A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/1694)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Freeze-fracture studies of the developing cell surface. II. Particle-free membrane blisters on glutaraldehyde-fixed corneal fibroblasts are artefacts. (2/1694)

We describe, in sections and by freeze-fracture, four classes of intramembrane particle (IMP)-free membrane blebs or "blisters" associated with glutaraldehyde-fixed embryonic corneal fibroblasts: (a) Single blisters attached to the cell membrane; (b) free (detached) vesicles; (c) myelin figures; (d) multivesicular protrusions which resemble the "mounds" described by others on nerve growth cones. The IMP-free, membrane-bounded blisters contain no ground cytoplasm or organelles, in contrast to blebs on trypsin-isolated fibroblasts, which we show here do contain cytoplasm and IMP-rich membranes. That the IMP-free membrane blisters in embryonic corneas are artefacts of fixation is demonstrated by (a) their absence in replicas of fibroblasts frozen and fractured without prior aldehyde fixation and (b) their absence in sections of fibroblasts fixed in a combination of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. We suggest that the addition of osmium prevents postfixation movement of membrane lipids, especially the negatively charged "fluid" lipids which others have shown are capable of considerable mobility after aldehyde fixation alone. Recent literature has implicated membrane blistering in secretory processes and in growth of nerves, but before the functional significance of such IMP-free blisters is assessed, membrane mobility of the type shown here should be taken into consideration.  (+info)

The small GTPase RalA targets filamin to induce filopodia. (3/1694)

The Ras-related small GTPases Rac, Rho, Cdc42, and RalA bind filamin, an actin filament-crosslinking protein that also links membrane and other intracellular proteins to actin. Of these GTPases only RalA binds filamin in a GTP-specific manner, and GTP-RalA elicits actin-rich filopods on surfaces of Swiss 3T3 cells and recruits filamin into the filopodial cytoskeleton. Either a dominant negative RalA construct or the RalA-binding domain of filamin 1 specifically block Cdc42-induced filopod formation, but a Cdc42 inhibitor does not impair RalA's effects, which, unlike Cdc42, are Rac independent. RalA does not generate filopodia in filamin-deficient human melanoma cells, whereas transfection of filamin 1 restores the functional response. RalA therefore is a downstream intermediate in Cdc42-mediated filopod production and uses filamin in this pathway.  (+info)

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (4/1694)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

The role of local actin instability in axon formation. (5/1694)

The role of localized instability of the actin network in specifying axonal fate was examined with the use of rat hippocampal neurons in culture. During normal neuronal development, actin dynamics and instability polarized to a single growth cone before axon formation. Consistently, global application of actin-depolymerizing drugs and of the Rho-signaling inactivator toxin B to nonpolarized cells produced neurons with multiple axons. Moreover, disruption of the actin network in one individual growth cone induced its neurite to become the axon. Thus, local instability of the actin network restricted to a single growth cone is a physiological signal specifying neuronal polarization.  (+info)

Filopodial adhesion does not predict growth cone steering events in vivo. (6/1694)

Migration of growth cones is in part mediated by adhesive interactions between filopodia and the extracellular environment, transmitting forces and signals necessary for pathfinding. To elucidate the role of substrate adhesivity in growth cone pathfinding, we developed an in vivo assay for measuring filopodial-substrate adhesivity using the well-characterized Ti pioneer neuron pathway of the embryonic grasshopper limb. Using time-lapse imaging and a combination of rhodamine-phalloidin injections and DiI labeling, we demonstrate that the filopodial retraction rate after treatment with cytochalasin D or elastase reflects the degree of filopodial-substrate adhesivity. Measurements of filopodial retraction rates along regions of known differing substrate adhesivities confirmed the use of this assay to examine filopodial-substrate adhesion during in vivo pathfinding events. We analyzed 359 filopodia from 22 Ti growth cones and found that there is no difference between the retraction rates of filopodia extending toward the correct target (on-axis) and filopodia extending away from the correct target (off-axis). These results indicate on-axis and off-axis filopodia have similar substrate adherence. Interestingly, we observed a 300% increase in the extension rates of on-axis filopodia during Ti growth cone turning events. Therefore, in addition to providing filopodia with important guidance information, regional cues are capable of modulating the filopodial extension rate. The homogeneity in filopodial retraction rates, even among these turning growth cones in which differential adhesivity might be expected to be greatest, strongly establishes that differential adhesion does not govern Ti pioneer neuron migration rate or pathfinding. We propose that the presence of local differences in receptor-mediated second messenger cascades and the resulting assembly of force-generating machinery may underlie the ability of filopodial contacts to regulate growth cone steering in vivo.  (+info)

2E4 (kaptin): a novel actin-associated protein from human blood platelets found in lamellipodia and the tips of the stereocilia of the inner ear. (7/1694)

Platelet activation, crucial for hemostasis, requires actin polymerization, yet the molecular mechanisms by which localized actin polymerization is mediated are not clear. Here we report the characterization of a novel actin-binding protein, 2E4, originally isolated from human blood platelets and likely to be involved in the actin rearrangements occurring during activation. 2E4 binds to filamentous (F)-actin by F-actin affinity chromatography and is eluted from F-actin affinity columns and extracted from cells with ATP. Its presence at the leading edge of platelets spread on glass and in the lamellipodia of motile fibroblasts suggests a role in actin dynamics. Using localization to obtain clues about function, we stained the sensory epithelium of the embryonic inner ear to determine whether 2E4 is at the barbed end of actin filaments during their elongation. Indeed, 2E4 was present at the tips of the elongating stereocilium. 2E4 is novel by DNA sequence and has no identifiable structural motifs. Its unusual amino acid sequence, its ATP-sensitive actin association and its location at sites of actin polymerization in cells suggest 2E4 plays a unique role in the actin rearrangements that accompany platelet activation and stereocilia formation.  (+info)

Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 or WASP to a cell-surface receptor triggers actin polymerization and filopodium formation. (8/1694)

BACKGROUND: Cdc42, a GTP-binding protein of the Rho family, controls actin cytoskeletal organization and helps to generate actin-based protruding structures, such as filopodia. In vitro, Cdc42 regulates actin polymerization by facilitating the creation of free barbed ends - the more rapidly growing ends of actin filaments - and subsequent elongation at these ends. The Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, which has a pleckstrin-homology domain and a Cdc42/Rac-binding motif, has been implicated in cell signaling and cytoskeleton reorganization. We have investigated the consequences of local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or WASP to the plasma membrane. RESULTS: We used an activated Cdc42 protein that could be recruited to an engineered membrane receptor by adding rapamycin as a bridge, and added antibody-coupled beads to aggregate these receptors. Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 to clusters of receptors stimulated actin polymerization, resulting in the formation of membrane protrusions. Cdc42-induced protrusions were enriched in the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein VASP and the focal-adhesion-associated proteins zyxin and ezrin. The Cdc42 effector WASP could also induce the formation of protrusions, albeit of different morphology. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that the local recruitment of activated Cdc42 or its downstream effector, WASP, to a membrane receptor in whole cells is sufficient to trigger actin polymerization that results in the formation of membrane protrusions. Our data suggest that Cdc42-induced actin-based protrusions result from the local and serial recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins including zyxin, VASP, and ezrin.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - An actin-based protrusion originating from a podosome-enriched region initiates macrophage fusion. AU - Faust, James J.. AU - Balabiyev, Arnat. AU - Heddleston, John M.. AU - Podolnikova, Nataly P.. AU - Baluch, D. Page. AU - Chew, Teng Leong. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana P.. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Macrophage fusion resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells occurs in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, yet the mechanism responsible for initiating this process is unknown. Here, we used live cell imaging to show that actin-based protrusions at the leading edge initiate macrophage fusion. Phase-contrast video microscopy demonstrated that in the majority of events, short protrusions (∼3 µm) between two closely apposed cells initiated fusion, but occasionally we observed long protrusions (∼12 µm). Using macrophages isolated from LifeAct mice and imaging with lattice light sheet microscopy, we further found that fusion-competent protrusions formed at ...
The major observation of this study is that Myo10 is critically important in a filopodial sensor mechanism that mediates BMP6-guided endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Specifically, BMP6 potently induces Myo10 expression, and Myo10, in turn, is required for filopodial formation, cell alignment, directed migration, and tube formation induced by BMP6. Additionally, Myo10 associates with the BMP6 receptor ALK6 and modulates BMP6-dependent endothelial activation by regulating the phosphorylation of Smads, the direct downstream transcriptional targets of the BMP receptors. These experiments extend the previous observation that Myo10 induces nondirectional filopodial formation (Bohil et al., 2006) and indicate that Myo10 serves as a critical integration node in growth factor signaling to facilitate directional probing of the local cellular environment as well as further amplification of growth factor signaling that is relevant to the pathophysiologically critical process of ...
SrGAP3/MEGAP is a member of the Slit-Robo GAP (srGAP) family and is implicated in repulsive axon guidance and neuronal migration through Slit-Robo-mediated signal transduction. Here we describe an inhibitory role of srGAP3 on actin dynamics, specifically on lamellipodia formation. We show that the F-BAR domain localizes srGAP3 to the leading edge of cellular protrusions whereas the SH3 domain is important for focal adhesion targeting. We report on a novel srGAP3 interaction partner, lamellipodin, which localizes with srGAP3 at the leading edge. Live-cell analyses revealed that srGAP3 influences lamellipodin-evoked lamellipodial dynamics. Furthermore, we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from homozygous srGAP3-knockout embryos display an increased cell area and lamellipodia formation that can be blocked by shRNA-mediated knockdown of lamellipodin.. ...
Detergents and solvents intercalate into a membrane bilayer, alter the membranes stable composition, expand the membrane area and, consequently, decrease membrane tension. A similar approach to expand the membrane area and decrease membrane tension involves the use of fluorescent lipid analogues. Fluorescent lipid analogues can be readily integrated into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer of intact cells by spontaneous monomeric lipid transfer. Thus, to further test whether the lamellipodial extension rate is dependent on membrane tension, we have also used fluorescent lipid analogues to expand the membrane area and decrease the membrane tension. When NIH 3T3 fibroblasts are incubated with 5 mM of a Bodipy-labeled sphingomyelin analogue, C5-DMB-SM, and washed, a continuous plasma membrane fluorescence was observed (Fig. 4 a). A similar plasma membrane staining pattern was observed after cells were incubated with an FITC-phosphatidylethanolamine analogue, FITC-PL (Fig. 4 b), or a ...
End capping of cytoskeletal filaments is a key mechanism for regulating filaments elongation and disassembly, as well as the organization of the cytoskeletal architecture. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments to inhibit further elongation and is involved in the formation of branched actin networks in concert with Arp2/3 (Akin and Mullins, 2008). Here, we show that CP plays an essential role in the formation of dendritic spines. In particular, CP knockdown promoted the formation of thin filopodia-like protrusions and inhibited proper spine development. Dendritic spines initiate as filopodia-like protrusions from dendritic shafts, and then convert to mature spine structure with an expanded head (Ziv and Smith, 1996; Yoshihara et al., 2009; Hotulainen and Hoogenraad, 2010). Our data thus suggest that CP may function in the transition of filopodia to spines. CP is known to function in the formation of branched actin networks in lamellipodia in non-neuronal cells, and CP knockdown promotes ...
Intracellular membrane traffic is an essential component of the membrane remodeling that supports lamellipodium extension during cell adhesion. The membrane trafficking pathways that contribute to cell adhesion have not been fully elucidated, but recent studies have implicated SNARE proteins. Here, the functions of several SNAREs (SNAP23, VAMP3, VAMP4 and syntaxin13) are characterized during the processes of cell spreading and membrane ruffling. We report the first description of a SNARE complex, containing SNAP23, syntaxin13 and cellubrevin/VAMP3, that is induced by cell adhesion to an extracellular matrix. Impairing the function of the SNAREs in the complex using inhibitory SNARE domains disrupted the recycling endosome, impeded delivery of integrins to the cell surface, and reduced haptotactic cell migration and spreading. Blocking SNAP23 also inhibited the formation of PMA-stimulated, F-actin-rich membrane ruffles; however, membrane ruffle formation was not significantly altered by inhibition of
Filopodia are finger-like protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells that play a crucial antennal function during cell motility. It is known that actin filaments are bundled hexagonally and provide rigidity to filopodia by virtue of fascin, which plays a central role in actin filament bundli …
The major finding of the present study was that MIES-mediated spinogenesis in the ARH was necessary for the induction of sexual receptivity. Using a well established cyclical administration of estradiol, once every 4 d to mimic changing estradiol levels during the estrous cycle, we observed that estradiol induced new spines every cycle, which is necessary for estradiol induction of lordosis behavior. The initial action of estradiol was to increase the percentage of spines with filopodial morphology. With increasing time after estradiol priming, the percentage of filopodial spines decreased and mushroom shaped spines increased. This shift in morphology suggested that a population of immature filopodial spines matured to mushroom shapes. This is the natural development of spines, which begin as a filopodial extension of a dendrite. If a synaptic partner is found, receptors will be recruited into the spine membrane as well as scaffold proteins that anchor these receptors at the postsynaptic ...
To obtain insight into the actual mechanism of filopodia initiation, we next analyzed the kinetics of proteins enriched in filopodia, i.e., fascin and VASP. In GFP-fascin-expressing cells, a majority of nascent filopodia (66%, n = 207) first appeared as a bright dot or short rod on a dark background (Fig. 3, B and C). In other cases (34%), a bright dot of GFP-fascin rather suddenly appeared at the tip of a very faint Λ-shaped density in lamellipodia (Fig. 3 C, inset in 16 s frame). Both kinds of nascent fascin dots subsequently elongated to form a filopodium. Fusion of mature fascin-containing filopodia was also frequently seen (Fig. 3 C). Because fascin is present in lamellipodia, albeit at much lower concentration than in filopodia, the faint Λ-shaped fascin densities might correspond to Λ-precursors, suggesting that in the course of filopodia initiation, fascin initially appears at the tips of the Λ-precursors (see next section). In GFP-VASP sequences, we followed the formation of ...
Ena/VASP proteins are actin-associated proteins involved in a range of processes dependent on cytoskeleton remodeling and cell polarity such as axon guidance and lamellipodial and filopodial dynamics in migrating cells. EVL enhances actin nucleation and polymerization.
Using the knowledge gained through the study of Ena/VASP proteins in neuronal migration, the Gertler lab has identified domains within Ena/VASP, called EVH1 and EVH2, important for regulating cell motility. EVH1 is important for binding of proteins containing a specific prolinerich motif and EVH2 is the actin-binding domain. Interaction with the EVH1 domain allows for intracellular targeting of Ena/VASPproteins to receptor/signaling complexes. In their search of the proteome for these domains, the Gertler lab has identified new members of the signal network including lammellipodin (Lpd) that localizes to the leading edge of the cell membrane. In collaboration with the Yaffe lab, the Gertler lab demonstarted that a PH domain within Lpd binds to PI(3,4)P2, a phosphoinisotide produced in response to chemotactic stimulation. In addition, overabundance of Lpd increases the velocity of lamellipodia protrusion. The loss-offunction phenotype observed with Lpd is more severe than the loss of any one of ...
The use of fluorescent probes is one of the most powerful techniques for gaining spatial and temporal knowledge of dynamic events within living cells. Localized increases in the signal from cytosolic fl uo rescent protein constructs, for example, are frequently used as evidence for translocation of proteins to specifi c sites within the cell. However, differences in optical and geometrical properties of cytoplasm can infl uence the recorded intensity of the probe signal. Pseudopodia are especially problematic because their cytoplasmic properties can cause abrupt increases in fl uorescent signal of both GFP and fl uorescein. Investigators should therefore be cautious when interpreting fl uorescence changes within a cell, as these can result from either translocation of the probe or changes in the optical properties of the milieu surrounding the probe.. ...
Serglycin (SRGN), a hematopoietic cell granule proteoglycan, has recently been shown to be overexpressed in several aggressive cancer types. In nasopharyngeal and hepatocellular carcinomas, elevated expression of SRGN was shown to correlate with poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SRGN-mediated malignancies remain to be explored. In this study, we showed that SRGN is expressed at elevated levels in several lung cancer-derived cell lines. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we showed that SRGN promoted NSCLC cell migration. SRGN modulated actin cytoskeleton reorganization and promoted lamellipodia and filopodia formation at the leading edge, facilitating a directional movement during wound closure in NSCLC cells. In consistence, increased levels of activated Rac1, which is required for lamellipodia formation, and CDC42, which is required for filopodia formation, were detected. Increased focal adhesion (FA) turnover, the process of continuous assembly and ...
What is the molecular basis of cell matching? The data above are consistent with matching being based on just two sets of molecular interactions, one allowing A compartment cells to recognise one another and the other performing the same function for P compartment cells. An obvious possibility is that the molecules that mediate cell matching during DC are the same as those that maintain the integrity of these compartments throughout the epithelium. Alternatively, there could be a different set of recognition molecules present exclusively at the leading edge to mediate cell-cell matching. Filopodia are also observed during the healing of wounds in the ventral epithelium and we reasoned that these wound filopodia should exhibit matching behaviour if the molecules that mediate matching are present throughout the epithelium (Wood et al., 2002). Laser wounds were made to the ventral epithelium across en stripes such that the wound edge consisted of both en-RFP-Moesin and ptc-GFP-Moesin cells. On ...
Improved visualization of actin filament branching in lamellipodia. EM of keratocyte or fibroblast lamellipodial actin network after cytochalasin D tr...
The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Buy Lamellipodial Growth Promoter (CAS 870086-86-5), a cell-permeable fast acting, selective lamellipodial growth promoter. Join researchers using high quality…
Sciences STKE explores the molecular mechanisms that allow cells to navigate and migrate in a particular direction. New models for forming cellular extensions called filopodia that initiate migration, along with methods for analysis of the proteomic differences between the cell body and cellular protrusions (pseudopodia), are highlighted. The processes by which groups of cells, as well as individual cells, navigate in a particular direction are also featured.. ...
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An attractive rhizopod with long raylike pseudopodia. This culture contains sufficient material for a class of 30 students. To simplify ordering we provide our protozoan and algae …
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Filopodial dynamics are thought to control growth cone guidance, but the types and roles of growth cone dynamics underlying neural circuit assembly in a living brain are largely unknown. To address this issue, we have developed long-term, continuous, fast and high-resolution imaging of growth cone dynamics from axon growth to synapse formation in cultured Drosophila brains. Using R7 photoreceptor neurons as a model we show that >90% of the growth cone filopodia exhibit fast, stochastic dynamics that persist despite ongoing stepwise layer formation. Correspondingly, R7 growth cones stabilize early and change their final position by passive dislocation. N-Cadherin controls both fast filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization. Surprisingly, loss of N-Cadherin causes no primary targeting defects, but destabilizes R7 growth cones to jump between correct and incorrect layers. Hence, growth cone dynamics can influence wiring specificity without a direct role in target recognition and implement ...
The endocytic protein dynamin participates in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions such as podosomes, pseudopodia, and invadopodia, which facilitate cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of dynamin in the formation of actin-based membrane protrusions at the leading edge of cancer cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed dynamin 2 isoform facilitates cell migration by stabilizing F-actin bundles in filopodia of the lung cancer cell line H1299. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin 2 decreased cell migration and filopodial formation. Furthermore, dynamin 2 and cortactin mostly colocalized along F-actin bundles in filopodia of serum-stimulated H1299 cells by immunofluorescent and immunoelectron microscopy. Knockdown of dynamin 2 or cortactin inhibited the formation of filopodia in serum-stimulated H1299 cells, concomitant with a loss of F-actin bundles. Expression of wild-type cortactin rescued the punctate-like ...
The second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays a pivotal role in axonal growth and guidance, but its downstream mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein. These findings demonstrate that the spatial localization of type II PKA to growth cone filopodia plays an important role in the regulation of growth cone motility and ...
Filopodia are active tubular structures protruding from the cell surface which allow the cell to sense and interact with the surrounding environment through repetitive elongation-retraction cycles. The mechanical behavior of filopodia has been studied by measuring the traction forces exerted on external substrates.(1) These studies have revealed that internal actin flow can transduce a force across the cell surface through transmembrane linkers like integrins. In addition to the elongation-retraction behavior filopodia also exhibit a buckling and rotational behavior. Filopodial buckling in conjunction with rotation enables the cell to explore a much larger 3-dimensional space and allows for more complex, and possibly stronger, interactions with the external environment.(2) Here we focus on how bending of the filopodial actin dynamically correlates with pulling on an optically trapped microsphere which acts like an external substrate attached to the filopodial tip. There is a clear correlation ...
Not all lamellipodia are created equal: some contain a highly branched actin network, protrude slowly, and are persistent, whereas those with longer, less branched actin filaments are more dynamic. But behind every lamellipodium lies polymerized actin, actin-binding proteins and their regulators, and a protein called lamellipodin (Lpd), and Law et al. now provide new insight into how Lpd controls lamellipodium formation and cell migration.. The Scar/WAVE complex recruits the Arp2/3 complex to the leading edge to regulate actin branching, whereas filament elongation is mediated by Lpd engaging Ena/VASP. But the absence of Ena/VASP has a much less profound effect on lamellipodia than does depleting Lpd, which severely impairs lamellipodia formation, implying that Lpd might regulate additional actin cytoskeleton effectors. Law et al. postulated that the Scar/WAVE complex could be one such candidate, and set about testing their hypothesis.. After showing that Lpd colocalized with the Scar/WAVE ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
After trauma, regeneration of adult CNS axons is abortive, causing devastating neurologic deficits. Despite progress in rehabilitative care, there is no effective treatment that stimulates axonal growth following injury. Using models with different regenerative capacities, followed by gain- and loss-of-function analysis, we identified profilin 1 (Pfn1) as a coordinator of actin and microtubules (MTs), powering axonal growth and regeneration. In growth cones, Pfn1 increased actin retrograde flow, MT growth speed, and invasion of filopodia by MTs, orchestrating cytoskeletal dynamics toward axonal growth. In vitro, active Pfn1 promoted MT growth in a formin-dependent manner, whereas localization of MTs to growth cone filopodia was facilitated by direct MT binding and interaction with formins. In vivo, Pfn1 ablation limited regeneration of growth-competent axons after sciatic nerve and spinal cord injury. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery of constitutively active Pfn1 to rodents promoted axonal ...
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a cell-contact mediated mechanism for transmitting polarity information between neighboring cells. PCP core components (Vangl, Fz, Pk, Dsh, and Celsr) are essential for a number of cell migratory events including the posterior migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the plane of the hindbrain neuroepithelium in zebrafish and mice. While the mechanism by which PCP signaling polarizes static epithelial cells is well understood, how PCP signaling controls highly dynamic processes like neuronal migration remains an important outstanding question given that PCP components have been implicated in a range of directed cell movements, particularly during vertebrate development. Here, by systematically disrupting PCP signaling in a rhombomere-restricted manner we show that PCP signaling is required both within FBMNs and the hindbrain rhombomere 4 environment at the time when they initiate their migration. Correspondingly, we demonstrate planar ...
Actin polymerization-driven protrusion of the leading edge is a key element of cell motility. The important actin nucleators formins and the Arp2/3 complex are believed to have nonoverlapping functions in inducing actin filament bundles in filopodia and dendritic networks in lamellipodia, respective …
The reggie protein family consists of two proteins, reggie-1 and -2, also called flotillins, which are highly ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved. Both reggies have been shown to be associated with membrane rafts and are involved in various cellular processes such as T-cell activation, phagocytosis and insulin signalling. However, the exact molecular function of these proteins remains to be determined. In addition, the mechanism of membrane association of reggie-1, which does not contain any transmembrane domain, is not known. In this study, we have produced a fusion protein of reggie-1 with enhanced green fluorescent protein and generated targeted substitutions for the inactivation of putative palmitoylation and myristoylation sites. We were able to show that reggie-1 is myristoylated and multiply palmitoylated and that lipid modifications are necessary for membrane association of reggie-1. Overexpression of reggie-1 resulted in the induction of numerous filopodia-like protrusions in ...
RESULTS Glucose stimulation of β-cells in monolayer significantly increased phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin as well as cell surface area. This coincided with the appearance at the basal membrane of numerous shorter actin filopodial extensions, containing not only phosphorylated paxillin, FAK, and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 but also two SNARE proteins, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine-25 and syntaxin 1, indicating involvement in exocytosis. SR7037 completely inhibited this sequence of events, indicating the requirement of increased cytosolic Ca2+. Furthermore, knockdown of paxillin significantly decreased GSIS, as did inhibition of glucose-induced FAK phosphorylation by compound Y15. Key findings were confirmed in β-cells within the natural setting of islets. ...
Our results provide important insight into the activity of the delta cell in health and pre-diabetes and a possible mechanism for how somatostatin so effectively can exert its potent suppressive effects within the islet of Langerhans, comments senior study-author Professor Per-Olof Berggren of the Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, who is also a visiting professor at Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore.. Most delta cells are elongated and have a well-defined cell soma and a filopodia-like structure. Using in vivo optogenetics and high-speed Ca2+ imaging, Per-Olof Berggren and his colleagues show that these filopodia are dynamic structures that contain a secretory machinery, enabling the delta cell to reach large numbers of beta cells within the islet.. This provides for efficient regulation of beta cell activity and is modulated by endogenous IGF-1/VEGF-A signaling. In pre-diabetes, delta cells undergo morphological changes that ...
Prerequisites for all modes of cell migration are cell-substratum interactions that require a sophisticated interplay of membrane dynamics and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Generally, a migrating cell is polarized with a distinct rear and front, from which it extends a wide and thin membrane protrusion- lamellipodium, small fingerlike projections- filopodia, and membrane blisters- blebs. The development of these structures is primarily driven by cytoskeletal contractions and actin polymerization, which are under regulation of several actin-binding proteins and the small GTPases Cdc42, Rac and Rho. Lamellipodia and filopodia are assumed to arise from polymerizing actin, pushing the membrane forward through a Brownian-ratchet mechanism. However, other models based on shifts in the local hydrostatic pressure have also been suggested since blebs are initially void of actin. Recently, fluxes of water through membrane-anchored water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), have been implicated in cell motility, ...
Cytoskeletal motor proteins generate mechanical forces, which drive numerous cellular processes that are essential for life.  Research in our laboratory is focused on elucidating the function of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated myosin motor proteins.  The context for our studies is the ‘brush border’: an array of actin-based protrusions known as microvilli, which extend from the surface of polarized epithelial cells.  In the gut, the brush border serves as the sole site of nutrient absorption and a barrier to micro-organisms that reside in the lumenal space.  Using an approach that combines biophysics, biochemistry, and cell biology, we are currently studying mechanisms that control microvillar dynamics, morphology, and function. We have also begun to dissect the mechanism of microvillar assembly, which was jump started by our recent elucidation of the entire brush border proteome.  A broad long-term goal is to develop our understanding of molecules and
Cytoskeletal motor proteins generate mechanical forces, which drive numerous cellular processes that are essential for life.  Research in the Tyska laboratory is focused on elucidating the function of the actin cytoskeleton and its associated myosin motor proteins.  The context for our studies is the ‘brush border’: an array of actin-based protrusions known as microvilli, which extend from the surface of polarized epithelial cells.  In the gut, the brush border serves as the sole site of nutrient absorption and a barrier to micro-organisms that reside in the lumenal space.  Using an approach that combines biophysics, biochemistry, and cell biology, we are currently studying mechanisms that control microvillar dynamics, morphology, and function. We have also begun to dissect the mechanism of microvillar assembly, which was jumpstarted by our recent elucidation of the entire brush border proteome.  A broad long-term goal is to develop our understanding of molecules and
The extracellular cue signal must be relayed to the cell by Rho family of GTPases, like in the case of filopodia and lammelipodia. This causes local actin polymerization leading to extension of pseudopodium. For a casual reference you can check the wikipedia page on Rho family of GTPases. Cell biology books like MBOTC also have information on mechanism of cytoskeletal dynamics. ...
Electron micrograph of keratocyte or fibroblast lamellipodial actin network after unprotected extraction. All examples demonstrate frequent branching...
The main function of the algorithm is to distribute nascent FAs and determine which of these (and their associated actin filaments) should be selected for maturation/reinforcement. The algorithm currently considers three mechanisms for FA maturation: (i) lamellipodia retraction occurs that would otherwise leave a nascent adhesion outside the cell body (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003), (ii) membrane tension spanning two FAs exceeds a certain force threshold (Balaban et al. 2001; Bischofs et al. 2009), and (iii) the cell leading edge advances until it encompasses a nascent FA at the protruding tip of an existing filopodium (Schäfer et al. 2009).. FA maturation induced by lamellipodial retraction has been described as a force independent process (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003). While experimentally well characterized, it is to date not well understood. In contrast, the separate mechanism of tension induced adhesion maturation is clearly force regulated, inherently involving actin SFs that are recruited to the ...
Axonal growth and pathfinding is fundamental to the development and regeneration of the nervous system. Src tyrosine kinase has been implicated in this process; however, the detailed molecula
This protein is associated with nerve growth. It is a major component of the motile growth cones that form the tips of elongating axons. Plays a role in axonal and dendritic filopodia induction ...
00) have been made use of. Secondary antibodies conjugated with Alexa 488, Alexa 568, Alexa 647 and Phalloidin conjugated with Alexa 647 had been from Molecular
One of us predicted previously that the cytoplasmic conclude of CHL1 protein may interact with the cytoskeleton and might induce/control filopodia formation driving tumor cell migration and invasion. CHL1 behavior in CYT387 cancer is as a result strikingly equivalent to L1 and LOX which both perform by way of the actin network. This examine suggested that CHL1 may possibly add to cancer invasive growth and metastasis. It might act possibly as a tumorsuppressor or oncogene. CHL1 consequently could belong to the new rapidly developing category of most cancers genes that could operate possibly as TSGs or oncogenes. For the duration of initial progress CHL1 is not expressed in tumor cells to aid in situ tumor expansion. Re-expression of CHL1 on the edge of the tumor mass and all around tumor vessels could encourage migration and nearby invasive expansion and furthermore enable initiating the metastatic approach. As a result, our final results along with the results that CHL1 was a mutated applicant ...
May help orchestrate cytoskeletal arrangement. Contribute to lamellipodia formation. Overexpression of pleckstrin 2 causes large lamellipodia and peripheral ruffle formation.
A. Growth cone motility and neurite branch formation are activated (+) by Rac1 and Cdc42 and negatively regulated (-) by RhoA. Reelin participates in the regulation of growth cone motility and branching by regulating Rho GTPase activity (B). Filopodia formation and the formation of neuronal transport vesicles, both known to be mediated by Cdc42, are triggered by Reelin. B. Binding of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin to its transmembrane receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr triggers Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-family-kinases (SFK). This leads to the activation of several downstream signals, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Cdc42 via an unknown intermediate effector. There is evidence that Reelin also might locally activate Rac1. N-WASP and WAVE link Cdc42 and Rac1 activity to changes of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to increased growth cone motility, filopodia and vesicle formation, and dendritic branching (A). Cdc42 and Rac1 also contribute to activation of ...
Prerequisites for all modes of cell migration are cell-substratum interactions that require a sophisticated interplay of membrane dynamics and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Generally, a migrating cell is polarized with a distinct rear and front, from which it extends a wide and thin membrane protrusion- lamellipodium, small fingerlike projections- filopodia, and membrane blisters- blebs. The development of these structures is primarily driven by cytoskeletal contractions and actin polymerization, which are under regulation of several actin-binding proteins and the small GTPases Cdc42, Rac and Rho. Lamellipodia and filopodia are assumed to arise from polymerizing actin, pushing the membrane forward through a Brownian-ratchet mechanism. However, other models based on shifts in the local hydrostatic pressure have also been suggested since blebs are initially void of actin. Recently, fluxes of water through membrane-anchored water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), have been implicated in cell motility, ...
GbpD, a Dictyostelium discoideum guanine exchange factor specific for Rap1, has been implicated in adhesion, cell polarity, and chemotaxis. Cells overexpressing GbpD are flat, exhibit strongly increased cell-substrate attachment, and extend many bifurcated and lateral pseudopodia. Phg2, a serine/threonine-specific kinase, mediates Rap1-regulated cell-substrate adhesion, but not cell polarity or chemotaxis. In this study we demonstrate that overexpression of GbpD in pi3k1/2-null cells does not induce the adhesion and cell morphology phenotype. Furthermore we show that Rap1 directly binds to the Ras binding domain of PI3K, and overexpression of GbpD leads to strongly enhanced PIP3 levels. Consistently, upon overexpression of the PIP3-degradating enzyme PTEN in GbpD-overexpressing cells, the strong adhesion and cell morphology phenotype is largely lost. These results indicate that a GbpD/Rap/PI3K pathway helps control pseudopod formation and cell polarity. As in Rap-regulated pseudopod formation in ...
Cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) is a conserved protein that is found up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By using zebrafish, combined with HCC cell lines, we further investigated the role of CAP2. The zebrafish CAP2 sequence was 60% identical to human CAP2 with 77% homology in the C-terminal actin-binding domain, and 58% in the N-terminal cyclase-binding domain. CAP2 expression was observed during zebrafish development and was preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle and heart. Knockdown using two different morpholinos against CAP2 resulted in a short-body morphant zebrafish phenotype with pericardial edema. CAP2 was observed co-localized with actin in zebrafish skeletal muscle, and in the leading edge of lamellipodium in HCC cell lines. CAP2 silencing resulted in a defect in lamellipodium formation and decreased cell motility in HCC cell lines. Strongly positive expression of CAP2 was observed in 10 of 16 (63%) poorly, 30 of 68 (44%) moderately, and 2 of 21 (10%) well ...
View Notes - Protists from BSC BSC1005 at Broward College. • locomotor organelles - provides movt o mainly through flagella (single or cilia) or pseudopodial (false foot) movt o lobopodia -
The main function of the algorithm is to distribute nascent FAs and determine which of these (and their associated actin filaments) should be selected for maturation/reinforcement. The algorithm currently considers three mechanisms for FA maturation: (i) lamellipodia retraction occurs that would otherwise leave a nascent adhesion outside the cell body (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003), (ii) membrane tension spanning two FAs exceeds a certain force threshold (Balaban et al. 2001; Bischofs et al. 2009), and (iii) the cell leading edge advances until it encompasses a nascent FA at the protruding tip of an existing filopodium (Schäfer et al. 2009).. FA maturation induced by lamellipodial retraction has been described as a force independent process (Zaidel-Bar et al. 2003). While experimentally well characterized, it is to date not well understood. In contrast, the separate mechanism of tension induced adhesion maturation is clearly force regulated, inherently involving actin SFs that are recruited to the ...
Amoeboid motion: In the event of amoeboid movement, pseudopodia are included rather then cilia or flagella. In such cases, two cytoskeletal proteins termed actin and myosin receives polymerized. This generates vacancy and thats why cytoplasmic substance stream to address the vacancy that is established as a result of polymerization reaction. When amoeba moves, cytoplasm moves to the arm like extension referred to as pseudopodium ...
Rear-polarized Wnt5a-receptor-actin-myosin-polarity (WRAMP) structures promote the speed and persistence of directional cell migration Journal Article ...
Cells are able to develop various types of membrane protrusions that modulate their adhesive, migratory, or functional properties. However, their ability to form basal protrusions, particularly in the context of epithelial sheets, is not widely characterized. The authors built hexagonal lattices to probe systematically the microtopography-induced formation of epithelial cell protrusions. Lattices of hexagons of various sizes (from 1.5 to 19 μm) and 5-10 μm height were generated by two-photon photopolymerization in NOA61 or poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate derivatives. The authors found that cells generated numerous, extensive, and deep basal protrusions for hexagons inferior to cell size (3-10 μm) while maintaining a continuous epithelial layer above structures. They characterized the kinetics of protrusion formation depending on scaffold geometry and size. The reported formation of extensive protrusions in 3D microtopography could be beneficial to develop new biomaterials with increased ...
The mammalian verprolin, WIRE induces filopodia independent of N-WASP through IRSp53. Exp Cell Res. 2010 Oct 15; 316(17):2810-24 ...
Our research is aimed at understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell migration, and how defects in cell migration contribute to human disease. We use both in vitro approaches including cell culture systems and human studies, and in vivo studies using zebrafish as a genetic model system.. Cell migration plays a central role in many different disease processes including cancer, heart disease, asthma and arthritis. Insight into the mechanisms that regulate cell migration will contribute to our understanding of basic cellular processes, but may also aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches for a wide variety of medical conditions. Despite extensive interest in the receptors and mechanisms that regulate cell migration, many fundamental questions remain unanswered. What are the mechanisms by which a cell initiates and then subsequently stops directional cell migration and how is this altered in disease? How are signaling events coordinated both temporally and ...
On the walk home, Nightlee is full on crying so that every damn person in town stares at me and thinks about what a terrible mother I am. I stick my knuckle in her mouth again, but when she sucks and comes up dry, she screams even louder.. As I pass Dells, theres a crash that sounds like train-on-train action from the lot behind the store. The old guys hit the deck and people come trotting out of every building on Main. Nightlee is startled into silence by the kind of booming vibration that you feel in your heart.. What the hell was that? asks Mama Tracey, picking herself up off the ground.. Im guessing people are just pretending they dont know, because weve all heard that noise before. Its the sound of one of the rocks smashing into a house.. I come around Dells and take a minute to figure out where the trailer used to be, because I can only see the basalt, standing on its small end like a skyscraper.. Its nestled in the new guys place. He was passing through last year and found our ...
Your students will enjoy learning about amoeba with this colorful model. The model covers all the main parts of these cells: contractile vacuole, pseudopodia, cell membrane, food vesicle, nucleus, chromosomes, mitochondria, rough ER and Golgi ...
On the other hand, the correlative functions, so long as they are exerted by a simple undifferentiated morphological unit or cell, are of the simplest character, consisting of those modifications of position which can be effected by mere changes in the form or arrangement of the parts of the protoplasm, or of those prolongations of the protoplasm which are called pseudopodia or cilia. But, in the higher animals and plants, the movements of the organism and of its parts are brought about by the change of the form of certain tissues, the property of which is to shorten in one direction when exposed to certain stimuli. Such tissues are termed contractile; and, in their most fully developed condition, muscular. The stimulus by which this contraction is naturally brought about is a molecular change, either in the substance of the contractile tissue itself, or in some other parts of the body; in which latter case, the motion which is set up in that part of the body must be propagated to the ...
What makes this drawing good. Accuracy; it actually looks like the specimen. Anyone can recognize it. all major parts of the organism are clearly and ccurately portrayed. The major parts of the cell are clearly labeled. Notice that not all of the detail is shown. The finer details are filled in in only part of the drawing. This is OK. There is enough to give the viewer a good idea of the appearance of the cell. As this was an observation on a living specimen, it is important that patterns of movement are noted. This could have been done a bit more clearly, for example, indicating the pattern of cytoplasm out of the uroid portion of the cell, as well as the patern of flow in the oldest of the pseudopodia. Notice the use of lables and marginal notes. These are important.. Why was the mark on this drawing 8.5 and not higher? The contractile vacuole was plainly visible in these specimens and was missed. It is usually located in the region between the nucleus and the uroid. As mentioned bove, the ...
Genus Discamoeba Jahn, Bovee & Griffith, 1979. Diagnosis: Length and width of locomotive form similar. Clear zone extends around the endoplasmic mass. No posterior uroid. Cytoplasm contains a spherical nucleus and frequently a contractile vacuole and crystals. Floating form without radiating pseudopodia ...
Providing Wage Parity benefits to your employees is a complex process.. Leading Edge manages one of the largest and most sought after Wage Parity Programs in New York State. Our experience and efficiency set us apart by giving our clients a distinct advantage in the marketplace. Among the many attributes of Leading Edge offerings is our dedicated multilingual member services team which includes availability of all materials and resources in a wide variety of languages.. ...
A white leading edge is placed on transparent carriers for copiers to prevent a dark leading edge which tends to create copy sheet paper wraps.
The species in this genus range in size from 30 to 50 µm in length, can grow broad pseudopodia, and have four flagella and a ... Both the flagella and the pseudopodia appear sensitive to food stimulus ... Rhodes, Robert Clinton (29 October 1917). Binary ... Both the flagella and the pseudopodia appear sensitive to food stimulus ... - Robert Clinton Rhodes, 1917 Dag Klaveness ... these pseudopodia ... function actively whenever the organism is seeking food. At these times when coming in contact with ...
They move by pseudopodia. Similarly to some of the white blood cells of vertebrates, in many species amebocytes are found in ... In tunicates they are blood cells and use pseudopodia to attack pathogens that enter the blood, transport nutrients, get rid of ...
He has served as a narrator on the Pseudopod podcast, reading the Thomas Ligotti story "The Town Manager." Andreeva, Nellie ( ... PseudoPod. Retrieved 16 May 2020. "The Evil Within Voice Cast Announced by Bethesda in New Video, Includes Familiar Hollywood ... url= https://www.imdb.com/name/nm1322718/ ,title=Branan Edgens IMDB Studios, Clockpunk (3 August 2018). "PseudoPod 605: The ...
Actin filaments and pseudopodia form. During migration, integrins on the pseudopod attach to the ECM, and the actin filaments ... Stem cells of endothelial cells, originating from parts of uninjured blood vessels, develop pseudopodia and push through the ... from the cell's intermediate filaments and relocate to actin filaments to serve as attachments to the ECM for pseudopodia ...
"Samuel R. Delany by K. Leslie Steiner". Pseudopodium.org. Retrieved 2011-04-02. Delany, Samuel R. (2009). Conversations with ...
Family: Body monopodial; pseudopods rare; locomotion by slight forward bulging; cysts common. Genus: Hyaline cap usually ... present in locomotion; cysts uninucleate to trinuclearte (Illustrated Guide, 1985). Pseudopods formed by forward building, with ...
Pseudopod Rejects. Playwrights Guild of Canada, 1995. ISBN 978-1551733173. Ravel, Aviva. The Psychiatrist: A Lecture on 'Bridge ... Drader Prom Night of the Living Dead by Brad Fraser The Proper Perspective by Warren Graves A Proposal by Aviva Ravel Pseudopod ...
This form has a pseudopodia for locomotion. The pseudopodia is short and blunt. It moves in a slow manner. The trophozoite has ...
". "THE WITLINGS by Fanny Burney". www.pseudopodium.org. Retrieved 2019-02-05.. ...
... are unique in having granuloreticulose pseudopodia; that is, their pseudopodia appear granular under the ... The pseudopods are used for locomotion, anchoring, excretion, test construction and in capturing food, which consists of small ... Parasitic strategies vary; some act as ectoparasites, using their pseudopodia to steal food from the host, while others burrow ... A few other amoeboids produce reticulose pseudopods, and were formerly classified with the forams as the Granuloreticulosa, but ...
I. Pseudopodium.org. Retrieved 26 July 2013. "Population des communes de Polynésie française". INSEE. Retrieved 13 October 2013 ...
"Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia". Tree of Life web project. "The Amoebae". The University of Edinburgh ... Many unicellular protists, particularly protozoans, are motile and can generate movement using flagella, cilia or pseudopods. ... and cells which use pseudopods are usually referred to as amoeba or amoeboids. Other protists are not motile, and consequently ...
It is characterized by flagellae, pseudopodia, or both. It is divided into three subphyla: the Mastigophora, the Sarcodina and ... 2) Locomotory organ either pseudopodia or flagella or both. (3) Reproduction asexual , but when sexually it is essentially by ...
... on the basis of the form and structure of their pseudopods. Amoebae with pseudopods supported by regular arrays of microtubules ... In German) Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia at the Tree of Life web project Pawlowski, J. & Burki, F. ( ... "Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia". Tree of Life web project. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010 ... Amoebae move and feed by using pseudopods, which are bulges of cytoplasm formed by the coordinated action of actin ...
Frederick C. Page (1975). "A new family of amoebae with fine pseudopodia". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 56 (1): ...
"Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 12 November 2017. Lane N (June ... Other structures, such as pseudopodia, are found in various eukaryote groups in different forms, such as the lobose amoebozoans ...
As with other amoeboids these foraminifera utilize pseudopodia. Pseudopodia are widely used throughout their entire lifecycle ... Once a copepod or nauplii is caught in its spines G. ruber uses its pseudopodia to draw the caught prey close to its test to ...
Pseudopodium.org (2004-11-15). Retrieved on 2020-02-22. Michael E. Adelstein, Fanny Burney. New York: Twayne, 1968 Fanny Burney ...
Motile structures such as flagella or pseudopods are present only in certain gamete stages. The Apicomplexa are a diverse group ... or pseudopods. Most of the Apicomplexa are motile, however, by use of a gliding mechanism that uses adhesions and small static ... or pseudopods (e.g., Entamoeba, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). If they had cell walls, they also could be included in plant kingdom ...
Like other lobose amoebae, Chaos move by extending pseudopodia. As a new pseudopod is extended, a variable zone of ectoplasm ... Until quite recently, the genus Chaos was included, along with all other protists that extend lobose pseudopods or move about ... Like all Amoebozoa, they take in food by phagocytosis, encircling food particles with its pseudopodia, then enclosing them ... producing numerous cylindrical pseudopods, each of which is rounded at the tip. However, while Amoeba have a single nucleus, ...
Trophozoites are irregularly shaped and possess pseudopodia for motility. They have a single nucleus with a small central ...
The pseudopodia is first withdrawn and the nucleus starts dividing. When the cytoplasm is divided, the cytoplasm is also ...
Some species possess pseudopodia but use them only in phagocytosis. Levine, N.D. (1988). The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The ...
They have a laterally located cytostome, from which pseudopodia arise. The order Cryomonadida was erected in 1993 for the genus ...
pseudopodium. *blood platelets *prothrombin. *thromboplastin. Development of the vascular system (Тема 135)[редактиране , ...
They are similar to Hartmannella, but have differently structured pseudopodia, in regard to the actin microfilaments that ... Members of Acanthamoebidae have a specific form of pseudopodia, dubbed acanthopodia. These acanthopodia are continuously formed ... resulting in the irregular shape of the pseudopodia. In regards to the typical physical size of the family Acanthamoebidae, ...
The pseudopodia are non-granular, and can form connections to make net-like structures. Gromia use their pseudopodia to crawl ... Their apertures face down on sediment surfaces and they use their pseudopodia to feed. Gromiids found in the deep sea near Oman ... An oral complex containing an aperture, which is an opening in the test, allows the filose pseudopodia to extend out. ... Gromia are ameboid, producing filose pseudopodia that extend out from the cell's proteinaceous test through a gap enclosed by ...
It was released in 2004 on Pseudopod Records. The release was long-awaited, as the recording process was lengthy. In the ...
Its capsule is terminal on a shoort pseudopodium. Dollyphyton is similar to living Flatbergium. Retallack, G.J. (2019). " ...
Amoebozoa are characterized by the use of pseudopodia for movement and feeding. These protists reproduce by binary or multiple ... The supergroup SAR includes Rhizaria, Alveolata, and Stramenopiles and is distinguished by fine pseudopodia which can be ...
Pseudopodia. A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food. ... All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryCellsCellular StructuresCell Surface ExtensionsPseudopodia ...
A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) is a temporary arm-like projection of a eukaryotic cell ... or from an existing pseudopod, forming a Y-shaped pseudopodium. The Y-shaped pseudopods are used by Dictyostelium to advance ... The de novo pseudopodia form at different sides than pre-existing ones, they are used by the cells to turn. Y-shaped pseudopods ... Pseudopods are used for motility and ingestion. They are often found in amoebas. Different types of pseudopodia can be ...
... those with pseudopodia; see sarcodine) and some flagellate protozoans. Pseudopodia are formed by some cells of higher animals ( ... Pseudopodium, temporary or semipermanent extension of the cytoplasm, used in locomotion and feeding by all sarcodine protozoans ... Alternative Titles: pseudopod, pseudopodia. Pseudopodium, also called pseudopod, temporary or semipermanent extension of the ... protozoan: Amoebae and pseudopodia. Amoebae are defined based on pseudopodia type: those with thin, or filose, pseudopods, ...
When amoebae push bits of themselves out to form false feet (what pseudopod means). Like when liquid is spilt on a table, and ... When amoebae push bits of themselves out to form false feet (what pseudopod means). Like when liquid is spilt on a table, and ... If the cell was a stretchy rubber sack filled with rods that are continouously reconnecting and moving around, the pseudopod is ... "do*pod (?), n. [Pseudo- + -pod.] 1. Biol. Any protoplasmic filament or irregular process projecting from any unicellular ...
Pseudopod is co-edited by Shawn M. Garrett and Alex Hofelich (the latter became co-editor in May 2015) and hosted by Alasdair ... Pseudopod has won the Parsec award twice and has been a finalist six additional times: Won the 2009 Parsec Award for Best ... Wil Wheaton calls Pseudopod "pretty damn awesome" and cites it as an example of how new media is changing the broadcast ... Pseudopod is a podcast launched on 11 August 2006 which presents horror genre short stories. It is part of Escape Artists, Inc ...
The next few years were the most intellectually transformative, emotionally mercurial, and socially toxic of my existence, which I suppose is only to be expected when an eighteen-year-old autodidact is removed from years of rural seclusion (but not the gentlemanly sort) and deposited in two of Americas finest colleges and near one of Americas largest cities. In that despised and now inconceivable final phase of public support for education, financial aid flowed but first-gen student advising did not. Ten years after I graduated, I discovered that my fellow students considered collaborative reverse-engineering of textbook-and-chalkboard proofs as essential for mathematics as language drills were for French or German classes. If Id known, maybe I wouldnt have squandered so many opportunities. On the other hand, who am I kidding? I was a stubborn cuss, and my introduction to the mores of prep-schooled young men - the differences money made and the differences it didnt - had started me on the ...
Your site, pseudopodium.org, seems like it could be home to some of our articles as we may have similar audiences. I feel like ... The second was like the first, except that a trickle of salt water had begun down one side of the tank and a few pseudopods had ... Your link to "I buried Paul" on pseudopodium.org on your "Bobbettes" page of 2003/04/28 must be changed to the official site ... dozens of pseudopods thrust out, throbbing. Most of the chromatin had become concentrated in chromosomes about the equator of ...
Zhu, C.; Skalak, R. A continuum model of protrusion of pseudopod in leukocytes. Biophys. J 54:1115-1137; 1988.PubMedCrossRef ... Condeelis, J. Are all pseudopods created equal? Cell Motil. Cytoskel 22:1-6; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Stossel, T.P. From signal to pseudopod: How cells control cytoplasmic actin assembly. J. Biol. Chem 264:18261-18264; 1989. ... Dong, C.; Aznavoorian, S.; Liotta, L.A. Two phases of pseudopod protrusion in tumor cells revealed by a micropipette. Microvasc ...
Series of split pseudopodia were analyzed in which the present pseudopod is either a split or a de novo pseudopod. Angle 1 is ... An existing pseudopod splits in two that are both protruded. Finally, the left pseudopod is retracted while the right pseudopod ... determined for 896 pseudopodia. Split and de novo pseudopodia have similar growth time (C) and pseudopod interval (E; sp = ... the cytoplasm flows into this new pseudopod, but not in the existing pseudopod. Right: De novo pseudopod. A slender protrusion ...
by The Biological Bulletin; Biological sciences Animal feeding behavior Research Pseudopodia Sponges Sponges (Animals) ... 10G). Some pseudopodia are up to twice the height of the collar microvilli and contact a group of latex beads or piece of ... APA style: Feeding in a calcareous sponge: particle uptake by pseudopodia.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep 18 ... The possibility that pseudopodia are used to reject or eject unwanted particles has also been considered. However, we found ...
"Nothing is Truly Yours" is a PseudoPod Original. "This story is an homage to the work of Julio Cortazar, a brilliant amazing ... PseudoPod 496: Nothing is Truly Yours. http://media.libsyn.com/media/pseudopod/Pseudo496_NothingIsTrulyYours.mp3. ...
Compassion is whats most important here," Schulman tells his son. He shows him the sakin, turning it over in his hand, highlighting each angle. "The blade is sharpened again and again. There cannot be a single imperfection. Do you see?" Schulman asks. He lightly guides his youngests fingers across the metal edge. Jacobs hesitance ebbs when he sees in his fathers care that there is no room for error, no chance of injury. "The sakins edge is straight, not serrated. There can be no unnecessary tearing, just one precise and deliberate cut." Schulman motions to the heifers neck, pausing at every essential location along the knifes route. "Esophagus. Trachea. Jugular. Carotids. Vagus," he lists. Jacob swallows instinctively. Schulman nods. "It may seem excessive. But this ensures the slaughter to be as painless as possible. Compassion. Thats whats most important.". ...
Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and feeding ... Protists, Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and ... Pseudopods prefer stagnant water, room temperature, dim light or darkness and tend to move away from a microscopes field of ... Unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which act in both locomotion and feeding behaviors ( ...
Although bead size was a factor, simple bead contact tended to induce formation of pseudopodia that appeared randomly over the ... Regulation of pseudopodia localization in lymphocytes through application of mechanical forces by optical tweezers. ... Bahman Anvari, Jorge H. Torres, Brandley W. McIntyre, "Regulation of pseudopodia localization in lymphocytes through ... Bahman Anvari, Jorge H. Torres, Brandley W. McIntyre, "Regulation of pseudopodia localization in lymphocytes through ...
Results also show that neutrophils must be retained in their elongated shape for an extended period of time for pseudopod ... Above a threshold stimulus, mechanical deformation resulted in neutrophil activation with pseudopod projection. The activation ... Mechanical deformation of neutrophil into pulmonary capillaries induces cytoskeletal remodeling, pseudopod projection and ... followed by recovery and increase in F-actin content associated with formation of pseudopods. This rapid depolymerization and ...
Controlled pseudopod extension of human neutrophils stimulated with different chemoattractants. Biophys. J. 87, 688-695 (2004). ... S5A) (57, 58), we estimated the effective cortical tension during the formation of chemotactic pseudopods in the absence of Ca ... The jet was initially applied with a low pressure over a distance of 7 μm, inducing the extension of a pseudopod (time points 1 ... 3A), the cells responded to ~0.1 to 10 nM C5a solutions by extending pseudopods toward the source of C5a without generating Ca ...
The pseudopodia and the number of complete phagosome are observed after 30 minute. The experimental design is factorial and ... The objective of the study is to find out the difference of the length of pseudopodia and the number of complete phagosomes of ... The data consisting of the lenght of pseudopodia and the number of complete phagosome are analyzed applying the One Way Anova ... Prayitno, Adi (2002) The influence of phorbol myristic acetate on the formation of pseudopodia and phagosomes of macrophages. ...
Temporary projection of the protoplast of ameboid cells in which cytoplasm streams... Explanation of pseudopod ... Find out information about pseudopod. A slender, leafless branch of the gametophyte in certain Bryatae. ... Pseudopodium. (redirected from pseudopod). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. pseudopodium. [‚süd·ə′pōd· ... Pseudopodia aid in amoeboid locomotion and enable the organisms to grasp food or foreign particles. Since the pseudopodia can ...
From 15 to 60 min, this collar was replaced by numerous F-actin rich, branched pseudopods. These branched pseudopods were ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells.. M V Parsey and G ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. ...
Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells.. M V Parsey and G ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. ... Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. ...
View Stock Photo of Human Macrophage Moving Through Lung Tissue By Means Of Its Extended Pseudopod Sem X9000. Find premium, ... Human macrophage moving through lung tissue by means of its extended pseudopod. SEM X9000. ...
Ver Foto de stock de Amoeba Proteus Protozoa With Extended Pseudopods Lm X80. Encuentra fotos de alta resolución y gran calidad ...
PSEUDOPODIA IN PROTOZOA. The pseudopodia are temporary extensions of any part of the body of a protozoan without pellicle These ...
Pseudopodia. In contrast to the swimming movements produced by flagella and cilia, pseudopodia are responsible for amoeboid ... amoeba; pseudopodFingerlike extensions from the amoebas single cell are called pseudopods, or false feet. Fluid cytoplasm ... Pseudopodia, even more so than flagella and cilia, are widely used in phagotrophic feeding as well as in locomotion. ... Other pseudopodia found among amoeboids include the filopodia and the reticulopodia. The filopodia are hyaline, slender, and ...
This type of pseudopodia is both similar and dissimilar to pseudopodia in other cell types. For example the pseudopodia of MDA- ... Pseudopodia contain a distinct spectrum of mRNA The pseudopodia contain a distinct protein complement as made evident in the ... 59 2.2 Results Isolation and characterization of proteins in the pseudopodia The ability of the pseudopodia of M S V - M D C K ... F) When treated with Nocodazole for 90 min mRNA is localized to newly formed pseudopodia. (F) Amount of mRNA in pseudopodia is ...
Pseudopodia. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... These pseudopodia can sometimes form anastomoses and are characteristic for the Phryganellina (Fig. 10). Bonnet (1961, 1963) ... Whether the distinction of taxa could be based on the differences between pseudopodia cannot be decided with the data available ... Although Arcellinida move and feed with pseudopodia, they are not always easy to see. Especially in soil dwelling species, ...
A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) is a temporary cytoplasm-filled projection of an eukaryotic ... Pseudopods may be used for motility, or for ingesting nutrients or other particulate matter. Cells that make pseudopods are ... Flagellum · Cilium; Pseudopodia; Gliding.. Pseudopodia are temporary and cytoplasm-filled parts of the cell wall that are ... Pseudopodia cilia/flagella is in what cells 26.08.2018 Travel The three structures you are going to study today are cilia ( ...
You, J., Aznavoorian, S., Liotta, L. A., & Dong, C. (1996). Responses of tumor cell pseudopod protrusion to changes in medium ... Using a dual-pipette method, such osmotic influence on the cell pseudopod protrusion was shown to be only a local effect in a ... Using a dual-pipette method, such osmotic influence on the cell pseudopod protrusion was shown to be only a local effect in a ... Using a dual-pipette method, such osmotic influence on the cell pseudopod protrusion was shown to be only a local effect in a ...
We have pioneered an in vitro pseudopod-generation model wherein suspended tumor cells are stimulated to form pseudopods into ... N2 - We have pioneered an in vitro pseudopod-generation model wherein suspended tumor cells are stimulated to form pseudopods ... AB - We have pioneered an in vitro pseudopod-generation model wherein suspended tumor cells are stimulated to form pseudopods ... "We have pioneered an in vitro pseudopod-generation model wherein suspended tumor cells are stimulated to form pseudopods into ...
Topic: Pseudopod Projection. Results. A mechanisms for control of mechanotransduction in leukocytes ...
  • Generally, several pseudopodia arise from the surface of the body, (polypodial, for example, Amoeba proteus), or a single pseudopod may form on the surface of the body (monopodial, such as Entamoeba histolytica). (wikipedia.org)
  • When amoeba e push bits of themselves out to form false feet (what pseudopod means). (everything2.com)
  • The amoeba of the law puts out new pseudopods as precedents are overturned, cases are heard in equity, and juries nullify bad laws or laws that don't properly apply to the facts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amoeba proteus Protozoa with extended pseudopods. (gettyimages.es)
  • Mayorella (Gymnamoebae) a naked amoeba with conical pseudopodia, living cell. (tolweb.org)
  • As a standard action , an alchemic amoeba can form up to two pseudopods on its surface and launch them as ranged touch attacks at a target within 30 ft., exploding with acidic cytoplasm upon striking any solid surface and dealing 1d3 acid damage. (d20pfsrd.com)
  • Animal like Priotists such as amoeba have pseudopods which they use for movement. (answers.com)
  • It contains the animal-like protists known as amoeba, which use with pseudopods to move. (answers.com)
  • Liotta, L.A. Two phases of pseudopod protrusion in tumor cells revealed by a micropipette. (springer.com)
  • A slender protrusion is formed at an area of the cell that did not exhibit pseudopod activity in the previous two minutes. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, pathological or supraphysiological concentrations of C5a often triggered Ca 2+ bursts, but pseudopod protrusion stalled or reversed in such cases, effectively halting chemotaxis, similar to sepsis-associated neutrophil paralysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The potential involvement of osmotically generated force in protrusion of tumor cell pseudopods was examined during a micropipette assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Presently we studied cell pseudopod protrusion in response to the changes in chemoattractant osmolality. (elsevier.com)
  • Increases in attractant osmolality by 25-30% from the baseline value arrested pseudopod protrusion significantly during both initial and later phases. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a dual-pipette method, such osmotic influence on the cell pseudopod protrusion was shown to be only a local effect in a small region where the cell surface was stimulated by the micropipette. (elsevier.com)
  • While forces derived from actin polymerization and osmotic pressure have been proposed to cause protrusion in general, our results suggested that osmotically generated force is more apparent in the initial phase of the pseudopod formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Removal of fatty acids from BSA in basal media resulted in abrogation of pseudopod formation, while reconstitution of free fatty acids restored cell pseudopod protrusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Thapsigargin (TG), an agent that releases internal calcium stores and causes opening of store-operated calcium channels, restored pseudopod protrusion up to 80% in CIV with fatty acid-free albumin. (elsevier.com)
  • This indicates that pseudopod protrusion requires transmembrane calcium entry. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, extracellular lipids and calcium mobilization are required to complement CIV in pseudopod protrusion from suspended cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Filled with cytoplasm, pseudopodia primarily consist of actin filaments and may also contain microtubules and intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • the cytoplasm flows into this new pseudopod, but not in the existing pseudopod. (nih.gov)
  • The formation of pseudopodia and amoeboid locomotion result from local changes in the surface tension of the cell and from little-studied mechanisms of overflow, contraction, extension, and liquefaction of the cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) is a temporary cytoplasm-filled projection of an eukaryotic cell membrane or a unicellular protist. (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • Pseudopodia are temporary and cytoplasm-filled parts of the cell wall that are locomotion modes of unicellular organisms (together with flagella and cilia). (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • Pseudopods: Foot-like extentions of cytoplasm that extend outward and pull the organism with it. (answers.com)
  • thin pseudopods containing complex arrays of microtubules and are enveloped by cytoplasm. (msnucleus.org)
  • In contrast to the swimming movements produced by flagella and cilia, pseudopodia are responsible for amoeboid movement , a sliding or crawlinglike form of locomotion. (britannica.com)
  • Pseudopodia, even more so than flagella and cilia, are widely used in phagotrophic feeding as well as in locomotion. (britannica.com)
  • In all eukaryotes cilia and flagella are strucurally identical (note that they While pseudopods, cillia and flagella can be considered a characteristic of a cells. (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • These could be pseudopodia, cilia and flagella. (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • locomotion-cilia, flagella, pseudopodia 12. (aptv.org)
  • Different types of pseudopodia can be classified by their distinct appearances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some pseudopodial cells are able to use multiple types of pseudopodia depending on the situation: Most of them use a combination of lamellipodia and filopodia to migrate (such as metastatic cancer cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protozoans have four types of pseudopodia. (britannica.com)
  • Two types of pseudopodia may be formed: frequent splitting of an existing pseudopod, or the occasional extension of a de novo pseudopod at regions devoid of recent pseudopod activity. (nih.gov)
  • A. Dictyostelium cells extend two types of pseudopodia, split and de novo . (nih.gov)
  • Filopodia (or filose pseudopods) are slender and filiform with pointed ends, consisting mainly of ectoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • It senses extracellular signalling molecules, chemoattractants (e.g. cAMP for Dictyostelium cells), to extend pseudopodia at the membrane area facing the source of these molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Dictyostelium cells, a pseudopodium can form either de novo as normal, or from an existing pseudopod, forming a Y-shaped pseudopodium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y-shaped pseudopods are used by Dictyostelium to advance relatively straight forward by alternating between retraction of the left or right branch of the pseudopod. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we explore cell movement by analyzing the direction, size and timing of approximately 2000 pseudopodia that are extended by Dictyostelium cells. (nih.gov)
  • We show that Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominantly pseudopods to blebs when migrating under agarose overlays of increasing stiffness. (rupress.org)
  • Dictyostelium cells are generally thought to move under buffer using actin-driven pseudopods, but a single report also describes them as using small, transient blebs as well as pseudopods ( Yoshida and Soldati, 2006 ), and uniform stimulation with cyclic-AMP can induce blebbing, suggesting that blebs are under chemotactic control ( Langridge and Kay, 2006 ). (rupress.org)
  • Blocking Scar/WAVE activation stops phosphorylation in both Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, implying that phosphorylation modulates pseudopods after they have been formed, rather than controlling whether they are initiated. (mazenz.com)
  • Pseudopods can be classified into several varieties according to the number of projections (monopodia and polypodia), and according to their appearance: Lamellipodia are broad and flat pseudopodia used in locomotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protists, Pseudopods are unicellular organisms characterized by movement using pseudopods, which can act in both locomotion and feeding behaviors. (flinnsci.com)
  • Pseudopodia aid in amoeboid locomotion and enable the organisms to grasp food or foreign particles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since the pseudopodia can appear and be withdrawn again in different parts of the cell, the shape of the cells in amoeboid locomotion is constantly changing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this instance, cell locomotion is driven by the localised growth of a dynamic protein scaffold pushing against the cell membrane from the inside," says Dr Tyson, continuing, "Cells employ complex regulation, linked to environmental sensing, to make pseudopods highly accurate steering devices, which are of limited power though. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The primary function of these pseudopodia in ingestion of food and the secondary function is locomotion. (studyandscore.com)
  • Although we find that Arp2/3-dependent pseudopods are dispensable for three-dimensional locomotion, their elimination dramatically decreases the frequency of cell turning, and pseudopod dynamics increase when cells change direction, highlighting the important role pseudopods play in pathfinding. (elifesciences.org)
  • A lesser number of protists employ pseudopodia . (britannica.com)
  • Animal-like protists that use structures called pseudopods to trap their food. (answers.com)
  • Pseudopods are animals that are like protists. (answers.com)
  • Protists can be carried on convection currents of water or air but there are some protists that use pseudopodia (false feet), a flow like motion or flagella, a whip like tail. (answers.com)
  • A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) is a temporary arm-like projection of a eukaryotic cell membrane that are developed in the direction of movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pseudopodia are temporary extensions of any part of the body of a protozoan without pellicle These are found in Sarcodina. (biozoomer.com)
  • The de novo pseudopodia form at different sides than pre-existing ones, they are used by the cells to turn. (wikipedia.org)
  • De novo pseudopodia are extended in nearly random directions thereby interrupting the zigzag runs. (nih.gov)
  • Persistence of cell movement is based on the ratio of split versus de novo pseudopodia. (nih.gov)
  • We identify PLA2 and cGMP signaling pathways that modulate this ratio of splitting and de novo pseudopodia, and thereby regulate the dispersal of cells. (nih.gov)
  • As presented in , split pseudopodia are often alternating right/left leading to relatively straight path, while de novo pseudopodia are in random directions causing a change of direction. (nih.gov)
  • It was shown here by treatment with nocodazole that mRNA localization to MSV-MDCK-INV cell pseudopodia occurs independently of microtubules. (ubc.ca)
  • Pseudopodia may have internal microtubules which give them rigidity (as in radiolaria, heliozoa and foraminifera). (tolweb.org)
  • When cells re-orientate to a needle releasing cyclic-AMP, they stereotypically produce first microspikes, then blebs and pseudopods only later. (rupress.org)
  • This project deals with the detection of one feature that can be present in dermatoscopy images and that plays a role in diagnosis of melanoma, namely, pseudopods. (mst.edu)
  • Below a threshold capillary size, the cell remodeled its cytoskeleton through initial F-actin depolymerization, followed by recovery and increase in F-actin content associated with formation of pseudopods. (mit.edu)
  • Ogihara, S. Actin polymerization and pseudopod extension during amoeboid Chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • Actin polymerization and pseudopod reorganization accompany anti-CD3-induced growth arrest in Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Atypical lymphocyte morphology, including pseudopods , split nuclei, and cytoplasmic granules, was observed in 5% of the birds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • these morphologies included split nuclei (Fig 1), pseudopods (Fig 2), and/or purple cytoplasmic granules (Figs 3 and 5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Y-shaped pseudopods are more frequent than de novo ones, which explain the preference of the cell to keep moving to the same direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cell was a stretchy rubber sack filled with rods that are continouously reconnecting and moving around, the pseudopod is formed when the sack is pushed and deformed into a smooth domed arm like process. (everything2.com)
  • The diagrams below the confocal images depict the pseudopod as arrow with the contour of the cell in the upper image. (nih.gov)
  • By simultaneously monitoring the formation of chemotactic pseudopods at the front of the cell and intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, the authors demonstrated that Ca 2+ bursts did not accompany the extension of pseudopods and were only induced when the neutrophil contacted the target or was subjected to supraphysiological concentrations of the anaphylatoxin C5a. (sciencemag.org)
  • By decoupling purely chemotactic pseudopod formation from cell-substrate adhesion, we showed that physiological concentrations of anaphylatoxins, such as C5a, induced nonadherent human neutrophils to form chemotactic pseudopods but did not elicit Ca 2+ bursts. (sciencemag.org)
  • The maximum increase in cell surface area during pseudopod extension in pure chemotaxis was much smaller-by a factor of 8-than the known capacity of adherent human neutrophils to expand their surface. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phorbol ester is knawn as a tumor promoter and is competitive with diacyl glycerol to activate protein kinase C. The pseudopodia is being a mobility of the cell. (unikom.ac.id)
  • The formation of cytoplasmic projections, or pseudopodia, on the forward edge of the cell, pulling the cell along, is characteristic of the microscopic unicellular protozoans known as amoebas . (britannica.com)
  • flagellum is singular), and pseudopods are all important cell structures. (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • The image depicts a cell extending a pseudopod toward a chemoattractant. (sciencemag.org)
  • WASP depletion from human neutrophils confirms that both proteins are involved in explosive actin polymerization, pseudopod formation, and cell migration. (cloudfront.net)
  • By focusing on one migration mode in many eukaryotes, we identify a genetic marker of pseudopod formation, the morphological feature of α-motility, providing evidence for a widely distributed mode of cell crawling with a single evolutionary origin. (cloudfront.net)
  • Although this mode of fast cell crawling has been called "ameboid motility," this term is also used to describe a range of behaviors, including cell motility that relies on membrane blebs rather than actin-filled pseudopods ( Lämmermann and Sixt, 2009 ). (cloudfront.net)
  • Even further away from the vascularized capsule is the region of tumor necrosis which contains no blood vessels or endothelial cell pseudopods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This model is consistent with the conclusion that the hypoxic regions of the tumor produce HIF leading to production of vascular endothelial growth factors and sprouting of endothelial cell pseudopods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to ''regular,'' round-shaped blebs, which are often seen in response to cell damage, pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs) formed as longitudinal membrane protrusions toward anode. (electroporation.net)
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Fyn on cell morphology, pseudopodium movement , and cell migration were investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • To analyze three-dimensional pseudopods we: (i) developed fluorescent probe combinations that distinguish cortical actin from dynamic, pseudopod-forming actin networks, and (ii) adapted molecular visualization tools from structural biology to render and analyze complex cell surfaces. (elifesciences.org)
  • This mode of cell migration is associated with formation of complex, three-dimensional pseudopods filled with branched networks of actin filaments, nucleated and organized by the Arp2/3 complex. (elifesciences.org)
  • We know less about the morphology and function of complex pseudopods than adherent lamellipodia in part due to the technical limitations of live-cell light microscopy. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pseudopodia are especially problematic because their cytoplasmic properties can cause abrupt increases in fl uorescent signal of both GFP and fl uorescein. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Above a threshold stimulus, mechanical deformation resulted in neutrophil activation with pseudopod projection. (mit.edu)
  • Pseudopod extensions. (nih.gov)
  • Forams are abundant in present-day ocean sediments, where they use fingerlike extensions called pseudopods to engulf prey and to explore their surroundings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pseudopodia are formed by some cells of higher animals ( e.g., white blood corpuscles) and by amoebas . (britannica.com)
  • In amoebas, the pseudopodia are lobed or filiform. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The actin polymers then push the membrane as they grow, forming the pseudopod. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, pseudopodia can't grow on other sides of the membrane than the leading edge because myosin filaments prevent them to extend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequent vacuolation and loss of pseudopodia and microvilli from the membrane were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • The surface form of the cells at advanced infection displayed prolific pseudopodia that, in addition to the rest of the plasma membrane, were also active sites of virus release. (cdc.gov)
  • Pseudopods are used for motility and ingestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudopods may be used for motility, or for ingesting nutrients or other particulate matter. (companionanimalhospitalwichita.com)
  • In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call "α-motility. (cloudfront.net)
  • We hypothesize that these genes collectively represent a genetic signature of α-motility because both are used for pseudopod formation. (cloudfront.net)
  • Alternatively, chemotaxis might be mediated by more local interactions ( Arrieumerlou and Meyer, 2005 ) or by competition between existing pseudopods ( Insall, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • Chemotaxis is usually studied at a transitional phase in development, in which separate cells aggregate together by chemotaxis to cyclic-AMP, en route to forming multicellular structures. (rupress.org)
  • These are slender filamentous pseudopodia tapering from base to tip. (studyandscore.com)
  • During amoeboid feeding, pseudopodia either flow around and engulf prey or trap it in a fine, sticky mesh. (britannica.com)
  • Cells which make pseudopods are generally referred to as amoeboids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ordered extension of pseudopodia by amoeboid cells in the absence of external cues. (nih.gov)
  • Eukaryotic cells extend pseudopodia for movement. (nih.gov)
  • The observed ordered extension of pseudopodia in the absence of external cues provides a fundamental insight into the coordinated movement of cells, and might form the basis for movement that is directed by internal or external cues. (nih.gov)
  • The pseudopodia are usually digitiform or lobed in the amoeboid cells of multicellular organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Jurkat cells attached by either stimulatory or nonstimulatory antibodies reorganized their actin similarly after the first minute of culture, as characterized by the formation of small, F-actin rich pseudopods at the sites of attachment. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have pioneered an in vitro pseudopod-generation model wherein suspended tumor cells are stimulated to form pseudopods into glass micropipettes in response to soluble collagen type IV (CIV). (elsevier.com)
  • Unsupported pseudopodia may be lobose (broad) or filose (thread-like), many may be produced at the same time (polypodial) or cells may migrate with a single advancing pseudopodium (monopodial). (tolweb.org)
  • We describe a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells stimulated by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). (electroporation.net)
  • Blebs and F-actin-driven pseudopods are alternative ways of extending the leading edge of migrating cells. (rupress.org)
  • These cells may also have pseudopods . (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutants also behave similarly to cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient Scar, with longer-lived pseudopods and patches of Scar recruitment. (mazenz.com)
  • We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of Zizimin1 inhibited formation of pseudopodia and concomitant invasion of glioblastoma cells both under a 3D culture condition and in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Localized to the nucleus and pseudopodia of undifferentiated cells and detected throughout the myotubes of differentiated cells. (abcam.com)
  • Promotes invasive migration of cells in which it functions to localize and maintain integrin alpha-V/beta-1 at the tips of extending pseudopodia (PubMed:17925226). (genecards.org)
  • Leukocytes and other amoeboid cells change shape as they move, forming highly dynamic, actin-filled pseudopods. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although we understand much about the architecture and dynamics of thin lamellipodia made by slow-moving cells on flat surfaces, conventional light microscopy lacks the spatial and temporal resolution required to track complex pseudopods of cells moving in three dimensions. (elifesciences.org)
  • In contrast, the complex pseudopods created by fast-moving cells: (i) grow quickly (10-100 um/min), (ii) adopt complex three-dimensional shapes, and (iii) often spend their lives far from a coverslip surface. (elifesciences.org)
  • The localization of mRNA in the pseudopodia could be inhibited by treatment with Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632. (ubc.ca)
  • Reticulopodia are complex structures bearing individual pseudopodia which form irregular nets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stiffened pseudopodia of radiolaria and heliozoa tend to extend radially and are called actinopoda . (tolweb.org)
  • These data suggest that translocation and immobilization of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 or a 3, x ‐phosphorylated metabolite in the uropod functions as an important polarization cue that defines neutrophil polarity and stabilizes the generation of pseudopodia at the opposite pole. (embopress.org)
  • We now extend those observations to dissect the roles of transmembrane calcium influx and circulating fatty acids on pseudopod extension. (elsevier.com)
  • However, pseudopods and patches of phosphorylation-deficient Scar/WAVE last substantially longer in mutants, altering the dynamics and size of pseudopods and lamellipods and thus changing migration speed. (mazenz.com)
  • We conclude that pseudopod engagement with substratum is more important than extracellular signals at regulating Scar/WAVE's activity and that phosphorylation acts as a pseudopod timer by promoting Scar/WAVE turnover. (mazenz.com)
  • Their finger-like pseudopodia are characteristic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pseudopodium can then adhere to a surface via its adhesion proteins (e.g. integrins), and then pull the cell's body forward via contraction of an actin-myosin complex in the pseudopod. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trophozoites showed very active movement, with wide pseudopods of rapid formation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditionally, the amoebae have been classified as the protozoan taxon Sarcodina, with a taxonomic structure that separated species with supported pseudodpodia from those with unsupported pseudopodia, and those with skeletal elements, from those without. (tolweb.org)
  • Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE-activators of branched actin assembly-make actin-filled pseudopods. (cloudfront.net)
  • Although SCAR has been shown to drive pseudopod formation, WASP's role in this process is controversial. (cloudfront.net)
  • The Scar/WAVE complex is the principal catalyst of pseudopod and lamellipod formation. (mazenz.com)