Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Pseudomonas Phages: Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Pyocyanine: Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pyocins: Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Azlocillin: A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Pseudomonas Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Azurin: A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.PhenazinesPneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.CephalosporinaseConjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)HomoserineKlebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Burkholderia cepacia: A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Exopeptidases: A sub-class of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that act only near the ends of polypeptide chains.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases): A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Norfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Cefsulodin: A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)GluconatesGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Bacteria, AerobicPenicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.AmidohydrolasesSepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Pseudomonas mendocina: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa has developed a complex cell-to-cell communication system that relies on low-molecular weight excreted molecules to control the production of its virulence factors. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously characterized the transcriptional regulator MvfR, that controls a major network of acute virulence functions in P. aeruginosa through the control of its ligands, the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs)-4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ) and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (PQS). (hindawi.com)
  • P. aeruginosa coordinates the expression of multiple virulence factors using a complex regulatory communication system, namely, Quorum Sensing (QS), which has been shown to control approximately 10% of P. aeruginosa genes [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The MvfR protein controls the expression of most of P. aeruginosa 's acute virulence-associated factors [ 15 ] as well as the biosynthesis of more than 60 excreted anthranilic acid (AA) low-molecular weight derivatives, most of which belong to the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) family [ 12 , 13 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We found that a clinically relevant P. aeruginosa isolate produced detectable levels of HAQs with ratios of HHQ and PQS that were similar to those produced in burned and infected animals, and not resembling ratios in bacterial cultures. (hindawi.com)
  • Coproduction of novel 16S rRNA methylase RmtD and metallo- beta-lactamase SPM-1 in a panresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from Brazil. (springer.com)
  • Provided is a method of treating the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) symptoms of a lung disease, comprising the administration of an inhalable aerosole of aztreonam lysine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method of treating at least one health-related quality-of-life symptom of a lung disease, in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of an inhalable dry powder or aerosol comprising about 1 to about 250 mg of aztreonam lysine per one dose to the airways of the lung. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There were 3 superinfections, 7 relapses and 3 reinfections in the aztreonam group and 1 failure, 1 superinfection, 6 relapses and 5 reinfections in the cefotaxime group. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • After identical single intravenous or intramuscular doses of aztreonam for injection, the serum concentrations of aztreonam are comparable at 1 hour (1.5 hours from start of intravenous infusion) with similar slopes of serum concentrations thereafter. (nih.gov)
  • Strikingly, cytokine responses upon intestinal P. aeruginosa colonization were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically, given that TNF and IFN-γ concentrations were elevated in spleens as early as 7 days p.i., whereas splenic IL-10 levels were dampened at day 28 p.i. of mice with human microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • The serum half-life of aztreonam averaged 1.7 hours (1.5 to 2) in subjects with normal renal function, independent of the dose and route of administration. (nih.gov)
  • Common side effects of aztreonam injectable include nausea, vomiting, and irritation or discomfort at injection site. (rxwiki.com)