Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Pain during the period after surgery.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Increased salivary flow.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
A person's view of himself.
Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.
Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Conversion from one language to another language.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.

Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. (1/6977)

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

Computerised tomography and intellectual impairment in the elderly. (2/6977)

Sixty-six elderly subjects (mean age 77 years) whose mental state was assessed clinically and by simple psychometric tests have been studied by computerised tomography. The mean maximum ventricular area in the 17 mentally normal subjects was above the upper limit of normal for younger subjects, and there was a broad relationship between increasing ventricular dilatation and increasing intellectual impairment. No such clear relationship was demonstrable for measures of cortical atrophy.  (+info)

Executive function in depression: the role of performance strategies in aiding depressed and non-depressed participants. (3/6977)

OBJECTIVES: Depression has been found to be associated with dysfunction in executive processes, whereas relatively automatic processes are thought to remain intact. Failure to generate or implement adequate performance strategies has been postulated in depressed participants. The present study investigated spontaneous strategy usage in depressed and control participants, and the effectiveness of providing a hint about performance strategies. METHODS: Unipolar depressed participants were compared with matched healthy controls on three tasks sensitive to executive function: memory for categorised words, response suppression, and multiple scheduling. Participants in each group were randomly allocated to strategy aid and no strategy aid conditions. Those in the strategy aid condition were given a hint about the use of an appropriate performance strategy for each task, in addition to the standard instructions given to those in the no strategy aid condition. RESULTS: Depressed participants performed worse than controls on each of the three tasks, and were found to use appropriate performance strategies less often. Provision of strategy hints increased the use of performance strategies in two of the three tasks, memory for categorised words, and response suppression, but did not significantly improve overall performance for either group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings were consistent with the view that depressed participants fail to use appropriate performance strategies spontaneously to the same extent as controls. However, provision of information alone does not seem to be an adequate means of enhancing performance. The role of performance strategies in cognitive impairment in depression is discussed, both in terms of initiating use of such strategies and carrying these out efficiently.  (+info)

Quality of life in chronic heart failure: cilazapril and captopril versus placebo. Cilazapril-Captopril Multicentre Group. (4/6977)

OBJECTIVE: To measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild to moderate heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cilazapril or captopril. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel groups trial. SUBJECTS: 367 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class II (62%), III (36%) or IV (1%). METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive cilazapril 1 mg daily (n = 191) or captopril 25 mg three times daily (n = 90) for 24 weeks, or placebo for 12 weeks followed by cilazapril 1 mg daily for a further 12 weeks (n = 86). If patients had not responded after four weeks cilazapril was increased to 2.5 mg daily and captopril to 50 mg three times daily. QOL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using the sickness impact profile (SIP), the profile of mood states (POMS), the Mahler index of dyspnoea-fatigue, and a health status index (HSI). RESULTS: The physical dimension of the SIP averaged 7 units at baseline and improved after 12 weeks by 2.24 units in the cilazapril group, 2.38 units in the captopril group, and 1.51 units in the placebo group. The difference between drug and placebo was therefore 0.73 units (95% CI -0.86 to 2.32) for cilazapril, and 0.87 units (95% CI -0.96 to 2.70) for captopril, with small non-significant effect sizes (a statistical method for estimating the importance of a treatment related change) of 0.12 and 0.14. Similar results were observed for the total POMS and HSI scores. Although QOL improved more on the ACE inhibitors than on placebo, the effect sizes were not significant (< or = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in QOL in mild to moderate heart failure were small when treated with cilazapril or captopril compared with placebo.  (+info)

Sustained antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation combined with pindolol in bipolar depression. A placebo-controlled trial. (5/6977)

Total sleep deprivation (TSD) shows powerful but transient clinical effects in patients affected by bipolar depression. Pindolol blocks the serotonergic 5-HT1A autoreceptor, thus improving the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We evaluated the interaction of TSD and pindolol in the treatment of acute episodes of bipolar depression. Forty bipolar depressed inpatients were randomized to receive pindolol 7.5 mg/day or placebo for nine days in combination with three consecutive TSD cycles. Pindolol significantly improved the antidepressant effect of TSD, and prevented the short-term relapse after treatment. The response rate (HDRS scores < 8) at the end of treatment was 15/20 for pindolol, and 3/20 for placebo. Coadministration of pindolol and TSD resulted in a complete response, which could be sustained for six months with lithium salts alone, in 65% of cases. This results suggest a major role for serotonergic transmission in the mechanism of action of TSD, and makes TSD treatment more effective in the treatment of bipolar depression.  (+info)

Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder. (6/6977)

The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of pathophysiologic significance in certain patients with panic disorder. It remains to be demonstrated if the peripheral autoimmunity is representative of CNS 5-HT neuronal alterations. Replication appears warranted.  (+info)

Changes in behavioural characteristics of elderly populations of local authority homes and long-stay hospital wards, 1976-7. (7/6977)

Behavioural characteristics of the elderly populations of seven local authority residential homes and three long-stay hospital wards were assessed in 1976 and 1977 with the Crichton Royal behavioural rating scale. In 1977 the levels of behavioural problems had increased in the residential homes, but declined in the hospital wards. Differences between the homes had decreased as the overall level of problems increased. The findings suggested that the additional burden of caring for increasing numbers of severely disabled elderly people was affecting the balance of institutional care, and a radical reappraisal of present patterns of care may be necessary to meet their future needs.  (+info)

Admission and adjustment of residents in homes for the elderly. (8/6977)

This paper discusses the relationship between psychological variables, a brief cognitive measure and a behavioural rating scale, and the subsequent adjustment of a group of elderly people newly admitted to a social services home for the elderly. It shows that, in this sample, three groups can be identified: a fairly independent group of people who show no apparent deterioration in functioning during the first year of admission; a more dependent group who show loss of functioning during the same period; and a third group who show an immediate negative effect from admission, and who have a poor outcome. We comment on the lack of evidence in support of a general negative relocation effect, and on the value of the procedures used.  (+info)

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used clinician-rated scale for assessing the severity of psychopathology in individuals with mental illness. It consists of 18 items, each rated on a 7-point scale (1=not present to 7=extremely severe), that measure various symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, hallucinations, and unusual thoughts. The BPRS is often used in research and clinical settings to monitor treatment response and symptom changes over time.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

Status epilepticus is a serious and life-threatening medical condition characterized by an ongoing seizure activity or a series of seizures without full recovery of consciousness between them, lasting for 30 minutes or more. It is a neurological emergency that requires immediate medical attention to prevent potential complications such as brain damage, respiratory failure, or even death.

The condition can occur in people with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorders, as well as those without any prior history of seizures. The underlying causes of status epilepticus can vary and may include infection, trauma, stroke, metabolic imbalances, toxins, or other medical conditions that affect the brain's normal functioning. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological damage and improve outcomes in patients with this condition.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

Hypokinesia is a term used in medicine to describe decreased or reduced mobility and amplitude of movements. It can be seen in various medical conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. In this condition, hypokinesia manifests as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akinesia (absence of movement), or both. Hypokinesia can also affect facial expressions, leading to a mask-like appearance. Other causes of hypokinesia include certain medications, stroke, and other neurological disorders.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no inherent therapeutic effect. It is often used in clinical trials as a control against which the effects of a new drug or therapy can be compared. Placebos are typically made to resemble the active treatment, such as a sugar pill for a medication trial, so that participants cannot tell the difference between what they are receiving and the actual treatment.

The placebo effect refers to the phenomenon where patients experience real improvements in their symptoms or conditions even when given a placebo. This may be due to psychological factors such as belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, suggestion, or conditioning. The placebo effect is often used as a comparison group in clinical trials to help determine if the active treatment has a greater effect than no treatment at all.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

The Medical Definition of 'Mental Status Schedule' is:

A standardized interview and examination tool used by mental health professionals to assess an individual's cognitive, behavioral, and emotional status. The schedule typically covers areas such as orientation, attention, memory, language, visuospatial abilities, executive functions, and mood and affect. It is often used in research, clinical settings, and epidemiological studies to evaluate psychiatric and neurological conditions, as well as the effects of treatments or interventions. The specific version of the Mental Status Schedule may vary, but it generally includes a structured format with clear questions and response options to ensure standardization and reliability in the assessment process.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific targets in the brain. The impulses help to regulate abnormal brain activity, and can be used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

During the procedure, electrodes are implanted into the brain and connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically implanted in the chest. The neurostimulator can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at varying frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths, depending on the specific needs of the patient.

DBS is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with neurological conditions, although it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and hardware complications. It is typically reserved for patients who have not responded well to other forms of treatment, or who experience significant side effects from medication.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant drug that is primarily used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain, which helps to improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

Methylphenidate is available under various brand names, including Ritalin, Concerta, and Methylin, among others. It comes in different forms, such as tablets, capsules, or extended-release formulations, and is typically taken orally. The dosage and duration of treatment are usually individualized based on the patient's response to the medication and any potential side effects.

It is important to note that methylphenidate has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. Additionally, it can interact with other medications and medical conditions, so it is essential to inform your doctor of any health concerns before starting treatment with methylphenidate.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "videotape recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Videotape recording is a general technology term that refers to the process of capturing and storing visual and/or audio content on magnetic tape in the form of a videocassette.

In a medical context, videotape recordings might be used for various purposes, such as documenting medical procedures or patient consultations, creating educational materials, or conducting research. However, the use of videotape recording in these situations would not change the fundamental meaning of the term.

Nortriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used in the treatment of depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood, and increasing their levels can help to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Nortriptyline is available in oral form and is typically taken two or three times a day. It may take several weeks of treatment before the full benefits of the medication are felt. Common side effects of nortriptyline include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and dizziness. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as heart rhythm problems, seizures, or increased suicidal thoughts or behavior.

Nortriptyline is generally considered to be safe and effective for the treatment of depression, but it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects. It may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting nortriptyline.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Sertraline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is primarily used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and in some cases, premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Sertraline works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, in the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells where neurotransmitters are released and received). By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, sertraline enhances the signal strength and duration of action of this neurotransmitter, which can help alleviate symptoms associated with various mental health conditions.

It is important to note that sertraline should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it may have side effects and potential interactions with other medications. Always consult a medical provider for personalized advice regarding medication use.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "translations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, if you are referring to the process of "translation" in the context of medicine and biomedical research, it refers to the process of converting scientific findings or medical information from one language to another, while maintaining accuracy, clarity, and the original meaning. This is particularly important in the field of international clinical trials, medical publications, and cross-cultural healthcare communication.

If you meant something different by 'translations', please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

A geriatric assessment is a comprehensive, multidimensional evaluation of an older adult's functional ability, mental health, social support, and overall health status. It is used to identify any medical, psychological, or social problems that could affect the person's ability to live independently and safely, and to develop an individualized plan of care to address those issues.

The assessment typically includes a review of the person's medical history, medications, cognitive function, mobility, sensory function, nutrition, continence, and mood. It may also include assessments of the person's social support network, living situation, and financial resources. The goal of the geriatric assessment is to help older adults maintain their independence and quality of life for as long as possible by addressing any issues that could put them at risk for disability or institutionalization.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Psychomotor agitation is a state of increased physical activity and purposeless or semi-purposeful voluntary movements, usually associated with restlessness, irritability, and cognitive impairment. It can be a manifestation of various medical and neurological conditions such as delirium, dementia, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and substance withdrawal. Psychomotor agitation may also increase the risk of aggressive behavior and physical harm to oneself or others. Appropriate evaluation and management are necessary to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

"Marital status" is not a medical term, but it is often used in medical records and forms to indicate whether a person is single, married, divorced, widowed, or in a civil union. It is a social determinant of health that can have an impact on a person's access to healthcare, health behaviors, and health outcomes. For example, research has shown that people who are unmarried, divorced, or widowed may have worse health outcomes than those who are married. However, it is important to note that this relationship is complex and influenced by many other factors, including socioeconomic status, age, and overall health.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small, lens-shaped structure located in the basal ganglia of the brain. It plays a crucial role in motor control and has been identified as a key target for deep brain stimulation surgery in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

The STN is involved in the regulation of movement, balance, and posture, and helps to filter and coordinate signals that are sent from the cerebral cortex to the thalamus and then on to the motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. In Parkinson's disease, abnormal activity in the STN can contribute to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty initiating movements.

Deep brain stimulation of the STN involves implanting electrodes into the nucleus and delivering electrical impulses that help to regulate its activity. This can lead to significant improvements in motor function and quality of life for some people with Parkinson's disease.

The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a widely used, standardized measure of health-related quality of life and functional status. It is a self-reporting questionnaire that assesses the impact of illness or disability on an individual's daily life and functioning across multiple dimensions. The SIP evaluates four primary domains: physical, psychosocial, independent functioning, and overall health perception. These domains are further divided into 12 subscales, including sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, recreation and pastimes, ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, communication, alertness behavior, and emotional behavior. The SIP is designed to measure both the severity and breadth of disability or impairment in individuals with a wide range of medical conditions. It has been used in research and clinical settings to evaluate treatment outcomes, compare the effectiveness of interventions, and monitor changes in health status over time.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Antimanic agents are a class of medications primarily used to treat mania, a symptom of bipolar disorder. These agents help to control and reduce the severity of manic episodes, which can include symptoms such as elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.

The most commonly used antimanic agents are mood stabilizers, such as lithium and valproate (Depakote), and atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), and aripiprazole (Abilify). These medications work by altering the levels or activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is also considered an effective antimanic treatment for severe mania that has not responded to medication. ECT involves applying electrical currents to the brain while the patient is under anesthesia, which induces a seizure and can help to reduce symptoms of mania.

It's important to note that antimanic agents should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, a comprehensive treatment plan for bipolar disorder typically includes psychotherapy, education, and support to help manage the condition and prevent future episodes.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autistic disorder). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. Risperidone belongs to a class of drugs called benzisoxazole derivatives.

This medication can decrease aggression and schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusional thinking, and hostility. It may also help to improve your mood, thoughts, and behavior. Some forms of risperidone are also used for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior).

It's important to note that this is a general medical definition, and the use of risperidone should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have potential side effects and risks.

Fatigue is a state of feeling very tired, weary, or exhausted, which can be physical, mental, or both. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors, including lack of sleep, poor nutrition, stress, medical conditions (such as anemia, diabetes, heart disease, or cancer), medications, and substance abuse. Fatigue can also be a symptom of depression or other mental health disorders. In medical terms, fatigue is often described as a subjective feeling of tiredness that is not proportional to recent activity levels and interferes with usual functioning. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or severe fatigue to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Homes for the Aged," as it is more commonly referred to in social work or public health contexts. However, I can provide you with some related information:

"Homes for the Aged" are typically residential facilities designed to provide housing, support services, and care for older adults, often with lower levels of medical needs compared to nursing homes. These facilities might offer assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, grooming, and managing medications. They can be an alternative to aging in place or moving in with family members.

In a broader public health context, "Homes for the Aged" may fall under the category of congregate housing or assisted living facilities. These settings aim to promote social interaction, autonomy, and independence while offering help with daily tasks and ensuring the safety of their residents.

It is essential to research and visit various facilities to ensure they meet individual needs, preferences, and healthcare requirements when considering Homes for the Aged for yourself or a loved one.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

A tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic muscle contraction and relaxation that causes a shaking movement. It's a type of motion disorder that can affect any part of your body, but it most often occurs in your hands. Tremors can be harmless, but they can also be a symptom of a more serious neurological disorder. The cause of tremors isn't always known, but they can be the result of damage to the brain from a stroke, multiple sclerosis, or trauma. Certain medications, alcohol abuse, and drug withdrawal can also cause tremors. In some cases, tremors may be inherited and run in families.

Tremors can be classified based on their cause, appearance, and the situation in which they occur. The two most common types of tremors are:

* Resting tremors, which occur when your muscles are relaxed, such as when your hands are resting on your lap. Parkinson's disease is a common cause of this type of tremor.
* Action tremors, which occur with purposeful movement, such as when you're trying to hold something or when you're using a utensil. Essential tremor, the most common type of tremor, is an action tremor.

Tremors can also be classified based on their frequency (how often they occur) and amplitude (the size of the movement). High-frequency tremors are faster and smaller in amplitude, while low-frequency tremors are slower and larger in amplitude.

In general, tremors are not a life-threatening condition, but they can be embarrassing or make it difficult to perform daily activities. In some cases, tremors may indicate a more serious underlying condition that requires treatment. If you're concerned about tremors or have any questions about your symptoms, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Treatment-resistant depressive disorder is a severe form of depression that does not respond to standard treatments. It is also known as refractory depression or treatment-refractory depression.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines treatment-resistant depressive disorder as a major depressive disorder that has not responded to at least two trials of adequate doses of appropriately chosen antidepressant medications, either singly or in combination, for a sufficient duration of time.

The definition may also include cases where the patient has not responded to psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), or other forms of treatment.

It is important to note that determining whether a depression is truly treatment-resistant can be challenging and requires careful evaluation by a mental health professional. Factors such as medication adherence, dosage, duration of treatment, and the presence of co-occurring medical or psychiatric conditions must be taken into account before making this diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in cases of severe or treatment-resistant major depression, bipolar disorder, and catatonia. In ECT, a brief electrical current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The purpose and specific effects of this procedure are not fully understood, but it's believed to cause changes in brain chemistry that can help relieve symptoms of certain mental health conditions.

The treatment is typically administered under general anesthesia and is usually given two to three times a week for a total of six to twelve treatments. While ECT has been associated with certain risks, such as memory loss and confusion, it is generally considered safe when performed by trained medical professionals. It's important to note that ECT should only be used in cases where other treatment options have been exhausted or have proven ineffective.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something. In medical terms, it's often described as a loss of motivation or a decreased level of enthusiasm or concern for activities or events that one would normally care about. Apathy can be a symptom of various medical and neurological conditions, such as depression, dementia, traumatic brain injury, or Parkinson's disease. It can also be a side effect of certain medications. If severe or persistent, it can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Weights and Measures" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in various fields, including science, engineering, and commerce, to refer to systems and standards used to measure weight, length, volume, and other physical quantities.

However, if you're asking about the use of weights and measures in a medical context, it might refer to the standardized units of measurement used to quantify various aspects of health, disease, and treatment. For example:

* Weight: Measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lb), this is a measure of a person's mass.
* Height: Measured in meters (m) or feet/inches (ft/in), this is a measure of a person's height.
* Blood pressure: Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), this is a measure of the force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries.
* Temperature: Measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), this is a measure of body temperature.
* Laboratory values: Various substances in the body, such as glucose or cholesterol, are measured in standardized units, such as millimoles per liter (mmol/L) or milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

These measurements help healthcare professionals assess a person's health status, diagnose medical conditions, and monitor the effects of treatment.

The Globus Pallidus is a structure in the brain that is part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei associated with movement control and other functions. It has two main subdivisions: the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments. The GPe receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory projections to the subthalamic nucleus, while the GPi sends inhibitory projections to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebral cortex. These connections allow for the regulation of motor activity, with abnormal functioning of the Globus Pallidus being implicated in various movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

The Wechsler Scales are a series of intelligence and neuropsychological tests used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning in individuals across the lifespan. The scales include:

1. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): Designed for children aged 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months, it measures verbal (e.g., vocabulary, comprehension) and performance (e.g., visual-motor integration, spatial reasoning) abilities.
2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Developed for children aged 6 to 16 years, it evaluates verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
3. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Created for adults aged 16 to 90 years, it assesses similar domains as the WISC but with more complex tasks.
4. Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS): Designed to measure various aspects of memory functioning in individuals aged 16 to 89 years, including visual and auditory immediate and delayed recall, working memory, and attention.
5. Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI): A brief version of the WAIS used for quicker intelligence screening in individuals aged 6 to 89 years.

These scales are widely used in clinical, educational, and research settings to identify strengths and weaknesses in cognitive abilities, diagnose learning disabilities and other neurodevelopmental disorders, monitor treatment progress, and provide recommendations for interventions and accommodations.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Cyclohexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclohexane ring (a six-carbon saturated ring) with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to it. The hydroxyl group makes these compounds alcohols, and the cyclohexane ring provides a unique structure that can adopt different conformations.

The presence of the hydroxyl group in cyclohexanols allows them to act as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and starting materials for the production of other chemicals. They are used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

Cyclohexanols can exist in different forms, such as cis- and trans-isomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group relative to the cyclohexane ring. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers can differ significantly due to their distinct structures and conformations.

Examples of cyclohexanols include cyclohexanol itself (C6H11OH), as well as its derivatives, such as methylcyclohexanol (C7H13OH) and phenylcyclohexanol (C12H15OH).

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Gait ataxia is a type of ataxia, which refers to a lack of coordination or stability, specifically involving walking or gait. It is characterized by an unsteady, uncoordinated, and typically wide-based gait pattern. This occurs due to dysfunction in the cerebellum or its connecting pathways, responsible for maintaining balance and coordinating muscle movements.

In gait ataxia, individuals often have difficulty with controlling the rhythm and pace of their steps, tend to veer or stagger off course, and may display a reeling or stumbling motion while walking. They might also have trouble performing rapid alternating movements like quickly tapping their foot or heel. These symptoms are usually worse when the person is tired or attempting to walk in the dark.

Gait ataxia can be caused by various underlying conditions, including degenerative neurological disorders (e.g., cerebellar atrophy, multiple sclerosis), stroke, brain injury, infection (e.g., alcoholism, HIV), or exposure to certain toxins. Proper diagnosis and identification of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment and management of gait ataxia.

Psychotherapeutic processes refer to the methods and techniques used in psychotherapy to help individuals understand and overcome their emotional, cognitive, or behavioral issues. These processes involve various elements such as:

1. Establishing a therapeutic relationship: Building trust and rapport between the therapist and the client is crucial for successful therapy. This relationship provides a safe and supportive environment where the client can explore their thoughts and feelings.

2. Assessment and diagnosis: The psychotherapist evaluates the client's mental health status, identifies any underlying issues or disorders, and develops an individualized treatment plan based on this information.

3. Psychological interventions: These are specific techniques used to address the client's concerns, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, or humanistic therapy. Each approach has its own unique focus, goals, and methods for helping clients change negative patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

4. Collaborative goal setting: Both the therapist and client work together to establish clear, realistic goals for treatment that align with the client's needs and values.

5. Self-exploration and self-understanding: Through various therapeutic techniques, clients gain insights into their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, allowing them to better understand themselves and their motivations.

6. Emotional regulation and coping skills development: Clients learn strategies to manage their emotions more effectively and cope with stressors in healthier ways.

7. Problem-solving and decision-making: Therapists help clients develop critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities, enabling them to make better choices and navigate challenges in their lives.

8. Personal growth and change: As clients progress through therapy, they may experience positive changes in their self-concept, relationships, and overall well-being.

9. Termination and relapse prevention: At the end of treatment, therapists and clients review progress made, discuss any remaining concerns, and develop a plan to maintain gains and prevent future relapses.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Cross-cultural comparison is a research method used in various fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and medical sciences to compare and contrast cultural practices, beliefs, values, and behaviors across different cultural groups. In the context of medicine, cross-cultural comparison involves examining health outcomes, illness experiences, healthcare systems, and medical practices across diverse populations to identify similarities and differences.

The goal of cross-cultural comparison in medicine is to enhance our understanding of how culture shapes health and illness, improve the cultural competence of healthcare providers, reduce health disparities, and develop culturally appropriate interventions and treatments. Cross-cultural comparison can help identify best practices and effective strategies that can be adapted and applied in different cultural contexts to promote health and wellbeing.

Examples of cross-cultural comparisons in medicine include comparing the prevalence and risk factors of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer across different populations, examining cultural differences in pain management and communication styles between patients and healthcare providers, and exploring the impact of traditional healing practices on mental health outcomes.

Patient simulation is the creation of a situation or scenario that represents a patient's medical condition or illness, using a mannequin or computer-based program. It allows healthcare professionals and students to practice their skills and decision-making abilities in a controlled and safe environment. The simulated patient can respond to treatments and interventions, providing a realistic representation of the patient's condition. This type of simulation is used for training, assessment, and research purposes in medical education and healthcare fields.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

In the context of medicine, "translating" often refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical applications that can directly benefit patients. This is also known as "translational research." It involves taking findings from laboratory studies and experiments, and finding ways to use that knowledge in the development of new diagnostic tools, treatments, or medical practices.

The goal of translation is to bridge the gap between scientific discovery and clinical practice, making sure that new advances in medicine are both safe and effective for patients. This process can be complex and challenging, as it requires collaboration between researchers, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and industry partners. It also involves rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure that any new treatments or interventions are both safe and effective.

Child behavior refers to the actions, reactions, and interactions exhibited by children in response to their environment, experiences, and developmental stage. It is a broad term that encompasses various aspects, including emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development.

Child behavior can be categorized into two main types:

1. Desirable or positive behaviors - These are behaviors that promote healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include sharing toys, following rules, expressing emotions appropriately, and demonstrating empathy towards others.
2. Challenging or negative behaviors - These are behaviors that hinder healthy development, social interactions, and learning. Examples include aggression, defiance, tantrums, anxiety, and withdrawal.

Understanding child behavior is crucial for parents, caregivers, educators, and healthcare professionals to provide appropriate support, guidance, and interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes in children. Factors influencing child behavior include genetics, temperament, environment, parenting style, and life experiences.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

Behavioral symptoms refer to changes or abnormalities in a person's behavior, which may be indicative of an underlying medical or psychological condition. These symptoms can manifest as a wide range of observable behaviors that are unusual, disruptive, or distressing for the individual experiencing them or those around them. Examples of behavioral symptoms include:

1. Agitation: A state of irritability, restlessness, or excitement, often accompanied by aggressive or disruptive behavior.
2. Aggression: Hostile or violent behavior directed towards others, including verbal or physical attacks.
3. Apathy: A lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
4. Changes in appetite or sleep patterns: Significant fluctuations in the amount or frequency of food intake or sleep, which can be indicative of various medical or psychological conditions.
5. Disinhibition: A loss of restraint or impulse control, leading to inappropriate behavior in social situations.
6. Hallucinations: Perception of sensory stimuli (such as sight, sound, touch) without an external source, often associated with certain mental illnesses or neurological disorders.
7. Hyperactivity: Increased activity levels, often accompanied by impulsivity and difficulty focusing attention.
8. Impaired judgment: Poor decision-making abilities, often resulting in risky or harmful behavior.
9. Inattention: Difficulty focusing or sustaining attention on a task or activity.
10. Mood changes: Fluctuations in emotional state, such as depression, anxiety, or euphoria.
11. Psychosis: A severe mental disorder characterized by detachment from reality, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking or behavior.
12. Repetitive behaviors: Engaging in repetitive actions or movements, often associated with certain developmental disorders or neurological conditions.
13. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions or activities, often indicative of depression, anxiety, or other mental health concerns.
14. Thought disturbances: Disorganized or disrupted thinking patterns, such as racing thoughts, tangential thinking, or loose associations between ideas.

Behavioral symptoms can be caused by various factors, including medical conditions (such as infections, brain injuries, or neurodegenerative diseases), mental health disorders (such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia), substance abuse, and environmental factors (such as stress or trauma). Accurate assessment and diagnosis are crucial for determining appropriate treatment interventions.

Body image Cardinal, T.M., Karciroti, N., & Lumeng, J.C. (2006). The figure rating scale as an index of weight status of women ... In S. Kety, L.P. Rowland, R.L. Sidman, & S.W. Matthysse (Eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New ... This scale has been used in conjunction with the figure rating scale in order to observe if an individual's sensitivity to a ... The figure rating scale (FRS), also known as the Stunkard scale, is a psychometric measurement originally developed in 1983 to ...
The personality inventory scale: A self-rating clinical scale for the diagnosis of personality disorders. Psychological Reports ... The Mental Status Examination. 2nd Edition. Volume 1 of the Mental Status Examination Series. CreateSpace, 2013. Burgess, J. ... Psychiatric Services (Hospital and Community Psychiatry), vol 43 (9), pp 937-939, 1992. Burgess, J. Wesley. ... The Mental Status Examination for Personality Disorders. Volume 2 of the Mental Status Examination Series. CreateSpace; 2013. ...
Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV ... The mental status examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in neurological and psychiatric ... It teaches psychiatrists how do perform a mental status examination. The core psychiatric interview skills book by Dr Seshni ... ISBN 0-7020-1788-4. Trzepacz, Paula T; Baker, Robert (1993). The psychiatric mental status examination. Oxford: Oxford ...
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry)± Positive and Negative ... of Anhedonia-Asociality Social Inattentiveness Inattentiveness During Mental Status Testing Global Rating of Attention Scale ... The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) is a rating scale that mental health professionals use to measure ... Within each domain it rates separate symptoms from 0 (absent) to 5 (severe). The scale is closely linked to the Scale for the ...
... and psychiatric rating scales. A mental status examination is carried out, and a physical examination is usually performed to ... Initial psychiatric assessment of a person begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations, ... Typically, though, a psychiatric diagnosis utilizes a differential diagnosis procedure where a mental status examination and ... psychiatric nurse practitioners, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychiatric social workers, ...
Inventory Narcissistic Personality Inventory Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ( ... Children's Global Assessment Scale Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Mental status examination Psychological testing " ... Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale Child Mania Rating Scale General Behavior Inventory ... Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ...
"Chapter 6 Psychiatric Rating Scales", OTHER SCALES, Table 6-6 Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Positive ... MENTAL STATUS, Table 7.2-1. Common Questions for the Psychiatric History and Mental Status. ISBN 978-1-4511-0047-1. Thought ... Kaplan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry (2008), "6 Psychiatric Rating Scales", Table 6-5 Scale for the ... "Chapter 1 Psychiatric History and Mental Status Examination", MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION, Thought Disorder, Thought Content., p ...
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale MeSH F04.586.574 - mental status schedule MeSH F04.669.224 - electroshock MeSH F04.669.332 - ... manifest anxiety scale MeSH F04.711.647.513.607 - mmpi MeSH F04.711.647.513.886 - test anxiety scale MeSH F04.711.647.622 - ... psychiatric MeSH F04.408.823 - social work, psychiatric MeSH F04.513.636 - q-sort MeSH F04.570.200 - convulsive therapy MeSH ... wechsler scales MeSH F04.711.400 - language tests MeSH F04.711.513 - neuropsychological tests MeSH F04.711.513.180 - bender- ...
Kurtzke JF (1983). "Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS)". Neurology ... Jongen P (2006). "Psychiatric onset of multiple sclerosis". J Neurol Sci. 245 (1-2): 59-62. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2005.09.014. PMID ... Within 10 years after the onset of MS one-third of patients reach a score of 6 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), ... The main clinical measure in progression of the disability and severity of the symptoms is the Expanded Disability Status Scale ...
... rating form contains 86 items in eight non-overlapping clinical scales and two validity scales. These theoretically and ... and various psychiatric conditions and medical issues. As of 2013, the BRIEF had been translated into 40 different languages or ... from a representative distribution of socioeconomic statuses. By design, the BRIEF is intended to provide a standardized method ... Sullivan, Jeremy R (2007). "Diagnostic Group Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings on the BRIEF and Conners' Scales". ...
... other large-scale community surveys have found that the rate of psychiatric disorder among immigrant youth is not higher than ... many refugee children demonstrated an increasing rate of overnutrition. An Australian study, assessing the nutritional status ... whereas higher rates of stunting were found among Burmese and Somali children. The latter also had higher rates of wasting. ... "Nutritional Status of Women and Child Refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 63, no. 29 (2014 ...
Pauly IB (1968). The current status of the change of sex operation. J Nerv Ment Dis, Nov;147(5):460-71. Pauly IB (1974). Female ... In 1975, Pauly and University of Oregon medical student Thomas W. Lindgren introduced the Body Image Scale, with which subjects ... Pauly IB, MT Edgerton (1986). The gender identity movement: A growing surgical-psychiatric liaison. Archives of Sexual Behavior ... rate feelings about 30 body parts from 1 (very satisfied) to 5 (very dissatisfied). His 1981 follow-up report on outcome data ...
... or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychotic disorders. Scales ... The mental status examination (MSE) is another core part of any psychiatric assessment. The MSE is a structured way of ... "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale". Psychiatry Source. AstraZeneca. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-07- ... Media related to Psychiatric assessment at Wikimedia Commons American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines: Psychiatric ...
On 19 August 1316, during the rule of the new king, Charles I of Hungary, Cluj was granted the status of a city (Latin: civitas ... Although the overall crime rate is reassuringly low, petty crime can be an irritant for foreigners, as in other large cities of ... Another area that will benefit from large-scale changes is "Splaiul Independenței", where the tracks will be pulled back to the ... Instead, he was institutionalised in the Ștei psychiatric facility in 1976, following a three-year forensic investigation ...
... conducted a large-scale, circumscribed investigation on Psychiatric Solutions, a company based in Tennessee that ... The tool allows users to find surgeons and hospitals, and see their complication rates. The database was controversial, drawing ... ProPublica published and reported on confidential pending applications for groups requesting tax-exempt status. In May 2013, ... The report covered patient deaths at numerous Psychiatric Solutions facilities, the failing physical plant at many of their ...
"Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Psychiatric Disorders". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 25 (1): 41-47. doi: ... There are higher rates of mental illness in groups with lower socioeconomic status (SES), but there is no clear consensus on ... They also found that the lower people were on the scale of social class, the likelier they were to be admitted to a hospital ... The higher rates of mental illness in lower SES are likely due to the greater stress individuals experience. Issues that are ...
The most commonly used scale is the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) (external link is provided below). The scale is ... Nonconvulsive status epilepticus is seizure activity with no accompanying tonic-clonic movements. It can present with stupor, ... Other psychiatric associations include schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders. It also is related to autism ... Various rating scales for catatonia have been developed, however, their utility for clinical care has not been well established ...
Native American men are admitted to prison at 4 times the rate of white men, and Native American women are admitted at 6 times ... However officers receive a limited amount of psychiatric training and are not prepared to deal with those experiencing mental ... When differences in race, religion, or socioeconomic status exist between police and the citizenry, some police officers may ... Police brutality is often associated with Black People are worse on the scale of racial profiling. ...
Farberow rates as the most significant impacts work to be the lessening of the taboos related to suicide, so that the cry for ... These efforts led to the development of the L.A. Scale for Assessment of Suicidal Potential and the crisis hotline. As the ... With the opening of the LASPC and the continual documentation of its progress, the long-neglected status of suicide as a ... schizophrenics and other psychiatric patients. youth, adolescents, the aged, and the chronically and terminally ill. He ...
Lewis Opler (1948-2018) was a psychiatrist and psychopharmacologist who co-authored the PANSS, a symptom severity rating scale ... Women's Social Status and the Forms of Marriage. American Journal of Sociology. Spring, 1943. The Creative Role of Shamanism in ... That same year, Marvin Opler toured the psychiatric hospitals of Moscow with his wife Charlotte and fellow anthropologist ... although they were developed independently of Western psychiatric practices. He also did anthropological fieldwork among the ...
Data from a 1993 study found that there is a higher rate of psychiatric morbidity in Kuwaiti prisons than in the general ... On a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 the most corrupt and 10 the most transparent, Transparency International rated Kuwait 4.3. In 2009 ... Kuwait's Code of Personal Status was promulgated in 1984. Kuwait is divided into six governorates: Al Asimah Governorate (or ... "Kuwait Credit Rating Cut for Second Time in Two Years by S&P". Bloomberg. 16 July 2021. "Factbox: U.S. forces in Gulf region ...
... studies and recent large-scale meta-analysis cast serious doubt on claims made about the ability of psychopathy ratings to ... terms like rehospitalization) in the title and found that articles in the psychiatric literature were more likely to use the ... Plausible approaches include: allowing current trends to continue without additional intervention (maintaining the status-quo) ... If an inmate attains a certificate of vocation their rate of recidivism reduces by 14.6%, if they attain a GED their rate of ...
Actuarial tools in criminology Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale List of diagnostic classification and rating scales used ... American Psychiatric Association 2013, pp. 645, 663-6 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAmerican_Psychiatric_Association2013 ( ... low socioeconomic status and high risk of suicide. The two factors are nonetheless highly correlated and there are strong ... The quality of ratings may depend on how much background information is available and whether the person rated is honest and ...
The Chinese American Psychiatric Epidemiological Study (CAPES) was the first large-scale study to examine the incidence of DSM- ... High rates of smoking also contribute to high rates of lung cancer. Lung cancer rates for Southeast Asians are 18 percent ... Self-rated health was lowest in Vietnamese Americans, while Filipino Americans have the highest rates of chronic diseases, ... In addition to country of origin, individuals can differ in socioeconomic status, education level, immigration status, level of ...
SCoRS - Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale VRFCAT - Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool Patterson, T.L.; ... The UPSA has been shown to be predictive of outcomes such as employment status, independence, and social skills, and shows a ... Journal of Psychiatric Research. 42 (4): 320-327. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.12.008. PMC 2696336. PMID 17303168. Henry, B.L ... Mausbach, B.T.; Harvey, P.D.; Goldman, S.R.; Jeste, D.V.; Patterson, T.L. (November 2007). "Development of a brief scale of ...
However the number of different rating scales that need to be looked at and the lack of interdisciplinary research between ... American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012. Miller, Joshua D.; ... relative fit of categorical and dimensional modals to evaluate whether single diagnostic categories are suited to either status ... Additionally, the Openness scale of the NEO-PI-R, which is one of the most widely used measures of Big Five traits, was based ...
"6 Psychiatric Rating Scales", Table 6-5 Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), p. 44. APA dictionary of ... Akiskal, Hagop S (2016). "1 The Mental Status Examination". In Fatemi, S Hossein; Clayton, Paula J (eds.). The Medical Basis of ... Under Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms used in clinical research, thought blocking is considered a part of alogia ... During the first year, negative symptoms can progress, especially alogia, which may start off from a relatively low rate. ...
Producer Martin Bregman deemed the MPAA's rating "arbitrary," and after minimal cuts were made, the film was given an R-rating ... Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B" on an A+ to F scale. Paramount Home Video released the ... Retrieved January 15, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) "Whispers In The Dark - Blu-ray :: ... James, Caryn (August 7, 1992). "Psychiatric Murder Mystery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-05. McCarhy, Todd (August 3 ...
The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, specifically the BIS-11 scale, and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior subscales of Negative Urgency ... with the adolescent population having high rates compared to other age groups. Prevalence rates have been difficult to ... People with internet addiction are likely to have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Comorbid diagnoses identified alongside ... October 2018). "Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report". Addiction. 113 (10): 1905-1926 ...
... the highest award for psychiatric research from the American Psychiatric Association. The study expanded on an earlier one by ... MMPI scales coincided among identical twin pairs but not among fraternal twin pairs. The Object Sorting Test showed no useful ... A chapter was devoted to social issues, violence, illnesses, death rates, sexual aspects, and the ability to father or bear ... Gottesman and Shields found roughly half of identical twins had a shared schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic status, but only ...
In addition to their use as a research tool, they have potential uses in primary care including screening for psychiatric ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ... Assessing psychiatric disorder with a human interviewer or a ... Objective: To compare a self administered computerised assessment of neurotic psychiatric disorder (psychiatric morbidity) with ... In addition to their use as a research tool, they have potential uses in primary care including screening for psychiatric ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales Substances * Buprenorphine Grants and funding * DA00115/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States ... Four subjects achieved complete remission of symptoms by the end of the trial (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores , or ...
Psychiatric status rating scales. Psychometrics/methods. Questionnaires. Remote consultation. Stroke/complications. Stroke/ ... Mini-Mental Status Examination), and for depression, HDRS (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). All questionnaires were ... The level of education was positively associated with dementia status assessed by MMSE. The depressive status, as well as, ... Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Todos os questionários foram aplicados por duas entrevistadoras treinadas para o estudo. A ...
Body image Cardinal, T.M., Karciroti, N., & Lumeng, J.C. (2006). The figure rating scale as an index of weight status of women ... In S. Kety, L.P. Rowland, R.L. Sidman, & S.W. Matthysse (Eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New ... This scale has been used in conjunction with the figure rating scale in order to observe if an individuals sensitivity to a ... The figure rating scale (FRS), also known as the Stunkard scale, is a psychometric measurement originally developed in 1983 to ...
DSM-5-TR-related diagnostic tools and scales; and coverage of alternative diagnostic systems and rating scales.. * Provides a ... These include a brief, easy-to-use summary of DSM-5-TR disorders; the Mental Status Examination and a psychiatric glossary; ... Provides insight into the process of establishing a therapeutic alliance, which remains the goal of any psychiatric encounter, ...
DSM-5-TR-related diagnostic tools and scales; and coverage of alternative diagnostic systems and rating scales.. * Provides a ... These include a brief, easy-to-use summary of DSM-5-TR disorders; the Mental Status Examination and a psychiatric glossary; ... Provides insight into the process of establishing a therapeutic alliance, which remains the goal of any psychiatric encounter, ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. 1. 2015. 377. 0.120. Why? Self-Assessment. 2 ...
... as determined by the Hamilton Depression Rating Score and the Young Mania Rating Scale for the previous month. Control ... Patient Skepticism Rises; Psychiatric Follow-up Care Falls Short; and Weed May Lead to Weight Loss ... The groups were well matched for age, sex, ethnicity, education, and occupational status. However, the Functioning Assessment ... Of the patients with bipolar disorder, 68.7% were type I, 15.7% were type II, 15.7% were unspecified, and 27% had psychiatric ...
D004637 - Emergency Services, Psychiatric, D011569 - Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Keywords. Evaluation, Mental State ...
... current employment status and welfare benefit status.. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Reference Ventura, Lukoff, ... Brie Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) Expanded Version (4.0). Scales, Anchor Points, and Administration Manual. UCLA Department ... The Quality of Life Scale: an instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophr Bull 1984; 10: 388-98.Google ... This carried through to a low drop-out rate for those in the intervention group. The higher drop-out rate in the TAU group is ...
... a stress scale and sociodemographic details. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 26.3% and psychological distress 39.0%. A ... Socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric disorders. Are the issues still compelling? Social psychiatry and psychiatric ... Table 4 shows that the rate of mental disorders among women with poor financial status is nearly double the rate found in the ... The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was calculated for the whole sample and specific rates were also estimated for ...
... or Psychiatric Status Rating (PSR) scales. *Engaging in disordered eating behaviors after having ceased these behaviors during ... Berends, T., van Meijel, B., Nugteren, W., Deen, M., Danner, U. N., Hoek, H. W., & van Elburg, A. A. (2016). Rate, timing and ... Berends, T., van Meijel, B., Nugteren, W., Deen, M., Danner, U. N., Hoek, H. W., & van Elburg, A. A. (2016). Rate, timing and ... The authors of the 2016 study also noted that several previous research efforts had determined that the relapse rate among ...
Caplan R, Guthrie D, Fish B, Tanguay PE, David-Lando G. The Kiddie Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale: clinical assessment, ... Annemarie K Loth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Psychiatric Association, Indiana Psychiatric ... Pretreatment Cardiometabolic Status in Youth With Early-Onset Psychosis: Baseline Results From the TEA Trial. J Clin Psychiatry ... American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training, American Epilepsy Society, American Psychiatric ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. *Oxygen. *Neuropsychological Tests. *Middle Aged. *Male. *Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales 4 0 Uterine Cervical Neoplasms 4 0 Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous 4 0 ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales (MeSH) * Psychometrics (MeSH) * Reproducibility of Results (MeSH) * Surveys and Questionnaires ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. *Pain Measurement. *Pain. Citation. APA Chicago ICMJE MLA ...
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), impact of events scale revised (IES-R), and Pittsburgh Sleep ... This study was to investigate the situation of mental health status among medical staff following COVID-19. MATERIAL AND ... Quality Index (PSQI) scale were used to evaluate depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and sleep quality ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, SARS-CoV-2, Sex Factors, Sleep Wake Disorders, Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, Surveys and ...
Relationships of the social readjustment rating scale to psychiatric patient status, anxiety and social desirability. He ... De nerds onder leiding van rust script free gek Rivers Cuomo danken hun status vooral aan hun eerste twee albums: The Blue ... But Cristian cheating earned cult hero status for Trapani with a shock goal as play resumed, the midfielder seizing on Antimo ...
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The ... Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health ... Mental Status Schedule. Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to ... Psychiatric Social Service. Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health ...
Clinical Dementia Rating score equal to zero; and 6) the 15-question version of the Geriatric Depression Scale result of ≤5. ... Preclinical (1)H-MRS neurochemical profiling in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Bioanalysis 2012;4:1787-804 doi:10.4155 ... Cho concentration seems to be elevated with age independent of cognitive status, notably in the posterior cingulate cortex and ... 1H-MRS metabolites and rate of β-amyloid accumulation on serial PET in clinically normal adults. Neurology 2017;89:1391-99 doi: ...
... brief psychiatric rating scales and other behavior assessment tools. QoL and functional status were measured by EQ5D, Barthel ... Provided at least one of the following outcomes for patients/caregivers: cognitive function status, rate of falls, behavior, ... Provided at least one of the following outcomes for patients/caregivers: cognitive function status, rate of falls, behavior, ... We will use the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment/Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales 10% * Psychology Reinforcement 8% * Treatment of alcohol use disorder in patients with liver ... 2022, I: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 31, 11 s., e73.. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › ...
The history and Mental Status Examination (MSE) are the most important diagnostic tools a psychiatrist has to obtain ... Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (as shown below). Hamilton Depression Scale. View Media Gallery ... The psychiatric interview, psychiatric history, and mental status examination. Hales RE, Yudofsky SC, eds. Essentials of ... Suicide rate by age and gender. 2004 data compiled by the CDC. The mean suicide rate for the entire population was 12.8/100,000 ...
... there is a clinicians overall rating of suicide risk and a carers perception of risk on a four-point scale from one (low) to ... Medical Status, Withdrawal from Others, Expressed Communication, Psychiatric Service History, Coping Strategies and Supportive ... It consists of 18 items, each graded on a three-point scale (low/moderate/high) covering: Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Plan, ... Others (connectedness). Each item suggested prompts for the rating, for example for suicide plan the prompts are High - ...
Also Ranks for: Capgras Syndrome , paranoid schizophrenia , article series , psychiatric status , rating scales. ... The crude prevalence of Capgras syndrome in the acute psychiatric ward was 2.5% (1.3% for men and 3.4% for women), which is not ... It can occur in the context of both psychiatric and organic illness, and ... ...
There was no significant difference between entacapone and placebo on ratings of psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. ... PANSS, Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale, Cognitive Battery. Results. Fifty patients were randomized and 45 completed the study ... Status. Completed. Investigator. Klein. Sample Size. 80. Duration of Study Period for Each Subject. 12 weeks ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. *Sertraline / therapeutic use*. *Severity of Illness Index. Substances. *Antidepressive ... Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the status of 156 adult volunteers with major depressive disorder (MDD) 6 ... of depression were assessed by clinical interview using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Hamilton Rating Scale for ... After 10 months, however, remitted subjects in the exercise group had significantly lower relapse rates (p = .01) than subjects ...
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales * Space Perception Identity. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) * https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530- ...
  • The figure rating scale has been used in several influential studies on body image, body satisfaction, and eating disorders, and to measure how gender, media, race, and culture affect an individual's sensitivity to his or her own physical appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from figure observations have been applied to other scales in order to assess body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bulimia scale (B) provides seven item measures that analyze the symptoms of bulimia such as binging or purging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), impact of events scale revised (IES-R), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale were used to evaluate depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and sleep quality, respectively. (medscimonit.com)
  • For example, during the outbreak of SARS, 27% of the medical staff in a hospital in Singapore were diagnosed with psychiatric symptoms [4]. (medscimonit.com)
  • There was no significant difference between entacapone and placebo on ratings of psychiatric symptoms or quality of life. (stanleyresearch.org)
  • Elevated rates of depression in untreated HCV can be a barrier to initiating HCV therapy and can impact fatigue and physical symptoms. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • In this preliminary study, we examined the accuracy of the seven-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-7) and Patient Health Questionnairre-9 (PHQ-9) in detecting depression in HCV-infected patients and determined the effect of major depression on somatic symptoms. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • HAM-7 and PHQ-9 scores were significantly correlated with somatic and physical symptoms scales. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • We also examined the differences in fatigue and somatic symptoms in depressed HCV-infected patients.RESULTS: Currently depressed chronic hepatitis C patients had significantly higher scores on all the scales compared with nondepressed patients. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The clinical and risk management scales on the HCR-20, impulsivity, anger, and psychiatric symptoms all were useful in identifying patients at risk for exhibiting institutional aggression. (tamu.edu)
  • Outcome measures included parental symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as rating of parental satisfaction with the intervention. (stanford.edu)
  • An assessment of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms and diagnoses was conducted using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI+), as well as clinical interviews and a review of medical records. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is the most widely used self-rating scale, developed in 1961 by Aaron Beck based on symptoms he observed to be common among depressed patients. (medscape.com)
  • PTSD was significantly associated with loss of family members and friends, disruption of family, work, and social life, and higher rates of behavioral symptoms in children of workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recommends treating patients with panic disorder when symptoms cause dysfunction (e.g., work, family, social, leisure activities) or significant distress. (medscape.com)
  • [ 55 ] The patient's symptomatic status should be monitored at each session, such as with the use of rating scales, and patients can also self-monitor by keeping a daily diary of panic symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • This exemplifies the importance of the mental status examination to the practice of psychiatry. (medscape.com)
  • To compare a self administered computerised assessment of neurotic psychiatric disorder (psychiatric morbidity) with an identical assessment administered by a human interviewer. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, to discover whether a computerised assessment overestimates or underestimates the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a human interviewer. (nih.gov)
  • Self administered computerised assessments are valid, unbiased measures of psychiatric morbidity. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to their use as a research tool, they have potential uses in primary care including screening for psychiatric morbidity and in forming the basis for clinical guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • ABSTRACT The rate of psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates was estimated in 2000 women attending 3 primary care centres in Irbid, Jordan. (who.int)
  • A significant association was found between the amount and severity of stress and psychiatric morbidity. (who.int)
  • Post-marital status (separated, divorced, widowed), woman's illiteracy, family violence, violent marital relationship, living independently, being in a non-cousin marriage, being a second wife, poor housing and absence of a social support system were significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity in this group of women. (who.int)
  • Psychiatric morbidity among Arab women has not been extensively investigated [11]. (who.int)
  • This is unfortunate, since identifying the correlates of psychiatric morbidity in a society enables women and members of their communities to improve their control over their mental health. (who.int)
  • Elevated rates of psychological morbidity and symptomatology have been widely reported in 1991 Gulf War veterans. (edu.au)
  • Psychiatric epidemiological studies are, therefore, crucial for the planning and development of psychiatric services. (who.int)
  • The participants were planning and development of psychiatric women aged 18 years and over visiting 3 services. (who.int)
  • Patients had a confirmed bipolar diagnosis and were euthymic, as determined by the Hamilton Depression Rating Score and the Young Mania Rating Scale for the previous month. (medscape.com)
  • Control individuals had no psychiatric diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis , evaluation, treatment planning, etc. (medconditions.net)
  • The history and Mental Status Examination (MSE) are the most important diagnostic tools a psychiatrist has to obtain information to make an accurate diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Although not a replacement for formal psychiatric diagnosis, instruments such as those above may aid in the assessment of veterans' psychological health. (edu.au)
  • e para a depressão, HDRS (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). (usp.br)
  • The presence and severity of depression were assessed by clinical interview using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and by self-report using the Beck Depression Inventory. (estrella-cognitivecare.com)
  • In addition, a health survey will be performed to investigate the issues of maternal mental status (e.g., depression, anxiety, psychosis) and their affecting factors. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Thus, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a self-reported questionnaire named Questionnaire on Maternal Depression and its Related Factors will be edited and distributed to a total of 1,230 pregnant women in Metropolitan Taipei area. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • For those with "higher risk of experiencing depression" in the depression screening program by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, four groups of "health education by psychologists intervention group," "health education by multimedia film intervention group," "oral health education intervention group," and "regular care comparison group" will be randomly assigned (about 30 women in each group). (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Previous studies have found an association between psychiatric disorders and vitamin D deficiency, but most studies have focused on depression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No significant differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were found between patients with different categories of psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression, bipolar disorders, psychosis, and dementia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • for example, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ( 9 ), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) ( 10 ), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) ( 11 ), and Patients' Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ( 12 ) were used in different studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale is the most widely used interview scale, developed in 1960 to measure severity of depression in an inpatient population. (medscape.com)
  • In the original clinician-administered scale, the first 17 items are tallied for the total score, while items 18-21 are used to further qualify the depression. (medscape.com)
  • The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) cautions that although the essential features of schizophrenia are the same in childhood, it is harder to diagnose. (medscape.com)
  • The American Psychiatric Association removed schizophrenia subtypes from the DSM-5 because they didn't appear to help with providing better targeted treatment, or predicting treatment response. (medscape.com)
  • First-degree relatives of children with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence rate of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) consists of twenty-three statements that measure an individual's general feelings about his or her physical appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple systematic reviews with pairwise meta-analysis (PMA) and network meta-analysis (NMA) 3 - 8 , including several Cochrane Collaborations, have identified pharmacological treatments (PT) to maintain or reduce the rate of decline in cognitive function in older adults with early-stage dementia. (researchsquare.com)
  • Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: School, employer, and self-rating scales obtained during ten-year follow-up evaluation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Women completed standardized diagnostic tools that yielded psychiatric diagnoses, a stress scale and sociodemographic details. (who.int)
  • This study aimed to establish the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly patients with a wider range of psychiatric diagnoses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the 18 items, there is a clinicians overall rating of suicide risk and a carers perception of risk on a four-point scale from one (low) to four (extreme). (barwonhealth.org.au)
  • Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be selected according to the following criteria: conducted in elderly patients aged 60 years or older with AD, applied pairwise meta-analysis (PMA) or network meta-analysis (NMA) for pooled relative treatment effects for at least one pair of PTs and NPTs, and at least one of following outcomes was provided for patients/caregivers: cognitive function status, behavior, quality of life. (researchsquare.com)
  • We aim to identify the treatment or treatments with the highest efficacy of current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for AD based on cognitive function status, behaviors, and quality of life for both patients and caregivers. (researchsquare.com)
  • The figure rating scale (FRS), also known as the Stunkard scale, is a psychometric measurement originally developed in 1983 to communicate about the unknown weights of a research subject's absent relatives, and since adapted to assess body image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions. (medconditions.net)
  • We used the Kessler 6-item (K-6) scale to assess psychological distress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the status of 156 adult volunteers with major depressive disorder (MDD) 6 months after completion of a study in which they were randomly assigned to a 4-month course of aerobic exercise, sertraline therapy, or a combination of exercise and sertraline. (estrella-cognitivecare.com)
  • best known of the psychiatric responses to Congress directed the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to establish the WTC stress is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (cdc.gov)
  • After 10 months, however, remitted subjects in the exercise group had significantly lower relapse rates (p = .01) than subjects in the medication group. (estrella-cognitivecare.com)
  • [ 33 ] This therapeutic modality has higher efficacy and lower cost, dropout rates, and relapse rates than do pharmacologic treatments. (medscape.com)
  • Of the patients with bipolar disorder, 68.7% were type I, 15.7% were type II, 15.7% were unspecified, and 27% had psychiatric comorbidities. (medscape.com)
  • Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting. (medconditions.net)
  • RESULTS: Currently depressed chronic hepatitis C patients had significantly higher scores on all the scales compared with nondepressed patients. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The scale presents nine male and nine female schematic silhouettes, ranging from extreme thinness to extreme obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS) consists of 24 items and assesses the three dimensions of body attitude in men (muscularity, low body fat, and height). (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal perinatal mental status not only affects mothers' health themselves but has profound impact on the fetal and neonatal development. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (medconditions.net)
  • Psychiatric treatment has a demonstrated effect on decreasing medical costs associated with emergency department and nonpsychiatric outpatient care. (medscape.com)
  • The crude prevalence of Capgras syndrome in the acute psychiatric ward was 2.5% (1.3% for men and 3.4% for women), which is not uncommon. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Ages and Stages Questionnaire, the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status, and Child Development Inventories) can facilitate structured communication between parents and providers to discover parent concerns, increase parent and provider observations of the child's development, and increase parent awareness. (cdc.gov)
  • The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is used to evaluate subjects' vitamin D status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to know the emotion status of migraineurs and study the factors which may affect emotion status of migraineurs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Environmental factors such as altitude are strongly linked with psychiatric problems ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Legally, a mental status conducted against the patient's will is considered assault with battery. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, it is important to secure the patient's permission or to document that a mental status is being done without the patient's approval in an emergency situation. (medscape.com)
  • Figure rating scale studies have also assessed body image perceptions among Caucasian, Asian, and African-American college women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In association with the figure rating scale, more research has been conducted on female body image. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was to investigate the situation of mental health status among medical staff following COVID-19. (medscimonit.com)
  • NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality scales were relatively stable across 10 years and demonstrated differential associations with measures of personality pathology and psychopathology generally consistent with past research and theoretical considerations. (tamu.edu)
  • These 3 issues were examined: (a) the stability of the measures over a 10-year interval, (b) their criterion-related validity, and (c) their incremental validity relative to an alternative NEO-PI-R profile-rating approach for assessing psychopathy. (tamu.edu)
  • Moreover, these measures demonstrated an appreciable degree of incremental validity over the NEO-PI-R profile-rating approach. (tamu.edu)
  • With the strategies and involvement of a prevention-intervention model, a network for screening services, and an intervention and follow-up of high-risk women, it is hoped that maternal perinatal mental status may be promoted. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Initially, a baseline diagnostic framework is formed by the recommended Mental Status Examination. (medscape.com)
  • Each item suggested prompts for the rating, for example for suicide plan the prompts are High - Specific and lethal, Moderate - Vague plan, Low - None. (barwonhealth.org.au)
  • Suicidal intent in deliberate self-harm and the risk of suicide: the predictive power of the Suicide Intent Scale. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The intervention was rated as useful and satisfactory by parents (overall average usefulness of 4.54 and satisfaction of 4.71 out of 5.0). (stanford.edu)
  • Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness. (medconditions.net)