Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Neurasthenia: A mental disorder characterized by chronic fatigue and concomitant physiologic symptoms.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.PrisonersNeurochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Nerve Tissue ProteinsSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Adolescent, Institutionalized: An adolescent who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.IllinoisTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.MissouriPersonality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Fragile X Syndrome: A condition characterized genotypically by mutation of the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome (at gene loci FRAXA or FRAXE) and phenotypically by cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, SEIZURES, language delay, and enlargement of the ears, head, and testes. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY occurs in nearly all males and roughly 50% of females with the full mutation of FRAXA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p226)Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hyperkinesis: Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Multiphasic Screening: The simultaneous use of multiple laboratory procedures for the detection of various diseases. These are usually performed on groups of people.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) "ICD-10 ... Pathological demand avoidance (PDA) is a proposed sub-type of autism spectrum disorder. Characteristics ascribed to the ... similar to autism spectrum disorders) Newson first began to look at PDA as a specific syndrome in the 1980s when certain ... identifying it as a particular subgroup of autism that could also be described as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The ...
A 2013 study also genetically linked five psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. The link was a single ... "Pleiotropy of psychiatric disorders will reinvent DSM". www.mdedge.com. Retrieved 2016-11-13. Sullivan, Patrick F.; Kendler, ... It has been associated with autism, as well as linked in studies to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These particular ... Pleiotropy in genes has been linked between certain psychiatric disorders as well. Deletion in the 22q11.2 region of chromosome ...
"Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Conference (February 3-5, 2008)". American Psychiatric Association. ... should be given the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder."[35] The DSM 5 diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder ... autism, PDD-NOS, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett disorder), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, ... schizotypal disorder, schizoid personality disorder), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, ...
The autism group had significantly more CNVs on or near genes that had previously been associated with the disorder. Further, ... This provides a strong indication that many psychiatric disorders stem share similar neurodevelopmental features. Type 1 ... May 2009). "Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders". Nature. 459 (7246): 528-33. doi: ... as important genetic features in autism. Led by Joseph Glessner, the group examined 859 autism cases and 1,409 healthy children ...
Several psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder, clinical depression, and schizophrenia are characterized by ... and behavioral disorders such as apathy, akinesia and aboulia. Understanding these disorders and the areas of the brain ... Krohn could not understand how she had acquired a foreign accent; it could not be attributed to any known disorder or disease. ... Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic ...
... bipolar disorder, autism, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), borderline ... "Preterm Birth and Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adult Life". Archives of General Psychiatry. 69 (6). doi:10.1001/ ... autism, and bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD), post-traumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders ... Yale study demonstrates that oxytocin increases brain function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD ...
GABAergic interneurons have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy; ... Di Cristo G (July 2007). "Development of cortical GABAergic circuits and its implications for neurodevelopmental disorders". ... it has been subject to studies regarding the causation of these disorders. DLX6-AS2 is the first known long non-coding RNA to ...
Main articles: Autism and Schizophrenia. Pleiotropy in genes has been linked between certain psychiatric disorders as well. ... A 2013 study also genetically linked five psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. The link was a single ... "Pleiotropy of psychiatric disorders will reinvent DSM". www.mdedge.com. Retrieved 2016-11-13.. ... It has been associated with autism, as well as linked in studies to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.[26] These particular ...
EAAT have also been used to treat other disabilities, such as autism, behavioral disorders and psychiatric disorders. Due to a ... EAAT have been used to treat individuals with neurological diseases or disorders such as cerebral palsy, movement disorders, or ... Demonstrating the benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for individuals with psychiatric disability". Psychiatric ... There is not evidence that therapeutic horseback riding is effective in treating children with autism. There is currently ...
"History and development of autism spectrum disorders". Early intervention for autism spectrum disorders: a critical analysis. ... "299.80 Asperger's Disorder". DSM-5 Development. American Psychiatric Association. Arkiveret fra originalen 25. december 2010. ... Witwer AN, Lecavalier L (2008). "Examining the validity of autism spectrum disorder subtypes". J Autism Dev Disord. 38 (9): ... Prior M, Ozonoff S (2007). "Psychological factors in autism". I Volkmar FR. Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (2nd ...
... "contributions to the understanding of the biological basis of psychiatric disorders". Play media Play media Optogenetics ... Indeed, optogenetics papers in 2009 have also provided insight into neural codes relevant to autism, Schizophrenia, drug abuse ... optogenetics-driven research has led to insights into Parkinson's disease and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. ... Dias, B. G.; Banerjee, S. B.; Goodman, J. V.; Ressler, K. J. (2013). "Towards new approaches to disorders of fear and anxiety ...
Autism spectrum disorders are among the most highly heritable psychiatric disorders and display high levels of phenotypic ... Disorders on the Autism spectrum have high levels of genetic heterogeneity and result from multiple genetic pathways including ... autism spectrum disorders, inherited predisposition to breast cancer,and non-syndromic hearing loss. These levels of causation ... Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders. InTech. p. 65. ISBN 978-953-307-495-5. Geschwind, Daniel (October 31, 2008 ...
The authors investigated autism and psychiatric disorders among children, but found little relation to adult schizophrenia or ... the highest award for psychiatric research from the American Psychiatric Association. The study expanded on an earlier one by ... the highest award from the American Psychiatric Association for psychiatric research. Lastly, Gottesman was a professor in the ... He saw it first mentioned by physicians in 1809 and by Balzac in a short story in 1832, showing minimally the disorder had by ...
... to note that no full scale clinical trial has been performed to confirm inositol as a treatment for any psychiatric disorder; ... However, it was found that this treatment was not beneficial in Alzheimer's, ADDH, schizophrenia, and autism. It is important ... Also, because of its role in metabolism, ITP3K is involved in the therapeutic use of inositol when taken for bipolar disorder, ... "Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders- Alternative Medicine". Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Education and Research. Retrieved ...
... he has been expanding his interests to neurological symptoms such as pain and itch and psychiatric disorders, such as autism. ... he has demonstrated that NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is impaired in a mouse model of autism, the ... suggesting the possibility that these drugs could be used for treating patients with autism in the future. Kaang has published ... Scientist in Korea and continues to passionately unravel the mechanisms of learning and memory and related brain disorders. The ...
NGF could also be involved in various psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, depression, schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome ... bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Stress and/or anxiety are usually a precipitating factor in these disorders and ... When bipolar disorder patients were treated with lithium, their NGF concentrations increased in the frontal cortex, limbic ... NGF has been found to be decreased overall in bipolar disorder patients. More specifically, while in a manic state NGF is ...
"Chromosome 15q11-13 abnormalities and other medical conditions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders". Psychiatric ... Non-coding RNAs contribute to diseases including cancers, autism, and Alzheimer's. Nucleic acids were first discovered in 1868 ... Prader-Willi is a developmental disorder associated with over-eating and learning difficulties. SNORD116 has potential target ... "Abnormal behavior in a chromosome-engineered mouse model for human 15q11-13 duplication seen in autism". Cell. 137 (7): 1235-46 ...
Coinfection Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders Superinfection Syndemic Maj, M (2005), "'Psychiatric comorbidity ... On the DSM Axis I, Major Depressive Disorder is a very common comorbid disorder. The Axis II personality disorders are often ... is each additional disorder or disease. The additional disorder may be a behavioral or mental disorder. The term can indicate ... "Comorbidity of fibromyalgia with medical and psychiatric disorders". The American Journal of Medicine. 92 (4): 363-7. doi: ...
It was the autism spectrum disorder. In this category is what was once Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Syndrome, and other ... Asperger's Syndrome was added to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... Asperger syndrome (AS) is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is a relatively new diagnosis in the field of autism. It was ... She said that individuals with Asperger's had a "dash of autism". She was one of the first scientists who recognized autism and ...
In certain neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, the patient has an impaired ability to ... Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder which severely affects social and communicative development, ... A 2007 study found that young children with autism spectrum disorders do not increase their yawning frequency after seeing ... Since atypical development of empathy is reported in autism spectrum disorder, results support the claim that contagious ...
... provides care for people with complex psychiatric disorders, brain injuries, autism, developmental disabilities, and other ... and psychiatric disorders. CORE Health Care comprises four facilities, with a total of 55 beds and approximately 125 employees ...
Watson initiated a major push to scale-up CSHL research on the brain and psychiatric disorders, beginning in the late 1980s. In ... Other research foci: autism genetics; mapping of the mammalian brain; neural correlates of decision making. Plant Biology Plant ... cognition in the normal brain as a baseline for understanding dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. ... April 2007). "Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with autism". Science. 316: 445-9. Bibcode:2007Sci...316.. ...
Previous studies investigated the behavioral patterns of patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, ... experiments involving rewarding but may also be applied in order to describe the psychological behavior of common psychiatric ...
Current psychiatric research into the development of the disorder is often based on a neurodevelopmental model (proponents of ... In February 28, 2013 The Lancet published an article about the possible genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder, ... attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. They analyzed genome- ... Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (2013). "Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five ...
These probiotics showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism ... autism spectrum disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder - and improved certain aspects of memory. However, changes in the ... spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. Because ... including psychiatric disease-associated functions (anxiety, depression, mood, stress response) and memory abilities Musso, G ...
Medical disordersEdit. AutismEdit. Music has played an important role in the research of dealing with autism, mainly in ... Psychiatric disordersEdit. A 2016 meta-analysis on the effects of music therapy in schizophrenic patients showed that the ... American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical. manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). ... Wigram, Tony (2000). "A Method of Music Therapy Assessment for the Diagnosis of Autism and Communication Disorders in Children ...
There is general agreement now amongst researchers that Autism is a biological disorder rather than a psychiatric or ... Autism can be distinguished most easily from other disorders - especially ADHD - when the child is relatively stress-free and ... Of course that has been true for all of the Psychiatric Disorders. Fortunately most of these are now being moved off the ... At 4 years of age she was considered to have Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder and finally received the diagnosis of Autism at 6 ...
Autism 2015 Feb;19(2):133-48. PMID: 24477447.. *American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2008 Apr;38(4):739-47. PMID: ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder broadly defined by impaired social communication as well as ... Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, ...
Other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Autism/autism spectrum disorders (DSM-IV). Autism shares the same DSM criteria ... American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, text revision) (DSM-IV- ... if both autism and Asperger disorder diagnoses can be made, the autism diagnosis takes precedence. Unlike Asperger disorder ( ... Other pervasive developmental disorders (DSM-IV). Neither Rett disorder nor childhood disintegrative disorder are part of the ...
in Asperger syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder? I found some studies on PubMed that might be interesting.Plasma antioxidant ... capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome.Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification ... a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status ... The physiological disruptions in autism spectrum disorders need a lot more attention. The following is a pretty good thread:. A ...
Aspergers Disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders with the umbrella diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. ... Aspergers Disorder was added to the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... When Aspergers and autism were considered separate disorders under the DSM-IV, the symptoms for Aspergers Disorder were the ... Another distinction between Aspergers Disorder and autism concerns cognitive ability. While some individuals with autism have ...
Young people with autism and learning disability receive specific person-centred plans around their future needs and ... along with any psychiatric or psychology services. However they do not currently work with the individual from 16, which can ... for Hertfordshire is the criteria we have in place for service users diagnosed as having an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). ... There are some excellent examples of how well the transition process has worked for people with autism and a learning ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of autism. ... Autism Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Rebecca E. Rosenberg,1 Walter E. ... bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community- ... in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of autism. ... Autism Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... "Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders," Journal of Autism and ... "Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders," Journal of Autism and ... "Psychiatric disorders in individuals with high-functioning autism and Aspergers disorder: similarities and differences," World ...
... providing evidence that disorders such as schizophrenia and autism overlap -- and may share fundamental biological causes. The ... has for the first time discovered a handful of common genetic underpinnings for five distinct psychiatric illnesses, ... study is one step in an ambitious effort that could ultimately redraw or blur the boundary lines between psychiatric illnesses ... Interestingly, autism, a disorder that emerges in childhood, overlapped with both disorders, which typically emerge in ...
... highly heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology. Studies to clearly establish the efficacy of various classes of psychoactive ... Efficacy of methylphenidate among children with autism and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Autism Dev ... Pharmacotherapy for hyperactivity in children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 30(5 ... Thus, autism is an enormously heterogeneous disorder with a wide range of symptom expression across individuals as well as ...
... and treatment of comorbid disorders in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Important insights are provided into the ... download and read Psychiatric Symptoms and Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, ... Psychiatric comorbidities in autism: diagnostic and treatment challenges.- Mood Disorders in ASD.- Anxiety Disorders and ASD.- ... Psychiatric Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorders will be of value to all practitioners who are confronted by patients ...
The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by ... Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders. ... Affective disorders in people with autism: a review of published cases. Journal of Autism Developmental and Disorders, 24, 587- ... The rates of psychiatric disorder in autism are high and are associated with functional impairment. ...
Autism , Studying Childhood-onset Behavioral Psychiatric and Developmental Disorders ... psychiatric and developmental disorders. Disorders of particular interest are: autism, disorders of social cognition and other ... Individuals of any age who have a psychiatric, autism spectrum, or developmental disorder, or other behavioral problems. ... Many psychiatric, behavioral, and developmental disorders are genetic. This means that they tend to run in families. Some begin ...
Diagnostic Aspects of Aspergers Disorder and Related Autism Spectrum Disorders. Aspergers Disorder, the prototypic hfASD, is ... Sverd J: Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders. J Psychiatr Pract 9:111-27, 2003[Medline] ... Depression is the most commonly reported comorbid disorder, but anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD ... Aspergers Disorder and Criminal Behavior: Forensic-Psychiatric Considerations. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 34:3:374-384 (2006). ...
The objective of the study was to systematically examine patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in referred youth with autism s ... pectrum disorders (ASD) including autistic disorder and pervasive develo pm ... Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and ... Sverd, J. (2003). Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, ...
Little is known about suicidal ideation in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), making it difficult to identify those at ... Autism spectrum disorder Suicide Inpatient Suicidal ideation Psychiatric patients Screening Autism Inpatient Collection (AIC) ... Talking About Death or Suicide: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Psychiatric ... Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 164-174. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.03.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ...
Triggers Psychiatric Disorders and Autism, yet Its Strongly Promoted by Most Doctors. Posted by Erin Elizabeth , Mar 7, 2017 ... Anorexia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorder were also associated with influenza vaccination in the past 3, 6 ... If vaccines genuinely cause autism like their opponents claim, one of two things must be true of pediatricians like me who ... that same day in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry found some vaccines increased the risk of certain psychiatric disorders. ...
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Secure hospital, Aspergers syndrome, High secure psychiatric hospital, HSPC, Secure ... A systematic PRISMA review of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in secure psychiatric care : prevalence, treatment, ... A systematic PRISMA review of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in secure psychiatric care : prevalence, treatment, ... Purpose - Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with specific assessment, specific difficulties, needs and ...
... such as anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/ ... such as anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/ ... Thus, more attention should be directed to metabolic-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of psychiatric disorders ... Thus, more attention should be directed to metabolic-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of psychiatric disorders ...
Autism Open Access *Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy *Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior ... Psychiatric Disorder. Psychiatric Disorder is also called a Mental illness. It is a Behavioral or Mental pattern that may cause ... Mental disorders are usually defined by a combination of how a person behaves, feels, perceives, or thinks. This may be ... Some of the Common mental disorders include depression, which affects about 400 million, dementia which affects about 35 ...
... psychiatric and developmental disorders. Disorders of particular interest are: autism, disorders of social cognition and other ... Individuals of any age who have a psychiatric, autism spectrum, or developmental disorder, or other behavioral problems. ... Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood-onset Behavioral Disorders, Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. ... Many psychiatric, behavioral, and developmental disorders are genetic. This means that they tend to run in families. Some begin ...
Gene Expression Overlaps Among Psychiatric Disorders. By Ashley P. Taylor , February 8, 2018 ... "Retired" Mice Find New Life as Top Models for Autism. By Jessica Wright , January 29, 2018 ... After years of obscurity, strains of mice with mutations in particular genes are thrust to the fore of autism research. ...
... joint psychiatric and substance use disorders associated with a worse outcome and disease progression than single psychiatric ... state of the art overview that covers both the diagnosis and the treatment of dual disorders - ... Addiction and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia J. M. (et al.) ... Offers a European perspective on dual disorders (joint psychiatric and substance use disorders) ...
Healthy Living section carried an informative article about the results from a study about genetically linked psychiatric ... ADHD, Autism, Schizophrenia, Other Psychiatric Disorders Genetically Linked In Huge New Study. By Angela Leave a Comment ... Filed Under: News and Information Tagged With: adhd, autism, mental illness, psychiatric disorders ... Living section carried an informative article about the results from a study about genetically linked psychiatric disorders. To ...
... the incidence of psychiatric disorders and nicotine dependence among young smokers are rising. ... Comorbid Considerations Q&A: Treating Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Anxiety, or Autism Alongside ADHD ... Psychiatric Disorders Are on the Rise Among Young Smokers. Young smokers may be more prone to psychiatric disorders, and may be ... But for other psychiatric disorders, like bipolar disorder and ADHD, the association was seen only with smokers who were ...
  • However since I had previously been assessed privately (that is unbeknownst to any of Helen's specialists) as having autism, I had nothing to gain in having it officially declared on her reports and possibly more to lose considering the prevailing attitude to people with autism then and now. (autismuk.com)
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