An aspect of cholinesterases.
5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.
A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
Corrosive oxidant, explosive; additive to diesel and rocket fuels; causes skin and lung irritation; proposed war gas. A useful reagent for studying the modification of specific amino acids, particularly tyrosine residues in proteins. Has also been used for studying carbanion formation and for detecting the presence of double bonds in organic compounds.
A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.

Effects of mercury on the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. (1/39)

The available data suggests that hypotension caused by Hg2+ administration may be produced by a reduction of cardiac contractility or by cholinergic mechanisms. The hemodynamic effects of an intravenous injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) were studied in anesthetized rats (N = 12) by monitoring left and right ventricular (LV and RV) systolic and diastolic pressures for 120 min. After HgCl2 administration the LV systolic pressure decreased only after 40 min (99 +/- 3.3 to 85 +/- 8.8 mmHg at 80 min). However, RV systolic pressure increased, initially slowly but faster after 30 min (25 +/- 1.8 to 42 +/- 1.6 mmHg at 80 min). Both right and left diastolic pressures increased after HgCl2 treatment, suggesting the development of diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Since HgCl2 could be increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, isolated lungs (N = 10) were perfused for 80 min with Krebs solution (continuous flow of 10 ml/min) containing or not 5 microM HgCl2. A continuous increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, suggesting the direct effect of Hg2+ on the pulmonary vessels (12 +/- 0.4 to 29 +/- 3.2 mmHg at 30 min). To examine the interactions of Hg2+ and changes in cholinergic activity we analyzed the effects of acetylcholine (Ach) on mean arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized rats (N = 9) before and after Hg2+ treatment (5 mg/kg). Using the same amount and route used to study the hemodynamic effects we also examined the effects of Hg2+ administration on heart and plasma cholinesterase activity (N = 10). The in vivo hypotensive response to Ach (0.035 to 10.5 microg) was reduced after Hg2+ treatment. Cholinesterase activity (microM h-1 mg protein-1) increased in heart and plasma (32 and 65%, respectively) after Hg2+ treatment. In conclusion, the reduction in ABP produced by Hg2+ is not dependent on a putative increase in cholinergic activity. HgCl2 mainly affects cardiac function. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac failure due to diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles are factors that might contribute to the reduction of cardiac output and the fall in arterial pressure.  (+info)

Acquired pseudocholinesterase deficiency after high-dose cyclophosphamide. (2/39)

Succinylcholine, a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used in anesthesia is hydrolyzed in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase (PSC). Conditions associated with reduced PSC activity lead to sustained action of succinylcholine and result in prolonged apnea. Cyclophosphamide is an inhibitor of PSC and its suppressive effect may be dose-dependent. We report a case of severe PSC deficiency after high-dose cyclophosphamide at 7 g/m2. The patient received succinylcholine during anesthesia 9 h after chemotherapy and developed prolonged apnea. This case highlights the potential risk of drug-induced PSC deficiency and cautions the use of depolarizing muscular relaxants soon after high-dose cyclophosphamide.  (+info)

Relationship between age and plasma esterases. (3/39)

INTRODUCTION: the older population is the most medicated. Despite high drug usage, older people are generally excluded from the research underpinning new drug development. This means that drugs are prescribed to older people with very little understanding of how they are likely to metabolize them. More research is needed to investigate the possible effects of ageing on the biotransformation of drugs. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study examining the effect of age on the activities of benzoylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase and aspirin esterase. METHODS: we measured the activities of benzoylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in 70 healthy volunteers aged 18-85 years. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase and aspirin esterase in 43 healthy volunteers aged 18-85 years. We determined plasma activities of benzoylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase and aspirin esterase spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: we found no correlation between the activities of any of the enzymes measured and advancing age. CONCLUSION: age per se is not associated with reductions in the activities of esterase enzymes.  (+info)

Is pseudocholinesterase activity related to markers of triacylglycerol synthesis in Type II diabetes mellitus? (4/39)

Hypertriglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients suffering from Type II diabetes mellitus, and is due to enhanced synthesis and/or impaired clearance of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. In the present study we investigated whether pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity could serve as a marker for the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis in these patients. Patients were stratified according to their apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotype, i.e. E3E2, E3E3 or E3E4. In study I, the relationship between PChE activity and serum triacylglycerols was investigated in 224 insulin-treated patients with Type II diabetes. In study II, which had a cross-over design, PChE activity was measured in 45 dyslipidaemic, insulin-treated patients with Type II diabetes that were treated with bezafibrate or pravastatin. In study I, PChE activity was correlated positively with serum triacylglycerol concentrations, but did not differ significantly between apoE phenotypes. The strongest relationship was found in the E3E4 group (r=0.50; P=0.001), the phenotype for which hypertriglyceridaemia is expected to be the result of increased triacylglycerol synthesis. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, serum triacylglycerol concentrations were found to be the strongest predictor of PChE activity in the E3E4 group. In study II, PChE activity decreased as a result of bezafibrate treatment in all three apoE groups. The decrease in PChE activity with bezafibrate treatment paralleled the decrease in serum triacylglycerol concentrations in the apoE subgroups. Pravastatin treatment did not significantly affect PChE activity. Thus the present study suggests an association between PChE activity and the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis. Measurement of PChE activity may therefore be a useful tool in the choice of drug for treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with Type II diabetes.  (+info)

Stability of pseudocholinesterase in stored blood. (5/39)

No significant change in pseudocholinesterase levels was observed in random specimens of whole blood stored for as long as 30 days. Levels in plasma anticoagulated with heparin or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid declined only slightly. Therefore, massive transfusions do not contraindicate succinylcholine administration.  (+info)

Dibucaine inhibition of serum cholinesterase. (6/39)

The dibucaine number (DN) was determined for serum cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8, SChE) in plasma samples. The ones with a DN of 79-82 were used, because they had the "usual" SChE variant. The enzyme was assayed colorimetrically by the reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid] (DTNB) with the free sulfhydryl groups of thiocholine that were produced by the enzyme reaction with butrylthiocholine (BuTch) or acetylthiocholine (AcTch) substrates, and measured at 412 nm. Dibucaine, a quaternary ammonium compound, inhibited SChE to a minimum within 2 min in a reversible manner. The inhibition was very potent. It had an IC(50) of 5.3 microM with BuTch or 3.8 microM with AcTch. The inhibition was competitive with respect to BuTch with a K(i) of 1.3 microM and a linear-mixed type (competitive/noncompetitive) with respect to AcTch with inhibition constants, K(i) and K(I) of 0.66 and 2.5 microM, respectively. Dibucaine possesses a butoxy side chain that is similar to the butryl group of BuTch and longer by an ethylene group from AcTch. This may account for the difference in inhibition behavior. It may also suggest the existence of an additional binding site, other than the anionic binding site, and of a hydrophobic nature.  (+info)

Studies of the inhibition of serum pseudocholinesterase activity in vitro by commonly used drugs. (7/39)

We studied the effect of 17 commonly used drugs, including prescription and over-the-counter medications, on the activity of serum pseudocholinesterase (PCE) in vitro. Normal pooled human serum was incubated for 120 minutes at 37 degrees C with therapeutic serum concentrations of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and the postincubation PCE activity was measured. Morphine, quinidine, and thioridazine depressed PCE activity by more than 5% while no or negligible effect was noted following incubation with acetaminophen, chlordiazepoxide, chlorpromazine, desipramine, doxepin, imipramine, methamphetamine, nortriptyline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, procainamide, salicylic acid, theophylline, and valproic acid. Depression of PCE activity can prolong the half-life of coadministered agents with metabolism mediated by PCE.  (+info)

Family of a patient with serum cholinesterase deficiency. (8/39)

A-39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a markedly decreased level of serum cholinesterase found incidentally by a blood test. Detailed examination did not reveal severe liver disease, malignant tumor, infection or organophosphate compound poisoning. Investigation of three generations of his family revealed two homozygous and five heterozygous family members with the cholinesterase deficiency gene E1s indicating familial serum cholinesterase deficiency.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Weight. T2 - Succinylcholine requirement and pseudocholinesterase activity?. AU - Bentley, J. B.. AU - Borel, J. D.. AU - Vaughan, R. W.. AU - Gandolfi, A. J.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019790277&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019790277&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019790277. VL - 55. SP - A213. JO - Anesthesiology. JF - Anesthesiology. SN - 0003-3022. IS - 3 Suppl.. ER - ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the bodys production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired. People who have this abnormality may be sensitive to certain anesthetic drugs, including the muscle relaxants succinylcholine and mivacurium as well as other ester local anesthetics. Multiple studies done both in and outside India have shown an increased prevalence of pseudocholinesterase deficiency amongst the Arya Vysya community. A study performed in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu in Coimbatore, on 22 men and women from this community showed that 9 of them had pseudocholinesterase deficiency, which translates to a prevalence that is 4000-fold higher than that in European and American populations. Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (anesthesia sensitivity) is an autosomal recessive condition common within the Persian and Iraqi Jewish populations. Approximately one in 10 Persian Jews are known to have a mutation in the ...
The activities of pseudocholinesterase (PChE) were compared in the serum of type I and type II diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. Both type I and type II diabetic patients showed increased serum PChE activity concomitant with the presence of hyperlipidemia. Pearsons correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between triglycerides (TG) and PChE in both type I (P=0.499) and type II (P=0.526) diabetic patients. -- Induction of chemical diabetes in rats with Streptozotocin (SZ) and alloxan also increased the serum PChE activity which paralleled the development of diabetes mellitus. Serum triglycerides, apo-B containing lipoproteins (total low density lipoproteins TLDL) and glycerol concentrations also increased. When the hyperglycemia produced in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was controlled by administration of insulin, the levels of TG, glycerol and PChE activity all reverted to pre-diabetic levels. When insulin treatment was withdrawn hyperglycemia developed again and ...
Groups of 20 male and 20 female rats received 1,2,3-trichloropropane in corn oil by gavage at doses of 8, 16, 32, 63, 125, or 250 mg/kg body weight 5 days per week for up to 17 weeks; 30 male and 30 female rats received corn oil alone and served as controls. Animals were evaluated at 8 or 17 weeks. All rats in the 250 mg/kg groups died by week 5. One male and four female rats in the 125 mg/kg groups died during the study. The mean body weight gains and final mean body weights of males receiving 63 mg/kg and of males and females receiving 125 mg/kg were lower than those of the controls. Hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte counts decreased with dose in males and females. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in some female rats receiving 125 mg/kg. Serum pseudocholinesterase activity decreased with dose in females. Increases in kidney and liver weights were related to chemical ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a rare genetic condition where the affected individual has increased sensitivity to several anesthetic agents. The use of these drugs may leave some of the muscles paralyzed
K.M. KUTTY, V. ANNAPURNA, V. PRABHAKARAN; Pseudocholinesterase: a protein with functions unrelated to its name. Biochem Soc Trans 1 June 1989; 17 (3): 555-556. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0170555. Download citation file:. ...
The distribution of haptoglobins, transferrins and serum pseudocholinesterase in 1353 Mexican Indians belonging to 13 tribes is described. The frequency of the Hp1 gene is variable; it ranges from 0.40 to 0.65, although the majority of values fall between 0.50 and 0.65. The reason for this variability is obscure; there is no correlation between Hp1 values and linguistic affinities or habitat, and different degrees of nonIndian admixture are not accountable for the situation. It is suggested that possibly the main factor determining the present day distribution is the founder effect.. Only 16 individuals have a transferrin different from C; in two, the CD phenotype is seen and the rest belong to the BC variety. Ten of the latter identified as B0-1C, are found in a single tribe, the Cora. The scarcity of unusual transferrins in the Amerindians is corroborated in this study, although it may be somewhat unusual that the majority of them are of the fast moving type rather than of the more common slow ...
There are no differences, between human normal and allergic sera, in the total activity of naphthylacetate-hydrolysing enzymes. No abnormal dibucaine-inhibited isoenzymes were detected. The Michaelis constants and the activation energies of serum pseudocholinesterases in the sera of patients with atopic disease, urticaria, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis were within the normal ... read more range. show less ...
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IV onset in 30s to 1 minute, lasting 2-3 minutes, with offset typically within 10 minutes. Offset occurs due to dissociation of drug out of NMJ into plasma, as a concentration gradient is established by drug breakdown in plasma. Prolonged duration in patients with pseudocholinesterase deficiency. IM onset in 2-3 minues ...
Procaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia, particularly for oral surgery. Procaine (like cocaine) has the advantage of constricting blood vessels which reduces bleeding, unlike other local anesthetics like lidocaine. Procaine is an ester anesthetic. It is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is then excreted by the kidneys into the urine ...
ryan: Dr. Ostrer and I traded a few emails a couple of years ago regarding the testing of Assyrians. I got the impression he was genuinely interested in including Assyrians as part of a future analysis of the Near East. So, hopefully, one day, we will see something from his team.. I would like to add three additional notes regarding possible Assyrian-Jewish genetic links, presumably from a very distant time in the past:. 1. Genetic screening in the Persian Jewish community: A pilot study. Kaback et al. 2010. Pseudocholinesterase deficiency…BCHE is the name for the genetic locus: an autosomal recessive condition common within the Persian and Iraqi Jewish populations.. Approximately 1 in 10 Persian Jews were found to be heterozygotes for a single point mutation in this gene.. Based on the very limited number of Assyrians tested at 23andMe, carrier incidence in Assyrians for this condition may be similar to that observed in Iraqi and Iranian Jews. My mother and I included.. 2. Screening for ...
The in vivo reports of the actions of anticholinesterases during mivacurium paralysis have been quite conflicting. Although edrophonium does not inhibit plasma cholinesterase, increased plasma mivacurium concentrations during its continuous infusion have been demonstrated. [31]The authors speculated that the increase in mivacurium concentrations was probably related to displacement of the relaxant from tissue binding sites by edrophonium. A similar increase in mivacurium concentrations also was observed after a 0.05-mg/kg dose of neostigmine; inhibition of pseudocholinesterase was attributed as the cause for the increase in concentration. [32]Abdulatiff compared edrophonium- and neostigmine-induced (0.07 mg/kg) recovery from intense neuromuscular block, and found that the reversal time with neostigmine was prolonged in comparison to edrophonium. He concluded that this difference was attributable to inhibition of pseudocholinesterase by neostigmine. [18]Based on its volume of distribution, ...
The in vivo reports of the actions of anticholinesterases during mivacurium paralysis have been quite conflicting. Although edrophonium does not inhibit plasma cholinesterase, increased plasma mivacurium concentrations during its continuous infusion have been demonstrated. [31] The authors speculated that the increase in mivacurium concentrations was probably related to displacement of the relaxant from tissue binding sites by edrophonium. A similar increase in mivacurium concentrations also was observed after a 0.05-mg/kg dose of neostigmine; inhibition of pseudocholinesterase was attributed as the cause for the increase in concentration. [32] Abdulatiff compared edrophonium- and neostigmine-induced (0.07 mg/kg) recovery from intense neuromuscular block, and found that the reversal time with neostigmine was prolonged in comparison to edrophonium. He concluded that this difference was attributable to inhibition of pseudocholinesterase by neostigmine. [18] Based on its volume of distribution, ...
Butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase) is a serine hydrolase synthesized in the liver and present in the plasma. It is structurally and functionally related to acetylcholinestrase, an enzyme that is that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. Butyrylcholinesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including acetylcholine, butyrylcholine, and succinylcholine, as well as the hydrolysis of esters such as cocaine, acetylsalicylic acid and heroin.. Succinylcholine is hydrolyzed to succinylmonocholine and choline. When succinylcholine is injected intravenously, about 90% of its dose is hydrolyzed by BChE within 1 min and only 10% reaches the neuromuscular junction. Because little or no butyrylcholinesterase is present at the neuromuscular junction, the neuromuscular blockade of succinylcholine is terminated by its diffusion away from the neuromuscular junction into the circulation. The effect of butyrylcholinesterase on onset and duration of action of succinylcholine is ...
In the second experiment, the enzyme activity and the protein expression of pseudocholinesterase were significantly increased in the 24 hours-exposed group (group B) compared to the other groups. Additionally, the protein expression of HSP70 was significantly increased in the 24 hours-exposed group (group B) in comparison to the other groups. No significant differences were seen between group A (24 hours sham exposure) and group C (24 hours exposure + 24 hours sham exposure). No significant changes for the enzyme activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were observed between the groups ...
The Biophotonics effort at the Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics (FIP) is focused on developing a comprehensive, bottom-up approach toward non-invasive, early detection of disease where scientific and technological advances made at one level are incorporated into and drive the work at the next stage.. Optical coherence imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography and phase-resolved microscopy provide powerful non-invasive modalities for real-time, micrometer-scale cross-sectional tissue imaging and ultrasensitive detection of cellular dynamics in vivo with microscopic scale resolution.. Diffuse optical tomography for measurements of hemodynamics and fluorescence and Raman techniques for spectroscopic diagnosis of disease, are important photonic modalities ready for translational research. We will extend our in vivo studies using fluorescence and Raman from the point-detection modality into a multispectral imaging modality.. An important goal of our clinically motivated research ...
Prilocaine (/ˈpraɪləˌkeɪn/) is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In its injectable form (trade name Citanest), it is often used in dentistry. It is also often combined with lidocaine as a topical preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for treatment of conditions like paresthesia. As it has low cardiac toxicity, it is commonly used for intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA). In some patients, ortho-toluidine, a metabolite of prilocaine, may cause methemoglobinemia, which may be treated with methylene blue. Prilocaine may also be contraindicated in people with sickle cell anemia, anemia, or symptomatic hypoxia. People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with the vasoconstrictor epinephrine under the trade name Citanest Forte. It is used as an eutectic mixture with lidocaine, 50% w/w, as lidocaine/prilocaine. The mixture is an ...
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Pesticides are extensively used worldwide, which has been reported to influence health conditions and environmental contamination.Current studies are focusing on agriculture workers health, whereas there are little data regarding health-related problems of consumers of agricultural products. Thus, the objective of this study was to study serum cholinesterase levels and its relation to health issues in people who consume fresh fruits and vegetables. Eighty-one people of Mueang District, Chonburi Province completed a questionnaire for evaluating the level of consumption behaviors at risk of pesticides. Health checkups were performed and blood samples for diagnostic lab data were collected. Then, subjects were separated into two groups by level of serum cholinesterase greater or less than 2,000 U/ L. Data analysis was computed by using unpaired t-test at statistical significance of 0.05. ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Mivacurium. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
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Definition of cholinesterase. What is the meaning of cholinesterase in various languages. Translation of cholinesterase in the dictionary
"Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency". Medscape. WebMD LLC. Zheng F, Yang W, Ko MC, Liu J, Cho H, Gao D, Tong M, Tai HH, Woods JH, ... The activity of pseudocholinesterase in the serum is low and its substrate behavior is atypical. In the absence of the relaxant ... Pseudocholinesterase deficiency results in delayed metabolism of only a few compounds of clinical significance, including the ... Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can result in higher levels of intact succinylcholine molecules reaching receptors in the ...
... reduces plasma pseudocholinesterase activity and may result in prolonged neuromuscular blockade when ... Koseoglu V, Chiang J, Chan KW (December 1999). "Acquired pseudocholinesterase deficiency after high-dose cyclophosphamide". ...
People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have difficulty metabolizing this anesthetic. It is given as a combination with ...
... will still be rapidly metabolized in pseudocholinesterase-deficient patients. Clevidipine is formulated as a lipid ...
The first in pharmacogenetics was concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of pseudocholinesterase. The second research ...
Most ester LAs are metabolized by pseudocholinesterase, while amide LAs are metabolized in the liver. This can be a factor in ...
Profile of patients with organ phosphorus compound poisoning : Special reference to Pseudo Cholinesterase and morality. Lung ...
The function of plasma pseudocholinesterase is unknown, but its activity is considered to be a more sensitive biomarker for ... Two pools of cholinesterases exist in the blood: acetylcholinesterase in erythrocytes and pseudocholinesterase in plasma. The ...
Metabolism can therefore be very slow in people with pseudocholinesterase deficiency, resulting in prolonged paralysis. The ...
... and pseudocholinesterase (associated with arylacylamidase). Nimmo-Smith RH (1960). "Aromatic N-deacylation by chick-kidney ...
Serum cholinesterase test: a test of liver enzymes (acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase) useful as a test of liver ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency *^ Soliday, F. K.; Conley, Y. P.; Henker, R. (2010). "Pseudocholinesterase deficiency: A ... Pseudocholinesterase deficiency. Pseudocholinesterase (also called butyrylcholinesterase or "BCHE") hydrolyzes a number of ...
... see Pseudocholinesterase deficiency). Such genes will result in a longer duration of action of the drug, ranging from 20 ...
It is rapidly hydrolyzed to an inactive form by both carboxylesterase in the liver and pseudocholinesterase in the plasma, ...
... pseudocholinesterase') following administration of succinylcholine injection during anesthesia were first reported in 1956. The ...
... it has a prolonged duration of action in patients with pseudocholinesterase deficiency and it causes an increase in plasma ...
... , an ester anesthetic, is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para- ... for the most common atypical form of the enzyme pseudocholinesterase, and do not hydrolyze ester anesthetics such as procaine. ...
... inactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine Pseudocholinesterase, broad substrate specificity, found in the blood plasma and ...
... such as malignant hyperthermia or pseudocholinesterase deficiency), habits (tobacco, drug and alcohol use), physical attributes ...
... pseudo) cholinesterase (PChE) in the blood in about four minutes. This test has been shown to be just as effective as a regular ...
Hypotension not due to arrhythmia Bradycardia Accelerated idioventricular rhythm Elderly patients Pseudocholinesterase ...
... pseudocholinesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.100.220 --- dehydroascorbatase MeSH D08.811.277.352.100.400 --- lipase MeSH D08.811. ...
Inheriting abnormal butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase) may affect metabolism of drugs such as succinylcholine ...
... dysplasia Pseudoadrenoleukodystrophy Pseudoaminopterin syndrome Pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency Pseudocholinesterase ...
"Pseudocholinesterase deficiency". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2013년 9월 5일에 확인함.. ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency. *Intra-articular infusion (this is not an approved indication and can cause chondrolysis) ...
Patients with known pseudocholinesterase deficiency may wear a medic-alert bracelet that will notify healthcare workers of ... Individuals with pseudocholinesterase deficiency also may be at increased risk of toxic reactions, including sudden cardiac ... These patients also may notify others in their family who may be at risk for carrying one or more abnormal pseudocholinesterase ... Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the body's production of ...
Liver, via pseudocholinesterase. Elimination half-life. 1.5 hours. Excretion. 97% in urine. ...
Pseudo cholinesterase is present in plasma and liver but is not present in erythrocytes. Measurements obtained by this device ...
The drugs used for soaking fresh vegetables to disinfect vegetables and liver pseudocholinesterase to succinic acid and silver ...
Both berberine and palmatine inhibited specific cholinesterase in rabbit spleen and pseudocholinesterase in normal horse serum ...
keywords = "acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, enkephalins, nerve injury, opiate receptor, pseudocholinesterase", ... and pseudocholinesterase showed a coordinate decrease in motor neuron‐associated staining on the operated side of N.XII at 3 ,6 ... and pseudocholinesterase showed a coordinate decrease in motor neuron‐associated staining on the operated side of N.XII at 3 ,6 ... and pseudocholinesterase showed a coordinate decrease in motor neuron‐associated staining on the operated side of N.XII at 3 ,6 ...
"Pseudocholinesterase deficiency". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 5 September 2013.. ... Another example is pseudocholinesterase deficiency, in which the bodys ability to break down choline ester drugs is impaired.[ ...
Lab Tests Guide (LTG) is an health information website designed to help patients and health care providers to understand the many lab tests and related diseases. This Website help to Lab Technisians, Technologists and other Clinical laboratory Staff and medical professionals to learn about Lab Tests, Diseases and other health resources.
Lab Tests Guide (LTG) is an health information website designed to help patients and health care providers to understand the many lab tests and related diseases. This Website help to Lab Technisians, Technologists and other Clinical laboratory Staff and medical professionals to learn about Lab Tests, Diseases and other health resources.
Lab Tests Guide (LTG) is an health information website designed to help patients and health care providers to understand the many lab tests and related diseases. This Website help to Lab Technisians, Technologists and other Clinical laboratory Staff and medical professionals to learn about Lab Tests, Diseases and other health resources.
Lab Tests Guide (LTG) is an health information website designed to help patients and health care providers to understand the many lab tests and related diseases. This Website help to Lab Technisians, Technologists and other Clinical laboratory Staff and medical professionals to learn about Lab Tests, Diseases and other health resources.
Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and CYP2D6. Tamoxifen Metabolism and CYP2D6 ...
Pseudocholinesterase and Dibucaine Number. *Red Blood Cell Cholinesterase. *Laryngeal Cancer. *Hypoparathyroidism. *Lupus ...
  • Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) is an enzyme with a complex molecular structure [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The purpose of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on serum values of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), pseudocholinesterase (PchE), bilirubin, ferritin, and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and metabolic syndrome biomarkers in women with T2DM. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to retrospectively assess the correlation of pseudocholinesterase (PChE) levels with age, gender, body weight and diagnosed psychiatric diseases in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) cases. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • There are some homozygous and heterozygous individuals who are sensitive to succinylcholine although their total pseudocholinesterase (PCHE) values are normal. (treatopedia.com)
  • The activities of pseudocholinesterase (PChE) were compared in the serum of type I and type II diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. (mun.ca)
  • This gene provides instructions for making the pseudocholinesterase enzyme, also known as butyrylcholinesterase, which is produced by the liver and circulates in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pseudocholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase) is a drug metabolizing enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of the muscle relaxant drugs succinylcholine and mivacurium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This gene provides instructions for making the pseudocholinesterase enzyme , known as butyrylcholinesterase. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations that cause pseudocholinesterase deficiency either impair the function or production of butyrylcholinesterase. (nih.gov)
  • Butyrylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol BCHE), also known as BChE, BuChE, pseudocholinesterase, or plasma (cholin)esterase, is a nonspecific cholinesterase enzyme that hydrolyses many different choline-based esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can be caused by mutations in the BCHE gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some BCHE gene mutations that cause pseudocholinesterase deficiency result in an abnormal pseudocholinesterase enzyme that does not function properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2008, an experimental new drug was discovered for the potential treatment of cocaine abuse and overdose based on the pseudocholinesterase structure (it was a human BChE mutant with improved catalytic efficiency). (wikipedia.org)
  • BChE is also known as pseudocholinesterase, non- specific cholinesterase, or simply cholinesterase. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The evaluation of serum pseudocholinesterase as a liver function test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To investigate this observation, body weight was correlated with the activity of serum pseudocholinesterase in subjects of varying weight. (elsevier.com)
  • Testing red blood cell acetylcholinesterase and serum pseudocholinesterase may be done to detect acute poisoning or to monitor those with occupational exposure to these chemicals, such as farm workers or those who work with industrial chemicals. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In a survey of serum pseudocholinesterase levels and variants in the peoples of Papua-New Guinea (2144 individuals studied) it was found that the frequency for the atypical cholinesterase gene as determined by dibucaine inhibition ranged from 0.004-0.015. (ajtmh.org)
  • Considerable variation was observed in serum pseudocholinesterase level between the sexes and the various age groups in the populations studied, although variation between the highland and coastal regions was less than the variation within the regions. (ajtmh.org)
  • Serum pseudocholinesterase activity decreased with dose in females. (nih.gov)
  • The distribution of haptoglobins, transferrins and serum pseudocholinesterase in 1353 Mexican Indians belonging to 13 tribes is described. (wiley.com)
  • Acquired pseudocholinesterase deficiency may have various causes such as chronic infection, kidney or liver disease, malnutrition, major burns, cancer , or various medications. (nih.gov)
  • Acquired pseudocholinesterase deficiency is not inherited and cannot be passed to the next generation. (nih.gov)
  • Pseudocholinesterase with different type of inhibition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterases of mammalian plasma: physicochemical properties and organophosphate inhibition in eleven species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, the concomitant inhibition of the enzymatic function of pseudocholinesterase by the anticholinesterases can potentially delay recovery of mivacurium or succinylcholine paralysis. (asahq.org)
  • The percent inhibition of pseudocholinesterase produced by fluorides, used to differentiate normal from atypical pseudocholinesterases. (dictionary.com)
  • A diagnosis of atypical pseudocholinesterase or pseudocholinesterase deficiency was suspected at this time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A reasonable explanation of this patient's prolonged paralysis is the combination of the decreased level of enzyme coupled with an atypical pseudocholinesterase variant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The activity of pseudocholinesterase in the serum is low and its substrate behavior is atypical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall frequency for the atypical pseudocholinesterase gene is of 0.005 and therefore lower than that found in most other populations, except for two Venezuelan and two Bolivian tribes where the atypical gene is absent. (wiley.com)
  • In individuals with normal plasma levels of normally functioning pseudocholinesterase enzyme, hydrolysis and inactivation of approximately 90-95% of an intravenous dose of succinylcholine occurs before it reaches the neuromuscular junction. (medscape.com)
  • The main complication resulting from pseudocholinesterase deficiency is the possibility of respiratory failure secondary to succinylcholine or mivacurium-induced neuromuscular paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited enzyme abnormality that results in abnormally slow metabolic degradation of exogenous choline ester drugs such as succinylcholine and mivacurium. (medscape.com)
  • A personal or family history of an adverse drug reaction to one of the choline ester compounds, such as succinylcholine, mivacurium, or cocaine, may be the only clue suggesting pseudocholinesterase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency results in delayed metabolism of only a few compounds of clinical significance, including the following: succinylcholine, mivacurium, procaine, and cocaine. (medscape.com)
  • In this article, we would like to share our experiences in the management of four patients who developed mivacurium apnea postoperatively due to congenital or acquired pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiencies alongwith a literature review. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • THE neuromuscular effects of mivacurium and succinylcholine are terminated mostly by their hydrolysis of cholinesterases, particularly pseudocholinesterase. (asahq.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a rare genetic as well as an acquired disorder that affects the body's ability to metabolize choline esters such as succinylcholine and mivacurium. (cdc.gov)
  • Does age or pseudocholinesterase activity predict mivacurium infusion rate in children? (biomedsearch.com)
  • [ 9 ] Of these, its most clinically important substrate is the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, succinylcholine, which the pseudocholinesterase enzyme hydrolyzes to succinylmonocholine and then to succinic acid. (medscape.com)
  • A decrease in the activity of pseudocholinesterase enzyme and improvement in neuromuscular function will help verifying our diagnosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In those who have an adequate amount of pseudocholinesterase in their plasma, metabolism of about 90-95% of an intravenous dose of succinylcholine occurs before it reaches the neuromuscular joint. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can result in higher levels of intact succinylcholine molecules reaching receptors in the neuromuscular junction, causing the duration of paralytic effect to continue for as long as 8 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis may demonstrate a number of allelic mutations in the pseudocholinesterase gene, including point mutations resulting in abnormal enzyme structure and function and frameshift or stop codon mutations resulting in absent enzyme synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can be inherited (genetic) or acquired. (nih.gov)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a rare genetic condition where the affected individual has increased sensitivity to several anesthetic agents. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • Finally, pseudocholinesterase metabolism of procaine results in formation of paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of the pseudocholinesterase enzyme can be impaired by kidney or liver disease, malnutrition, major burns, cancer, or certain drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If there is a deficiency in the plasma activity of pseudocholinesterase, prolonged muscular paralysis may occur, resulting in the extended need for mechanical ventilation.A variety of pathologic conditions, physiologic alterations, and medications also can lower plasma pseudocholinesterase activity. (medscape.com)
  • Partial deficiencies in inherited pseudocholinesterase enzyme activity may be clinically insignificant unless accompanied by a concomitant acquired cause of pseudocholinesterase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Cabrer et al (8) estimated pseudocholinesterase activity in pleural effusions of diverse aetiologies and concluded that there exists difference in the activity of pseudocholinesterase among different types of pleural effusions and it was possible to differentiate them into transudates and exudates with pseudocholinesterase levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Levels of serum lipids, apolipoproteins A-I and B and pseudocholinesterase activity and their discriminative values in patients with coronary bypass operation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Boetteger, Kinetic method for determinationof pseudocholinesterase (acylcholine acylhydrolase) activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are also certain medical conditions that can affect the activity of pseudocholinesterase in the body. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • A prophylactic transfusion of fresh frozen plasma may be given to patients with a known pseudocholinesterase activity that needs to undergo a surgical procedure. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • The duration of action of succinylcholine appears to be determined primarily by the level of pseudocholinesterase activity in the blood and the volume of the extracellular fluid space. (elsevier.com)
  • Insecticides containing organophosphates can inhibit cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase activity. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency occurs in 1 in 3,200 to 1 in 5,000 people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, approximately 1 in every 5,000 people have a pseudocholinesterase deficiency and cannot metabolize Novocaine or other anesthetics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase is a glycoprotein enzyme, produced by the liver, circulating in the plasma. (medscape.com)
  • The enzyme pseudocholinesterase is primarily composed of glycoprotein and is produced by the liver. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • When anesthetists administer standard doses of these anesthetic drugs to a person with pseudocholinesterase deficiency, the patient experiences prolonged paralysis of the respiratory muscles, requiring an extended period of time during which the patient must be mechanically ventilated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cherington M, Lasater G. Prolonged Paralysis in Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The pseudocholinesterase enzyme is involved in the breakdown of choline ester drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A lack of functional pseudocholinesterase enzyme impairs the body's ability to break down choline ester drugs efficiently, leading to abnormally prolonged drug effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other mutations prevent the production of the pseudocholinesterase enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These patients also may notify others in their family who may be at risk for carrying one or more abnormal pseudocholinesterase gene alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency (anesthesia sensitivity) is an autosomal recessive condition common within the Persian and Iraqi Jewish populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is a condition that results in increased sensitivity to certain muscle relaxant drugs used during general anesthesia, called choline esters. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most clinically significant causes of pseudocholinesterase deficiency are due to one or more inherited abnormal alleles that code for the synthesis of the enzyme. (medscape.com)
  • Human plasma contains butyryl cholinesterase (also called pseudocholinesterase and referred to simply as cholinesterase or ChE in this article), which is inhibited by organophosphates and carbamates, widely-used classes of insecticides. (mdpi.com)
  • Pseudocholinesterase or plasma cholinesterase. (drugs.com)
  • Another pathway uses plasma cholinesterase or pseudocholinesterase). (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • This enzyme abnormality is a benign condition unless a person with pseudocholinesterase deficiency is exposed to the offending pharmacological agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may also have increased sensitivity to certain other drugs, including the local anesthetic procaine, and to specific agricultural pesticides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What would you expect from a specific inhibitor of pseudocholinesterase? (brainscape.com)
  • Individuals who are diagnosed with Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency (PD) are highly sensitive to several anesthetic agents. (ihealthzoom.com)
  • We report here the anesthetic management of a patient with schizophrenia and pseudocholinesterase deficiency. (springeropen.com)
  • In most cases of pseudocholinesterase deficiency, no signs or symptoms of the condition exist. (cdc.gov)
  • Novocaine is broken down in the body by an enzyme called pseudocholinesterase. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the body, Novocaine is processed (metabolized) by an enzyme known as pseudocholinesterase. (healthline.com)
  • Individuals with pseudocholinesterase deficiency also may be at increased risk of toxic reactions, including sudden cardiac death, associated with recreational use of cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nonmedical settings in which subjects with pseudocholinesterase deficiency are exposed to cocaine, sudden cardiac death can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with known pseudocholinesterase deficiency may wear a medic-alert bracelet that will notify healthcare workers of increased risk from administration of succinylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudocholinesterase levels in patients under electroconvulsive therapy. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Compared to nonobese patients, obese patients have both increased pseudocholinesterase levels and an increased extracellular fluid space. (elsevier.com)
  • The diagnosis of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency can be given after a careful clinic supervision and peripheral nerve stimulator monitoring. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Saliva and cariogenic bacteria showed esteraselike activities (ie, cholesterol esterase [CE]-like and/or pseudocholinesterase [PCE]-like) that degrade methacrylate-based resin materials and/or the restoration-tooth interface, increasing microbial interfacial proliferation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However, people with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may not be able to move or breathe on their own for a few hours after the drugs are administered. (medlineplus.gov)