many physicians thought signed consent forms unnecessary for psychotic patients, and even more believed seeking consent for antipsychotic medications would increase patient anxiety.  (+info)

Epileptic psychoses and anticonvulsant drug treatment. (6/2081)

Forty four consecutive patients with epilepsy and psychoses were studied retrospectively for psychotic episodes associated with changes in antiepileptic drug therapy. Twenty seven patients (61%) developed their first episode of psychosis unrelated to changes in their antiepileptic drug regimen. Twenty three of these patients developed psychoses with temporally unrelated changes in seizure frequency. Many patients had chronic schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. Seventeen patients (39%) developed their first episode of psychosis in association with changes in their antiepileptic drug regimen. Twelve patients developed psychoses temporally related to seizure attenuation or aggravation. Many of their psychotic symptoms were polymorphic with a single episode or recurrent episodes. No marked differences were found in the various clinical backgrounds between the two groups. In the drug-related group, seven patients developed psychoses after starting add-on therapy with a new antiepileptic drug, six after abruptly discontinuing their drugs, and four after taking an overdose of antiepileptic drugs. Based on the present findings, drug regimens should be changed gradually and compliance should be maintained to prevent epileptic psychoses.  (+info)

Validity and usefulness of the Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences. (7/2081)

The Wisconsin Manual for Assessing Psychotic-like Experiences is an interview-based assessment system for rating psychotic and psychotic-like symptoms on a continuum of deviancy from normal to grossly psychotic. The original manual contained six scales, assessing thought transmission, passivity experiences, thought withdrawal, auditory experiences, personally relevant aberrant beliefs, and visual experiences. A seventh scale assessing deviant olfactory experiences was subsequently added. The rating scales have good interrater reliability when used by trained raters. Cross-sectional studies indicated that the frequency and deviancy of psychotic-like experiences are elevated among college students who were identified, hypothetically, as psychosis prone by other criteria. Psychotic-like experiences of moderate deviancy in college students successfully predicted the development of psychotic illness and poorer overall adjustment 10 years later. The manual is useful for identifying psychosis-prone individuals and is recommended for use in linkage and treatment outcome studies. The present article provides an interview schedule for collecting information required for rating psychotic-like experiences.  (+info)

Nicotine withdrawal and psychiatric symptoms in cigarette smokers with schizophrenia. (8/2081)

The prevalence of smoking is markedly elevated in schizophrenia. Low smoking cessation rates and reports that some smokers with schizophrenia experience an acute increase in symptoms during attempts to quit smoking, suggest a self-medication model. Alternatively, smoking may modulate medication side effects. The effects of treated and untreated smoking abstinence on psychotic symptoms and medication side effects were examined in this study. Nineteen outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a randomized, double-blind, balanced crossover study: 1 day of ad libitum smoking followed by 3 days of acute smoking abstinence while wearing 22 mg/day active or placebo transdermal nicotine patches, with a return to 3 days of smoking between patch conditions. Daily symptom and side-effect ratings, nicotine and cotinine blood levels were collected. Twelve subjects completed the study. Neither positive symptoms nor mood symptoms changed. An increase in negative symptoms during the first abstinent day occurred in both placebo and active patch conditions, but was not sustained over subsequent abstinent days. Despite physiological signs of withdrawal, completers did not endorse increased nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Dropouts reported higher withdrawal symptoms, but also had no increase in psychiatric symptoms in either phase of the study. Of note, dyskinesias decreased during abstinence and placebo patch treatment, but increased during abstinence and the active patch conditions. Acute exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms is an unlikely explanation for any difficulty smokers with schizophrenia have in early abstinence.  (+info)

  • Childhood psychotic disorders are debilitating conditions in which children have auditory or visual hallucinations and disorganized thoughts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lifetime psychotic disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and/or case records. (nih.gov)
  • In biological models of psychotic disorders, genetic predisposition, infectious agents, toxins, allergies , and disturbances in metabolism have all been researched. (medicinenet.com)
  • This differs somewhat from people who suffer from any first-time psychotic episode, which occurs in about 100,000 teens and young adults in the United States every year, has a peak onset between the ages of 15-25 years, and more commonly affects males versus females. (medicinenet.com)
  • 3. Brief psychotic disorder with postpartum onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is even a category 'with onset during intoxication ,' which means that the psychotic episode actually begins when the individual is high on the drug. (verywellmind.com)