A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.

The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. (1/351)

BACKGROUND: Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIMS: To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. RESULTS: Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS-). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS- patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS- patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS- patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS- patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS- patients for these physiological measurements. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms.  (+info)

Psychotropic drug use among women. (2/351)

The consistent 2:1 ratio of women to men in the receipt of prescriptions for psychotropic drugs is reflected in the higher rates for women of neurotic illness, symptoms of both physical and mental discomfort, and help-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. Physicians' perceptions of the problems presented by their male and female patients influence their prescribing of these drugs. Recent statistics in Ontario indicate that greater use of physicians' services by women is an inadequate explanation of the higher rate of prescribing of psychotropic drugs to women. A longitudinal study of a large insured population in Ontario showed that almost twice the proportion of females, compared with males, received a prescription for psychotropic drugs in 1970-71 and in 1973-74, a higher proportion of females received multiple prescriptions for each drug class, and males were more likely than females to have received only one prescription in a year.  (+info)

Drug-induced hyponatraemia in psychogenic polydipsia. (3/351)

Two patients with psychogenic polydipsia developed hyponatraemia, one in association with administration of hydrochlorothiazide and the other with that of tolbutamide. It is suggested that the increased fluid intake in such patients may make them more susceptible to the development of hyponatraemia from thiazide or sulphonylurea compounds.  (+info)

The misdiagnosis of epilepsy and the management of refractory epilepsy in a specialist clinic. (4/351)

We assessed the frequency, causes and consequences of erroneous diagnosis of epilepsy, and the outcome of patients referred with 'refractory epilepsy', by retrospective analysis of the case records of 324 patients. The sample was divided into those exposed to anti-epileptic drugs (n = 184), of whom 92 were said to have refractory seizures, and those who had not received treatment (n = 140). The latter group is reported elsewhere. The overall misdiagnosis rate was 26.1% (46/184), with incomplete history-taking and misinterpretation of the EEG equally responsible. Side-effects were reported by 19/40, while unnecessary driving restrictions and employment difficulties were encountered by 12/33 and 5/33, respectively. Of those labelled 'refractory epilepsy', 12 did not have epilepsy. Sixteen were rendered seizure-free and 25 significantly improved by the optimal use of anti-epileptic drugs or surgery. Diagnostic and management services for patients with suspected and established epilepsy are suboptimal, with psychological and socio-economic consequences for individual patients. The resulting economic burden on the health and welfare services is probably substantial.  (+info)

Psychosomatic symptoms of Japanese working women and their need for stress management. (5/351)

This study was conducted to clarify Japanese female workers' psychosomatic symptoms including women-specific complaints and their need for stress management as part of occupational health services (OHS). In 1997, a survey was conducted in which a questionnaire was sent to 1108 full-time female workers. The response rate was 92.1%. They classified their own health status excellent (26.0%), good (60.4%), fair (9.6%), or bad (1.6%). They also reported their irritability (25.3%) and depression (15.6%). There were high rates of complaints of eye discomfort (53.6%), fatigue (44.1%), headache (43.0%), and menstrual pain (32.5%). Such symptoms were associated with irritability or depression. Amount of overtime works, marital status in the 30-44 age group, the presence of children were found to be important factors in determining health status. Regarding the needs for occupational health services, 22.2% of respondents answered they needed mental health management (MHM). Compared with other services, such as management of lifestyle diseases, gynecological diseases, cancer screenings and counseling on nutrition and exercise, the need for MHM was low. The preferred personnel were female doctors and nurses. Workers who performed frequent overtime work had a greater need for MHM. The most preferred means of receiving MHM was personal counseling by doctors (not psychologists) and nurses.  (+info)

Follow-up of psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures: a pilot study - experience in a Dutch special centre for epilepsy. (6/351)

A follow-up study was performed in 33 patients with proven (ictal EEG-CCTV) psychogenic, non-epileptic seizures (PNES). These patients received a questionnaire to evaluate seizures, treatment and rehabilitation. The response group consisted of 21 females (80% response) and seven males (100% response). Follow-up after diagnosis varied from 23-67 months. Seven patients (25%) reported that seizures had ceased and of the patients not seizure-free seven did report a seizure-free period after diagnosis of an average 6.7 months. Eight patients were on antiepileptic drugs again. Of 13 patients referred for psychotherapy, who also did receive treatment, six became free of seizures and seven did not. Of seven patients also referred, but who did not receive psychotherapy, all continued to have seizures. On a self-rating scale to compare "overall function" at the time of diagnosis and follow-up, 75% considered themselves to have "improved", but no improvement could be detected in psychosocial functioning.  (+info)

Postictal symptoms help distinguish patients with epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures. (7/351)

The aim of the study was to assess whether post-ictal symptoms can help distinguish patients who have epileptic seizures from those with non-epileptic seizures (NES). We reviewed the spontaneous responses to the question 'What symptoms do you have after a seizure?' in 16 patients with epileptic seizures (predominantly focal with secondary generalization or generalized tonic-clonic) and 23 NES patients. Six of the 16 patients (38%) vs. only one of 23 NES patients (4.3%) noted post-ictal headache (P = 0.008). Nine epilepsy patients (56%) vs. three NES patients (13%) reported post-ictal fatigue (P = 0.004). Confusion or other symptoms did not distinguish epilepsy patients from those with NES. All epilepsy patients had at least one post-ictal symptom while 12 NES patients (52%) had none (P = 0.001). Therefore, patients evaluated for epileptic vs. non-epileptic seizures who have post-ictal fatigue or headache, are more likely to have epileptic seizures. Patients with a diagnosis of NES who note post-ictal fatigue or headache should be investigated further.  (+info)

The value of provocation methods in patients suspected of having non-epileptic seizures. (8/351)

Non-epileptic seizures (NES) are reported in 18-23% of patients referred to comprehensive epilepsy centres. Non-epileptic seizures may also be present in 5-20% of the patients who are diagnosed as having refractory seizures. Because of their prevalence, financial and psychosocial outcomes cannot be ignored and accurate diagnosis is of the utmost importance. Various methods of seizure induction have been developed with the aim of differentiating epileptic from non-epileptic seizures. However, recording the attacks by video-EEG monitoring is the gold standard. In our outpatient EEG laboratory we try to induce seizures with verbal suggestion or IV saline infusion in patients who are referred by a clinician with the diagnosis of probable non-epileptic seizures. In this study we investigated the results of 72 patients who were referred between January 1992-June 1996. Non-epileptic seizures were observed in 52 (72.2%) patients. Thirteen of these patients still had risk factors for epilepsy. We could not decide whether all of their previous attacks were non-epileptic because 10-30% of the patients with NES also have epileptic seizures. For a more accurate diagnosis it was decided that these 13 patients, together with the 20 patients who did not have seizures with induction, needed video-EEG monitoring. Thirty-nine patients who had NES and no risk factors for epilepsy were thought to have pure non-epileptic seizures. We claim that not all patients suspected of having NES need long-term video-EEG monitoring and almost half (54.2%) of the cases can be eliminated by seizure induction with some provocative techniques.  (+info)

Psychophysiologic Disorders, also known as psychosomatic disorders, refer to a category of mental health conditions where psychological stress and emotional factors play a significant role in causing physical symptoms. These disorders are characterized by the presence of bodily complaints for which no physiological explanation can be found, or where the severity of the symptoms is far greater than what would be expected from any underlying medical condition.

Examples of psychophysiologic disorders include:

* Conversion disorder: where physical symptoms such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing occur in the absence of a clear medical explanation.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): where abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits are thought to be caused or worsened by stress and emotional factors.
* Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES): where episodes that resemble epileptic seizures occur without any electrical activity in the brain.
* Chronic pain syndromes: where pain persists for months or years beyond the expected healing time, often accompanied by depression and anxiety.

The diagnosis of psychophysiologic disorders typically involves a thorough medical evaluation to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment usually includes a combination of psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation techniques, stress management, and sometimes medication for co-occurring mental health conditions.

Neurobehavioral manifestations refer to the observable behaviors and symptoms that result from an underlying neurological disorder or injury. These manifestations can include cognitive, emotional, and motor impairments, such as difficulties with attention, memory, mood regulation, communication, and coordination. The specific neurobehavioral manifestations exhibited can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the neurological damage or dysfunction. They are often assessed and diagnosed by healthcare professionals trained in neuropsychology, neurology, or related fields.

Psychophysiology is a branch of psychology that deals with the scientific study of the relationships between physical processes (such as heart rate, skin conductance, brain activity) and mental or emotional states. It involves the use of physiological measures to understand psychological phenomena and how they relate to behavior. This field of study often employs various research methods, including laboratory experiments, observational studies, and neuroimaging techniques, to examine these relationships in both healthy individuals and those with psychological disorders. The goal of psychophysiology is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning.

Habituation, psychophysiologic, refers to the decrease in autonomic nervous system response to repeated exposure to a stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus repeatedly over time, leading to a reduced reaction or no reaction at all. This process involves the decreased responsiveness of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

Examples of psychophysiologic habituation include the decreased heart rate and skin conductance response that occurs with repeated exposure to a startling stimulus, such as a loud noise. This form of habituation is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that allows individuals to respond appropriately to novel or important stimuli while reducing the response to non-significant or irrelevant stimuli.

It's worth noting that habituation can also occur in other systems and contexts, such as sensory habituation (decreased response to repeated sensory stimulation) or cognitive habituation (reduced attention or memory for repeated exposure to a stimulus). However, the term "psychophysiologic habituation" specifically refers to the decreased autonomic nervous system response that occurs with repeated exposure to a stimulus.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

... psychophysiologic disorders, primary psychiatric disorders and secondary psychiatric disorders. Proponents frequently claim ... Psychophysiologic disorders are conditions that are precipitated by or worsened by experiencing stressful emotions. These ... The disorders that proponents classify as psychodermatologic fall into three general categories: ... Jafferany M (2007). "Psychodermatology: a guide to understanding common psychocutaneous disorders". Prim Care Companion J Clin ...
During Anticipation of Unpredictable But Not Predictable Aversive Stimuli as a Psychophysiologic Marker of Panic Disorder". ... This can be an indicator of post-traumatic anxiety disorders such as agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive ... "Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults". American Family Physician. 91 (9): 617- ... It is not seen as a distinct type of anxiety but rather plays a part in many variations and can be found in numerous disorders ...
www.allanabbass.com His second book Hidden from View: Clinician's Guide to Psychophysiologic Disorders was published in 2018 ... Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group (ed.). "Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders". Cochrane ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 214: 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2017.02.035. PMID 28266318. Abbass, Allan; Town, Joel; Driessen, ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 273: 194-202. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.035. PMID 32421603. S2CID 218688424. Town, Joel M.; ...
... syndrome Psittacosis Psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Psoriatic rheumatism Psychogenic polydipsia Psychophysiologic disorders ... Periodontitis Perioral dermatitis Peripartum cardiomyopathy Peripheral blood vessel disorder Peripheral nervous disorder ... congenital Platelet disorder Platyspondylic lethal chondrodysplasia Platyspondyly amelogenesis imperfecta Pleural effusion ... mitochondrial Peptidic growth factors deficiency Perceptual disorder Periarteritis nodosa Pericardial constriction with growth ...
... propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder ... Brunet and colleagues (2008) studied patients that had been diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Following the ...
... propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder ... and develop better drugs to treat psychiatric disorders and memory-related disorders. People with Alzheimer's disease and other ... 2008) found that the people with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder who were treated with propranolol for a single day had a ... Researchers believe this drug will help patients with post-traumatic stress disorder be able to better process the trauma ...
... psychophysiologic disorders MeSH C23.888.592.708 - pupil disorders MeSH C23.888.592.708.150 - anisocoria MeSH C23.888.592.708. ... sensation disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763.237 - dizziness MeSH C23.888.592.763.393 - hearing disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763. ... communication disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500 - language disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.050 - agraphia MeSH ... language development disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800 - speech disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100 - ...
Adjustment insomnia F51.03 Paradoxical insomnia F51.04 Psychophysiologic insomnia F51.05 Insomnia due to other mental disorder ... phase disorder Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder Non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm disorder Shift work disorder Jet lag disorder ... Sleep Disorders Extrinsic Sleep Disorders Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Arousal Disorders Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders ... Chronic insomnia disorder Short-term insomnia disorder Other insomnia disorder Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) disorders OSA, ...
The two main classification systems of psychological disorders are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... "psychophysiologic nervous system reaction" that included "psychophysiologic asthenic reaction, in which general fatigue is the ... "dysthymic disorder" (a long-term and relatively mild form of depression), and the latter to "dependent personality disorder". ... "somatic symptom disorder" (DSM-5) and "bodily distress disorder" (ICD-11). Further detail about the varied ways clinicians and ...
Extrinsic sleep disorders - 13 disorders recognized, including: 16 alcohol-dependent sleep disorder, food allergy insomnia, ... psychophysiologic insomnia, recurrent hypersomnia, post-traumatic hypersomnia, central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome, ... Circadian rhythm sleep disorders, both intrinsic and extrinsic - 6 disorders recognized, including: 16 advanced sleep phase ... Dyssomnias are primary disorders of initiating or maintaining sleep or of excessive sleepiness and are characterized by a ...
Treating Sexual Disorders." Randolph S. Charltoon (ed): Publisher Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA, Chapter 4, pp. 123-125 ... 1995) "Nondrug Treatment Trials in Psychophysiologic Insomnia". Archives of Internal Medicine. 155 (8) 838-844 Newman, J. P.; ... 106 (9): 1089-1093 Guilleminault, C; Stoohs, R; Kim, Y; Chervin, R; Black, J; Clerk, A. (1995) "Upper Airway sleep-disordered ... He was an attending physician and associate director of the Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic at Stanford University Medical ...
Victims may experience severe psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children who live in a ... Studies have indicated that it is important to consider the effect of domestic violence and its psychophysiologic sequelae on ... Personality Disorders and Relational Disorders: A Research Agenda for Addressing Crucial Gaps in DSM" (PDF). In Kupfer, David J ... typically personality disorders. "The estimate of personality disorders in the general population would be more in the 15-20% ...
Sarno's most recent book, The Divided Mind: The Epidemic of Mindbody Disorders, features chapters by six other physicians and ... "Psychophysiologic symptom relief therapy for chronic back pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial". PAIN. 6 (3): e959. doi: ... ISBN 0-446-67515-6. Sarno, John E. (2006). The Divided Mind: The Epidemic of Mindbody Disorders. Harper Paperbacks. ISBN 0-06- ... ISBN 0-446-39230-8. Sarno, John E. (2007-03-27). The Divided Mind: The Epidemic of Mindbody Disorders. Harper Paperbacks. ISBN ...
His first book, Autogenic Training: A Psychophysiologic Approach in Psychotherapy, jointly authored with Schultz, appeared in ... but functional disorders of a cognitive or emotional nature. He considered autogenic techniques a means of stimulating and ...
Pre-operative depressive disorders tended not to do well. Smoking has been shown to increase the incidence of post operative ... 1996). "Psychophysiologic treatment of chronic lower back pain". Prof. Psychol. Res. Pract. 27 (6): 561-66. doi:10.1037/0735- ... Andreshak TG, An HS, Hall J, Stein B (October 1997). "Lumbar spine surgery in the obese patient". Journal of Spinal Disorders. ... An individual may be predisposed to the development of FBS due to systemic disorders such as diabetes, autoimmune disease and ...
They also found that AT was also effective in the following psychosomatic disorders: mild-to-moderate hypertension, coronary ... Psychophysiologic and Neurophysiologic Aspects". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 11 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1159/000285660. ISSN ... Autogenic training is used to alleviate many stress-induced psychosomatic disorders. Autogenic training (AT) was first ... as well as psychological disorders e.g. anxiety and depression. Autogenic training has been subject to clinical evaluation from ...
... anxiety disorders (including worry, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, migraine, and ... Brown BB (1975). The Biofeedback Syllabus: A Handbook for the Psychophysiologic Study of Biofeedback. Springfield, IL: Charles ... The ratings for each disorder depend on the nature of research studies available on each disorder, ranging from anecdotal ... The white papers established the efficacy of biofeedback for functional anorectal disorders, attention deficit disorder, facial ...
Consistently, studies have shown that couples with marital status have shown to have lower rates of mental health disorders ... A test of Gottman's psychophysiologic model of marital interaction". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 24 (5): 401-21. doi: ... Marital problems predict the onset of mental illness, including anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. Much research has ...
Psychophysiologic stimulation induced vasomotor activity at each terminal site sets up a standing sinusoidal wave oscillation, ... Toole, J. F. (1990). Cerebrovascular disorders. New York: Raven Press. McDonald, D. A. (1974). Blood flow in arteries pp. 311- ...
J. Bogousslavsky, M. G. Hennerici, H Bazner, C. Bassetti (Eds.) (2010). Neurological Disorders in Famous Artists, Part 3. ... Whinnery, J. E. (1997). "Psychophysiologic correlates of unconsciousness and near-death experiences". J. Near-Death Stud. 15: ...
Multiple personality disorder has been associated with marked psychophysiologic alterations ever since careful clinical ... 1, p. 047-053 : Psychophysiologic Aspects of Multiple Personality Disorder, A Review. Coons, Philip M. ... Early scientific studies on the galvanic skin response in multiple personality disorder were conducted by Prince in the early ... In addition to describing these studies, the etiology of multiple personality disorder and future directions in research will ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders* * Regression Analysis * Risk * Smoking * Stress, Psychological / complications * Stress, ...
Data on psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) in children are scarce, with most existing literature relating to adults only. We ... Movement Disorders / therapy * Pediatrics* * Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Psychophysiologic Disorders / complications* * ... Psychogenic movement disorders in children: a report of 15 cases and a review of the literature Mov Disord. 2008 Oct 15;23(13): ... Data on psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) in children are scarce, with most existing literature relating to adults only. We ...
MeSH Key Words: halitosis/diagnosis; halitosis/therapy; psychophysiologic disorders J Can Dent Assoc 2000; 66:257-61. This ...
... psychophysiologic disorders, primary psychiatric disorders and secondary psychiatric disorders. Proponents frequently claim ... Psychophysiologic disorders are conditions that are precipitated by or worsened by experiencing stressful emotions. These ... The disorders that proponents classify as psychodermatologic fall into three general categories: ... Jafferany M (2007). "Psychodermatology: a guide to understanding common psychocutaneous disorders". Prim Care Companion J Clin ...
somatic symptom disorder. *psychosomatic disorder. *physiological malfunction arising from mental factor. *psychophysiologic ... Scope Note Disorders having ... / The MEDICALLY UNEXPLAINED SYMPTOMS must cause clinically significant distress or impairment ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders Association (PPDA). *Schubiner, Howard, MD. Unlearn Your Pain. *Karr-Morse. R. Scared Sick: The ... For those patients with clearly disabling psychological symptoms and psychiatric disorders, referral to trauma-informed mental ...
psychophysiologic NEC (see also Disorder, psychosomatic) 306.9. *. cardiovascular 306.2. *. digestive 306.4. *. endocrine 306.6 ... Home > 2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Mental Disorders 290-319 > Neurotic Disorders, Personality Disorders, And Other ... Disorder - see also Disease*. genitourinary system, psychogenic 306.50. *. psychogenic NEC (see also condition) 300.9. *. ... Nonpsychotic Mental Disorders 300-316 > Physiological malfunction arising from mental factors 306- ...
Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in vietnam nurse veterans who witnessed injury or death. Journal ... Post-traumatic stress disorder in children witnessing a public hanging in the Islamic Republic of Iran ... Posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescent earthquake victims in Taiwan. Journal of the American Aca-demy of Child and ... Posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, eds. Kaplan and Sadocks Synopsis of psychiatry, 9th ed. Philadelphia ...
Comparative investigation of the psychophysiologic and idiopathic insomnia disorder phenotypes: psychologic characteristics, ... Behavioral Treatments for Sleep Disorders: A Comprehensive Primer of Behavioral Sleep Medicine Interventions. London; ... American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: APA; 2013 ... 10 According to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, nosology, "insomnia" is ...
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic. *Strategic, Defence & Security Studies. *Psychophysiologic Disorders. *Prospective Studies ... Models using global measures of mental health status were as robust as models using disorder-specific measures of PTSD and ... Measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were used to predict Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders. *Psychiatry. *Male. *Humans. *Heart Rate. *Follow-Up Studies. *Cardiovascular Diseases ...
... during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder. The ... Using affect-modulated startle to study phenotypes of pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders. 7: 536-45. PMID 16403179 ... An investigation of prepulse inhibition in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders. 7: 198-203. PMID 15762862 DOI: ... Journal of Affective Disorders. 162: 34-8. PMID 24767002 DOI: 10.1016/J.Jad.2014.03.027 0.409. ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a pathological anxiety that usually occurs after an individual experiences ... Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post- ... It is also FDA approved for panic disorder, depression, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. ... encoded search term (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a pathological anxiety that usually occurs after an individual experiences ... Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post- ... encoded search term (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder What to Read Next on Medscape ... Empirically supported psychological treatments for adult acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review. ...
Psychophysiologic insomnia Insomnia, regardless of cause, may persist well beyond resolution of precipitating factors, usually ... Insomnia can be a disorder, even if it exists in the context of other disorders, or can be a symptom of other disorders. EDS is ... Insomnia related to physical disorders Physical disorders may interfere with sleep and cause insomnia and EDS. Disorders that ... About 80% of patients with major depression Major depressive disorder (unipolar depressive disorder) Depressive disorders are ...
Public Health, Stress, Psychological, Psychophysiologic Disorders, Burnout, Professional, Disease Prevention, Antidepressive ... Public Health, Stress, Psychological, Depression, Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Molecular Biology Perigos do estresse na gestação ... Fetal Nutrition Disorders, Stress, Physiological, Stress, Psychological, Diet, Protein-Restricted, Caloric Restriction ...
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIC DISORDERS (GENERAL). By N., Sam M.S. PUERPERAL PSYCHOSIS. By N., Sam M.S. ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders: A Core Competence for a DBH. Did you know that one in six adults and 35-40% of primary care ...
Keywords : Widowhood; Nursing; Psychophysiologic Disorders. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · Portuguese ( pdf ) ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders Entry term(s). Psychophysiologic Disorder Psychophysiological Disorder Psychophysiological ... Psychophysiologic Disorder. Psychophysiological Disorder. Psychophysiological Disorders. Psychosomatic Disorder. Psychosomatic ... Psychophysiologic Disorders - Preferred Concept UI. M0018036. Scope note. A group of disorders characterized by physical ... A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ ...
September 26, 2020 - Module: Psychophysiologic Disorders: What the Body Can Tell Us About Foster Youth. Speaker: David Clarke, ...
Bibliography from Psychophysiologic Disorders Association. ​. * https://www.tmsroundtable.com/what-is-tension-myositis-syndrome ...
Professor Howard Schubiner MD, FACP. Dr. Howard Schubiner is the Co-founder, Clinical Director, and Medical Advisor of Freedom From Chronic Pain.. He is board-certified in pediatrics, adolescent medicine, and internal medicine in the USA. He was a Professor at Wayne State University for 18 years and now works at Cormendi Health. He is currently a Clinical Professor in the department of Internal Medicine at Michigan State University College of Human Medicine.. He is a fellow in the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Society for Adolescent Medicine. He has authored over 100 publications in scientific journals and books. He has given over 500 lectures to scientific audiences regionally, nationally, and internationally. Dr. Schubiner has consulted for the American Medical Association, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Mental Health.. Dr. Schubiner is a leader in the field of mind-body medicine and has published ...
https://ppdassociation.org/symptoms (Symptoms - Psychophysiologic Disorders Association) Cactusflower, Jan 27, 2022 ...
The Psychophysiologic Disorders Association (PPDA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit dedicated to ending the chronic pain epidemic by ... These patients often live with a psychophysiologic disorder (PPD), the increasingly common clinical term for very real stress- ... One Mission: End Chronic Pain The Psychophysiologic Disorders Association advances the awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of ... panic attacks and sleep disorders as a result of traumatic experiences they have suffered. To help them, clinical psychologist ...
Psychophysiologic Disorders, Sigmund Freud ...
weight loss, weakness and psychophysiologic disorders, latent and somatized depressions, * vegetative system disorders. ...
Oregon-based Psychophysiologic Disorders Association. "When medical evaluation shows no problems with organs or structures, ... can be found at the website of the Psychophysiologic Disorders Association, founded by stress-disease expert David Clarke, M.D. ...
  • 8 - 10 According to the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fifth edition, nosology, "insomnia" is defined as dissatisfaction with sleep quality or quantity characterized by difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, or early morning awakenings that cause significant distress or impairment in daytime functioning and occur at least three nights per week for at least 3 months despite adequate opportunity for sleep. (dovepress.com)
  • Many sleep disorders manifest with insomnia and usually excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Insomnia can be a disorder, even if it exists in the context of other disorders, or can be a symptom of other disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1.1 Psychophysiologic Insomnia. (bangkokinternationalhospital.com)
  • Since 1970 there has been a resurgence of interest in multiple personality disorder including sophisticated studies of physical symptoms, brain-wave activity, visual evoked potential, regional cerebral blood flow, visual refraction, muscle activity, cardiac and respiratory activity, galvanic skin response, and the switch process. (uoregon.edu)
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were identified in 104 children (52%), with 88 suffering re-experiences, 24 avoidance and 62 hyperarousal. (who.int)
  • Measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were used to predict Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment costs among Persian Gulf War veterans with medically unexplained physical symptoms. (duke.edu)
  • A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Psychosomatic disorders are troubling physical or psychological symptoms that are at least partial derivatives of our minds -- whose symptoms are in no way made up or imaginary. (drlaurelsteinberg.com)
  • I had the great pleasure of completing all of the PPDA (Psychophysiologic Disorder Association) Master Class trainings, attended Dr. John E. Sarno's in-person lectures while he was alive, and have taken great pride in helping to free patients with these symptoms from feeling like prisoners of their own minds. (drlaurelsteinberg.com)
  • This is what we call Psychophysiologic Disorders (PPD), Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS), or mindbody symptoms. (annahaumedertherapy.com)
  • These stress-induced conditions are called Psychophysiologic Disorders (PPD), Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS), or mindbody symptoms. (annahaumedertherapy.com)
  • Although there is no established approach to the management of stimulant-dependent sleep disorders, understanding the reasons for use of the stimulants, underlying treatment goals, and optimization of drug timing may improve symptoms. (medlink.com)
  • See Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a Critical Images slideshow, to help recognize the symptoms of PTSD and to determine effective treatment options. (medscape.com)
  • With this information, the differential diagnosis of the disorder causing the patient's symptoms can be more focused. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Sleep-disordered breathing specialists diagnose and treat conditions, such as snoring or obstructive sleep apnea, in which breathing is interrupted during sleep, resulting in symptoms of fatigue, irritability and high blood pressure. (healthgrades.com)
  • Early scientific studies on the galvanic skin response in multiple personality disorder were conducted by Prince in the early twentieth century. (uoregon.edu)
  • In the meantime, please consult the [https://www.tmswiki.org/ppd/Medical_Evidence TMS Wiki's Medical Evidence page] or the [https://ppdassociation.org/s/PPDA-Bibliography-10-1-21.pdf Psychophysiologic Disorders Association Bibliography]. (prtwiki.org)
  • In addition to describing these studies, the etiology of multiple personality disorder and future directions in research will be discussed. (uoregon.edu)
  • ABSTRACT A study was made of post-traumatic stress disorder in 200 children aged 7-11 years who had witnessed a public hanging next to their school in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • People who are exposed to traumatic events are at risk for PTSD as well as for major depression, panic disorder, general-ized anxiety disorder and substance abuse, as compared with those who have not experienced traumatic events [4]. (who.int)
  • Sertraline is an SSRI that is FDA approved for the treatment of PTSD, panic disorder, social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (medscape.com)
  • It is also FDA approved for panic disorder, depression, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Skin conductance habituation in panic disorder patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Skin conductance habituation was compared between 38 patients meeting DSM-III criteria for Panic Disorder and 29 normal controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • By definition, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can emerge following exposure to a traumatic event. (who.int)
  • By definition, post-traumatic stress disorder was 7.0% in girls and 5.2% in boys [ 6 ]. (who.int)
  • Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are characterized by abnormal motions of and, for RLS, usually sensations in the lower or upper extremities, which may. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 5. Sleep Related Breathing Disorder when breathing ceases during sleep - for example, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome. (bangkokinternationalhospital.com)
  • 1 Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom. (nih.gov)
  • Data on psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) in children are scarce, with most existing literature relating to adults only. (nih.gov)
  • The underlying psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder in the majority of cases. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, diagnosis of PTSD is based on 8 criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). (medscape.com)
  • Models using global measures of mental health status were as robust as models using disorder-specific measures of PTSD and depression in predicting mental health care and pharmacy costs. (duke.edu)
  • SSRIs such sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil) have been FDA approved to treat PTSD as well as other disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a pathological anxiety that usually occurs after an individual experiences or witnesses severe trauma that constitutes a threat to the physical integrity or life of the individual or of another person. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple personality disorder has been associated with marked psychophysiologic alterations ever since careful clinical observations have been made on this perplexing disorder. (uoregon.edu)
  • Constipation is having bowel movements less frequently than once every three days, or having difficulty or discomfort in defecating hard stools," explains David Clarke , MD, president of the Psychophysiologic Disorders Association and clinical assistant professor of gastroenterology emeritus at Oregon Health & Science University. (womendivision.com)
  • The presence of overvalued ideas in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been theoretically linked to poorer treatment outcome [Kozak, M. J. & Foa, E. B. (1994). (researchgate.net)
  • Obsessions, overvalued ideas and delusions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (researchgate.net)
  • Psychodermatology is the treatment of skin disorders using psychological and psychiatric techniques by addressing the interaction between mind and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoge EA, Armstrong CH, Mete M, Oliva I, Lazar SW, Lago TR , Grillon C . Attenuation of Anxiety-Potentiated Startle After Treatment with Escitalopram or Mindfulness Meditation in Anxiety Disorders. (neurotree.org)
  • EDS is not a disorder but a symptom of various sleep-related disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • and president of the Portland, Oregon-based Psychophysiologic Disorders Association . (nadallas.com)
  • Delirium (sometimes called acute confusional state) and dementia are the most common causes of cognitive impairment, although affective disorders (eg, depression) can also disrupt cognition. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Although gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can cause chronic constipation, there's a good chance that high-stress, anxiety-filled situations may be contributing to you feeling backed up. (womendivision.com)
  • This is sometimes found in patients with neurodegenerative disorders - such as dementia. (bangkokinternationalhospital.com)
  • 4.2 Rapid Eye Movement Parasomnia such as REM Behavior Disorder which is often found among patients with synucleinopathic disorder - for example, multiple system atrophy, dementia with lewy bodies, and idiopathic Parkinson disease. (bangkokinternationalhospital.com)
  • Delirium and dementia are separate disorders but are sometimes difficult to distinguish. (merckmanuals.com)
  • for general information about sleep disorders and about their evaluation and treatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Thus, an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology may lead to more directed treatment of stimulant-dependent sleep disorder. (medlink.com)
  • The management of disorders resulting from the use of stimulants is focused on understanding overall treatment goals and limiting untoward side effects. (medlink.com)
  • Many people with hoarding disorder have difficulty recognizing or acknowledging their hoarding issues, or are reluctant to engage in treatment, leaving loved ones feeling frustrated and discouraged. (ncpsychology.org)
  • The disorders that proponents classify as psychodermatologic fall into three general categories: psychophysiologic disorders, primary psychiatric disorders and secondary psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • ized anxiety disorder and substance abuse, This is a simple descriptive study carried out as compared with those who have not expe- on children aged 7 to 11 years in a primary rienced traumatic events [ 4 ]. (who.int)
  • Given the extent of asthma, the Emotional Intelligence Theory provides a new perspective about predicting effective factors for success and primary prevention of mental disorders as well. (ac.ir)
  • Individuals may take these stimulants to improve specific aspects of mood or performance or to compensate for sleep deprivation or other fatigue-causing disorders. (medlink.com)
  • Psychophysiologic disorders are conditions that are precipitated by or worsened by experiencing stressful emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • DISCLAIMER: Obviously some conditions may have a solely structural cause and in order to diagnose and then safely treat a condition as stress-induced, it is necessary to have these ruled out first by a medical practitioner (e.g. cancer, infection, fracture, autoimmune disorders). (annahaumedertherapy.com)
  • Approach to the Patient With a Sleep or Wakefulness Disorder Almost half of all people in the US report sleep-related problems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • He termed this tension myositis/myoneural syndrome (TMS), and subsequent researchers have termed it psychophysiologic pain disorder (PPD). (sharonkanfoushwellness.org)
  • 4. Tension Headaches - According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , tension-type headache is the most common type of headache. (santabarbaradeeptissue.com)
  • Hoarding disorder not only affects those with this complex condition, but their loved ones as well. (ncpsychology.org)
  • The above-described historical-bacteriological view provides substantial independent support for such a publication, at a minimum, as well as for the overall concept of involvement of infection in the cause of schizophrenia and closely related disorders. (instituteofscience.com)
  • Cortical and subcortical brain structure in generalized anxiety disorder: findings from 28 research sites in the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group. (neurotree.org)