Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Renal Blood Flow, Effective: The amount of the RENAL BLOOD FLOW that is going to the functional renal tissue, i.e., parts of the KIDNEY that are involved in production of URINE.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.PhloretinGlucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.GlucosidesPhlorhizinGlucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.MethylglucosidesInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Tetrabenazine: A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.MethylglycosidesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.GlycogenAdipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.HexosesGlucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.PropylaminesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Deoxy SugarsDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Aminoimidazole Carboxamide: An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nerve Tissue Proteins4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.GlucosephosphatesXenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Inbred C57BLCystinyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.TritiumDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
Na-K-2Cl symporter K-Cl cotransporter Sodium/phosphate cotransporter Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... glucose cotransporter that has an important role in transferring sugar across the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules ... In mammals, glucose is transported through sodium dependent glucose transporters, which use energy in this process. Here, since ...
Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose ... There are two types of active transport - primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary active transport that uses an ... It is also located in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule in each nephron in the kidneys. Its mechanism is exploited in ... The gene was then discovered for intestinal glucose transport protein and linked to these membrane sodium glucose cotransport ...
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... This action creates a downhill sodium ion gradient from the outside to the inside of the proximal tubule cell (that is, in ... encompass the active transport of a diverse range of molecules and ions into virtually every cell type. Boyd CA (March 2008). " ... the sodium-glucose cotransporter. Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
They act by inhibiting sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2), and are therefore also called SGLT2 inhibitors. Gliflozins ... Glucose is later reabsorbed by passive transfer of endothelial cells into the interstitial glucose transporter protein. The use ... Scheen, André J. (14 January 2014). "Drug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New ... Sodium and glucose are co-transported by the SGLT-2 protein into the tubular epithelial cells across the brush-border membrane ...
Sodium/glucose co-transporter (SGLT) proteins are bound to the cell membrane and have the role of transporting glucose through ... glucosuria and blocks intestinal glucose absorption through inhibition of the sodium/glucose symporters located in the proximal ... Gliflozins are a class of drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). They act by inhibiting sodium/glucose cotransporter ... which are secondary active glucose transporters. The sodium glucose transporters proteins SGLT-1 and SGLT-2 are the two premier ...
Amino acids are reabsorbed by sodium dependent transporters in the proximal tubule. Hartnup disease is a deficiency of the ... Urine tests such as urinalysis can evaluate for pH, protein, glucose, and the presence of blood. Microscopic analysis can also ... A.M. Weinstein (1994). "Mathematical models of tubular transport". Annual Review of Physiology. 56: 691-709. doi:10.1146/ ... Distinct cell types include: *Kidney glomerulus parietal cell. *Kidney glomerulus podocyte. *Kidney proximal tubule brush ...
Nine encode proteins that transport HCO− 3. Functionally, eight of these proteins fall into two major groups: three Cl-HCO− 3 ... Animal cells in tissue culture expressing the gene-encoding the ABC-type chloride channel protein CFTR (TC# 3.A.1.202.1) in the ... transport of H+ or HCO− 3 by epithelia (e.g. absorption of HCO− 3 in the renal proximal tubule, secretion of HCO− 3 in the ... may provide sites for regulation of transporter function via protein kinase A phosphorylation (e.g., NBCe1). The SLC4 family ...
norepinephrine transport. • epinephrine transport. • organic cation transport. • dopamine transport. • protein ... organic cation transmembrane transporter activity. • organic anion transmembrane transporter activity. • dopamine:sodium ... "In vitro and in vivo binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein and Sp1 transcription factor". Journal of ... "Properties and regulation of organic cation transport in freshly isolated human proximal tubules". The Journal of Biological ...
... and glucose transporters. The thyroid hormones are created from thyroglobulin. This is a protein within the follicular space ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... In addition, the thyroid gland may also develop several types of nodules and cancer. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ... The disorders that occur in the lower neck more proximal to the thyroid gland are lined by epithelium resembling the thyroidal ...
Proximal glial cells use a cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) to transport cystine into the cell and glutamate out. Excessive ... transporter Metabotropic glutamate receptor Synaptic plasticity Neurodegeneration Glutamate receptor-interacting protein ... "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets of Langerhans modulates glucose-stimulated insulin ... NMDA and metabotropic types have been found to induce epileptic convulsions. Using rodent models, labs have found that the ...
In addition, these neurons expressed MCT8, a thyroid hormone transporter, supporting the theory that T3 is transported into ... It has been postulated that when their glucose utilization is low and consequently when the arteriovenous blood glucose ... sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ... The hypothalamus functions as a type of thermostat for the body.[28] It sets a desired body temperature, and stimulates either ...
protein binding. • sodium channel regulator activity. • serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. • angiotensin receptor ... negative regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity. • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic ... proximal tubule. increased Na+ reabsorption. *adjustment of Starling forces in peritubular capillaries to favour increased ... positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulus. • positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic ...
This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... and glucose transporters.[18] ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells ... Two types thyroiditis initially present with hyperthyroidism and are sometimes followed by a period of hypothyroidism - ... The disorders that occur in the lower neck more proximal to the thyroid gland are lined by epithelium resembling the thyroidal ...
... proximal; 185800; NOG Syndactyly, type III; 186100; GJA1 Syndactyly, type IV; 186200; LMBR1 Syndactyly, type V; 186300; HOXD13 ... HRG Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant; 176860; PROC Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, ... due to glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency; 613470; GPI Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, susceptibility to, 1; 235400; ... secretory sodium, congenital, syndromic; 270420; SPINT2 Diarrhea 4, malabsorptive, congenital; 610370; NEUROG3 Diarrhea 5, with ...
Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times greater than uncatalyzed transmembrane diffusion. The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is a type III integral protein with 12 hydrophobic segments, each of which is believed to form a membrane-spanning helix. The detailed structure of GLUT1 is not known yet, but one plausible model suggests that the side-by-side assembly of several helices produces a ...
... s are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce ...
Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times greater than uncatalyzed transmembrane diffusion. The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is a type III integral protein with 12 hydrophobic segments, each of which is believed to form a membrane-spanning helix. The detailed structure of GLUT1 is not known yet, but one plausible model suggests that the side-by-side assembly of several helices produces a ...
... has been used as a vitamin C dietary supplement.[8] As a cosmetic ingredient, dehydroascorbic acid is used to enhance the appearance of the skin.[9] It may be used in a process for permanent waving of hair[10] and in a process for sunless tanning of skin.[11] In a cell culture growth medium, dehydroascorbic acid has been used to assure the uptake of vitamin C into cell types that do not contain ascorbic acid transporters.[12] As a pharmaceutical agent, some research has suggested that administration of dehydroascorbic acid may confer protection from neuronal injury following an ischemic stroke.[7] The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C,[13] and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has stronger antiviral effects and a different mechanism of action than ascorbic acid.[14] Solutions in water containing ascorbic acid and copper ions and/or peroxide, resulting in rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid, have been shown ...
C-jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK8IP1 gene.[5][6] The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ...
... s are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce ...
... , also known as cystinyl aminopeptidase (CAP), insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), human placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), oxytocinase, and vasopressinase, is an enzyme of the aminopeptidase group that in humans is encoded by the LNPEP gene. This gene encodes a zinc-dependent aminopeptidase (metalloexopeptidase) that cleaves vasopressin, oxytocin, lys-bradykinin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and other peptide hormones. The protein can be secreted in maternal serum, reside in intracellular vesicles with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, or form a type II integral membrane glycoprotein. The protein catalyzes the final step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin IV (AT4) and is also a receptor for AT4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Mutations in this gene have been associated to psoriasis ...
Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times greater than uncatalyzed transmembrane diffusion. The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is a type III integral protein with 12 hydrophobic segments, each of which is believed to form a membrane-spanning helix. The detailed structure of GLUT1 is not known yet, but one plausible model suggests that the side-by-side assembly of several helices produces a ...
C-jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK8IP1 gene.[5][6] The protein encoded by this gene is a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 ...
... , also known as cystinyl aminopeptidase (CAP), insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), human placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), oxytocinase, and vasopressinase, is an enzyme of the aminopeptidase group that in humans is encoded by the LNPEP gene. This gene encodes a zinc-dependent aminopeptidase (metalloexopeptidase) that cleaves vasopressin, oxytocin, lys-bradykinin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and other peptide hormones. The protein can be secreted in maternal serum, reside in intracellular vesicles with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4, or form a type II integral membrane glycoprotein. The protein catalyzes the final step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin IV (AT4) and is also a receptor for AT4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Mutations in this gene have been associated to psoriasis ...
... s are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce ...
Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. Glucose enters the erythrocyte by facilitated diffusion via a specific glucose transporter, at a rate about 50,000 times greater than uncatalyzed transmembrane diffusion. The glucose transporter of erythrocytes (called GLUT1 to distinguish it from related glucose transporters in other tissues) is a type III integral protein with 12 hydrophobic segments, each of which is believed to form a membrane-spanning helix. The detailed structure of GLUT1 is not known yet, but one plausible model suggests that the side-by-side assembly of several helices produces a ...
... s are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane. Because glucose is a vital source of energy for all life, these transporters are present in all phyla. The GLUT or SLC2A family are a protein family that is found in most mammalian cells. 14 GLUTS are encoded by human genome. GLUT is a type of uniporter transporter protein. Most non-autotrophic cells are unable to produce free glucose because they lack expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and, thus, are involved only in glucose uptake and catabolism. Usually produced only in hepatocytes, in fasting conditions other tissues such as the intestines, muscles, brain, and kidneys are able to produce ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing worldwide epidemic. Patients face lifelong therapy to control hyperglycemia and ... Wood IS, Trayhurn P. Glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT): expanded families of sugar transport proteins. Br J Nutr. 2003;89:3- ... Regulatory mechanisms of Na+/glucose cotransporters in renal proximal tubule cells. Kidney Int. 2007;72:S27-S35.CrossRefGoogle ... low-capacity glucose transporter sodium glucose cotransporter 1, SGLT1 (Figure 1A).29,30 However, while SGLT2 is predominantly ...
Na-K-2Cl symporter K-Cl cotransporter Sodium/phosphate cotransporter Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... glucose cotransporter that has an important role in transferring sugar across the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules ... In mammals, glucose is transported through sodium dependent glucose transporters, which use energy in this process. Here, since ...
... diabetes mellitus type 2 sign and symptoms 9dpo, diabetes free powder makeup, immo-s voba breisgau-nord, care plan on diabetes ... diabetes mellitus type 2 sign and symptoms 9dpo, diabetes free powder makeup, immo-s voba breisgau-nord, care plan on diabetes ... diabetes mellitus type 2 biochemistry voet, type 2 diabetes symptoms rash, ... diabetes mellitus type 2 biochemistry voet, type 2 diabetes symptoms rash, ...
One of the most feared repercussions of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The current ... The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial studied the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients at ... Differential cardiovascular profiles of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: critical evaluation of empagliflozin Vani P ... Sanon,1 Shalin Patel,1 Saurabh Sanon,2 Ruben Rodriguez,1 Son V Pham,1 Robert Chilton1 1Division of Cardiology, University of ...
Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose ... There are two types of active transport - primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary active transport that uses an ... It is also located in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule in each nephron in the kidneys. Its mechanism is exploited in ... The gene was then discovered for intestinal glucose transport protein and linked to these membrane sodium glucose cotransport ...
... several of which may also be sodium-glucose transporters.[1] Gene. Protein. Acronym. Tissue distribution. in proximal tubule[2] ... P-type ATPase (3.A.3). *3.A.3.1.1: Na+/K+ transporting: ATP1A1 ... Sodium-Glucose+Transport+Proteins at the US National Library of ... Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... Na+:Glucose. Co-transport ratio. Contribution to glucose. reabsorption (%)[3] SLC5A1. Sodium/GLucose. coTransporter 1. SGLT1. ...
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is an active glucose transporter, which utilizes sodium gradients to transport glucose ... is one of the two main glucose transporters in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. It is activated by Protein Kinase A and ... Inhibitors of SGLT2 have been developed in order to treat people with type 2 diabetes (7). ... SGLT1 is an essential glucose active transport protein that helps maintain high intracellular glucose levels (1). Expression of ...
For example, glucose is absorbed from the small intestine via sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and is released from ... Identification of the major intestinal fatty acid transport protein. Mol Cell. 1999;4(3):299-308.. View this article via: ... while IECs and Paneth cells produce AMPs and C-type lectin regenerating islet-derived protein IIIγ (RegIIIγ) to exclude ... CD36 is important for fatty acid and cholesterol uptake by the proximal but not distal intestine. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(27): ...
protein transporters, channels, and pumps distin-. bolic fuel for colonocytes. Their transport is postu-. guishing the apical ... Proximal one-third of colon only. Goblet cells Colonic crypt Mucin release. Most common cell type in the colon. Enteroendocrine ... passive transport systems exist via both of these. Whereas sodium is the primary cation involved in. pathways.. ion transport, ... tration of glucose is regulated both by uptake at. H. Na. +. 2. CO. 3. Cl. -. CO. the apical surface and by exit through the ...
Aims/hypothesis GLUT2 is the main renal glucose transporter upregulated by hyperglycaemia, when it becomes detectable at the ... brush border membrane (BBM). Since glucose-induced protein kinase C (PKC)... ... It is now clear that sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) and GLUT2 work in conjunction to transport glucose across the brush ... Brush border membrane Diabetes Facilitated glucose transporters GLUT2 Hyperglycaemia Protein kinase C Proximal tubule ...
Both proteins bind and transport sodium and glucose, SGLT2 in a one-to-one and SGLT1 in a two-to-one ratio, while showing some ... the sodium-glucose-linked co-transporters (SGLT). SGLTs are found in the proximal tubule in two different isoforms, namely ... Follow-up of blood-pressure lowering and glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1392-406.View ArticlePubMed ... Sodium-glucose linked co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. In the kidney, plasma glucose is freely ...
An important role of protein kinases for sodium-glucose co-transporters has been demonstrated for SGLT1, and it has been ... A diminished amount of the normal SGLT2 protein should result in type A glucosuria, characterized by a lowered renal transport ... are in line with the accepted dogma that the bulk of filtered glucose is reabsorbed in segments S1 and S2 of the proximal ... The role of SGLT2 (the gene for a renal sodium-dependent glucose transporter) in renal glucosuria was evaluated. Therefore, its ...
the most important lumenal Na transport protein at the proximal tubule is... ... glucose moves out of cell on basolateral side using GLUT transporter. 3. Na/K ATPase pumps Na out of cell to keep intracellular ... which ions use sodium co-transport as a method to get through cells? ... Polarized, so have different transport proteins on each side. Solutes must pass through different ones to get to other side. ...
Study Tubular Transport of NaCl and Water flashcards from Jeffrey Lee ... It is a type of passive transportation that is carrier-mediated. Carrier proteins facilitate movement across lipid bilayer. Two ... True or False: Macromolecules like polypeptides and proteins are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. ... Also, the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids is helped by Na reabsorption as well. Glucose and amino acids "ride with" Na ...
Albumin and glucose reuptake was also improved, as well as aquaporin 1 and sodium potassium ATPase protein expression, ... 2013) Human kidney proximal tubule-on-a-chip for drug transport and nephrotoxicity assessment. Integr Biol 5:1119-1129. ... kidney models use proximal tubule epithelial cells as the most relevant cell type for secretory function; gut models use ... multidrug resistance-associated protein. OAT. organic anion transporter. OATP. organic anion transporting polypeptide. OCT. ...
SGLTs include an extensive array of membrane proteins that transport glucose, amino acids, vitamins, ions, and osmolytes across ... Sodium-glucose cotransport inhibition with dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32:650-657, 2009 ... of the proximal convoluted tubule.6,12 SGLT2 binds with both sodium and glucose in the tubular filtrate. These compounds are ... Today, we have a better understanding of the physiology of glucose transport via specific carriers such as the sodium glucose ...
Wild-type breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a methotrexate polyglutamate transporter. Cancer Res 63: 5538-5543. ... Renal secretion of drugs is achieved by vectorial transport via the kidney epithelium of the proximal tubules, which consists ... medium and for an additional 24 h with culture medium supplemented with 5 mM sodium butyrate before the transport studies. ... 5 mM glucose, and 1.53 mM CaCl2, pH 7.4) containing radiolabeled compounds in the presence or absence of inhibitors after cells ...
... inhibitors are relatively new classes of drugs that work by increasing urinary glucose excretion. ... High-capacity, low affinity glucose co-transport protein. Location of action in Proximal Tubule. Distal S3 segment. S1 and S2 ... DeSantis, A. (2018). Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. ... Combination drugs for type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes management: A practice guide for NPs. Keeping up-to-date with diabetes ...
We hypothesized that novel, yet-unidentified transporters in these tubule segments … ... and yet no urea transporters have been identified in these sections. ... Membrane Transport Modulators * Membrane Transport Proteins * RNA, Messenger * Slc5a1 protein, rat * Sodium-Glucose Transporter ... NaGLT1 is a Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter primarily located in the proximal tubules and not previously described in the ...
... along with receptor-G protein uncoupling. DA, via the D1 receptor, inhibits the sodium transporters in proximal tubules and ... Transport and metabolism of glucose by renal proximal tubular cells in primary culture. Am J Physiol. 1984; 246: F757-F764. ... Segers O, Anckaert E, Gerlo E, Dupont AG, Somers G. Dopamine-sodium relationship in type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Res Clin ... G proteins. Dopamine (DA) causes inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules. This action of DA is mediated ...
Living donor kidney to the recommended readings at the right reasons primary transport in the apical membrane transporters and ... more especially in the wild type and bf mutant kidneys which have their condition deteriorates or more of a wt viii proximal ... Sodium helps regulate the fusion of the other.Detection of renal cilia has not been used safely and effectively regulated by ... You cannot eat what you eat contain protein. cheap viagra for sale get viagra ...
Each transporter grabs only one or two types of molecules. For example, glucose is reabsorbed by a transporter that also grabs ... For example, most of the Na transporters are located in the proximal tubule, while fewer ones are spread out through other ... Specialized proteins called transporters are located on the membranes of the nephron. ... These tubes collect the urine and then transport it to the ureters which will then transport it to be stored in the bladder ...
Effects of octreotide on glucose transporter type 2 expression in obese rat ... ... Increased NHE3 abundance and transport activity in renal proximal tubule of rats ... ... the major apical transcellular pathway for sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, is upregulated in an experimental model ... Background/Aims: NF-κB protein family members act as transcription facts and play a key role in regulating the immune response ...
Protein name. Transport type. Tissue distribution. SGLT1. Na+/glucose-galactose co-transporter (also urea and water channel). ... Sodium monocarboxylic acid transporters. Thyroid, kidney, colon. SMCT2. Sodium monocarboxylic acid transporters. Thyroid, ... when the amount of glucose in proximal tubule is increased.[31] The physiological role of Na+/D-glucose co-transporter SGLT1 in ... Glucose (or galactose) co-transporter. Kidney cortex. SGLT6 (also known as SMIT2). Na+/glucose-myo-inositol co-transporter. ...
This limit is loosely based on the known distribution of the sodium dependent glucose transporter 1 along this axis. Within ... The fibrils between cells consist of at least two types of tetraspanning membrane proteins, occludin and members of the claudin ... For instance, in the proximal gut, intact dietary antigens will be common but in the distal gut, antigens from the microflora ... Molecular structure of tight junctions and their role in epithelial transport. News Physiol Sci2001;16:126-30. ...
  • 1-5 Inhibition of NHE activity results from D1 receptor coupling to the G s protein and an increase in the levels of intracellular cAMP, which causes activation of protein kinase A (PKA), leading to phosphorylation of the exchanger. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some magnesium dependent enzymes are Na + /K + -ATPase, hexokinase, creatine kinase, protein kinase, and cyclases (see Table 1 ). (mdpi.com)
  • Hormonal stimulations have been linked to direct phosphorylation of NHE1 by protein kinases, including ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) 1/2, p160ROCK (p160 Rho-associated kinase), p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), p90 ribosomal S6K (S6 kinase), CaMKII (Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) and Akt, and to dephosphorylation dependent upon the protein phosphatases PP1, PP2A and SHP-2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1/2). (biochemj.org)
  • Target receptors for the second messenger cyclic GMP include protein kinase G isozymes, cGMP-gated ion channels as well as cGMP-responsive phosphodiesterases. (biolog.de)
  • Online kinase Compassion cell phospholipids in protein are readily to 1 damage in dioxide, with a engineering of approx. (erik-mill.de)
  • The mechanisms growing from this conjugation are a pit in triple announcement and sulfotransferease of Protein Kinase C( PKC). (erik-mill.de)
  • primary proteins point resident deficiency from kinase, myeloid and returned lower glycoproteins, water-soluble deletion, amino, ligand-induced switch and different strand methyltransferases. (evakoch.com)
  • In addition to Smad-dependent pathways, TGF-β also activates Smad-independent pathways such as the Erk, c-Jun-NH 2 -kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the complex maintaining on the including kinase leads positively IRF7 to that on the selling location, the Complete health on the two gases transporters then also. (evakoch.com)
  • In the mammal NHE3 exists not only in the apical side of renal proximal tubule and thick ascending limb, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, epididymis, and brain [2]. (scirp.org)
  • It is an insoluble protein whose sticky, adherent properties are probably important in maintaining the watertight integrity of the thick ascending limb . (wikidoc.org)
  • Due to accumulation of abnormal uromodulin in thick ascending limb cells leads sequentially to impaired NaCl reabsorption, mild renal salt wasting, volume contraction, and a secondary increase in proximal urate reabsorption, which restores volume status to normal but leads to hyperuricemia . (wikidoc.org)
  • Sustained Liver Glucose Release in Response to Adrenaline Can Improve Hypoglycaemic Episodes in Rats under Food Restriction Subjected to Acute Exercise. (amazonaws.com)
  • 4 , 5 Animal studies carried out in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats demonstrated that phlorizin-induced glucosuria normalized fasting and postprandial glucose levels and reversed insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that a chronic increase in levels of insulin causes a decrease in expression of the D1 receptor and its uncoupling from G proteins, which may account for the diminished inhibitory effect of dopamine on NKA in obese Zucker rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, we have reported that DA was unable to inhibit NHE and NKA activities in obese Zucker rats, which have moderate hypertension and also provide a model for type 2 diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20,21 We found that this phenomenon was the result of reduced D1 receptor numbers and uncoupling of the D1 receptor from G proteins in obese Zucker rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats (Harlan, Indianapolis, Ind) weighing 200 to 250 g were used to prepare and purify proximal tubule fragments, as previously described. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on hepatic glycogen synthesis and FoxO1 transcriptional activity in type 2 diabetic rats and the mechanism underlying these effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In short, primary cultures of VSMCs were obtained from the thoracic aortas of 2-month-old rats by microdissection and collagenase digestion. (ahajournals.org)
  • In response to 40 min bilateral renal I/R, Rorc-/- rats were resistant to injury relative to wild-type Rorc+/+ rats. (medworm.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AGE and SAC on the level of mRNA expression of the main neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT3) and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in rats with transient focal cerebral ischemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, we morphologically examined local inhibitory inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs) in motor areas using transgenic rats in which GABAergic neurons expressed fluorescent protein Venus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed modified AIN-93G purified rodent diets that contained 10 ppm iron (FeD), 50 ppm iron (FeA) or 1.9% carbonyl iron (2% FeO) for 3 wks. (ufl.edu)
  • The potential role of vitamin D deficiency in insulin resistance has been proposed to be associated with inherited gene polymorphisms including vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase gene. (scribd.com)
  • It is the product of the third gene within the scaCBA operon encoding the components of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system. (asm.org)
  • In each instance the LraI polypeptide is encoded by the third gene of a tricistronic operon encoding the components of an ABC transporter. (asm.org)
  • This gene is one of three similar cation transporter genes located in a cluster on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene, but only the longer variant encodes a functional transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inherited forms are caused by X-linked loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the vasopressin 2- receptor (V2R) or autosomal mutations in the gene encoding aquaporin 2 (AQP2). (medworm.com)
  • Mutants defective in the previously described gbt gene (PA3082) grew on GB with kinetics similar to those of the wild type in both the PAO1 and PA14 strain backgrounds. (asm.org)
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse NHERF-1 gene promotes internalization of proximal tubule sodium-phosphate cotransporter type IIa and renal phosphate wasting. (springer.com)
  • Following phosphorylation of Smad2 or Smad3 by the activated type I receptor, a heteromeric complex is formed with Smad4, resulting in the translocation of the complex to the nucleus to directly or indirectly regulate gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These respectively phosphorylate as being needs for the gene of SH2( concert adapter) or PTB( transport fusion) cells of fibers, resulting levels or Revisiting microRNAs. (evakoch.com)
  • In recent years I was involved in the cloning and functional characterisation of organic anion transporters (OAT) of the SLC22A family. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Intelligent design" may not have devised a system that, in an average adult, initially filters approximately 150 L of water daily, containing an enormous load of solutes, including about 20,000 mmol of sodium per day (equivalent to the amount in 1.2 kg of cooking salt), only to laboriously reabsorb virtually all of it back into circulation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Rate of flow of the filtrate - flow rate affects the time available for the transporters to reabsorb molecules. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Proximal RTA is caused by an impaired capacity of the proximal tubule to reabsorb bicarbonate. (healio.com)
  • The second, we want to describe the cellular mechanism for transport of materials from the tubule to the interior of the tubule, that is within the lumen, across the cells and into the blood. (coursera.org)
  • This variation from the norm by and large shows as an expanded resting centralization of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]I), diminished Ca2+ transporter movement and diminished boost that produces Ca2+ signals. (intechopen.com)
  • We have examined intracellular Na + transients and glutamate transporter currents as the most telling indicators of glutamate clearance after synaptic or photolytic release of glutamate in striatal slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mammalian NHE (Na + /H + exchanger) family of proteins plays an important role in maintenance of pH i (intracellular pH) [ 1 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Microtubules (MTs) are intracellular polymers that provide structure to the cell, serve as railways for intracellular transport, and regulate many cellular activities, including cell migration. (stanford.edu)
  • New evidence suggests that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) mediates protective actions within the cardiovascular and renal systems. (medworm.com)
  • But the awareness of the renal mechanisms of glucose control is likely to increase due to the development of new types of glucose-lowering drugs that target this metabolic pathway .2. (amazonaws.com)
  • IRS-1 contains multiple tyrosine phosphorylation motifs that serve as docking sites for SH2-domain containing proteins that mediate the metabolic and growth-promoting functions of insulin (2-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • The sugar transporter receptor, i.e., "transceptor" GLUT2, may constitute a drug target to treat eating disorders and associated metabolic diseases, particularly by modulating its receptor function without affecting vital sugar provision by its transporter function. (physiology.org)
  • When myocardial energy demands are increased acutely, the heart maintains the balance between its energetic supply and demand by shifting fluxes through existing metabolic pathways ( 2,3 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • The NHE3 null mice had only a mild metabolic acidosis of 3 to 5 mEq/l less than that of wild type mice. (scirp.org)
  • The atypical glucose metabolic phenomenon, known as the Warburg effect, has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer and serves as a promising target for tumor specific imaging. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, glucose and its analogues have been labeled with various radionuclides such as 99m Tc, 111 In, 18 F, 68 Ga, and 64 Cu and have been successfully investigated for tumor metabolic imaging in many preclinical studies. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, preclinical and early clinical development of glucose-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor metabolic imaging will be summarized. (hindawi.com)
  • We hypothesized that the sarcolemmal and mitochondrial proteins involved in these key metabolic pathways would mirror these changes, providing a mechanism to account for the modified metabolic flux measured in the human heart. (jove.com)
  • 18). Cardiac biopsies were obtained during valve replacement surgery, and used for western blotting to measure metabolic protein levels. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, we analyze the challenges and opportunities for the implementation of such systems in the study of transporter-mediated drug disposition and the generation of clinically relevant physiology-based in silico models incorporating relevant drug transport activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since its inception by Langendorff 1 , the isolated perfused heart remains a prominent tool for studying cardiac physiology 2 . (jove.com)