A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Diseases of plants.
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Oleuropein has been identified in the stem bark.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE known for the edible nuts.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus XANTHOMONAS, causing disease in TOMATO and pepper crops.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)

Arabidopsis NHO1 is required for general resistance against Pseudomonas bacteria. (1/851)

Nonhost interactions are prevalent between plants and specialized phytopathogens. Although it has great potential for providing crop plants with durable resistance, nonhost resistance is poorly understood. Here, we show that nonhost resistance is controlled, at least in part, by general resistance. Arabidopsis plants are resistant to the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola NPS3121 and completely arrest bacterial multiplication in the plant. Ten Arabidopsis mutants were isolated that were compromised in nonhost (nho) resistance to P. s. phaseolicola. Among these, nho1 is caused by a single recessive mutation that defines a novel gene. nho1 is defective in nonspecific resistance to Pseudomonas bacteria, because it also supported the growth of P. s. tabaci and P. fluorescens bacteria, both of which are nonpathogenic on Arabidopsis. In addition, the nho1 mutation also compromised resistance mediated by RPS2, RPS4, RPS5, and RPM1. Interestingly, the nho1 mutation had no effect on the growth of the virulent bacteria P. s. maculicola ES4326 and P. s. tomato DC3000, but it partially restored the in planta growth of the DC3000 hrpS(-) mutant bacteria. Thus, the virulent bacteria appear to evade or suppress NHO1-mediated resistance by means of an Hrp-dependent virulence mechanism.  (+info)

Two pathways act in an additive rather than obligatorily synergistic fashion to induce systemic acquired resistance and PR gene expression. (2/851)

BACKGROUND: Local infection with necrotizing pathogens induces whole plant immunity to secondary challenge. Pathogenesis-related genes are induced in parallel with this systemic acquired resistance response and thought to be co-regulated. The hypothesis of co-regulation has been challenged by induction of Arabidopsis PR-1 but not systemic acquired resistance in npr1 mutant plants responding to Pseudomonas syringae carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. However, experiments with ndr1 mutant plants have revealed major differences between avirulence genes. The ndr1-1 mutation prevents hypersensitive cell death, systemic acquired resistance and PR-1 induction elicited by bacteria carrying avrRpt2. This mutation does not prevent these responses to bacteria carrying avrB. RESULTS: Systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 induction and PR-5 induction were assessed in comparisons of npr1-2 and ndr1-1 mutant plants, double mutant plants, and wild-type plants. Systemic acquired resistance was displayed by all four plant lines in response to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria carrying avrB. PR-1 induction was partially impaired by either single mutation in response to either bacterial strain, but only fully impaired in the double mutant in response to avrRpt2. PR-5 induction was not fully impaired in any of the mutants in response to either avirulence gene. CONCLUSION: Two pathways act additively, rather than in an obligatorily synergistic fashion, to induce systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 and PR-5. One of these pathways is NPR1-independent and depends on signals associated with hypersensitive cell death. The other pathway is dependent on salicylic acid accumulation and acts through NPR1. At least two other pathways also contribute additively to PR-5 induction.  (+info)

A developmental response to pathogen infection in Arabidopsis. (3/851)

We present evidence that susceptible Arabidopsis plants accelerate their reproductive development and alter their shoot architecture in response to three different pathogen species. We infected 2-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings with two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris, and an oomycete, Peronospora parasitica. Infection with each of the three pathogens reduced time to flowering and the number of aerial branches on the primary inflorescence. In the absence of competition, P. syringae and P. parasitica infection also increased basal branch development. Flowering time and branch responses were affected by the amount of pathogen present. Large amounts of pathogen caused the most dramatic changes in the number of branches on the primary inflorescence, but small amounts of P. syringae caused the fastest flowering and the production of the most basal branches. RPS2 resistance prevented large changes in development when it prevented visible disease symptoms but not at high pathogen doses and when substantial visible hypersensitive response occurred. These experiments indicate that phylogenetically disparate pathogens cause similar changes in the development of susceptible Arabidopsis. We propose that these changes in flowering time and branch architecture constitute a general developmental response to pathogen infection that may affect tolerance of and/or resistance to disease.  (+info)

Arabidopsis sfd mutants affect plastidic lipid composition and suppress dwarfing, cell death, and the enhanced disease resistance phenotypes resulting from the deficiency of a fatty acid desaturase. (4/851)

A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis SSI2/FAB2 gene, which encodes a plastidic stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase, has pleiotropic effects. The ssi2 mutant plant is dwarf, spontaneously develops lesions containing dead cells, accumulates increased salicylic acid (SA) levels, and constitutively expresses SA-mediated, NPR1-dependent and -independent defense responses. In parallel, jasmonic acid-regulated signaling is compromised in the ssi2 mutant. In an effort to discern the involvement of lipids in the ssi2-conferred developmental and defense phenotypes, we identified suppressors of fatty acid (stearoyl) desaturase deficiency (sfd) mutants. The sfd1, sfd2, and sfd4 mutant alleles suppress the ssi2-conferred dwarfing and lesion development, the NPR1-independent expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) gene, and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola. The sfd1 and sfd4 mutant alleles also depress ssi2-conferred PR1 expression in NPR1-containing sfd1 ssi2 and sfd4 ssi2 plants. By contrast, the sfd2 ssi2 plant retains the ssi2-conferred high-level expression of PR1. In parallel with the loss of ssi2-conferred constitutive SA signaling, the ability of jasmonic acid to activate PDF1.2 expression is reinstated in the sfd1 ssi2 npr1 plant. sfd4 is a mutation in the FAD6 gene that encodes a plastidic omega6-desaturase that is involved in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing lipids. Because the levels of plastid complex lipid species containing hexadecatrienoic acid are depressed in all of the sfd ssi2 npr1 plants, we propose that these lipids are involved in the manifestation of the ssi2-conferred phenotypes.  (+info)

Activation of the fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase pathway during bacterial infection of tobacco leaves. Formation of oxylipins protecting against cell death. (5/851)

A pathogen-induced oxygenase showing homology to prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases-1 and -2 was recently characterized by in vitro experiments as a fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase catalyzing formation of unstable 2(R)-hydroperoxy fatty acids. To study the activity of this enzyme under in vivo conditions and to elucidate the fate of enzymatically produced 2-hydroperoxides, leaves of tobacco were analyzed for the presence of alpha-dioxygenase-generated compounds as well as for lipoxygenase (LOX) products and free fatty acids. Low basal levels of 2-hydroxylinolenic acid (0.4 nmol/g leaves fresh weight) and 8,11,14-heptadecatrienoic acid (0.1 nmol/g) could be demonstrated. These levels increased strongly upon infection with the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae (548 and 47 nmol/g, respectively). Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing alpha-dioxygenase were developed, and incompatible infection of such plants led to a dramatic elevation of 2-hydroxylinolenic acid (1778 nmol/g) and 8,11,14-heptadecatrienoic acid (86 nmol/g), whereas the levels of LOX products were strongly decreased. Further analysis of oxylipins in infected leaves revealed the presence of a number of 2-hydroxy fatty acids differing with respect to chain length and degree of unsaturation as well as two new doubly oxygenated oxylipins identified as 2(R),9(S)-dihydroxy-10(E),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid and 2(R),9(S)-dihydroxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid. alpha-Dioxygenase-generated 2-hydroxylinolenic acid, and to a lesser extent lipoxygenase-generated 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid, exerted a tissue-protective effect in bacterially infected tobacco leaves.  (+info)

RPS4-mediated disease resistance requires the combined presence of RPS4 transcripts with full-length and truncated open reading frames. (6/851)

Arabidopsis RPS4 belongs to the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS)-Leu-rich repeat (LRR) class of disease resistance (R) genes. Like other family members in different plant species, RPS4 produces alternative transcripts with truncated open reading frames. The dominant alternative RPS4 transcripts are generated by retention of intron 3 or introns 2 and 3, which contain in-frame stop codons and lie downstream of the NBS-encoding exon. We analyzed the biological significance of these alternative transcripts in disease resistance by removing introns 2 and 3, either individually or in combination, from a functional RPS4-Ler (Landsberg erecta) transgene. Removal of one or both introns abolished the function of the RPS4 transgene, whereas expression was not affected. In addition, a truncated RPS4-Ler transgene encoding the putative TIR and NBS domains was not sufficient to confer resistance, suggesting that the combined presence of regular and alternative RPS4 transcripts is necessary for function. Interestingly, we observed partial resistance in transgenic lines expressing both intron-deficient and truncated transgenes. This finding confirms the requirement for regular and alternative RPS4 transcripts and indicates that alternative transcripts function at the protein level rather than as regulatory RNAs. Together with published results on the tobacco N gene, our data suggest that the generation of alternative TIR-NBS-LRR R gene transcripts is of general biological significance across plant species.  (+info)

Conditional survival as a selection strategy to identify plant-inducible genes of Pseudomonas syringae. (7/851)

A novel strategy termed habitat-inducible rescue of survival (HIRS) was developed to identify genes of Pseudomonas syringae that are induced during growth on bean leaves. This strategy is based on the complementation of metXW, two cotranscribed genes that are necessary for methionine biosynthesis and required for survival of P. syringae on bean leaves exposed to conditions of low humidity. We constructed a promoter trap vector, pTrap, containing a promoterless version of the wild-type P. syringae metXW genes. Only with an active promoter fused to metXW on pTrap did this plasmid restore methionine prototrophy to the P. syringae metXW mutant B7MX89 and survival of this strain on bean leaves. To test this method, a partial library of P. syringae genomic DNA was constructed in pTrap and a total of 1,400 B7MX89 pTrap clones were subjected to HIRS selection on bean leaves. This resulted in the enrichment of five clones, each with a unique RsaI restriction pattern of their DNA insert. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed those P. syringae genes for which putative plant-inducible activity could be assigned. Promoter activity experiments with a gfp reporter gene revealed that these plant-inducible gene promoters had very low levels of expression in minimal medium. Based on green fluorescent protein fluorescence levels, it appears that many P. syringae genes have relatively low expression levels and that the metXW HIRS strategy is a sensitive method to detect weakly expressed P. syringae genes that are active on plants. Furthermore, we found that protected sites on the leaf surface provided a higher level of enrichment for P. syringae expressing metXW than exposed sites. Thus, the metXW HIRS strategy should lead to the identification of P. syringae genes that are expressed primarily in these areas on the leaf.  (+info)

Cytosolic HSP90 associates with and modulates the Arabidopsis RPM1 disease resistance protein. (8/851)

The Arabidopsis protein RPM1 activates disease resistance in response to Pseudomonas syringae proteins targeted to the inside of the host cell via the bacterial type III delivery system. We demonstrate that specific mutations in the ATP-binding domain of a single Arabidopsis cytosolic HSP90 isoform compromise RPM1 function. These mutations do not affect the function of related disease resistance proteins. RPM1 associates with HSP90 in plant cells. The Arabidopsis proteins RAR1 and SGT1 are required for the action of many R proteins, and display some structural similarity to HSP90 co-chaperones. Each associates with HSP90 in plant cells. Our data suggest that (i) RPM1 is an HSP90 client protein; and (ii) RAR1 and SGT1 may function independently as HSP90 cofactors. Dynamic interactions among these proteins can regulate RPM1 stability and function, perhaps similarly to the formation and regulation of animal steroid receptor complexes.  (+info)

View more ,Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of ...
The Pseudomonas syringae type III protein secretion system (T3SS) and the type III effectors it injects into plant cells are required for plant pathogenicity and the ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR). The HR is a programmed cell death that is associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). A primary function of P. syringae type III effectors appears to be the suppression of ETI and pathogen-associated molecular pattern--triggered immunity (PTI), which is induced by conserved molecules on microorganisms. We reported that seven type III effectors from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 were capable of suppressing an HR induced by P. fluorescens(pHIR11) and have now tested 35 DC3000 type III effectors in this assay, finding that the majority of them can suppress the HR induced by HopA1. One newly identified type III effector with particularly strong HR suppression activity was HopS2. We used the pHIR11 derivative pLN1965, which lacks hopA1, in related assays and found that a subset of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and structural elucidation of syringostatins, phytotoxins produced by pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae lilac isolate. AU - Fukuchi, Naoyuki. AU - Isogai, Akira. AU - Nakayama, Jiro. AU - Takayama, Seiji. AU - Yamashita, Shuichi. AU - Suyama, Kazuo. AU - Suzuki, Akinori. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - A bacterial strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from lilac was found to produce a homologous mixture of phytotoxins different from syringomycin and syringotoxin. The toxins were termed syringostatins and the structures of the main components, syringostatins A and B, were determined by 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Minor component structures were elucidated from mass/mass spectra.. AB - A bacterial strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from lilac was found to produce a homologous mixture of phytotoxins different from syringomycin and syringotoxin. The toxins were termed syringostatins and the structures of the main components, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The siderophore pyoverdine of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 is an intrinsic virulence factor in host tobacco infection. AU - Taguchi, Fumiko. AU - Suzuki, Tomoko. AU - Inagaki, Yoshishige. AU - Toyoda, Kazuhiro. AU - Shiraishi, Tomonori. AU - Ichinose, Yuki. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - To investigate the role of iron uptake mediated by the siderophore pyoverdine in the virulence of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605, three predicted pyoverdine synthesis-related genes, pvdJ, pvdL, and fpvA, were mutated. The pvdJ, pvdL, and fpvA genes encode the pyoverdine side chain peptide synthetase III L-Thr-L-Ser component, the pyoverdine chromophore synthetase, and the TonB-dependent ferripyoverdine receptor, respectively. The ΔpvdJ and ΔpvdL mutants were unable to produce pyoverdine in mineral salts-glucose medium, which was used for the iron-depleted condition. Furthermore, the ΔpvdJ and ΔpvdL mutants showed lower abilities to produce tabtoxin, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hrpK operon of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 encodes two proteins secreted by the type III (Hrp) protein secretion system. T2 - HopB1 and HrpK, a putative type III translocator. AU - Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja. AU - Van Dijk, Karin. AU - Alfano, James R.. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Pseudomonas syringae is a gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen that is dependent on a type III protein secretion system (TTSS) and the effector proteins it translocates into plant cells for pathogenicity. The P. syringae TTSS is encoded by hrp-hrc genes that reside in a central region of a pathogenicity island (Pai). Flanking one side of this Pai is the exchangeable effector locus (EEL). We characterized the transcriptional expression of the open reading frames (ORFs) within the EEL of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. One of these ORFs, PSPTO1406 (hopB1) is expressed in the same transcriptional unit as hrpK. Both HopB1 and HrpK were secreted in culture and translocated into plant cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of the role of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae HrpZ harpin in elicitation of the hypersensitive response in tobacco using functionally non-polar hrpZ deletion mutations, truncated HrpZ fragments, and hrmA mutations. AU - Alfano, James R.. AU - Bauer, David W.. AU - Milos, Timothy M.. AU - Collmer, Alan. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, like many plant pathogenic bacteria, secretes a harpin protein that can elicit the hypersensitive response (HR), a defensive cellular suicide, in non-host plants. The harpin-encoding hrpZ gene is located in an operon that also encodes Hrp secretion pathway components and is part of the functional cluster of hrp genes carried on cosmid pHIR11 that enables saprophytic bacteria like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens to elicit the HR in tobacco leaves. We have constructed functionally non-polar hrpZ deletion mutations, revealing that HrpZ is necessary for saprophytic bacteria carrying pHIR11 to ...
The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB triggers a hypersensitive resistance response in Arabidopsis and soybean plants expressing the disease resistance (R) proteins RPM1 and Rpg1b, respectively. In Arabidopsis, AvrB induces RPM1-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) to phosphorylate a disease regulator …
Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola ATCC ® BAA-978D™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola strain 1448A TypeStrain=False Application:
The efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) as an inducer of resistance in tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was previously demonstrated, and the plant response was characterized. Because little is known about the reaction of the pathogen to this effect, the goal of the present work was to determine whether the changes in the plant defence system affect the pathogen behaviour. This work provides the first demonstration of the response of the pathogen to the changes observed in plants after Hx application in terms of not only the population size but also the transcriptional levels of genes involved in quorum sensing establishment and pathogenesis. Therefore, it is possible that Hx treatment attenuates the virulence and survival of bacteria by preventing or diminishing the appearance of symptoms and controlling the growth of the bacteria in the mesophyll. It is interesting to note that the gene transcriptional changes in the bacteria from the treated plants occur at the same time ...
Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic in a wide variety of plants, causing diseases with economic impacts. Pseudomonas syringae pathovars produce several toxins that can function as virulence factors and contribute to disease symptoms. These virulence factors include antimetabolite toxins, such as tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, which target enzymes in the pathways of amino acid metabolism. The antimetabolite toxins are generally located in gene clusters present in the flexible genomes of specific strains. These gene clusters are typically present in blocks of genes that appear to be integrated into specific sites in the P. syringae core genome. A general overview of the genetic organization and biosynthetic and regulatory functions of these genetic traits of the antimetabolite toxins will be given in the present work.
Bacterial stem blight of alfalfa occurs sporadically in the central and western U.S. Yield losses of up to 50% of the first harvest can occur with some cultivars. Developing resistant cultivars is hampered by lack of information on the pathogen and a standard test for evaluating plant germplasm. Bacteria producing a fluorescent pigment were isolated on Kings B agar from alfalfa with symptoms of bacterial stem blight from near Cheyenne, WY. The strain ALF3 was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae based on 16S rDNA sequence and PCR amplification of syrB for lipodepsinonapeptide toxin production. Multilocus sequence analysis indicated that ALF3 falls within a clade containing strains of P. syringae pv. syringae with closest affinity to FF5 from pear. Comparison of a draft whole-genome sequence of ALF3 further confirmed that ALF3 most closely resembles FF5 (~96% sequence identity) and P. syringae pv. aptata DSM50252 from beet. Approximately 60 genes were unique to ALF3, ...
The phyllosphere is known for hosting a great diversity of fungi, yeasts and bacteria. These microorganisms interact with each other and with the host plant in the form of symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition or simply neutralism.|em| Pseudomonas syringae|/em| is a ubiquitous epiphytic bacterium commonly found in these microbial communities. The phylogeny complex of |em|P. syringae|/em| comprises 13 phylogroups, containing strains that are well-known pathogens and strains that apparently have limited capacity as pathogens. Emblematic among the pathogens are |em|P. syringae|/em| pv.|em| syringae|/em| (Pss) and |em|P. syringae|/em| pv. |em|actinidiae|/em| (Psa) belonging respectively to phylogroups 2 and 1. Bacterial blights of fruit trees caused by |em|P. syringae|/em| lead to significant economic losses worldwide. With the expansion of bacterial blight of kiwifruit caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae and bacterial blight of apricot caused by |em|P. syringae|/em| pv. |em|syringae|
Wall-associated kinases (Waks) are important components of plant immunity against various pathogens, including the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). However, the molecular mechanisms of their role(s) in plant immunity are largely unknown. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wall-associated kinase 1 (SlWak1), has been implicated in pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-triggered immunity (PTI) because its transcript abundance increases significantly after treatment with the flagellin-derived, microbe-associated molecular patterns flg22 and flgII-28, which activate the PRRs Fls2 and Fls3, respectively. We generated two SlWak1 tomato mutants (wak1) using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology and investigated the role of SlWak1 in tomato-Pst interactions. Late PTI responses activated in the apoplast by flg22 or flgII-28 were compromised in wak1 plants, but PTI at the leaf surface was unaffected. The wak1 plants developed fewer callose deposits than wild-type plants, but retained early PTI ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi y P. syringae pv. phaseolicola son dos patógenos de plantas, incluidos en los 60 patovares del grupo P. syringae. Las dos bacterias causan enfermedad en diferentes huéspedes y con síntomas muy distintos, la primera tumores en olivo y la segunda lesiones en judía, y son organismos modelos de estudio en la identificación de los determinantes que definen el espectro de huésped. La definición del espectro de huésped puede estar determinada por la acción conjunta de proteínas llamadas efectores, que son secretadas por un sistema de secreción tipo III a la célula vegetal, dando lugar a la inhibición de las respuestas de defensa de la planta. El objetivo del trabajo ha sido la identificación de genes de efectores de P. syringae pv. savastanoi que induzcan respuesta de incompatibilidad en judía, para lo que se abordó la clonación y ensayo de 11 efectores. De éstos, sólo se pudieron obtener clones de los efectores AER-0000629 y AER-0001936, que se ...
The Arabidopsis NB-LRR immune receptor RPM1 recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors AvrB or AvrRpm1 to mount an immune response. Although neither effector is itself a kinase, AvrRpm1 and AvrB are known to target Arabidopsis RIN4, a negative regulator of basal plant defense, for phosph …
The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae causes economically important diseases of a wide variety of plant species and is used as a model organism to understand the molecular basis of plant disease. Much existing research into P. syringae-plant interactions has focused on the molecular basis of plant disease resistance and the role of secreted effector proteins in the suppression of plant defences. However, researchers have speculated that the diverse array of effectors, toxins and hormones produced by this pathogen also play an important role in manipulating plant metabolism to promote infection. Recent advances in metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolic modelling offer new opportunities to address this question and generate a system-level understanding of metabolic interactions at the host-pathogen interface.
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that ...
Loss of the ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 to elicit a hypersensitive response on tobacco and other nonhost plants was associated with loss of pathogenicity on the susceptible host bean. Eight independent, prototrophic transposon Tn5 insertion mutants which had lost the ability to elicit a hypersensitive response on tobacco plants were identified. Six of these mutants no longer produced disease lesions on primary leaves of the susceptible bean cultivar Red Kidney and failed to elicit a hypersensitive response on the resistant bean cultivar Red Mexican and on the nonhost plants tomato, cowpea, and soybean. The two remaining mutants had reduced pathogenicity on Red Kidney bean and elicited variable hypersensitive responses on the other plants tested. Southern blot analysis indicated that each mutant carried a single independent Tn5 insertion in one of three EcoRI fragments of about 17, 7, and 5 kilobases. Marker exchange mutagenesis further supported the conclusion that ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. DC3000 is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Pathogenicity is achieved via secretion of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm through a Type III Secretion System (T3SS). In Ps. DC3000 the T3SS (and associated effector proteins) are dependent on HrpL for their transcription. hrpL transcription is sigma54-dependent and requires two co-dependent enhancer binding proteins, HrpR and HrpS (HrpRS), for activation. HrpRS are regulated by two hrpL-dependent proteins, HrpV and HrpG, where HrpV negatively affects HrpRS activity and HrpG relieves this repression. Here the mechanism of HrpV and HrpGs action on HrpRS activity was tested in vivo and in vitro; and the molecular determinants of HrpV and HrpG functionality were characterised by in silico and mutational analysis. Whole-gene deletion mutants of hrpV and hrpG in Ps. DC3000 revealed complications associated with inserting marker cassettes in transcriptionally-antagonistic ...
The study showed that YBT is produced by P. syringae and confirmed the highly probable involvement of the predicted YBT locus of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (8) in YBT production. However, in this study, irp1 was detected only in pathovars belonging to the genospecies 3, 7, and 8, as well as in the closely related pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea belonging to genospecies 2 (30, 49, 82). Although the presence of the YBT locus varies in a species (4, 14, 55, 58, 71), the separation observed within P. syringae was relatively clear. This may indicate the acquisition of the YBT locus by an ancestor of the producing pathovars and its stabilization in the chromosome or the acquisition of the YBT locus by an ancestor of P. syringae and a locus deletion in an ancestor of the nonproducing pathovars. This is confirmed by the identical locus organization and position in the genomes of the distant strains P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, as well as by the protein ...
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Pseudomonas syringae is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects multiple plant species by manipulating cellular processes via injection of type three secreted effectors (T3SEs) into host cells. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) resistance (R) proteins recognize specific T3SEs and trigger a robust immune response, called effector-triggered immunity (ETI), which limits pathogen proliferation and is often associated with localized programmed cell death, known as the hypersensitive response (HR). In this study, we examine the influence of elevated temperature on two ETI outputs: HR and pathogen virulence suppression. We found that in the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, elevated temperatures suppress the HR, but have minimal influence on ETI-associated P. syringae virulence suppression, thereby uncoupling these two ETI responses. We also identify accessions of Arabidopsis that exhibit impaired P. syringae virulence suppression at elevated temperature, highlighting the natural ...
Few quantitative trait loci have been mapped for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in common bean. Two F2 populations were developed from the host differential UI3 cultivar. The objective of this study was to further characterize the resistance to races 1, 5, 7 and 9 of Psp included in UI3. Using a QTL mapping approach, 16 and 11 main-effect QTLs for pod and primary leaf resistance were located on LG10, explaining up to 90% and 26% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The homologous genomic region corresponding to primary leaf resistance QTLs detected tested positive for the presence of resistance-associated gene cluster encoding nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NL), Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage (NRAMP) and Pentatricopeptide Repeat family (PPR) proteins. It is worth noting that the main effect QTLs for resistance in pod were located inside a 3.5 Mb genomic region that included the Phvul.010G021200 gene, which encodes a protein that has the highest sequence
Autor: Gupta, K. J. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2013; Open Access; Titel: The form of nitrogen nutrition affects resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in tobacco
Author: Gupta, K. J. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2013; Open Access; Title: The form of nitrogen nutrition affects resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in tobacco
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Magnesium atom in PDB 3k4i: Crystal Structure of Uncharacterized Protein PSPTO_3204 From Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tomato Str. DC3000
TY - CHAP. T1 - Ecological genomics of pseudomonas syringae. AU - Baltrus, David A.. AU - Hendry, Tory A.. AU - Hockett, Kevin L.. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Pseudomonas syringae is well known as a model bacterial phytopathogen in the laboratory, environment, and the field. A focus on understanding mechanisms of virulence in planta has motivated extensive research into genetic, genomic, and evolutionary factors that influence disease. However, in recent years, appreciation has grown for the life cycle of P. syringae outside of the context of plant disease. This bacterial species survives and thrives across many environments, with its broad ecology shaped through interactions with phage, bacteria, fungi, and insects in addition to traditional host plants. Here we explore what is known about the genetic and genomic basis of these diverse ecological interactions. We highlight how both new and old approaches can be used to unify our understanding of these relationships and map a path forward ...
In the last decade, the worldwide production of kiwi fruit has been highly affected by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a phytopathogenic bacterium; this has led to severe economic losses that are seriously affecting the kiwi fruit trade. The available treatments for this disease are still scarce, with th
Cluster VII was the largest cluster and contained 24 genes repressed in response to bean leaf extract and apoplastic fluid (Figure 3). Thirteen of these genes are known or hypothesized to be associated with pyoverdine production. This group includes pvdS, an extracytoplasmic sigma factor (ECF) needed for the transcription of genes for pyoverdine synthesis, a ferripyoverdine receptor (FpvA) involved in binding of iron-siderophore complexes in P. aeruginosa and a gene encoding a sigma-70 family protein with 34% identity (aa) to sigma factor FpvI, which is needed for fpvA transcription [56, 57]. In this cluster there are also five genes associated with biosynthesis of achromobactin and yersiniabactin, the secondary siderophores in P. syringae pv. syringae B728a and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 respectively (Table 2) [58, 59]. Two of these genes whose products belong to an ABC transporter system are located close to genes for yersiniabactin synthesis on the chromosome and are probably involved in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological detection of syringopeptins produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans. AU - Fogliano, V.. AU - Gallo, M.. AU - Vinale, F.. AU - Ritieni, A.. AU - Randazzo, G.. AU - Greco, M.. AU - Lops, R.. AU - Graniti, A.. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Several strains of plant pathogenic Pseudomonas are known to produce phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides (syringomycin, syringopeptins and related compounds) in vitro. However, detection of these compounds in organic extracts from diseased plant tissues has been attempted by chromatographic methods for syringomycin only. A macromolecular derivative of syringopeptins (KLH-SP(25A+B)) was used to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbit. The antiserum was able to recognize free syringopeptins (SP22 and SP25) with an estimated detection limit of 0.05 μg per well in the indirect ELISA, and 0.01 μg per well in the competitive ELISA. Cross-reaction with other structurally related lipodepsipeptides, e.g. syringomycins and pseudomycin A, ...
The enzyme is involved in production of the rare amino acid 3-methylarginine, which is used by the epiphytic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae as an antibiotic against the related pathogenic species Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea ...
Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization functions as an initial step in plant defense signaling pathways. However, only a few ion channels/transporters have been characterized in the context of plant immunity. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Na+:K+:2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter CCC1 has a dual function in plant immunity. CCC1 functions independently of PM depolarization and negatively regulates pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity. However, CCC1 positively regulates plant basal and effector-triggered resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. In line with the compromised immunity to Pst DC3000, ccc1 mutants show reduced expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial peptides, camalexin, and 4-OH-ICN, as well as pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover, genes involved in cell wall and cuticle biosynthesis are constitutively down-regulated in ccc1 mutants, and the cell walls of these mutants exhibit major ...
Pseudomonas syringae CmaA protein: involved in coronamic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U14657
Pseudomonas syringae is best known as a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in a multitude of hosts, and it has been used as a model organism to understand the biology of plant disease. Pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of P. syringae are also commonly found living as epiphytes and in the wider environment, including water sources such as rivers and precipitation. Ice-nucleating strains of P. syringae are associated with frost damage to crops. The genomes of numerous strains of P. syringae have been sequenced and molecular genetic studies have elucidated many aspects of this pathogens interaction with its host plants.
We report the biocontrol activity of the endophytic bacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus amyloliquefacies against the plant pathogenic bacteriumPseudomonas syringae pv.tomato strain NS4 transformed with theGFPexpressing gene. P. s . pv. tomato strain NS4 was obtained from the transformation of P. s .pv.tomato wild-type strain NW with the plasmid pNKGFP containing GFP-cassette for chromosomal integration. The GFP-marked strain was tested for hypersensitivity and pathogenicity, as well as population studies on the phylloplane, to determine its epidemiology and survival. In all of the bioassays strain NS4 presented similar characteristics to the wild-type, and was hence chosen as the model strain for these studies with antagonistic endophytic bacterial strains. In the biocontrol experiments, tomato plants were preinoculated with the endophytic bacteria 4 days prior to inoculation withP. s .pv.tomatostrains. On the tomato phylloplane the P. s .pv.tomato (strains NW and NS4) populations were ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 14:145-155...David S. Guttman and Jean T. Greenberg...© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society...Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria require a type III secretion apparatus for pathogenesis, presumably to deliver Avr effector proteins directly into plant cells. To extend previous studies of Avr effectors that employed plasmids encoding Avr proteins, we developed a system that permits the int...
Web server == https://rostlab.org/services/pEffect/ == Introduction == The type III secretion system is one of the causes of a wide range of bacterial infections in human, animals and plants. This system comprises a hollow needle-like structure localized on the surface of bacterial cells that injects specific bacterial proteins, the so-called effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of a host cell. During infection, effectors convert host resources to their advantage and promote pathogenicity. We - Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost and Yana Bromberg - at [http://bromberglab.org BrombergLab] and [http://rostlab.org/cms/ RostLab] developed a novel method, pEffect that predicts bacterial type III effector proteins. In our method, we combine sequence-based homology searches and advanced machine learning to accurately predict effector proteins. We use information encoded in the entire protein sequence for our predictions. == Method design == pEffect is a method that combines sequence ...
Researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) have revealed a novel molecular mechanism that triggers plant infection by Pseudomonas syringae, the bacteria responsible for bacterial speck in tomatoes. The scientists from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial College London have revealed how two genes in the bacteria work together to launch the infection process that ultimately kills the plants cells and causes disease, significantly reducing crop quality and yield.. Pseudomonas syringae is responsible for major disease outbreaks in an enormous range of economically important food plants including rice, tomatoes, corn, cucumbers and beans. It is also a problem in wild plants and one Pseudomonas syringae type has recently infected half of all chestnut trees in the UK. The researchers hope that by understanding the molecular basis for how the bacteria attack plant cells they will be able to find new targets for pesticides and devise better ...
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for structural support and intracellular transport, and is therefore a common target of animal pathogens. However, no phytopathogenic effector has yet been demonstrated to specifically target the plant cytoskeleton. Here we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector HopZ1a interacts with tubulin and polymerized microtubules. We demonstrate that HopZ1a is an acetyltransferase activated by the eukaryotic co-factor phytic acid. Activated HopZ1a acetylates itself and tubulin. The conserved autoacetylation site of the YopJ / HopZ superfamily, K289, plays a critical role in both the avirulence and virulence function of HopZ1a. Furthermore, HopZ1a requires its acetyltransferase activity to cause a dramatic decrease in Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule networks, disrupt the plant secretory pathway and suppress cell wall-mediated defense. Together, this study supports the hypothesis that HopZ1a promotes virulence through cytoskeletal and ...
Every year pathogenic organisms cause billions of dollars worth damage to crops and livestock. In agriculture, study of plant-microbe interactions is demanding a special attention to develop management strategies for the destructive pathogen induced diseases that cause huge crop losses every year worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a major bacterial leaf pathogen that causes diseases in a wide range of plant species. Among its various strains, pathovar tomato strain DC3000 (PstDC3000) is asserted to infect the plant host Arabidopsis thaliana and thus, has been accepted as a model system for experimental characterization of the molecular dynamics of plant-pathogen interactions. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a critical role in initiating pathogenesis and maintaining infection. Understanding the PPI network between a host and pathogen is a critical step for studying the molecular basis of pathogenesis. The experimental study of PPIs at a large scale is very scarce and also the high throughput
Pss may be transmitted from one generation of its host to the next via seeds. Hence, inoculation of bean seeds with relatively small numbers of bacteria at the time of planting was selected as a way to naturally initiate the plant-bacterial interaction in the field. The apparently normal growth of the type III secretion mutants on preemergent bean plants was unexpected given the in planta growth defects of hrp mutants observed in laboratory experiments (16, 23). After plant emergence, however, leaf population sizes of the hrcC and hrpJ mutants were significantly lower than B728a. Numbers of the mutants tended to remain constant or decline, even under conditions of intense rains, when population sizes of B728a and the hrpZ mutant increased significantly. The hrcC and hrpJ mutants behaved similarly, although the specific genes mutated and the nature of the mutations differed in the two constructs. Thus, mutations in hrp genes that affected the Hrp secretion system substantially reduced growth and, ...
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides.
Catalyzes the acyloin condensation reaction between C atoms 2 and 3 of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP).
Lee J, Teitzel GM, Greenberg JT. SGT1b is required for HopZ3-mediated suppression of the epiphytic growth of Pseudomonas syringae on N. benthamiana. Plant Signal Behav. 2012 Sep 01; 7(9):1129-31 ...
Very low concentrations of CuSO4 induced a massive leakage of K+ from Pseudomonas syringae ATCC 12271 cells suspended in distilled water, Ca2+/PIPES or Na+/PIPES. Cell suspensions in distilled water, Ca2+/ or Mg2+/PIPES, treated with Cu2+, showed appreciable increases in optical density, whereas suspensions in Na+/PIPES were unaffected. The addition of monovalent cations to suspensions in distilled water, Ca2+/ or Mg2+/PIPES prevented the optical density increase induced by Cu2+, whereas the addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ to suspensions in distilled water did not have this effect. Cells suspended in Na+/PIPES and treated with Cu2+ showed no major ultrastructural alterations, but cells treated with Cu2+ in distilled water showed pronounced plasmolysis. At all Cu2+ concentrations, two types of cells were observed, normal and heavily plasmolysed. An increase in Cu2+ concentration resulted in an increase in the percentage, but not in the degree of plasmolysis, of the plasmolysed cells. Cells suspended in
Anissa Mande, Odile Berge. Mise en place dun outil simple de classification et didentification des bactéries du groupe Pseudomonas syringae : INRA/Département Santé des plantes et environnement/Actualités (19/05/2015). 2015. ⟨hal-02801103⟩ ...
Here is a film we made in the lab to illustrate freezing induced by adding a drop of a suspension of Pseudomonas syringae to water supercooled to -6°C. Please
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal WRKY transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal WRKY transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and reliable field-based assay for detection of the quarantine pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of the most destructive and economically important bacterial disease of kiwifruit. A comparative genomic approach was used on the publicly available P. syringae pv. actinidiae genomic data to select unique target regions for the development of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays able to detect P. syringae pv. actinidiae and to discriminate strains belonging to the highly virulent and globally spreading P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3. Both LAMP assays showed specificity in accordance to their target and were able to detect reliably 125 CFU per reaction in less than 30 min. The developed assays were able to detect the presence of P. syringae pv. actinidiae in symptomatic as well as in asymptomatic naturally infected kiwifruit material, thus increasing the potential of the LAMP assays for ...
Bacterial canker is a destructive disease of kiwifruit caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa). To understand the disease-causing mechanism of Psa, a kiwifruit yeast two-hybrid cDNA library was constructed to identify putative host targets of the Psa Type Three Secreted Effector AvrPto5. In this study, we used the Mate & Plate™ yeast two-hybrid library method for constructing a kiwifruit cDNA library from messenger RNA of young leaves. The constructed library consisted of 2.15 × 106 independent clones with an average insert size of 1.52 kb. The screening of the kiwifruit yeast two-hybrid cDNA library with Psa AvrPto5 revealed the interaction of a V-type proton ATPase subunit-H, a proline rich-protein and heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant protein 26. Among these, heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant protein 26 showed a positive interaction with Psa AvrPto5 as both prey and bait.
Cloning and identification of genes involved in the interaction between the bacterial stone fruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae PV.syringae strain NV and plum ...
Activation of the plant immune system after pathogen attack involves massive transcriptional reprogramming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, clade I TGA transcription factors (TFs) TGA1 and TGA4 have been shown to contribute to defense responses against the virulent biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326). Here, I report that the tga14 double mutant is also more susceptible towards the avirulent strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato avrRPS4 (Pst avrRPS4). When acting within this signaling cascade, which is activated through the plant immune receptor RPS4, clade I TGA TFs function downstream of EDS1 (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILTY1) and downstream of the plant defense hormone salicylic acid (SA). However, they function independently from NPR1 (NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1), a transcriptional co-activator of clade II TGA factors within the SA-dependent defense response systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Microarray analysis unraveled that ...
SUMMARY: Coronatine-producing and non-producing strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea have been examined. We found a connection between copper resistance and synthesis of coronatine. Published data implied that these properties may be encoded on different plasmids. Production of coronatine and copper resistance were also found to be correlated for pv. glycinea in 19 field-isolates from leaf spots of plants in a soybean field and in 28 strains of a bacterial culture collection. Genomic diversity within pv. glycinea was investigated by plasmid profiling, DNA hybridization studies and PCR analysis. All strains unable to produce coronatine (cor-) were sensitive to copper ions and showed no homology to DNA from plasmid pSAY1, which carries a gene cluster for steps in coronatine production. In addition, cor- strains could be distinguished from coronatine-producing strains by a single unique band when amplified by random primer PCR. Plasmid profiles of strains isolated from field-populations during 1983
The occurrence of apricot bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae in Saudi Arabia and factors affecting disease development
Arnold, D. L., Lovell, H., Jackson, R. and Mansfield, J. W. (2011) Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola: From has bean to supermodel. Molecular Plant Pathology , 12 (7). pp. 617-627. ISSN 1464-6722 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14811 Godfrey, S., Lovell, H., Mansfield, J. W., Corry, D., Jackson, R. W. and Arnold, D. L. (2011) The stealth episome: Suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. PLoS Pathogens, 7 (3). ISSN 1553-7366 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14583 Lovell, H., Jackson, R. W., Mansfield, J. W., Godfrey, S. A. C., Hancock, J. T., Desikan, R. and Arnold, D. L. (2011) In planta conditions induce genomic changes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Molecular Plant Pathology, 12 (2). pp. 167-176. ISSN 1464-6722 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11468 Godfrey, S., Mansfield, J. W., Corry, D., Lovell, H., Jackson, R. and Arnold, D. L. (2010) Confocal imaging of pseudomonas syringae pv. ...
Pseudomonas syringae is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium with polar flagella. As a plant pathogen, it can infect a wide range of species, and exists as over 50 different pathovars, all of which are available to researchers from international culture collections such as the NCPPB, ICMP, and others. Whether these pathovars represent a single species is unclear. P. syringae is a member of the Pseudomonas genus, and based on 16S rRNA analysis, it has been placed in the P. syringae group. It is named after the lilac tree (Syringa vulgaris), from which it was first isolated. P. syringae tests negative for arginine dihydrolase and oxidase activity, and forms the polymer levan on sucrose nutrient agar. Many, but not all, strains secrete the lipodepsinonapeptide plant toxin syringomycin, and it owes its yellow fluorescent appearance when cultured in vitro on Kings B medium to production of the siderophore pyoverdin. P. syringae also produces ice nucleation active (INA) proteins which cause water ...
Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterial plant pathogen that infects a large variety of agricultural crops. Bacteria colonize leaf surfaces and enter plant mesophyll tissue through wounds or stomata. Once inside, P. syringae can alter plant cell signaling pathways and suppress plant defense responses enabling it to grow in the intercellular space in the mesophyll. P. syringae possesses at least two types of virulence factors that suppress plant defense responses: i) small phytotoxin molecules, and ii) effector proteins that are translocated through specialized secretion systems. Gram-negative bacteria possess at least six types of secretion systems. The P. syringae type II and type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS) are both involved in secreting proteins that are important for P. syringae pathogenesis. Functions of the other secretion systems have not been explored. This study investigates the role of the newly discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) in P. syringae interaction with plants. The
Levansucrases are bacterial enzymes belonging to family 68 of glycoside hydro¬lases (GHs). They catalyze hydrolysis of their substrate but also have prominent fructosyl transferase activity. The main substrate for levansucrases is sucrose which is major disaccharide in plants. Raffinose, likewisely abundant in some plants, is also used as a substrate. Spectrum of reaction products of levan¬sucrases comprises highly polymeric levan and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of various degree of polymerization (DP). The entity of levansucrase reaction products depends on the enzyme and its origin, but also on reaction conditions enabling manipulation of the product spectrum. Levansucrases share highly similar five-blade β-propeller fold with other GH68 and 32 enzymes including bacterial inulosucrases, plant and microbial invertases, fructan exohydrolases and fructosyl transferases. In this thesis, levansucrases Lsc2 and Lsc3 from a plant pathogenic bac¬terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. This pathogen affects Actinidia species (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) worldwide. The main symptoms are oozing of whitish or reddish exudates from cankers present along the trunk and branches, spots surrounded by yellow halos on the leaves, twig dieback, fruit collapse, leaf and plant wilting. The disease is a serious threat for kiwifruit production, due to high tree mortality and reduced production and, consequently, having an increasing socio-economic impact. The recent severe outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) regions and in New Zealand has been related to the appearance of a local, very aggressive aplotype of Psa.called Psa biovar 3. Possible pathways of pathogen introduction and disease spread into new territories are Actinidia spp. plants for planting, which represent the main pathway for long distance dissemination
The nucleotide sequence of a 4.5-kilobase copper resistance determinant from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato revealed four open reading frames (ORFs) in the same orientation. Deletion and site-specific mutational analyses indicated that the first two ORFs were essential for copper resistance; the last two ORFs were required for full resistance, but low-level resistance could be conferred in their absence. Five highly conserved, direct 24-base repeats were found near the beginning of the second ORF, and a similar, but less conserved, repeated region was found in the middle of the first ORF. ...
Author: Sreekanta, S. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2015; Title: The Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinase PCRK1 Contributes to Pattern-Triggered Immunity against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant surface-localized pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) perceive conserved microbial features, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), resulting in disease resistance. PAMP perception leads to calcium influx, MAPK activation, a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by RbohD, accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), and callose deposition. Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRKs) belong to a specific PRR family and are important players in plant innate immunity. Here, we report that LecRK-IX.2 is a positive regulator of PRR-triggered immunity. Pathogen infection activated the transcription of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) LecRK-IX.2, and the LecRK-IX.2 knockout lines exhibited enhanced susceptibility to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, LecRK-IX.2 is capable of inducing RbohD phosphorylation, likely by recruiting calcium-dependent protein kinases to trigger ROS production in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of LecRK-IX.2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide analysis of bacterial determinants of plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens. AU - Cheng, Xu. AU - Etalo, Desalegn W.. AU - van de Mortel, Judith E.. AU - Dekkers, Ester. AU - Nguyen, Linh. AU - Medema, Marnix H. AU - Raaijmakers, Jos M.. N1 - 6370, ME; Data Archiving: data ia archived at GEO databank. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) promotes growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, enhances greening and lateral root formation, and induces systemic resistance (ISR) against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Here, targeted and untargeted approaches were adopted to identify bacterial determinants and underlying mechanisms involved in plant growth promotion and ISR by Pf.SS101. Based on targeted analyses, no evidence was found for volatiles, lipopeptides and siderophores in plant growth promotion by Pf.SS101. Untargeted, genome-wide analyses of 7,488 random transposon ...
lab in the summer of 2014. She came from a position as a Research Support Specialist in the School of Integrative Plant Sciences in the Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section at Cornell University where she was studying gene regulation in a bacterial plant pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and interactions with the plant host.. Bronwyn completed her undergraduate and Masters studies in microbiology and biochemistry at the University of Cape Town (South Africa) and received her PhD from Stellenbosch University (South Africa). After moving to the United States she worked at Williams College, MA as a research assistant and in the Department of Microbiology at Cornell University as a postdoctoral associate.. Here in the Lovette lab, Bronwyn is responsible for the (hopefully) smooth running of the laboratory and for training students and visitors in molecular techniques. She is looking forward to lending her expertise in developing new next generation techniques in the lab. When she is not ...
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), biovar 3 causes a destructive disease of kiwifruit. Psa was first identified in New Zealand on 5 November 2010 on Actinidia chinensis Hort16A (Zespri Gold) kiwifruit vines in the Te Puke region and has now spread to 81% of kiwifruit orchards. Intensive spray programmes based upon Actigard® and copper-based products have been implemented by growers, but the high usage of copper products is unsustainable. Therefore, breeding new cultivars with greater resistance to Psa has become a priority. Plant and Food Research (PFR) has developed a range of bioassays to characterise kiwifruit germplasm (e.g., tissue culture plantlets, potted seedling and mature vines) for resistance to Psa. The woody-stem bioassay measures Psa lesion development and bacterial prolifera¬tion on wound-inoculated cane segments (bud wood). The measurements are combined to provide a woody stem bioassay index (WSBI) which ranges from 0 (resistant) to 100 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipodepsipeptides from Pseudomonas syringae are partially proteolyzed and are not absorbed by humans. T2 - an in vitro study. AU - Fiore, A.. AU - Laparra, J. M.. AU - Farre, R.. AU - Fullone, M. R.. AU - Grgurina, I.. AU - Gallo, M.. AU - Fogliano, V.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - There are some concerns about the use of Pseudomonas-based products as biocontrol agents because of the hemolytic activity shown by their metabolites. The effects of Pseudomonas lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) on mammals via ingestion and the LDP degradation during the digestion and intestinal permeability have not been evaluated. In this research, the susceptibility of different LDPs to degradation was assayed with enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion, and intestinal permeability to LDPs was investigated in an in vitro system based on an intestinal cell layer system. Results demonstrated that trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolyze up to 50% of the various LDPs, and that proteolysis was further increased by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Natural variation for unusual host responses and flagellin-mediated immunity against Pseudomonas syringae in genetically diverse tomato accessions. AU - Roberts, Robyn. AU - Mainiero, Samantha. AU - Powell, Adrian F.. AU - Liu, Alexander E.. AU - Shi, Kai. AU - Hind, Sarah R.. AU - Strickler, Susan R.. AU - Collmer, Alan. AU - Martin, Gregory B.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dani Zamir, Dilip Panthee, Sam Hutton, Martha Mutschler, Jim Giovannoni, David Francis and Mathilde Causse for providing seeds. We thank Barbara Kunkel for the DC3000?aldA, ?aldB and ?aldAB strains and Brian Swingle for the DC3000?iaaL strain. We thank Noam Eckshtain-Levi for supporting experiments, Sam Wolfe, Nick Glynos and Nicole Avellanet for glasshouse assistance, and Brian Bell, Jay Miller, Brittany Fletcher and Nick Vail for plant care. Funding was provided by National Science Foundation grant no. IOS-1546625 (GBM, ARC, SRS). KS was partially supported by the China Scholarship Council and the ...
Functional peptides are expected to be beneficial compounds that improve our quality of life. To address the growing need for functional peptides, we have examined peptide synthesis by using microbial enzymes. l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes the condensation of unprotected amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner and is applicable to fermentative production. Hence, Lal is a promising enzyme to achieve cost-effective synthesis. To obtain a Lal with novel substrate specificity, we focused on the putative Lal involved in the biosynthesis of the dipeptidic phytotoxin designated tabtoxin. The tabS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas syringae NBRC14081 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant TabS protein produced showed the broadest substrate specificity of any known Lal; it detected 136 of 231 combinations of amino acid substrates when dipeptide synthesis was examined. In addition, some new substrate specificities were identified and unusual amino acids, e.g., l-pipecolic acid, hydroxy-l
Common blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, halo blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, and brown spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae infect the leaves and pods of many different common beans. Not all beans are susceptible to these three bacterial diseases.. Most bacterial leaf infections initially appear as a small angular or circular, water-soaked (dark green) spot. As these infections develop, the spots turn brown and dry, while a yellow halo of leaf tissue encircles the brown spot. Severely infected leaves often appear yellow and shredded as the dry, brown spots disintegrate or fall from the leaf. Halo blight infected leaves are usually the most yellow. Pods infected by these three bacterial diseases develop water-soaked spots, which later turn brown. It is possible to have both water-soaked spots and brown spots on the same pod.. The best way to control these bacterial diseases is through prevention. Plant commercially grown disease-free seed. ...
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Author Summary Gram-negative bacterial pathogens employ type-III effector (T3E) proteins to suppress host immunity and promote disease symptoms. AvrE-family T3Es, which are widely distributed among plant-pathogenic bacteria, suppress host defense responses and also contribute to water-soaking, which is perhaps the most common symptom of bacterial diseases and likely results in the release of nutrients from host cells to promote pathogen growth. Despite the central virulence functions of AvrE-family T3Es, their mode of action remains enigmatic largely due to their cell toxicity. We report here that two AvrE-family T3Es, WtsE from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and AvrE1 from the tomato and Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, each target protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complexes in susceptible hosts via direct interaction/association with specific B regulatory subunits. Chemical inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PP2A activity is required for the virulence
ID Q500S2_PSEU2 Unreviewed; 522 AA. AC Q500S2; DT 07-JUN-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 07-JUN-2005, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 74. DE SubName: Full=Sulfate transporter/antisigma-factor antagonist STAS:Sulphate transporter {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAY35100.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Psyr_0026 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAY35100.1}; OS Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (strain B728a). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; OC Pseudomonadaceae; Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas syringae. OX NCBI_TaxID=205918 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAY35100.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000426}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAY35100.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000426} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=B728a {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAY35100.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000426}; RX PubMed=16043691; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0504930102; RA Feil H., Feil W.S., Chain P., Larimer F., Dibartolo G., Copeland A., RA Lykidis A., Trong S., Nolan M., Goltsman E., Thiel J., Malfatti ...
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U radu su prikazane patogene, bakteriološke odlike izolata bakterije Pseudomnas syringae poreklom iz trešnje, kao i njihova molekularna karakterizacija primenom REP-PCR metode. Dva tipa simptoma bolesti zapažena su u savremenim zasadima trešnje na području Beograda, Novog Sada, Topole i Šapca. Prvi tip simptoma se ispoljava u vidu nekroze cvetnih i lisnih pupoljaka trešnje, a drugi u vidu nekroze višegodišnjih grana. Iz nekrotičnog tkiva su izolovane Gram negativne bakterije , koje fluoresciraju na King podlozi B, a glukozu metabolišu isključivo u aerobnim uslovima; bakterija stvara levan i prouzrokuje HR duvana ali ne stvara oksidazu, pektinazu u arginin dehidrolazu (LOPAT +---+) što su odlike karakteristične za bakteriju P. syringae. U pogledu patogenosti izolovanih sojeva, kao i njihovih diferencijalnih biohemijskih testova (GATT) proučavani izolati su svrstani u dve jasno izdiferencirane grupe. Prvu čine sojevi izolovani iz nekrozom zahavćenih grana trešnje, koji ...
The well known phenomenon of chlorotic thistle tips formerly, also on this site, was associated with the rust fungus Puccinia punctiformis. Still unexplained is why this phenomenon in the field seems to be limited to creeping thistle: according to the literature the pathovar tagetis infests several more Asteraceae. ...
Investigating the processes of infection of Pae on the woody parts of horse chestnut, the potential for its survival and dissemination in soil, water and other environmental substrates, its geographical origin of Pae and its pathways of spread in Europe and the biological function of Pae-specific genes which are implicated in virulence on a tree host
TPC/The COM founder, Bethany Huot, will be presenting on the Dual impact of elevated temperature on plant defense and bacterial virulence in Arabidopsis.. Environmental conditions have profound effects on plant disease development; however, the underlying molecular bases are not well understood. We found that elevated temperature significantly increases the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 independent of major PIF proteins, which are implicated in thermosensing in Arabidopsis. Instead, elevated temperature promotes translocation of bacterial effector proteins into plant cells and causes a loss of ICS1-mediated salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis. Global transcriptome analysis identified a major temperature-sensitive node of SA signalling in Arabidopsis, impacting approximately 70% of benzothiadiazole (BTH)-regulated genes, including ICS1 and the canonical SA marker gene, PR1. Remarkably, BTH can effectively protect Arabidopsis against Pst DC3000 ...
The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is a useful model for understanding the role of stress adaptation in leaf colonization. We investigated the mechanistic basis of differences in the osmotolerance of two P. syringae strains, B728a and DC3000. Consistent with its higher survival rates following inoculation onto leaves, B728a exhibited superior osmotolerance over DC3000 and higher rates of uptake of plant-derived osmoprotective compounds. A global transcriptome analysis of B728a and DC3000 following an osmotic upshift demonstrated markedly distinct responses between the strains; B728a showed primarily upregulation of genes, including components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and alginate biosynthetic pathways, whereas DC3000 showed no change or repression of orthologous genes, including downregulation of the T3SS. DC3000 uniquely exhibited improved growth upon deletion of the biosynthetic genes for the compatible solute N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide (NAGGN) in a minimal medium, due
Stomata are openings on the surfaces of leaves that mediate the exchange of gases, which is essential for respiration and osmotic balance. However, these doorways also provide a route by which infectious bacteria can gain access to plant internal tissues. Stomata open and close in response to changes in exposure to light, humidity, and other stimuli, but Melotto et al. show that they can also be shut as a defense against bacterial invasion. Arabidopsis closed their stomata within 2 hours of exposure to the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, but reopened them a few hours later. Microscopic observation showed that the bacteria were able to detect and migrate toward open stomata, perhaps sensing nutrients or other molecules released from the plant interior. Flg22, a peptide derived from the bacterial flagellin protein, or lipopolysaccharide, a component of the bacterial outer cell wall, could trigger stomatal closure, and plants are known to have immune receptors that recognize these ...
The evolutionary dynamics of pathogens are critically important for disease outcomes, prevalence and emergence. In this talk I will discuss some specific ecological conditions that promote the long-term maintenance of virulence polymorphisms in a pathogen population. Recent theory predicts that evolution towards increased virulence can be reversed if less virulent social cheats exploit virulent cooperator pathogens. However, there is little evidence that social exploitation operates within natural pathogen populations. I will demonstrate that for the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, major virulence polymorphisms are maintained at unexpectedly high frequencies in the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Experiments reveal that the fitness costs of decreased virulence are eliminated in mixed infections, whereas less virulent strains have a fitness advantage in non-host environments. These results suggest that niche differentiation contributes to the maintenance of virulence polymorphisms, and that both ...
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 24-bit Color) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas syringae group; Pseudomonas syringae group genomosp. 1; Pseudomonas ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Pseudomonadales; Pseudomonadaceae; Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas syringae group; Pseudomonas syringae group genomosp. 1; Pseudomonas ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000) is an extracellular model plant pathogen, yet its potential to produce secreted effectors that manipulate the apoplast has been under investigated. Here we identified 131 candidate small, secreted, non-annotated proteins from the PtoDC3000 genome, most of which are common to Pseudomonas species and potentially expressed during apoplastic colonization. We produced 43 of these proteins through a custom-made gateway-compatible expression system for extracellular bacterial proteins, and screened them for their ability to inhibit the secreted immune protease C14 of tomato using competitive activity-based protein profiling. This screen revealed C14-inhibiting protein-1 (Cip1), which contains motifs of the chagasin-like protease inhibitors. Cip1 mutants are less virulent on tomato, demonstrating the importance of this effector in apoplastic immunity. Cip1 also inhibits immune protease Pip1, which is known to suppress PtoDC3000 infection, but has a lower
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Background: Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial plant pathogen, and strains of P. syringae may be assigned to different pathovars based on host specificity among different plant species. The genomes of P ...
1. Macho AlbertoP, ZipfelC (2014) Plant PRRs and the Activation of Innate Immune Signaling. Molecular Cell 54: 263-272.. 2. BollerT, FelixG (2009) A Renaissance of Elicitors: Perception of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns and Danger Signals by Pattern-Recognition Receptors. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60: 379-406.. 3. KumarH, KawaiT, AkiraS (2011) Pathogen Recognition by the Innate Immune System. International Reviews of Immunology 30: 16-34.. 4. BardySL, NgSYM, JarrellKF (2003) Prokaryotic motility structures. Microbiology 149: 295-304.. 5. ClarkeCR, ChinchillaD, HindSR, TaguchiF, MikiR, et al. (2013) Allelic variation in two distinct Pseudomonas syringae flagellin epitopes modulates the strength of plant immune responses but not bacterial motility. New Phytologist 200: 847-860.. 6. RobatzekS, WirthmuellerL (2013) Mapping FLS2 function to structure: LRRs, kinase and its working bits. Protoplasma 250: 671-681.. 7. MonaghanJ, ZipfelC (2012) Plant pattern recognition receptor complexes at ...
Potential coronamic acid exporter of 236 aas and 5 TMSs. Coronamic acid (CMA), an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid derived from isoleucine, functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of coronatine, a chlorosis-inducing phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180. The DNA required for CMA biosynthesisincludes three distinct open reading frames (ORFs) which share a common orientation for transcription. Two ORFs in the operon include CmaT, a thioesterase and CmaU, a potential exporter (Ullrich and Bender 1994). ...
Successful plant pathogens produce a suite of small molecules called effectors that are injected into plant cells and perturb plant defense.
A family of bacterial cysteine protease type III effectors utilizes acylation-dependent and -independent strategies to localize to plasma membranes. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 05; 284(23):15867-79 ...
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The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Saccharothrix syringae, is involved in the biosynthesis of nocamycin I and nocamycin II ...
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Pseudomonas syringae[edit]. Pseudomonas syringae overwinters on residue. Uninfected seed, rotation, and removal of residue are ...
Pseudomonas syringae). Another, "atmospheric water generation" or air to water, uses dehumidification and is used by the ...
Toben, H.-M.; Rudoph, K (1996). "Pseudomonas syringae pv. coriandricola, Incitant of Bacterial Umbel Blight and Seed Decay of ...
... is a monocyclic β-lactam produced by P. syringae pv. tabaci, coronafaciens, and garcae. Pseudomonas syringae pv. ... Tabtoxin, also known as wildfire toxin, is a simple monobactam phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. It is the precursor ... Bender, Carol L.; Alarcón-Chaidez, Francisco; Gross, Dennis C. (1 June 1999). "Pseudomonas syringae Phytotoxins: Mode of Action ... "l-Amino Acid Ligase from Pseudomonas syringae Producing Tabtoxin Can Be Used for Enzymatic Synthesis of Various Functional ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea attacks all of the above-ground parts of soybean, but symptoms are typically seen on the mid- ... Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea should be monitored carefully in seed production fields as it is seed borne and can affect ... Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea overwinters in crop residue and in seeds. Infection usually begins when the infected plant ... Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea accomplishes this by using the type three secretion system to inject a variety of ...
Pseudomonas syringae actinidiae (PSA) was first identified in Japan in the 1980s. This bacterial strain has been controlled and ... "Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from Recent Outbreaks of Kiwifruit Bacterial Canker Belong to Different Clones That ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. Aesculi is a bacterium that causes bleeding canker of horse chestnut. The pathogen overwinters in the ... In the past few years, the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has emerged as a new and virulent agent for this ... Initially the outbreak was attributed to Phytophthora, until DNA tests suggested that a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae was ... Infections by the gram-negative fluorescent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi are a new phenomenon, and have ...
"Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. nov., nom. rev., the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and ... A species of bacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. oleae, induces tumour growth in the shoots. Certain lepidopterous ...
Pseudomonas spp. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causes tomato plants to produce less fruit, and it "continues to adapt to the ...
"Bacterial rot of grapevine caused by Pseudomonas syringae". NSW DPI Agriculture. National Wine and Grape Industry Centre. ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000: a model pathogen for probing disease susceptibility and hormone signaling in pants. ... 2008). "Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPto blocks innate immunity by targeting receptor kinases". Current Biology. 18 (1): 74 ... The Pseudomonas tomato resistance gene (Pto) belongs to a class of its own. It encodes a Ser/Thr kinase but has no LRR. It ... AvrPto is an ancient effector that is conserved in many P. syringae strains, whereas Pto R gene is only found in a few wild ...
For example, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is known to cause angular leaf spot of cucumber, Pseudomonas syringae pv. ... Bacterial leaf spots caused by Pseudomonas show red-brown spots which can distort the infected leaves, whilst those caused by ... 2020). Bacterial Leaf Spot (Pseudomonas spp. & Xanthomonas spp.)-Hort Answers - University of Illinois Extension. Retrieved 10 ... The most common cause of bacterial leaf spots are by bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. ...
Most plants, in particular, can safely reach temperatures of −4 °C to −12 °C. Certain bacteria, notably Pseudomonas syringae, ... "Ice nucleation induced by pseudomonas syringae". Applied Microbiology. 28 (3): 456-9. doi:10.1128/aem.28.3.456-459.1974. PMC ...
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA), which affects kiwifruit, is thought to have arrived in New ...
Certain bacteria, notably Pseudomonas syringae, produce specialized proteins that serve as potent ice nucleators, which they ... Cryptobiosis Maki LR, Galyan EL, Chang-Chien MM, Caldwell DR (1974). "Ice Nucleation Induced by Pseudomonas syringae". Applied ...
citri (citrus canker), Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (kiwifruit Psa outbreak), and Xylella fastidiosa. In the marine ... In the last decades, it has been found that orders belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, like Pseudomonas, Moraxella, are able to ... Shiraishi A, Matsushita N, Hougetsu T (August 2010). "Nodulation in black locust by the Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonas sp. and ... A number of human pathogens belong to this class, including Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...
Charkowski, Amy Olymbia (1998). Pseudomonas syringae HRP gene pathogenicity islands. ISBN 978-0-591-96970-2. OCLC 841780074. " ... "The Pseudomonas syringae Hrp pathogenicity island has a tripartite mosaic structure composed of a cluster of type III secretion ...
Pseudomonas syringae causes bacterial speck disease in tomatoes by hijacking the plant's jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. This ... Zhao, Y; Thilmony, R; Bender, CL; Schaller, A; He, SY; Howe, GA (November 2003). "Virulence systems of Pseudomonas syringae pv ... By activating the JA wound response pathway, P. syringae could divert resources from its host's immune system and infect more ... syringae and unresponsive to COR; additionally, applying MeJA was sufficient to rescue virulence in COR mutant bacteria. ...
Certain bacteria, notably Pseudomonas syringae, are particularly effective at triggering frost formation, raising the ... "Ice Nucleation Induced by Pseudomonas syringae". Applied Microbiology. 28 (3): 456-459. doi:10.1128/aem.28.3.456-459.1974. PMC ...
... (TGT) is a bacterial phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis. When TGT was first isolated, it was ... Mitchell, R. E.; Durbin, R. D. (1981). "Tagetitoxin, a toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis: purification and ... a phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tagetis". Phytochemistry. 22 (6): 1425-1428. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84028-5. ... Caused by Pseudomonas tagetis Hellmers". Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 29 (4): 831-9. doi:10.1071/AR9780831. ...
... common leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; crown wart caused by Physoderma alfalfae; downy mildew caused by ...
As noted above, there are many procedures that can be used to manage an infection of Pseudomonas syringae but there is no cure ... Halo blight of bean is a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Halo blight's pathogen is a gram- ... Halo Blight is an important disease to beans, a money crop, which allow the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae to continue its ... Jin, Q. "Type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae." Microb Infect. (2003):301-310. Bretz, J.R. "Role of type III ...
It infects Pseudomonas bacteria (typically plant-pathogenic P. syringae). It has a three-part, segmented, double-stranded RNA ...
The Pseudomonas syringae HrpZ Cation Channel (HrpZ) Family (TC# 1.C.56) is a member of the RTX-toxin superfamily. The Harpin- ... "1.C.56 The Pseudomonas syringae HrpZ Target Host Cell Membrane Cation Channel (HrpZ) Family". Transporter Classification ... PSS (HrpZ; TC# 1.C.56.1.1) protein is secreted by Pseudomonas syringae via the Hrp secretion system (IIISP; TC# 3.A.6) and ... from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola binds to lipid bilayers and forms an ion-conducting pore in vitro ...
Work in his laboratory has identified and characterised bacterial effector proteins from both Pseudomonas syringae and ... Genetics and biochemistry of toxigenicity in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola : production, transport, and immunity to ...
tritici, Khaosaad et al., 2007), leaf spot (Pseudomonas syringae, Ramos Solano et al., 2008) and root rot (Fusarium culmorum, ...
Her lab especially works with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Alternaria brassicicola ... Arabidopsis PECTIN METHYLESTERASEs contribute to immunity against Pseudomonas syringae. Plant Physiology. 2014; 164(2):1093- ...
Pseudomonas syringae), pollen, fungal spores and volcanic ash amongst others. However, the exact nucleation potential of each ...
"Engineering bacteriocin-mediated resistance against the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae". Plant Biotechnology Journal. 18 ( ... Furthermore, bacteriocins active against E. coli, Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been produced in planta with the ... Michel-Briand Y, Baysse C (2002). "The pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Biochimie. 84 (5-6): 499-510. doi:10.1016/s0300-9084 ... Ghequire MG, De Mot R (July 2014). "Ribosomally encoded antibacterial proteins and peptides from Pseudomonas". FEMS ...
Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: ... Pseudomonas phage phi6 Pseudomonas phage phi8 Pseudomonas phage phi12 Pseudomonas phage phi13 Pseudomonas phage phi2954 ... They did this by culturing various leaves in Lysogeny Broth and then plating the broth on lawns of Pseudomonas syringae pv ... Pseudomonas bacteria serve as the natural host. Pseudomonas phage phi6 was the first virus in this family to be discovered and ...
... mengajukan permohonan otorisasi pemerintah AS untuk melakukan tes lapangan dengan galur minus-es Pseudomonas syringae untuk ... syringae menjadi organisme yang dimodifikasi secara genetik (GMO) pertama yang dilepaskan ke lingkungan [32] ketika ladang ...
The bacterial grease-spot of the passion fruit is caused by Pseudomonas syringae.[22] It appears with olive-green to brown ...
Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. nov., nom. rev., - ಆಲಿಯೇಸೀ ಮತ್ತು ನೆರಿಯಮ್‌ ಆಲಿಯಾಂಡರ್‌ ಮೇಲೆ ...
Pseudomonas jinjuensis. *Pseudomonas koreensis. *Pseudomonas libanensis. *Pseudomonas marginalis. *Pseudomonas syringae. R. * ...
... syringae and R. solanacearum which cause leaf browning and other issues in potatoes, tomatoes, and bananas.[21] ... which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria ...
... syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (2003), P. syringae pathovar syringae B728a (2005), P. syringae pathovar phaseolica 1448A (2005 ... such as pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa[14] and thioquinolobactin by Pseudomonas fluorescens,.[15] Pseudomonas species also ... P. syringae. 'P. tomato'. P. viridiflava. incertae sedis P. abietaniphila. P. acidophila. P. agarici. P. alcaliphila. P. ... P. syringae group P. amygdali. P. avellanae. P. caricapapayae. P. cichorii. P. coronafaciens. P. ficuserectae. 'P. helianthi'. ...
... transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence". Plant J. 64 (2): 318-30. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
... an Arabidopsis disease resistance locus specifying recognition of Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene ... The first R-gene cloned in A. thaliana was RPS2 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringe 2), which is responsible for recognition of ... syringae pv tomato strain DC3000. Recognition of avrRpt2 by RPS2 occurs via the guardee protein RIN4, which is cleaved . ...
"De novo assembly using low-coverage short read sequence data from the rice pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. oryzae". Genome ...
... government authorisation to perform field tests with the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae to protect crops from frost, ... syringae became the first genetically modified organism (GMO) to be released into the environment[35] when a strawberry field ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causes tomato plants to produce less fruit, and it "continues to adapt to the tomato by ...
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum trifolii, Common leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Crown wart caused ...
... syringae patovar tomato DC3000 (2003), P. syringae patovar syringae B728a (2005), P. syringae patovar phaseolica 1448A (2005), ... P. syringae. 'P. tomato'. P. viridiflava. incertae sedis P. abietaniphila. P. acidophila. P. agarici. P. alcaliphila. P. ... Grupo de P. syringae P. amygdali. P. avellanae. P. caricapapayae. P. cichorii. P. coronafaciens. P. ficuserectae. 'P. helianthi ... O nome común que se utiliza para Pseudomonas é "pseudomonas" ou "pseudomónadas" (variante dalgúns dos casos non nominativos da ...
L-lysine 6-monooxygenase tetramer + 44 I (l.blue), Pseudomonas syringae. Identifiers. ...
An example of indirect recognition: AvrPphB is a type III effector protein secreted by Pseudomonas syringae. This is a protease ...
... suffered devastating attacks by a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with some of the New Zealand ...
Lindeberg, M; Cunnac S, Collmer A (2012). "Pseudomonas syringae type III effector repertoires: last words in endless arguments ...
The water is sometimes mixed with ina (ice nucleation-active) proteins from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. These proteins ...
"DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas ... Ash bacterial canker, now understood to be caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, rather than Pseudomonas syringae. ... Bleeding canker of horse chestnut, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi ... After DNA-relatedness studies Pseudomonas savastanoi has been instated as a new species.[1] ...
... the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae became the first genetically modified organism to be released into the environment ...
"DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas ... ribicola (which infects Ribes aureum) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. primulae (which infects Primula species) were incorporated ... Following ribotypical analysis misidentified strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. ... Pseudomonas viridiflava can survive on the surface of the plant as an epiphyte, meaning it is present on leaves without disease ...
In 1984, "Contribution of tabtoxin to the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabac" was published in Physiological Plant ...
"DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas ... It was formerly classified as a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae, but following ribotypical analysis, it was instated as a ... Pseudomonas tremae is a white, Gram-negative, non-fluorescent, motile, flagellated, aerobic bacterium that infects Trema ... Type strain of Pseudomonas tremae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e. ...
"DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas ... rather than Pseudomonas syringae. After DNA-relatedness studies Pseudomonas savastanoi has been instated as a new species. ... caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis Cypress ... now understood to be caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, ...
actinidiae (PSA), a variant of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, were present in a Bay of Plenty kiwifruit orchard in the ... In November 2010, plant symptoms were discovered that suggested that Pseudomonas syringae pv. ... alleging that the Government was liable for losses caused by the incursion of the kiwifruit vine disease Pseudomonas syringae ( ...
... (COR) is a toxin produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is involved in causing stomata to re-open after ...
malonate decarboxylase ACP [Pseudomonas syringae] malonate decarboxylase ACP [Pseudomonas syringae]. gi,644967974,ref,WP_ ...
Pseudomonas. › Pseudomonas syringae group. › Pseudomonas syringae group genomosp. 1. › Pseudomonas syringae. See also. › NCBI. ...
Pseudomonas. › Pseudomonas syringae group. › Pseudomonas syringae group genomosp. 7. See also. › NCBI. ...
... such as Pseudomonas avellanae, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pseudomonas amygdali, and Pseudomonas cerasi. Pseudomonas syringae tests ... "DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas ... Pseudomonas syringae is a member of the genus Pseudomonas, and based on 16S rRNA analysis, it has been placed in the P. ... It has been successful in the cherry rootstock with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, but so far, no other species are 100% ...
Pseudomonas syringae by the vexed muddler as a T-Shirt, Classic T-Shirt, Tri-blend T-Shirt, Lightweight Hoodie, Fitted Scoop T ... Pseudomonas syringae. Slim Fit T-Shirt. Designed by the vexed muddler. $17.36 ...
... made in the study of the secondary metabolism of the widespread phytopathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae ... Detection of Syringomycin in plant tissues infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, in: Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars ... Zhang, J.H., Quigley, N.B., and Gross, D.C., 1995, Analysis of the syrB and syrC gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ... Di Giorgio, D., Camoni, L., and Ballio, A., 1994, Toxins of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae affect proton transport across ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae FF5, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae FF5, whole ... Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae FF5, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ACXZ00000000.1 ...
... This resource is a laboratory exercise that will ... Disciplines with similar materials as Electroporation and marker exchange of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. ... Other materials like Electroporation and marker exchange of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. ... Edit comment for material Electroporation and marker exchange of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. ...
Genomic DNA from Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola strain 1448A TypeStrain=False Application: ... Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola ATCC ® BAA-978D™ Designation: ... Pseudomonas syringae van Hall pathovar phaseolicola (ATCC® BAA-978D™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Pseudomonas ... Pseudomonas syringae van Hall pathovar phaseolicola ATCC® BAA-978D™ dried Total DNA: 10 µg ...
X-ray crystal structure of short-chain dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae.. Osipiuk, J., Xu, X., Cui, H., Nocek, B., ... Crystal structure of short-chain dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3GEM/pdb ... Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola 1448A. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PSPPH_1072. ... Find proteins for Q48MN0 (Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (strain 1448A / Race 6)) ...
em,syringae ,/em,is most important on woody plants. ,em,Pseudomonas syringae,/em, pv. ,em,syringae ,/em,occurs on nursery and ... syringae is most important on woody plants. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae occurs on nursery and landscape plants throughout ... Pseudomonas syringae: A common pathogen on woody plants. The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, is an opportunistic pathogen which ... Some populations of Pseudomonas syringae are resistant to copper. In some plants, the application of chemicals that induce a ...
Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was cultivated at in a medium containing 0.5% DL-threo-. -phenylserine, 1.5% polypepton, 0.2% K2HPO4 ... The gene encoding D-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide ... Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of L-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15. Sakuko Ueshima,1 ... dependent d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15: purification and biochemical characterization," Journal ...
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis - Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download ...
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis - Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download ...
Plasmids isolated from five strains of the bean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola were characterized by ... Quant R, Mills D (1981) DNA homologies among plasmids of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. In: Lozano JC (ed) Proc 5th Int ... Szabo LJ, Volpe J, Mills D (1981) Identification of F′-like plasmids of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. In: Lozano JC ( ... Curiale MS, Mills D (1982) Integration and partial excision of a cryptic plasmid in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. J ...
... the agriculturally important plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, and the nonpathogenic bioremediation agent Pseudomonas putida ... The complete genome sequence of the Arabidopsis and tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. C. Robin Buell, ... We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), ... Abbreviations: CMA, coronamic acid; COR, coronatine; DC3000, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid ...
... hrmA gene cluster of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain 61 is sufficient to enable nonpathogenic strains of Pseudomonas ... hrp genes of Pseudomonas syringae are expressed in planta as a result of a regulatory cascade involving the gene products of ... Hrp pilus: An hrp-dependent bacterial surface appendage produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Elina Roine, ... Here we report that Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (race 0) produces a filamentous surface appendage (Hrp pilus ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato str. DC3000. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: hemD, PSPTO_0129. EC: 4.2.1.75. ... Find proteins for Q88B90 (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (strain ATCC BAA-871 / DC3000)) ... Crystal structure of uroporphyrinogen III synthase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Peng, S.X., Zhang, H., Gao, Y. ... Crystal structure of uroporphyrinogen III synthase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3RE1/pdb ...
... K. A. Garrett and H. F. Schwartz , ... syringae was undetected on one organ but abundant in samples from the other organ. P. syringae pv. syringae strains recovered ... Epiphytic Pseudomonas syringae on Dry Beans Treated with Copper-Based Bactericides. January 1998 , Volume 82 , Number 1. Pages ... The response of epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae and other bacteria on dry bean plants to four copper-based ...
... Dominik K. Großkinsky, Eric ... Abscisic Acid-Cytokinin Antagonism Modulates Resistance Against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco. December 2014 , Volume 104 , ... and abscisic acid as a negative regulator of plant immunity to modulate resistance in tobacco against Pseudomonas syringae. By ...
Pseudomonas syringae pathovars produce several toxins that can function as virulence factors and contribute to disease symptoms ... syringae core genome. A general overview of the genetic organization and biosynthetic and regulatory functions of these genetic ... Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic in a wide variety of plants, causing diseases with economic impacts. ... Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic in a wide variety of plants, causing diseases with economic impacts. Pseudomonas syringae ...
... of Pseudomonas syringae, Gram-negative, aerobic, rod prokaryote. P. syringae is a saprophytic strain that is a primarily a ... Pseudomonas species are able to grow in extreme environments. Any carbon or hydrocarbon source is a suitable place for them to ... Most Pseudomonas species produce a slime layer that cannot be phagocytosed, and aids in the production of surface-colonizing ... There are 41 pathovars of P. syringae which are able to cause diseases on various plants. An antagonistic strain occurs as a ...
... involved in coronamic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U14657 ... Pseudomonas syringae CmaA protein. Subscribe to New Research on Pseudomonas syringae CmaA protein ... involved in coronamic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas syringae; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank U14657 ...
We now know that ice nucleating strains of Pseudomonas syringae. and Pantoea agglomerans. have surface proteins capable of ...
Few quantitative trait loci have been mapped for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in common bean. Two F2 ... Few quantitative trait loci have been mapped for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in common bean. Two F2 ... Dissection of Resistance Genes to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in UI3 Common Bean Cultivar. Ana M. González. ... "Dissection of Resistance Genes to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola in UI3 Common Bean Cultivar." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no ...
Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.. M A Mellano, D A Cooksey ... The nucleotide sequence of a 4.5-kilobase copper resistance determinant from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato revealed four open ... Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. ... Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. ...
In P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, there are three effectors that share similarity with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADP-RTs). ... The Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae requires a type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause disease. ... Pseudomonas syringae mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase type III effectors: Their plant targets and effects on plant immunity. Anna ... Joe, Anna, "Pseudomonas syringae mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase type III effectors: Their plant targets and effects on plant ...
Additionally, P. syringae can infect some sap-sucking insects and at least one P. syringae strain is highly virulent to insects ... Additionally, P. syringae can infect some sap-sucking insects and at least one P. syringae strain is highly virulent to insects ... Between the nine P. syringae strains tested for epiphytic ability there is also much variation, but epiphytic ability was ... The likelihood of agricultural pest insects coming into contact with transient populations of P. syringae while feeding on ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci BR2 produces tabtoxin and causes wildfire disease on tobacco and bean plants. Tn5 mutants of ... Pathogenicity Genes of Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. Tabaci Br2. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... The 7.2 kb fragment was conserved in P. syringae pvs. tabaci and angulata, but not in other pathovars or strains.. ...
Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi harbours unique sets of genes that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect ... Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi is able to survive in soil for up to one year in the absence of host debris, and can tolerate ... Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi is most likely spread by wind and rain, and can infect horse chestnut through discontinuities ... This project investigated aspects of the biology of Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, the bacterial causal agent of horse ...
  • Owing to early availability of the genome sequence for three P. syringae strains and the ability of selected strains to cause disease on well-characterized host plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, and the tomato, P. syringae has come to represent an important model system for experimental characterization of the molecular dynamics of plant-pathogen interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core proteome of the P. syringae group comprised 2944 proteins, whereas the protein count and GC content of the strains of this group ranged between 4973-6026 (average: 5465) and between 58-59.3% (average: 58.6%), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids isolated from five strains of the bean pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • Gonzalez CF, Vidaver AK (1979) Analysis of plasmids of syringomycin producing strains of Pseudomonas syringae . (springer.com)
  • Gonzalez CF, Vidaver AK (1980) Restriction enzyme analysis of plasmids from syringomycin-producing strains of Pseudomonas syringae . (springer.com)
  • Strains of P. syringae are noted for their diverse and host-specific interactions with plants and may be assigned to one of at least 50 pathovars based on host specificity ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • syringae strain 61 is sufficient to enable nonpathogenic strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli to elicit the HR in nonhost plants ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • syringae strains recovered from epiphytic populations demonstrated much greater copper resistance than did strains of P. syringae pv. (apsnet.org)
  • Strains of the well-studied plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae show large differences in their ability to colonize plants epiphytically and to inflict damage to hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • The likelihood of agricultural pest insects coming into contact with transient populations of P. syringae while feeding on plants is high, yet the ecological implications of these interactions are currently not well understood as virulence has not been tested across a wide range of strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate virulence differences across strains we exposed the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci , and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , both of which are cosmopolitan agricultural pests, to 12 P. syringae strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Between the nine P. syringae strains tested for epiphytic ability there is also much variation, but epiphytic ability was positively correlated with pathogenicity to insects, suggesting that the two traits may be linked and that strains likely to be found on plants may often be entomopathogenic. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each of these substrates harbored strains that corresponded to P. syringae in terms of biochemical traits, pathogenicity and pathogenicity-related factors and that were ice-nucleation active. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Phylogenetic comparisons of sequences of four housekeeping genes of the non-agricultural strains with strains of P. syringae from disease epidemics confirmed their identity as P. syringae. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial plant pathogen, and strains of P. syringae may be assigned to different pathovars based on host specificity among different plant species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Individual strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae vary in their ability to produce toxins, nucleate ice, and resist antimicrobial compounds. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the evolution of these virulence-associated phenotypes, we used functional assays to survey for the distribution of these phenotypes among a collection of 95 P. syringae strains. (asm.org)
  • Silencing GmRIN4a or GmRIN4b in rpg1-b plants enhances basal resistance to virulent strains of P. syringae and the oomycete Phytophthora sojae . (plantphysiol.org)
  • cmaL is found in all other sequenced P. syringae strains with coronatine biosynthesis genes. (asm.org)
  • syringae strains B301D and HS191 and insights into intrapathovar traits associated with plant pathogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • syringae strains B301D and HS191, which represent dicot and monocot strains with distinct host specificities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Multilocus sequence analysis indicated that ALF3 falls within a clade containing strains of P. syringae pv. (umn.edu)
  • Coronatine ( COR ) is a phytotoxin produced by several strains of Pseudomonas syringae , including P. syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 ( Pto ). (plantcell.org)
  • Selected pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • To overcome these challenges, we generated and characterized a collection of yeast strains stably expressing 75 T3SE constructs from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae . (g3journal.org)
  • The type III effector protein encoded by avirulence gene B (AvrB) is delivered into plant cells by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae. (nih.gov)
  • Characteristics of pathogenic Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from cherry in Serbia are presented in the article. (ac.rs)
  • Strains P. syringae pv. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Ice-nucleating strains of P. syringae are associated with frost damage to crops. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The genomes of numerous strains of P. syringae have been sequenced and molecular genetic studies have elucidated many aspects of this pathogen's interaction with its host plants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), which is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana . (pnas.org)
  • Comparative analyses confirmed a high degree of similarity with two sequenced pseudomonads, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , yet revealed 1,159 genes unique to DC3000, of which 811 lack a known function. (pnas.org)
  • tomato ( Pto ) DC3000 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ectopically expressed gene reduced the virulence of P. syringae DC3000 transformants in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. (umd.edu)
  • The complete genome sequence of the Arabidopsis and tomato pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (pnas.org)
  • Soybean ( Glycine max ) RPG1-B (for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv glycinea ) mediates species-specific resistance to P. syringae expressing the avirulence protein AvrB, similar to the nonorthologous RPM1 in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • A well-studied example of an indirect mode of effector recognition is that of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) R protein, RPM1 (for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola 1). (plantphysiol.org)
  • RIN4 also associates with a second Arabidopsis R protein, RPS2 (for resistance to P. syringae ), which mediates resistance against P. syringae expressing AvrRpt2 . (plantphysiol.org)
  • By analyzing the interaction of P. syringae mutants with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, we demonstrate that, in the apoplastic space of Arabidopsis , COR is a multifunctional defense suppressor. (plantcell.org)
  • We report here that the Arabidopsis blue light photoreceptor CRY1 positively regulates inducible resistance to Pseudomonas syringae under continuous light conditions. (scialert.net)
  • We performed large-scale mRNA expression profiling using an Affymetrix GeneChip to study Arabidopsis responses to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae . (plantcell.org)
  • The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB triggers a hypersensitive resistance response in Arabidopsis and soybean plants expressing the disease resistance (R) proteins RPM1 and Rpg1b, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A Pseudomonas protein and an Arabidopsis protein are predicted to interact with each other if an experimentally verified interaction exists between their respective homologous proteins in another organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If a Pseudomonas and an Arabidopsis protein contain an interacting domain pair, one can expect the two proteins to interact with each other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The interolog-based method predicts ~0.79M PPIs involving around 7700 Arabidopsis and 1068 Pseudomonas proteins in the full genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The domain-based method predicts 85650 PPIs comprising 11432 Arabidopsis and 887 Pseudomonas proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present work predicts the protein-protein interaction network between Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This can be a useful resource to the plant community to characterize the host-pathogen interaction in Arabidopsis and Pseudomonas system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana), podczas infekcji bakteriami z gatunku Pseudomonas syringae, pospolitego patogenu liści. (kopalniawiedzy.pl)
  • abstract = "Pseudomonas syringae is well known as a model bacterial phytopathogen in the laboratory, environment, and the field. (elsevier.com)
  • Nearly 60 different type III effector families encoded by hop genes have been identified in P. syringae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major groups of Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria belonging to genera Erwinia , Pseudomonas , Ralstonia, and Xanthomonas contain hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity ( hrp ) genes. (pnas.org)
  • hrp genes of Pseudomonas syringae are expressed in planta as a result of a regulatory cascade involving the gene products of hrpS and hrpR , positive transcriptional regulators, and of hrpL , an alternative sigma factor ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The expression of hrp genes of many P. syringae pathovars can also be induced in vitro when bacteria are grown in defined minimal medium with low pH and containing certain sugars or sugar alcohols as carbon sources ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nine of these hrp genes, recently renamed hrc genes ( 11 ), are broadly conserved among P. syringae pathovars, Erwinia , Xanthomonas , and Ralstonia ( 9 , 12 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • These gene clusters are typically present in blocks of genes that appear to be integrated into specific sites in the P. syringae core genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Dissection of Resistance Genes to Pseudomonas syringae pv. (mdpi.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence and organization of copper resistance genes from Pseudomonas syringae pv. (asm.org)
  • IDEALS @ Illinois: Pathogenicity Genes of Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. (illinois.edu)
  • aesculi harbours unique sets of genes that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts and which may be required for infection of a woody host. (forestry.gov.uk)
  • A close analysis of the distribution of genes encoding TCS proteins revealed important differences in TCS proteins among the three P. syringae pathovars. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • syringae, and HS191 is distinguished by genes for production of syringopeptin SP25 and mangotoxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The expression of genes encoding lipodepsipeptide phytotoxins by Pseudomonas syringae pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A LuxR-type Transcriptional Regulator, PsyR, Coordinates Regulation of Pathogenesis-related Genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • GacA directly regulates expression of several virulence genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Comparison of the complement of Pta 11528 genes encoding candidate T3SS substrates with those of the three fully sequenced P. syringae genomes . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Basically, Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis is dependent on effector proteins and to date, nearly 60 different type III effector proteins encoded by hop genes have been identified [ http://www.pseudomonas-syringae.org/ ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an effort to understand the evolution of these plasmids and their hosts, we undertook a comparative analysis of the phylogeny of plasmid genes and that of conserved chromosomal genes from P. syringae. (unavarra.es)
  • Our results showed that the plasmid replication gene (repA), the only gene currently known to be distributed among all the PFPs, had a phylogeny that was distinct from that of the P. syringae hosts of these plasmids and from those of other individual genes on PFPs. (unavarra.es)
  • The phylogenies of two housekeeping chromosomal genes, those for DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and primary sigma factor (rpoD), however, were strongly associated with genomospecies of P. syringae. (unavarra.es)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium with polar flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • He went on to identify the bacterium as P. syringae, investigate the role of P. syringae in ice nucleation and in 1977, discover the mutant ice-minus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 20 years or so, significant advances have been made in the study of the secondary metabolism of the widespread phytopathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae . (springer.com)
  • The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, is an opportunistic pathogen which attacks a wide variety of woody plants especially when they are damaged by frost or injury. (psu.edu)
  • To better understand the evolutionary history and genetic make-up of this aggressive tree-infecting bacterium, draft genome sequences were generated for seven isolates of P. syringae pv. (forestry.gov.uk)
  • syringae is a common plant-associated bacterium that causes diseases of both monocot and dicot plants worldwide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • P. syringae uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors into the plant that promote survival of the bacterium. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial canker is a destructive disease of kiwifruit caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this thesis the plant immune system will be briefly introduced, followed by the working mechanism of the effector proteins of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the resistance proteins. (uu.nl)
  • The page Pseudomonas syringae gives a general overview of the biology of this bacterium. (pestinfo.org)
  • Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes wildfire disease in tobacco plants. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a Gram-negative bacterium causing economically important diseases in a wide range of plant species leading to severe agricultural losses worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To understand how bacterial proteins stimulate the formation of ice crystals, the researchers concentrated on the ice-active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae . (mpg.de)
  • Because the infectious process of phytopathogenic bacteria differs from that of fungal pathogens, we have attempted to characterize pathogenicity, the ability of a pathogen to cause disease, using the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae as a representative pathogen. (elsevier.com)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is best known as a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in a multitude of hosts, and it has been used as a model organism to understand the biology of plant disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since the 1970s, P. syringae has been implicated as an atmospheric "biological ice nucleator", with airborne bacteria serving as cloud condensation nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas invades damaged tissue and produces a toxin that kills surrounding cells where the bacteria can then multiply. (psu.edu)
  • The response of epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae and other bacteria on dry bean plants to four copper-based bactericides was evaluated. (apsnet.org)
  • Comparative genomics with other P. syringae pathovars aims to throw light on the important mechanisms by which bacteria have evolved to infect trees. (forestry.gov.uk)
  • Psa motility resulted particularly enhanced in the supernatants of bacteria with a AHL-based QS system, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens , or an AHL-overproducing strain of Pseudomonas putida . (ishs.org)
  • In addition, a large number of bacteria and fungi, including Geotrichum candi dum , are sensitive to SR. The toxin traditionally has been isolated by treating P . syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • The production of azelaic acid by P. syringae pathovars can be associated with plant-bacteria signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pseudomonas syringae also produces ice nucleation active (INA) proteins which cause water (in plants) to freeze at fairly high temperatures (−1.8 to −3.8 °C (28.8 to 25.2 °F)), resulting in injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis is dependent on effector proteins secreted into the plant cell by the bacterial type III secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. syringae requires a complex array of TCS proteins to cope with diverse plant hosts, host responses, and environmental conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this article we present a thorough analysis of the identification and distribution of TCS proteins among the sequenced genomes of P. syringae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have identified differences in TCS proteins among the three P. syringae pathovars that may contribute to their diverse host ranges and association with plant hosts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The identification and analysis of the repertoire of TCS proteins in the genomes of P. syringae pathovars constitute a basis for future functional genomic studies of the signal transduction pathways in this important bacterial phytopathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects about 30 different virulence proteins, so-called effectors, via a type III secretion system into plant cells to promote disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae possesses a type III protein secretion system that delivers many virulence proteins into plant cells. (unl.edu)
  • The hrp pathogenicity island (PAI) of Pseudomonas syringae encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS) that translocates virulence proteins, called effectors, into plant cells. (umd.edu)
  • The P. syringae T3SS is a product of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity ( hrp ) and hypersensitive response and conserved ( hrc ) gene cluster, which is strictly controlled by the codependent enhancer-binding proteins HrpR and HrpS. (asm.org)
  • After the publication of this work [ 1 ], we became aware of several errors in our descriptions of proteins associated with the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae pathovar tabaci ( Pta ) strain 11528. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studholme DJ, Ibanez SG, MacLean D, Dangl JL, Chang JH, Rathjen JP: A draft genome sequence and functional screen reveals the repertoire of type III secreted proteins of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci 11528. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Race structure and pathogenicity mechanisms in Pseudomonas syringae pv. (findaphd.com)
  • Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (forestry.gov.uk)
  • To help delineate traits critical to adaptation and survival in the plant environment, we generated complete genome sequences of P. syringae pv. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Comparison of a draft whole-genome sequence of ALF3 further confirmed that ALF3 most closely resembles FF5 (~96% sequence identity) and P. syringae pv. (umn.edu)
  • The genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bioinformatics Analysis of the Complete Genome Sequence of the Mango Tree Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Additionally to several draft genome sequences [ 12 - 18 ], the complete genome sequences of three P. syringae pathovars are available, namely pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like in some other P. syringae pathovars, the PG4180 genome contains three copies of the lsc gene, of which two - lscA and lscC - are chromosomally encoded while lscB is plasmid-encoded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge this most recent Pseudomonas Genome Database publication rather than just the website URL. (pseudomonas.com)
  • Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database. (pseudomonas.com)
  • Based on the results from this study, we conclude that the pPT23A plasmid family represents a dynamic genome that is mobile among P. syringae pathovars. (unavarra.es)
  • A phylogenomic analysis of 494 complete genomes from the entire Pseudomonas genus showed that P. syringae does not form a monophyletic species in the strict sense, but a wider evolutionary group that also included other species as well, such as Pseudomonas avellanae, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pseudomonas amygdali, and Pseudomonas cerasi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on a comparative genomic and phylogenomic analysis of 494 complete genomes from the entire Pseudomonas genus, P. syringae does not form a monophyletic species in the strict sense, but a wider evolutionary group (34 genomes in total, organized into 3 subgroups) that includes other species as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes of P. syringae pv. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Isolates of P. syringae are taxonomically subdivided into pathogenic varieties known as pathovars, based largely on their host of isolation. (asm.org)
  • Copper-resistant field isolates of the kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (ishs.org)
  • Highly specific assays to detect isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of P. syringae are also commonly found living as epiphytes and in the wider environment, including water sources such as rivers and precipitation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Regulation Of Virulence In The Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas Syringae Pv. (cornell.edu)
  • The type III secretion system (T3SS) is required for virulence of the gram--- negative plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (cornell.edu)
  • with the wheat pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae , resulted in the expression of the hypersensitive reaction and in phytoalexin accumulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we identify Chp8 as a contributor to the major effort of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (asm.org)
  • Its homologue from the tomato bacterial speck pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described for the specific detection of the bean halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (openarchives.gr)
  • Pseudomonas species are able to grow in extreme environments. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Most Pseudomonas species produce a slime layer that cannot be phagocytosed, and aids in the production of surface-colonizing biofilms. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Like some other Pseudomonas species, this organism utilizes sucrose as a carbon source with the help of the enzyme levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10, Lsc), in the process releasing glucose and forming the exopolysaccharide levan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No contents found at URL http://prgdb.crg.eu/api/species/Pseudomonas%20syringae . (crg.eu)
  • For a summary on the species see Pseudomonas syringae . (pestinfo.org)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a model plant pathogen that infects more than 50 plant species worldwide, thus leading to significant yield loss. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a major bacterial leaf pathogen that causes diseases in a wide range of plant species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 ). The genus Pseudomonas is notable because it contains the clinically important human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the agriculturally important plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae , and the nonpathogenic bioremediation agent Pseudomonas putida . (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we modified and applied the current method of P. aeruginosa biofilm measurement to P. syringae , and developed a convenient protocol to visualize P. syringae biofilm formation using a borosilicate glass tube as the matrix coupled with crystal violet staining. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The Pseudomonas syringae type III-secreted protein HopPtoD2 possesses " by Avelina Espinosa, Ming Guo et al. (unl.edu)
  • These results suggest that CRY1 may positively regulate R protein-mediated resistance to P. syringae with increased PR gene expression. (scialert.net)
  • DspA, which showed homology with the protein predicted from the partial sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (deepdyve.com)
  • P. syringae produces four primary toxins: coronatine, phaseolotoxin, syringomycin, and tabtoxin ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Occurrence of a Syringomycin - High Molecular Weight Complex in Pseudomonas Syringae PV. (springer.com)
  • Iacobellis N.S., Lavermicocca P., Surico G., Durbin R.D. (1989) Occurrence of a Syringomycin - High Molecular Weight Complex in Pseudomonas Syringae PV. (springer.com)
  • The contribution of syringopeptin and syringomycin to virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is a member of the genus Pseudomonas, and based on 16S rRNA analysis, it has been placed in the P. syringae group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. (rcsb.org)
  • 2017 7-023: ver 1.3 Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. (seedhealth.org)
  • Curiale MS, Mills D (1977) Detection and characterization of plasmids in Pseudomonas glycinea . (springer.com)
  • Pseudomonas syringae is one of the preeminent model systems for the study of host specificity and virulence. (asm.org)
  • Joe, Anna, "Pseudomonas syringae mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase type III effectors: Their plant targets and effects on plant immunity" (2014). (unl.edu)
  • Here, we used transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana , to test the abilities of type III effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (frontiersin.org)
  • The whole array of effectors of different P. syringae stains and their activities inside the host are not known. (umd.edu)
  • Furthermore, the manner in which effectors are selected for secretion, and how the process is regulated are not clear in P. syringae. (umd.edu)
  • This study found that a primary role for chaperones in P. syringae appeared to be protection of effectors from Lon-mediated degradation prior to secretion. (umd.edu)
  • Interestingly, degradation of P. syringae effectors was also retarded by the presence or expression of the P. syringae TTSS. (umd.edu)
  • In the last few years the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, Pseudomonas syringae pv. (videolectures.net)
  • As a pathogen, P. syringae typically enters plant leaves through stomata, multiplies in the intercellular space (apoplast), and eventually produces necrotic lesions that are often surrounded by chlorotic halos ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • To relate this to the hypersensitive response (HR), Col-0, SGR-OX and RNAi SGR (SGRi) lines were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) encoding the avirulence gene avrRpm1. (uzh.ch)
  • syringae (Pss), a disease of emerging importance on bean in South Africa, there is limited information available on potential sources and mechanisms of resistance. (findaphd.com)
  • Unlike many diseases caused by pathovars of P. syringae, the host range of Pss is very large, ranging from Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), through to Glycine max (soybean), Pisum sativum (pea) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpea). (findaphd.com)
  • Pseudomonas syringae pathovars produce several toxins that can function as virulence factors and contribute to disease symptoms. (mdpi.com)
  • A Closer Look at Pseudomonas syringae as a Leaf Colonist - The pathogen P. syringae thrives on healthy plants by employing quorum sensing, virulence factors, and other traits. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis - Pseudomonas syringae pv. (genome.jp)
  • syringae strain B301D on the basis of sypA and syrB1 biosynthesis mutant analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • syringae strain B301D revealed that this region, designated sypA, codes for a peptide synthetase, a multifunctional enzyme involved in the thiotemplate mechanism of peptide biosynthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • IMV 7836 parent taxon: Pseudomonas syringae pv. (iedb.org)
  • CFBP 1650 parent taxon: Pseudomonas amygdali pv. (iedb.org)
  • The gene encoding D -phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. (hindawi.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a 4.5-kilobase copper resistance determinant from Pseudomonas syringae pv. (asm.org)
  • syringae based on 16S rDNA sequence and PCR amplification of syrB for lipodepsinonapeptide toxin production. (umn.edu)
  • Previously, nucleotide sequence alignments of lscB/C variants in various P. syringae showed that a ~450-bp phage-associated promoter element (PAPE) including the first 48 nucleotides of the ORF is absent in lscA . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pseudomonas syringae exchangeable effector loci: sequence diversity in representative pathovars and virulence function in P. syringae pv. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Four of these fragments, three from pPP6520 and one from pPP6525 of strain PP652, hybridized strongly to plasmid DNA from a closely-related pathovar, P. syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • More specifically, this exercise uses the the technique of electroporation for the introduction of plasmids into P. syringae pv. (merlot.org)
  • An integrative plasmid and multiple-sized plasmids of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • Jamieson AF, Bieleski RL, Mitchell RE (1981) Plasmids and phaseolotoxin production in Pseudomonas syringae pv. (springer.com)
  • The 25-kb hrp / hrmA gene cluster of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (pnas.org)
  • Fusicoccin activates pathogen-responsive gene expression independently of common resistance signalling pathways, but increases disease symptoms in Pseudomonas syringae-infected tomato plants. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Sequencing of an approximately 3.9-kb fragment downstream of the syrD gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some populations of Pseudomonas syringae are resistant to copper. (psu.edu)
  • Although there was a trend toward a relationship between epiphytic leaflet and flower populations, there were cases where P. syringae was undetected on one organ but abundant in samples from the other organ. (apsnet.org)
  • Our data suggest that the different substrates harboring P. syringae modify the structure of the associated populations. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. (scialert.net)
  • Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hockett, Kevin L. / Ecological genomics of pseudomonas syringae . (elsevier.com)
  • According to the obtained results it was concluded that both pathovars of P. syringae (syringae and morsprunorum) cause necrosis of cherry trees in Serbia. (ac.rs)
  • Characterization of the bacterial stem blight pathogen of alfalfa, Pseudomonas syringae pv. (umn.edu)
  • The present study provides a robust phylogenetic foundation for the study of these important virulence-associated phenotypes in P. syringae host colonization and pathogenesis. (asm.org)