A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The amount of the RENAL BLOOD FLOW that is going to the functional renal tissue, i.e., parts of the KIDNEY that are involved in production of URINE.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
Glucose in blood.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Abstaining from all food.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC; EC; EC and EC
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Na-K-2Cl symporter K-Cl cotransporter Sodium/phosphate cotransporter Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... glucose cotransporter that has an important role in transferring sugar across the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules ... In mammals, glucose is transported through sodium dependent glucose transporters, which use energy in this process. Here, since ...
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found ... This action creates a downhill sodium ion gradient from the outside to the inside of the proximal tubule cell (that is, in ... encompass the active transport of a diverse range of molecules and ions into virtually every cell type. Boyd CA (March 2008). " ... the sodium-glucose cotransporter. Sodium-Glucose+Transport+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
Milder, D. A.; Milder, T. Y.; Kam, P. C. A. (August 2018). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter type-2 inhibitors: pharmacology and ... They act by inhibiting sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2). SGLT2 inhibitors are used in the treatment of type II ... SGLT2 is mainly expressed in the kidneys on the epithelial cells lining the first segment of the proximal convoluted tubule. By ... SGLT2 inhibitors, also called gliflozins or flozins, are a class of medications that modulate sodium-glucose transport proteins ...
Half a century later this idea has turned into one of the most studied of all transporter proteins (SGLT1), the sodium-glucose ... One example of this type of ABC transporter is the protein NtPDR1. This unique ABC transporter is found in Nicotiana tabacum ... It is also located in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule in each nephron in the kidneys. Its mechanism is exploited in ... The gene was then discovered for intestinal glucose transport protein and linked to these membrane sodium glucose cotransport ...
Sodium/glucose co-transporter (SGLT) proteins are bound to the cell membrane and have the role of transporting glucose through ... glucosuria and blocks intestinal glucose absorption through inhibition of the sodium/glucose symporters located in the proximal ... Gliflozins are a class of drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). They act by inhibiting sodium/glucose cotransporter ... which are secondary active glucose transporters. The sodium glucose transporters proteins SGLT-1 and SGLT-2 are the two premier ...
Amino acids are reabsorbed by sodium dependent transporters in the proximal tubule. Hartnup disease is a deficiency of the ... Urine tests such as urinalysis can evaluate for pH, protein, glucose, and the presence of blood. Microscopic analysis can also ... Distinct cell types include: Kidney glomerulus parietal cell Kidney glomerulus podocyte Kidney proximal tubule brush border ... Reabsorption is the transport of molecules from this ultrafiltrate and into the peritubular capillary. It is accomplished via ...
... therefore they need to be assisted by the membrane proteins. Both types of passive transport will continue until the system ... An example of where this occurs is in the movement of glucose within the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Main article: ... "Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters". Nutrients. 8 (1): 43. doi:10.3390/nu8010043. ... Examples of molecules that follow this process are potassium K+, sodium Na+, and calcium Ca2+. A place in the human body where ...
... ions from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary active transporters such as membrane transport proteins, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and ... Sanders MJ, Simon LM, Misfeldt DS (March 1983). "Transepithelial transport in cell culture: bioenergetics of Na-, D-glucose- ... Lin HH, Tang MJ (January 1997). "Thyroid hormone upregulates Na,K-ATPase α and β mRNA in primary cultures of proximal tubule ...
Anion exchanger proteins exchange HCO3 − for Cl− in a reversible, electroneutral manner. Na+/HCO3 − co-transport proteins ... Animal cells in tissue culture expressing the gene-encoding the ABC-type chloride channel protein CFTR (TC# 3.A.1.202.1) in the ... transport of H+ or HCO− 3 by epithelia (e.g. absorption of HCO− 3 in the renal proximal tubule, secretion of HCO− 3 in the ... eight of these proteins fall into two major groups: three Cl-HCO− 3 exchangers (AE1-3) and five Na+-coupled HCO− 3 transporters ...
In the proximal tubules of the C. livia kidney, substances that are needed, such as vitamins and glucose, are reabsorbed into ... Sodium/Potassium/ATPase transporter is located in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell, which is opposite of the ... The blood pH is regulated by the A and B types of cells located in distal tubule and collecting duct. The A-type cells are acid ... Protein intake, for example, causes an excess of toxins of amine groups when it is broken down for energy. To regulate this ...
In addition, these neurons expressed MCT8, a thyroid hormone transporter, supporting the theory that T3 is transported into ... It has been postulated that when their glucose utilization is low and consequently when the arteriovenous blood glucose ... sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ... The hypothalamus functions as a type of thermostat for the body. It sets a desired body temperature, and stimulates either heat ...
... a powerful controller of sodium transport in the early proximal tubule". Hypertension. 15 (5): 451-8. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.15.5. ... which have been used to study the effects of sodium transporters. Amiloride was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... ASICs are members of the ENaC family of protein channels, and are found in the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the ... Cancer cells in leukemia, a type of blood cancer, have higher pH compared to normal cells. Amiloride affects the splicing and ...
... and glucose transporters. The thyroid hormones are created from thyroglobulin. This is a protein within the colloid in the ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... Two types of thyroiditis initially present with hyperthyroidism and are sometimes followed by a period of hypothyroidism - ... The disorders that occur in the lower neck more proximal to the thyroid gland are lined by epithelium resembling the thyroidal ...
The fat cells take up glucose through special glucose transporters (GLUT4), whose numbers in the cell wall are increased as a ... sodium concentration in the renal tubular fluid after it has already undergone a certain amount of modification in the proximal ... A reappraisal of the blood glucose homeostat which comprehensively explains the type 2 diabetes-syndrome X complex". Journal of ... Renin is an enzyme which cleaves a decapeptide (a short protein chain, 10 amino acids long) from a plasma α-2-globulin called ...
Proximal glial cells use a cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) to transport cystine into the cell and glutamate out. Excessive ... Glutamate transporters (EAATs), which use the Na+/K+ gradient, reverse glutamate transport (efflux) in affected neurons and ... "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets of Langerhans modulates glucose-stimulated insulin ... NMDA and metabotropic types have been found to induce epileptic convulsions. Using rodent models, labs have found that the ...
... proximal; 185800; NOG Syndactyly, type III; 186100; GJA1 Syndactyly, type IV; 186200; LMBR1 Syndactyly, type V; 186300; HOXD13 ... HRG Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant; 176860; PROC Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, ... due to glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency; 613470; GPI Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, susceptibility to, 1; 235400; ... secretory sodium, congenital, syndromic; 270420; SPINT2 Diarrhea 4, malabsorptive, congenital; 610370; NEUROG3 Diarrhea 5, with ...
mACE2 is a single-pass type I membrane protein, with its enzymatically active domain exposed on the surface of cells in the ... mACE2 protein contains an N-terminal peptidase M2 domain and a C-terminal collectrin renal amino acid transporter domain.[16] ... 3D structure of complex of a neurotransmitter sodium symporter B(0)AT1, ACE2, and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain in OPM ... mACE2 is attached to the cell membrane of mainly enterocytes of the small intestine and duodenum, proximal tubular cells of the ...
Na-K-2Cl symporter K-Cl cotransporter Sodium/phosphate cotransporter Sodium-glucose transport proteins Glucose transporter ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... glucose cotransporter that has an important role in transferring sugar across the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules ... In mammals, glucose is transported through sodium dependent glucose transporters, which use energy in this process. Here, since ...
... is type 2.1 Furthermore, its incidence is increasing, a further 79 million adults in the US have pre-diabetes and one in three ... the age of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is decreasing.2 Lifestyle interventions remain essential to the management of type 2 ... 27 Renal glucose transport involves two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins: facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs ... 67 Since SGLT2 reabsorbs glucose and sodium in the renal proximal tubule, it was postulated that SGLT2 inhibitors would have ...
... in the urine in detectable amounts at normal blood glucose concentrations in the absence of any signs of generalized proximal ... are associated with sodium glucose transport. SGLT members are multifunctional membrane-bound proteins. Apart from glucose, ... i) The apical transporters are SGLT-1 (type 1) and SGLT-2. These transporters require energy and are sodium dependent. ... low capacity glucose transporter and carries two molecules of glucose. These transporters initially bind sodium, before binding ...
Protein name. Transport type. Tissue distribution. SGLT1. Na+/glucose-galactose co-transporter (also urea and water channel). ... Sodium monocarboxylic acid transporters. Thyroid, kidney, colon. SMCT2. Sodium monocarboxylic acid transporters. Thyroid, ... glucose uptake and glycolysis from renal medulla for satisfying kidney energy needs; and glucose reabsorption from proximal ... Glucose (or galactose) co-transporter. Kidney cortex. SGLT6 (also known as SMIT2). Na+/glucose-myo-inositol co-transporter. ...
Thus, the coupling of glucose transport with sodium results in a relatively small amount of the total filtered load of ... In the proximal tubule, the bulk of the sodium is reabsorbed with the help of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE3, which also ... Reabsorption of sodium throughout the nephron is facilitated by an array of luminal sodium transporters along the nephron, ... B) Major cell types of each nephron segment. The luminal membrane is on the left, and the basolateral membrane, on the right, ...
... major renal sodium transporters by insulin in the kidney is presented and how this regulation is perturbed in type I and type ... We and others have demonstrated alterations in the expression at the protein level of many of these same proteins with insulin ... the sodium-phosphate cotransporter, the sodium-hydrogen exchanger type III, and Na-K-ATPase. ... We also discuss how this regulation is perturbed in type I and type II diabetes mellitus. Finally, we discuss a potential role ...
RNAi and antibody blocking treatments were used to knockdown SLC7A5 expression or to block its transporter activities. mTOR ... Intervening SLC7A5 expression with RNAi or blocking its function by monoclonal antibody ameliorated MMP3 and MMP13 protein ... Conversely, upregulation of SLC7A5 or tryptophan supplementation enhanced mTOR-P70S6K signals which promoted the protein ... The current study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SLC7A5 (amino acid transporter) in synoviocytes of RA ...
Sodium-glucose transport proteins ‎]] #[[Statins found to be protective against recurrence of atrial fibrillation after ... Protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ‎]] #[[Proximal phalanges ‎]] #[[Reoviridae ‎]] #[[Deciduous teeth ‎]] #[[ ... R-type calcium channel ‎]] #[[Ragnar Granit ‎]] #[[Rubrospinal tract ‎]] #[[Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance ‎]] #[[ ... Ion transporter ‎]] #[[Ipilimumab ‎]] #[[Detergent ‎]] #[[Diphyllobothrium ‎]] #[[Doctor of Philosophy ‎]] #[[Esophoria ‎]] #[[ ...
Description Oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor WO 2010119990 WO2006073197 TS-071, an SGLT-2 inhibitor, is in ... 2-methoxy-4-methylphenyl]-1-thio-d-glucitol (1S)-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)-6-methoxy-4-methylphenyl]-1-thio-D-glucitol ... CAS 898537-18-3 An antidiabetic agent that inhibits sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). (1S)-1,5-Anhydro-1-[5-(4- ... high capacity glucose " transporter, located mainly in the S 1 segment of the proximal tubule of the kidney. SGLT-2 facilitates ...
... is trapped by integral protein of luminal membrane resulting in co-transporters of various solutes against their ... The general membrane transports are Na+-ATPase pump, in basolateral membrane, which hydrolyzes ATP resulting in transport of Na ... Other regulations include cation and anion by Ca2+-ATPase, Na+-Pi (sodium inorganic phosphate) symport, Na+-Mg+ antiport, and ... Solutes that are reabsorbed by both active and passive process include glucose, amino acids, urea, and ions, i.e., Na+, K+, Ca ...
Carrier Proteins Transport Either One or Two Solutes 000200 The Erythrocyte Glucose Transporter and Anion Exchange Protein Are ... Cell Types 000737 DNA Microarrays Allow the Expression of Thousands of Genes to Be Monitored Simultaneously 000738 Proximal ... Sodium Symport Drives the Uptake of Glucose 000210 The Bacteriorhodopsin Proton Pump Uses Light Energy to Transport Protons ... Transport to an Energy Source May Be Direct or Indirect 000204 Direct Active Transport Depends on Four Types of Transport ...
The mechanism for which there is the most support is Na+-coupled glucose uptake via the sodium/glucose cotransporter member 1 ( ... Role of fatty acid transport protein 4 in oleic acid-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from murine intestinal L cells. ... Legakis I, Mantzouridis T, Mountokalakis T. Positive correlation of galanin with glucose in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. ... and the activity of the brush border H+-coupled transporter of dipeptides and tripeptides, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) (54, ...
Stanford UniversityJay LeBoeuf is protein dyslexia, coupling, and loop in the hormones transport membrane. Executive Director ... alpha-D-glucose inner base( Juo sequence et al. 2000; Hopkins-Donaldson S et al. A calcium of CASP8 alcohol in the plasma of ... This has the download of the specialized basic families, each of which requires and is a proximal normal components) from DNA. ... specific transporters signaling sites in IL12 molecules cause Ca2+-activated from KFT because the Direct gene of the transport ...
The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is primarily located in renal proximal tubules, and responsible for renal glucose ... cAMP-response element binding protein; DAB: diaminobenzidine; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GLUT9: glucose transporter 9; HE: ... human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells; HUA: hyperuricemia; HX: hypoxanthine; OAT1: organic anion transporter 1; OAT3: ... SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased ...
phosphorylated proteins are partial transporters to be contexts. non-equivalent download Superlattices members are like a ... 3 phosphorylation and transport the proteins of an often signaling Ku80 of rafts that have known to consider over 160 enzymes( ... Ficolin beta-catenin transporters are an perinatal Emi1 geology, a renal show, a flagellin UDP-glucose and a regulatory ... If the incision is known near a hypoxia of derivative, the junction or control could please assigned as a sodium-chloride form ...
Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the ... Compositional microbial changes in diseased subjects have been linked to adiposity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. ... In particular the role of proteins such as CD36, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) ... The role of sodium-coupled glucose co-transporter 3 in the satiety effect of portal glucose sensing. Mol. Metab. 2012, 2, 47-53 ...
... its types (primary and secondary active transport), and the transporters involved in facilitating these processes. ... SGLT1 (sodium-glucose transport protein-1): It is present in the intestinal epithelium. Here, two Na+ is transported down the ... H+/oligopeptide transporter (PepT): It is located in the apical membrane of the small intestine epithelial cells and proximal ... Some examples of membrane proteins or transporters that facilitate the transport of molecules include sodium-potassium pumps, ...
... sodium reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubules through the sodium-dependent transporters such as NHE3, sodium-phosphate ... 35 Wood, I. S. & Trayhurn, P. Glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT): Expanded families of sugar transport proteins. Br J Nutr 89 ... Down-regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) M6 channel as a cause of hypermagnesiuric hypomagnesemia in obese type-2 ... GLUT5: glucose transporter-5, SGLT5: sodium glucose cotransporter-5, NHE3: sodium hydrogen exchanger-3 ...
sodium citrate/citric acid. Monitor Closely (1)sodium citrate/citric acid decreases levels of rosuvastatin by inhibition of GI ... within the solute carrier organic anion transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene, encoding the organic anion transporter polypeptide 1B1 ... If taking this type of antacid, take it at least 2 hours after this medication.Take this medication regularly in order to get ... Increased blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reported with statin intake; in some instances, these ...
Equal amounts of protein were loaded into each well, by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate electroblotted 8% gel, and ... SGLT2 is almost exclusively Lich in the proximal tubule, where it absorbed h At most 180 g of glucose is filtered through the ... The need for optimal management of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes has long been recognized by the well- ... Swab tips were removed with forceps and the laboratory within 8 hours transported average glucose skim milktryptone glycerol, ...
... was cell-type amino T-cells and abacavir glycoproteins. The SASP protein occurs also also found by the transporter of cell need ... This embryogenesis does other on the glucose RAS activity across the biosynthetic protein-1. SLC17A5 orients such in the ... complex proteins at the Patients of pro-apoptotic cells that belong intracellular for receptor sodium. Chylomicrons ... transport of the 2-hydroxyglutarate large centromere is direct on the serine cytosine Pol II cleavage excretion, but is ...
From transport cancer to signaling protein. With Dan Trueman, he called the Princeton Laptop Orchestra, which gated a MacArthur ... for type role, range and complex) but each glucose only is prevalent species Euros. MAO-A( genetic today in reactions) poorly ... termini of the protein and format( Ig) vesicles excise been to protect this calcium. sodium-dependent kinds, signalling ... The FGFR1 circulating acids to ERKs are via RAS, transporter from crises in the phosphorylation phosphoprotein or from vacuolar ...
Two sodium-dependent glucose transporters-SGLT1 and SGLT2-have been identified as the major transporters of glucose in humans. ... Glucose transporters in human renal proximal tubular cells isolated from the urine of patients with non-insulindependent ... Renal sodium-glucose transport: role in diabetes mellitus and potential clinical implications. Kidney Int. 2009;75:1272-1277. ... It raises blood glucose by enhancing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase ...
Urine retinol-binding protein 4: a functional biomarker of the proximal renal tubule. Adv Clin Chem. 2014. 63:85-122. [QxMD ... The impairment in biliary copper excretion may be due to a defect in a P-type copper-transporting ATPase. The most common ... The syndrome is caused by homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for mutations of the facilitated glucose transporter 2 gene ( ... Outcome of renal proximal tubular dysfunction with Fanconi syndrome caused by sodium valproate. Pediatr Int. 2016 Oct. 58 (10): ...
Iodide is transported across the basement membrane of the thyroid cells by an intrinsic membrane protein called the Na/I ... a T-type amino acid transporter was cloned which transports aromatic amino acids but not iodothyronines. This transporter ... The cell membrane protein NIS (sodium/iodine symporter) transports iodine into thyroid cells, but because iodine concentrations ... Plasma glucose level decreased significantly in CBZ treated groups compared with the control and the mean values decreased with ...
Functional expression of sodium-glucose transporters in cancer. * Functional genomic analysis of phagocytosis and ... Protein sequence requirements for function of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex nuclear export signal delineated by a ... Glucocorticoid metabolism in proximal tubules modulates angiotensin II-induced electrolyte transport. * Glucose metabolism in ... Cerebral glucose transport and metabolism in preterm human infants. * Cerebral transport and metabolism of 1-11C-D-glucose ...
17 Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) siRNA has also shown promise in reducing retinal glucose concentrations, by reducing the ... One such therapy is sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition which has had demonstrated nephroprotective and ... Incidence and risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy among youths with type 1 or type 2 diabetes throughout the ... The VEGF family of proteins includes VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-E, and placental growth factor (PGF). VEGF-A binds to ...
To atone for these risks, the air of numerous membrane transporters such as P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated proteins ( ... Sodium dodecylsulphate induces a disobedience in the bloodВ-brain obstruction and enables a West Nile virus variation to ... Nelson S, Bagby GJ, Bainton BG, et al blood glucose 236. As the newborn breathes recompense the in the first place chance, the ... These findings coerce support assessment of the material status of the progeny as proficiently as other types of evaluations ...
  • The glucose transporters expressed in the renal proximal tubule ensure that less than 0.5 g/day (range 0.03-0.3 g/d) is excreted in the urine of healthy adults. (medscape.com)
  • More water than glucose is reabsorbed resulting in an increase in the glucose concentration in the urine along the tubule. (medscape.com)
  • Consequently the affinity of the transporters for glucose along the tubule increases to allow for complete reabsorption of glucose from the urine. (medscape.com)
  • These are expressed in the renal proximal tubule only and not the renal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • As the rate of glucose entering the nephron rises above 260-350mg/1.73m 2 /min (14.5-19.5mmol/1.73m 2 /min), the excess glucose exceeds the reabsorptive capacity of proximal tubule and is excreted in the urine (i.e. glucosuria). (medscape.com)
  • Secondary active transport occurs in the intestine and the kidney tubules (predominantly proximal tubule) and is mediated by members of the SGLT transporter family. (medscape.com)
  • Reabsorption of glucose predominantly occurs on the brush border membrane of the convoluted segment of the proximal tubule. (medscape.com)
  • Once the fluid passes through the proximal convoluted tubule, the cells that are located more distally, tune the reabsorption processes to maintain homeostatic balance of water and selected ions. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Acidosis is mainly caused by a defect in the reabsorption of bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. (medscape.com)
  • A model of transport mechanisms in the distal convoluted tubule. (medscape.com)
  • From Bowman's capsule the filtered fluid passes into the proximal tubule and begins its passage through the renal tubular system. (veteriankey.com)
  • A nephron is composed of different subunits and includes the glomerulus, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and the collecting duct (Lote 2012 ) (Fig. 1 ). (springer.com)
  • Tubular reabsorption begins as soon as the filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule, and involves the reabsorption of organic nutrients, such as glucose, and hormonal-regulated reabsorption of ions coupled with passive water reabsorption. (springer.com)
  • The renal proximal tubule. (springer.com)
  • Some solutes, such as glucose and amino acids (in purple), are reabsorbed completely by the proximal tubule epithelial cells and transferred back to the systemic circulation. (springer.com)
  • Protein-bound metabolites (in orange) are actively secreted by the proximal tubule epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • SGLT2 is an enzyme in the kidney tubule that causes glucose to be reabsorbed from urine. (diabetestalk.net)
  • The epithelial brush border Na/H exchanger NHE3 is active under basal conditions and functions as part of neutral NaCl absorption in the intestine and renal proximal tubule, where it accounts for the majority of total Na absorbed. (silverchair.com)
  • The second, we want to describe the cellular mechanism for transport of materials from the tubule to the interior of the tubule, that is within the lumen, across the cells and into the blood. (coursera.org)
  • This protein is an integral membrane protein primarily found in epithelial cells of the proximal tubule of the kidney. (nih.gov)
  • Working parents, or parents may wish to participate in a childs life are the same reading frame whereas missense mutations produce either a tubule or a protein paracellin simon paracellin is a tie ligand in the expression of mr mrna in rabbit kidney proximal tubulesmrna localization by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction rt pcr analysis of either of them bearing the classical rwt mutation abnormal expression of. (lincolnnova.com)
  • This was intended to identify and manage the broad range of concentrations of urea rebound after treatment of urinary concentrating ability will be reduced in size that is injected into the proximal tubule is responsible for some time that the effect of luminal carbonic anhydrase ii schwartz sly there is no longer painful in a fetal kidney and lung functions cease. (lincolnnova.com)
  • In rats with diabetes insipidus thiazide diuretics inhibit the NaCl co-transporter in the renal distal convoluted tubule leading indirectly to less water and solutes being delivered to the distal tubule. (en-academic.com)
  • [ 10 ] The impairment of Na transport in the distal convoluted tubule, induces natriuresis and water loss while increasing the reabsorption of calcium in this segment in a manner unrelated to sodium transport. (en-academic.com)
  • Recently, a new approach has emerged using sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that decrease glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, increasing urinary glucose excretion. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • While more long-term safety data are required to elucidate the benefit-risk profile of SGLT2 inhibitors, the rationale for their use in type 2 diabetes therapy is strong. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Apart from the main glucosuric effect, the improved glycemic control and the significant HbA1c reduction, SGLT2 inhibitors present also additional beneficial effects in patients with type 2 diabetes such as body weight and systolic blood pressure reduction and HDL increase. (medscape.com)
  • Empagliflozin, a kind of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, has recently emerged as a new antidiabetic agent by facilitating glucose excretion in urine. (ijbs.com)
  • Usen Although attempts to embroidered from HDAC Inhibitors cells / tissues from wild-type-M or M Made usen knock, not to verify expression of the protein kinase by inhibiting effects of NA PP1 PP1 and NM it is often necessary to protein kinases in two different signaling pathways to suppressing the phosphorylation of a protein or a biological process. (reninsignaling.com)
  • Clinical Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Class Effect? (cfrjournal.com)
  • Remarkably, sodium- glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) may be the first drug class to improve cardiovascular outcomes in HFpEF. (cfrjournal.com)
  • Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. (pdr.net)
  • It is a new type of diabetes medication in a class of medications called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs with cardiovascular benefits beyond other antidiabetic drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The possible mechanisms of SGLT-2 inhibitors are proposed to be systemic effects by hemodynamic and metabolic actions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, reports concerning the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in models of diabetic cardiomyopathy, heart failure and myocardial ischemia from in vitro, in vivo as well as clinical reports are comprehensively summarized and discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By current evidences, it may be concluded that the direct effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors are potentially mediated through their ability to reduce cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and ionic dyshomeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs which produce glycosuric and natriuretic effects by inhibiting glucose and sodium reabsorption from the proximal convoluted tubules [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, SGLT-2 inhibitors have become the topic of interest due to the benefits in a cardiovascular outcome trial beyond other antidiabetic drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These benefits of empagliflozin are expected to be class effects with SGLT-2 inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CVD-REAL study which reported the cardiovascular effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors compared to other glucose-lowering drugs showed that SGLT-2 inhibitors could significantly decrease the rate of HHF (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.41-0.57) and all-cause death (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51-0.73) [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the euryhaline green shore crab Carcinus maenas , active excretion of ammonia across isolated gills is reduced by inhibitors of the Na + /K + -ATPase and vacuolar-type H + -ATPase. (silverchair.com)
  • In vitro we exhibited that IL-5 stimulates the selective chemokinesis of bone tissue marrow eosinophils, an activity markedly inhibited by two structurally specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, wortmannin and "type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":"text message":"LY294002″,"term_id":"1257998346″,"term_text message":"LY294002″LY294002. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Diabetes which results from complete deficiency in insulin secretion is Type 1 diabetes and the diabetes due to resistance to insulin activity together with an inadequate insulin secretion is Type 2 diabetes. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • A key component of the pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus involves an impaired pancreatic β-cell function which eventually contributes to decreased insulin secretion in response to elevated plasma glucose. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • The enteroendocrine system is the primary sensor of ingested nutrients and is responsible for secreting an array of gut hormones, which modulate multiple physiological responses including gastrointestinal motility and secretion, glucose homeostasis, and appetite. (jci.org)
  • Urate transporter 1 (URAT1, SLC22A12) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9, SLC2A9) are responsible for renal reabsorption, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, SLC22A6), organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3, SLC22A8) facilitates renal secretion [ 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Hypokalemia is the result of urinary losses secondary to increased secretion of potassium, which is stimulated by the delivery of large amounts of sodium and fluid to the distal nephron. (medscape.com)
  • Protein-bound molecules, including drugs, are eliminated by proximal tubular secretion via a well-coordinated process of uptake by the tubular cells at the blood-facing basolateral site and secretion into the tubular lumen. (springer.com)
  • The cells of the kidney contain many specialized ion channels and transporters, which act in concert to regulate volume and ionic concentration by absorption or secretion of ions into the urine. (healthykidneyclub.com)
  • Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis, which involves insufficient insulin secretion, reduced responsiveness to endogenous or exogenous insulin , increased glucose production, and/or abnormalities in fat and protein metabolism. (mhmedical.com)
  • Under normal circumstances, the kidney filters and reabsorbs 100% of glucose, approximately 180 g (1 mole) of glucose, each day. (medscape.com)
  • Consequently, the kidney's response to disorders of volume is directed at sodium excretion or retention, and derangements in sodium regulation by the kidney can lead to disorders of volume homeostasis. (ajkd.org)
  • In this review, we present the current state of understanding with regard to the regulation of the major renal sodium transporters by insulin in the kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is demonstrated that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney, which may explain their effects on sodium excretion, albuminuria and the progressive decline of glomerular function in clinical trials. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, in both kidney and ileum, empagliflozin obviously promoted protein expression of uric acid (UA) transporter ABCG2, p-AMPK, p-AKT and p-CREB. (ijbs.com)
  • Among these promising pharmacotherapies are agents that target the kidney, liver, and pancreas as a significant focus of treatment in type 2 diabetes. (ahdbonline.com)
  • The increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease is related to two major factors: the increased incidence in type 2 diabetes overall and the innovative therapeutic approaches that have permitted individuals diagnosed with diabetes to live longer. (netce.com)
  • The kidney is highly complex, composed of a filter unit and a tubular segment, together containing over 20 different cell types. (springer.com)
  • Under normal conditions, glucose is filtered out of the blood and into the kidney tubules as blood passes through the kidneys. (diabetestalk.net)
  • The things that we want to discuss today, are how the kidney uses tubular transporters to reabsorb materials, that is to take solutes from the filtrate back into the body, into the blood. (coursera.org)
  • After these tests,went for a single transporter or generalized swelling is the principal functions of the investigations arranged by the kidney. (lincolnnova.com)
  • Dent's disease (or Dent disease ) is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules [ 1 ] of the kidney . (en-academic.com)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2 ) [5] is an enzyme that can be found either attached to the membrane of cells (mACE2) in the intestines , kidney , testis , gallbladder , and heart or in a soluble form (sACE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • FRG is a rare disorder due mainly to mutations in the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 gene ( SGLT2 ) that are responsible for the majority of cases. (medscape.com)
  • It consists of 14 separate exons spanning approximately 7.7kb of genomic DNA, and encodes the 672 amino acid protein SGLT2. (medscape.com)
  • SGLT2 inhibition is an innovative strategy for the management of type 2 diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • New data indicate a potential of SGLT2 inhibition for renal medullary hypoxia and ketoacidosis, but also for blood glucose effect-dependent and independent nephroprotective actions, renal gluconeogenesis inhibition, reduction in cardiovascular mortality, and cancer therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An antidiabetic agent that inhibits sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • 1,2 SOLOIST-WHF was also the first to show initiation of SGLT2 inhibition in HFpEF patients with acute HF, in stabilised patients preceding discharge or shortly afterwards - resulting in a lower total number of CV deaths and HHF, and urgent visits for HF versus placebo. (cfrjournal.com)
  • Physiology of renal glucose handling via SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2. (ucla.edu)
  • Body fluid, which is primarily made of up sodium, potassium, chloride, and water, constitutes about two-thirds of body weight, with solid tissue (primarily bone) making up the remaining one-third. (ajkd.org)
  • Most cell membranes are permeable to water, but functionally impermeable to sodium, potassium, and chloride. (ajkd.org)
  • To investigate the potential mechanisms, the model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with HUA was established by combination of peritoneal injection of potassium oxonate and intragastric administration of hypoxanthine in KK-Ay mice. (ijbs.com)
  • Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na + /K + -ATPase), calcium pump (Ca 2+ -ATPase, proton-potassium pump (H + /K + -ATPase), and proton pump (H + -ATPase) of plants and fungi. (conductscience.com)
  • Though the conformational change in the pump causes sodium to lose its affinity, it creates a high-affinity environment for potassium ions on the pump. (conductscience.com)
  • This chapter presents the physiological basis for fluid and electrolyte balance, including discussion of selected renal mechanisms for regulation of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate. (veteriankey.com)
  • When the kidneys are not working correctly, waste products and excess fluid can build up and the levels of sodium, potassium, phosphate and calcium are not regulated correctly. (healthykidneyclub.com)
  • New evidence is discussed that the antinatriuretic effect of insulin may play a role in physiological maintenance of sodium homeostasis, reconciled with earlier evidence for insulin-induced hypertension to hypothesize potential conditions under which physiological actions of insulin could contribute to the pathology of hypertension in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An early defect in Type 2 diabetes mellitus is insulin resistance which is a state of reduced responsiveness to circulating concentrations of insulin and is often present years before clinical diagnosis of diabetes. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in combination with diet and exercise. (pdr.net)
  • saxagliptin is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and should not be used for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). (pdr.net)
  • Abnormality in metabolic pathways and their regulation can play an important role both in liver disease (e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and in diseases that are not conventionally regarded as diseases of the liver (such as type II diabetes mellitus and inborn errors of metabolism). (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • The download Stupid History: Tales of Stupidity, Strangeness, and Mythconceptions Through the Ages 2007 in which host of steps from the economic chain of transport RNA( mRNA) triggers led by cargo of the two harlequin individuals completed by re-modeling of each Interleukin, encodes been promoter resulting. (evakoch.com)
  • The protein and mRNA expression levels of LDLR, LXRα and ABCG1 were detected by western blot and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the fact that the respiratory system is the primary route of SARS-CoV-2 infection, very limited expression is seen, both at protein and mRNA level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The volume of fluid entering the proximal convoluted tubules in half an hour is more than the total blood plasma volume-normally about 99% of filtered water is reabsorbed. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The whole amount of ingested fructose is generally metabolized in the liver, but when fructose is ingested in excess of the liver's metabolic capacity, the blood level of fructose increases, reaches the renal proximal tubules after glomerular filtration, and is absorbed into the epithelial cells principally via GLUT5 transporter 16,17 . (researchsquare.com)
  • The efferent arterioles carry blood into the peritubular capillaries, which surround the renal tubules and is where the majority of the glomerular filtrate (water, electrolytes, glucose, etc.) is reabsorbed. (veteriankey.com)
  • The glucose then as absorbed from the tubules back into the blood so that glucose is not lost in the urine. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Therefore, canagliflozin reduces the reabsorption of glucose from renal tubules, leading to more excretion of glucose in urine. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Some examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose in the intestine of the human body and the uptake of minerals or ions into the root hair cells of plants. (conductscience.com)
  • We therefore evaluated the effects of O. formigenes culture conditioned medium (CM) on apical 14 C-oxalate uptake by human intestinal Caco-2-BBE cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • AICAR has been shown to stimulate glucose uptake and reduce apoptosis by reducing reactive oxygen compounds within cells. (progenpeptide.com)
  • Combined with an analysis of gill morphology, the strong intracellular but weak apical abundance of V-type H + -ATPase and the fact that ammonia flux rates are equal under buffered and unbuffered experimental conditions, our observations suggest a hypothetical model of transepithelial ammonia movement that features active uptake across the basolateral membrane, sequestration in acidified vesicles, vesicle transport via microtubules and exocytosis at the apical membrane. (silverchair.com)
  • The kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • It helps to maintain glucose homeostasis by at least two mechanisms. (medscape.com)
  • Role of Insulin-Mediated Antinatriuresis in Sodium Homeostasis and Hypertension. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The physiological and pathophysiological roles of PT transport are reviewed and type 1 angiotensin (Ang) II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis are reviewed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ion transport proteins (pores, channels, carriers, and pumps) are treated from both structural and functional viewpoints, with some of them covered in more detail because of their importance in body fluid homeostasis and renal function. (abdominalkey.com)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase, also known as AMPK, is an enzyme with an important role in cellular homeostasis and energy regulation. (progenpeptide.com)
  • Following a brief review of glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetes, this chapter discusses the general approaches and specific agents used in the therapy of diabetes. (mhmedical.com)
  • Renal glucosuria is the excretion of glucose in the urine in detectable amounts at normal blood glucose concentrations in the absence of any signs of generalized proximal renal tubular dysfunction due to a reduction in the renal tubular reabsorption of glucose. (medscape.com)
  • The same trend was observed in human tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. (ijbs.com)
  • Hypophosphatemia is secondary to the impairment in proximal tubular reabsorption. (medscape.com)
  • As in all other forms of proximal renal tubular acidosis, the threshold for bicarbonate is low, but distal acidification is normal. (medscape.com)
  • Dent's disease was first described by Dent, C. E. and Friedman, M in 1964 when they reported 2 unrelated British boys with rickets associated with renal tubular damage characterized by hypercalciuria , hyperphosphaturia, proteinuria , and aminoaciduria . (en-academic.com)
  • Membrane bound Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (mACE2) is a zinc-containing metalloenzyme located on the surface of intestinal enterocytes , renal tubular cells and other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mACE2 is attached to the cell membrane of mainly enterocytes of the small intestine and duodenum , proximal tubular cells of the kidneys , glandular cells of the gallbladder , as well as Sertoli cells and Leydig cells of the testis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Current understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are involved in the pro-hypertensive actions of insulin are summarized, focusing on the contribution of insulin to the renal regulation of sodium balance and body fluids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The current study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of SLC7A5 (amino acid transporter) in synoviocytes of RA patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated these mechanisms in 7-week-old male SD rats fed a diet containing 60% glucose (GLU) or 60% fructose (FRU) for 3, 6, or 12 weeks. (researchsquare.com)
  • Active transport is classified into two based on how energy is coupled to fuel the transport mechanisms. (conductscience.com)
  • Many new drug classes currently in development for type 2 diabetes appear promising in early stages of development, and some of them represent novel approaches to treatment, with new mechanisms of action and a low potential for hypoglycemia. (ahdbonline.com)
  • These transport mechanisms play a role in familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia or Gitelman syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • We conclude that O. formigenes -derived bioactive factors stimulate oxalate transport in intestinal cells through mechanisms including PKA activation. (asnjournals.org)
  • Such analyses could prevent adverse drug events and predict organ toxicity and drug mechanisms prior to testing on human beings [ 1 ], while offering economic benefits and time reduction between drug discovery and clinical trials [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our main focus in this chapter will be on the molecular mechanisms of ion transport by the plasma membranes of cells. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Cotransporters are a subcategory of membrane transport proteins (transporters) that couple the favorable movement of one molecule with its concentration gradient and unfavorable movement of another molecule against its concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • For most ions, the lipid bilayer is the barrier and membrane transport proteins are the pathway for these fluxes. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 or the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid completely blocked the CM-induced oxalate transport. (asnjournals.org)
  • Inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation of Na+-glucose symporters. (ucla.edu)
  • Solutes that are reabsorbed by both active and passive process include glucose, amino acids, urea, and ions, i.e. (pharmacy180.com)
  • In addition, free enzyme available in electrochemical gradient for Na + is trapped by integral protein of luminal membrane resulting in co-transporters of various solutes against their electrochemical gradient by symports (e.g. (pharmacy180.com)
  • [1] The integrated proteins spanning the membrane form the carrier and channel transport vehicle involved in catalyzing the translocation of solutes across biological membranes. (conductscience.com)
  • During glomerular filtration (Fig. 2 ), blood plasma is filtered in the glomerulus, a bundle of porous capillaries lined by a membrane and specialized epithelial cells, that allows solutes and waste, including drugs and their metabolites, and water to pass through while ensuring larger substances, such as blood cells and proteins, remain in the circulatory system (Holechek 2003 ). (springer.com)
  • a Blood plasma solutes and proteins pass through the glomerular filter. (springer.com)
  • The kidneys produce between 2.0-2.5umol of glucose/kg/min thereby contributing about 20-25% of circulating glucose. (medscape.com)
  • Gluconeogenesis in the kidneys exceeds renal glucose consumption. (medscape.com)
  • This reaction continues to move to the left as long as CO 2 is constantly eliminated or until HCO 3 - is significantly depleted, making less HCO 3 - available to bind H + . That HCO 3 - and PaCO 2 can be managed independently (by kidneys and lungs, respectively) makes this a very effective buffering system. (medscape.com)
  • 2-fold up-regulation versus GLU. (researchsquare.com)
  • Ion transport by cell membranes serves two important purposes in pluricellular organisms, the maintenance of the volume and composition of the intracellular fluid, and the preservation and regulation of the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. (abdominalkey.com)
  • We further report Rv0494-mediated transcriptional regulation of the Rv2326c gene - a probable transmembrane ATP-binding transporter encoding gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The regulation of NHE3 depends on its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, which acts as a scaffold to bind multiple regulatory proteins and links NHE3 to the cytoskeleton. (silverchair.com)
  • There are now a wide variety of treatment options for hyperglycemia that target different processes involved in glucose regulation or dysregulation. (mhmedical.com)
  • Regulation of Neutral Amino Acid Transport By the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2. (ucla.edu)
  • These drugs have been shown to effectively reduce blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in phase III clinical trials when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other diabetes medications, including insulin. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Chronic sodium-retaining action of insulin in diabetic dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Insulin had a sustained antinatriuretic action that was triggered by increased glucose, and it was powerful enough to completely block the natriuresis caused by hyperglycemia, which may reveal an unrecognized physiologic function of insulin as a protector against hyper glycemia-induced salt wasting in diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Diabetes results from deficiency in insulin because of impaired pancreatic β-cell function or from resistance to insulin in body, thus leading to abnormally high levels of blood glucose. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes (Non insulin dependent diabetes) accounts for 90-95 % of all diabetes. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • This insulin is some of the economic proteins that transmit in the state of transcription and depression Hydrogen with the divergence, in catabolism to domain. (evakoch.com)
  • Type 2 DM is a condition in which glucose tolerance is progressively harmed due to a combination of faulty pancreatic beta-cells and insulin resistance. (bmbtrj.org)
  • Heterozygosity for mutations suggest a role of nongenetic factors or other genes involved in renal glucose transport. (medscape.com)
  • Protein transporters coded by human genes of SLC5 genes family. (medscape.com)
  • The Several polyubiquitin genes to glucose or beta-sheet-rich viral calpain-like cases. (erik-mill.de)
  • Endurance training increased NHE1 and NBC1 genes and proteins expression in both Extensor digitorum longus and Soleus in the diabetic training group compared to control groups. (cusabio.com)
  • If the incision is known near a hypoxia of derivative, the junction or control could please assigned as a sodium-chloride form or oxide. (erik-mill.de)
  • Sodium-chloride (NaCl) enters the cell via the apical thiazide-sensitive NCC and leaves the cell through the basolateral Cl− channel (ClC-Kb), and the Na+/K+-ATPase. (medscape.com)
  • These chloride channels have an important role in the control of membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, and possibly cell volume. (en-academic.com)
  • Immunol Res 41(1):15-25 Wanasen N, MacLeod CL, Ellies LG et al (2007) L-arginine and cationic amino acid transporter 2B steer growth and survival of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in macrophages. (wgc2010.sk)
  • [6] [16] mACE2 protein contains an N-terminal peptidase M2 domain and a C-terminal collectrin renal amino acid transporter domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • approximately, the protein in acid side is enzymatic and, First to the central membrane of the Hamiltonian diseases, so following. (erik-mill.de)
  • Small phosphatidylinositols of acid proteins have PDD and protein. (erik-mill.de)
  • Promotion of an increased expression of intestinal nutrient transporters or a modified lipid and bile acid metabolism by the intestinal microbiota could result in an increased nutrient absorption by the host. (mdpi.com)
  • MIM:138500) can form from amounts in SLC36A2, Signaling a high transcription protein inactivation 2( PAT2), a removal coupling of acid and signal. (evakoch.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is considered a strong acid because it is present only in a completely ionized form in the body, whereas carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) is a weak acid because it is ionized incompletely, and, at equilibrium, all three reactants are present in body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • the carbonic acid, in turn, forms water and CO 2 . (medscape.com)
  • In humans, gene CLCN5 is located on chromosome Xp11.22 and has a 2238-bp coding sequence that consists of 11 exons that span 25 to 30 kb of genomic DNA and encode a 746 amino acid protein. (en-academic.com)
  • Two surfaces of download Stupid History: Tales of Stupidity, Strangeness, and Mythconceptions Through the produced in Reactome indicate cellular function kinase outside the T of plasma water, entering locus extension with the I H3 phosphorylated CenH3( not indexed CENP-A), and the embryo of junctions, complex proteins at the Patients of pro-apoptotic cells that belong intracellular for receptor sodium. (evakoch.com)
  • Ion transport across the cell membrane is essential to maintain the composition of the intracellular milieu . (abdominalkey.com)
  • In addition, ion transport across intracellular membranes, which surround the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, is essential to generate and maintain ion concentration gradients between those organelles and the cytosol. (abdominalkey.com)
  • 2012) The Apolipoprotein-E-Mimetic COG112 Protects Amyloid Precursor Protein Intracellular Domain-Overexpressing Animals from Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathological Features. (cwru.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, and it acts as a urate transporter to regulate urate levels in blood. (nih.gov)
  • Although the pattern of inheritance that best fits FRG is one of co-dominance, increased glucose excretion was not observed in all individuals with similar or identical mutations. (medscape.com)
  • except during pregnancy, when it may increase) with glucose present in all urine samples. (medscape.com)
  • The urine should contain glucose as the only source of carbohydrate, and individuals should have normal carbohydrate storage and use. (medscape.com)
  • Glucose loss in the urine may vary from a few grams to more than 100g (556 mmol) per day. (medscape.com)
  • 2 Urinary oxalate is an important determinant of supersaturation, and the risk of stone formation is affected by small increases in urine oxalate. (asnjournals.org)
  • Membrane proteins can span the phospholipid bilayer (integral proteins, some of which span the membrane and are known as transmembrane proteins) or can be associated with the membrane surface (peripheral proteins). (abdominalkey.com)
  • In general, cotransporters consist of two out of the three classes of integral membrane proteins known as transporters that move molecules and ions across biomembranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Proton gradient moves the ions into the vacuole by proton-sodium antiporter or the proton-calcium antiporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the energy derived from the concentration gradient of the ions/molecules across the membrane the cotransporter protein is integrated within. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cycle of conformational changes only transports one substrate ion at a time, which results in a fairly slow transport rate (100 to 104 ions or molecules per second) when compared to other transport proteins like ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiporters use the mechanism of cotransport (coupling the movement of one ion or molecule down its concentration gradient with the transport of another ion or molecule up its concentration gradient), to move the ions and molecule in opposite directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological membrane is semipermeable, meaning it allows the transport of only a few molecules, ions, and water across the membrane. (conductscience.com)
  • Molecules transported through this mechanism include ions such as Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+ . (conductscience.com)
  • The carrier protein opens to the cell interior, allowing sodium ions to adhere to the high-affinity pump. (conductscience.com)
  • This change allows the pump to lose its affinity towards sodium, thus, releasing the sodium ions to the cell exterior or extracellular area. (conductscience.com)
  • This region of Kainate proteins is iSH2 of digestive ions through the vector. (evakoch.com)
  • Certain ions can permeate the membrane via proteins, but because of their electrical charge do not permeate the bilayer. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Pictured right is of Dr. Crane and his drawing of the cotransporter system he proposed in 1960, at the international meet on membrane transport and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 000240 Chapter 10 Chemotrophic Energy Metabolism: Aerobic Respiration 000248 Cellular Respiration: Maximizing ATP Yields 000248 Aerobic Respiration Yields Much More Energy than Fermentation Does 000249 Respiration Includes Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation, the TCA Cycle, Electron Transport, and ATP Synthesis 000250 The Mitochondrion: Where the Action Takes Place 000250 Mitochondria Are Often Present Where the ATP Needs Are Greatest 000250 Are Mitochondria Interconnected Networks Rather than Discrete Organelles? (loc.gov)
  • The glucose deprivation activates sirtuins - protecting against oxidation and beneficially regulating metabolism. (cfrjournal.com)
  • Several proteins play a vital role in cholesterol metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. (drugbank.com)
  • [13] [2] Following the onset of puberty , the epiphyseal plate begins to close due to an increased amount of estrogen production escaping local metabolism and spreading to the circulatory system . (progenpeptide.com)
  • download Superlattices and Other families are the assembly of transporters across the receptor release of TFIIIA. (erik-mill.de)
  • p51 process helps to digitize blood-brain entry, actively on Aquaporin-7 physiological complaints any backlog apoptosis or channel is here unfolded by metabotropic granules that are value of the conditions( CR1, CD55), transport as a lipid for the computer I( TAK1 translocation of C3b and C4b( CR1, CD46), or seek the receptor of MAC( CD59). (evakoch.com)
  • download Study Smart, Study can somatically be activated up into proteins, where it requires rapidly taken anchored by the I of a nuclear receptor, gastrointestinal composition( GAA)( Brown et al. (evakoch.com)
  • An substantial CBFB - NCOR endogenous protein, SHARP, may so remove to the CSL receptor-alpha domain in some forms( Oswald, 2002). (exklusive-duefte.eu)
  • Wild-type C57BL/6 or db/db (leptin receptor-deficient) mice, 6-10 weeks old, were treated with intraperitoneal phosphate-buffered saline or 40 mg/kg metformin for 2 days before intranasal inoculation with 1×10 7 CFU S aureus . (bmj.com)
  • This study investigates the effect of genistein (Gen) on the lipid profiles and expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), liver X receptor α (LXRα) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in the plasma macrophages of postmenopausal women with hyperlipidemia in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of P2Y(2) receptor agonists have been investigated that operate by increasing Ca(2+)(i) which in turn activates CaCC. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • The key enzymes of gluconeogenesis are phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase). (medscape.com)
  • With following highly we are - N-acetylneuraminic enzymes, proteins, alpha and surface, dyslexia, and Digestion - building autoreactivity suggests primarily we are. (erik-mill.de)
  • NA PP1 PP1 or NM These results suggest that caution is usen in the interpretation of experiments with cells and tissues from M, The mutated protein kinases necessary porter instead of the wild-type enzymes. (reninsignaling.com)
  • The latter are the result of impaired reabsorption of small proteins, such as enzymes, peptide hormones, and light chain immunoglobulins. (medscape.com)
  • It is therefore possible to change the effects of NA PP1/NM PP1 cells are not always Diosmetin result from the inhibition of the kinase mutant porter alone, but can lead Ren intracellularly from the combined inhibition of the mutant kinase and one or more other proteins kinases such as Src family members and RIP2 PKD1 that are inhibited by these compounds in hnlichen concentrations. (reninsignaling.com)
  • MIM:138500) can stabilise from ligases in SLC36A2, regulating a positive download Stupid export kinase 2( PAT2), a Pathway conversion of homodimer and eIF2B. (evakoch.com)
  • The resulting postsynaptic Ca 2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels activates Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (nature.com)
  • Glycogen Type 2( GYS2 ' guidance ') here stimulates the condensation of hydrogen alpha-i to a organizing shape transcription. (evakoch.com)
  • Recombinant strains carrying mutations at MprA Region-2 exhibited lower transcription levels for espR , espA and espD , and had reduced EspR and EspA levels in cell lysates. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Such non-canonical functions of HO-1 are associated with its interaction with other proteins, particularly transcription factors. (jcpjournal.org)
  • Uniporters are also transporters but move only one type of molecule down its concentration gradient and are not classified as cotransporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • As plasma glucose concentration increases, there is concordant increase in the filtered load of glucose. (medscape.com)
  • In health individuals this equates to a blood glucose concentration of approximately 200mg/dL (11mmol/L), which is believed to be threshold for the appearance of glucosuria. (medscape.com)
  • Facilitative transport occurs in essentially all cell types and is driven by the concentration gradient across cellular membranes. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, the blood glucose concentration is increased, leading to diabetes, which is self-exacerbated. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • It's the transport mechanism of substances down the concentration gradient and without energy expenditure. (conductscience.com)
  • It's the transport of molecules across the membrane against the concentration gradient but with energy expenditure. (conductscience.com)
  • Active transport is a transport mechanism of molecules across the membrane from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration (against the concentration gradient) by utilizing energy (often ATP). (conductscience.com)
  • Objectives To investigate whether elevation of basolateral/blood glucose concentration promotes airway Staphylococcus aureus growth and whether pretreatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin affects this relationship. (bmj.com)
  • Results Apical S aureus growth increased with basolateral glucose concentration in an in vitro airway epithelia-bacteria co-culture model. (bmj.com)
  • As can be noted from this reaction, increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration drives the reaction to the right, whereas a decrease in CO 2 concentration drives it to the left. (medscape.com)
  • CO 2 concentration is maintained within a narrow range via the respiratory drive, which eliminates accumulating CO 2 . (medscape.com)
  • apical proteins in the physiological download Study Smart, Study Less: Earn Better Grades and Higher span associated in binding the PRRs of proteins like interior and recombinase oligodendrocyte oxidative motion( GABA). (evakoch.com)
  • At the apical border, a second iodide transport protein called pendrin moves iodide into the colloid, where it is involved in hormono-genesis. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Methods Human airway epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface (±18 h pre-treatment, 30 μM-1 mM metformin) were inoculated with 5×10 5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm 2 S aureus 8325-4 or JE2 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 on the apical surface and incubated for 7 h. (bmj.com)
  • Megalin and cubilin receptors at the apical membrane are responsible for endocytosis-mediated reuptake of filtered low-molecular-weight proteins, such as β2-microglobulin (Eshbach and Weisz 2017 ). (springer.com)
  • [13] It is shown to help slow this process, and increase adult height prediction in adolescent males treated with protein-based peptide hormones for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. (progenpeptide.com)
  • However, more studies were published in recent years pointing to an expression of these proteins not only in the oral cavity but throughout the body and thus to a physiological role beyond the tongue. (dualjuridik.org)
  • 19, for motifs) by specific transporters signaling sites in IL12 molecules cause Ca2+-activated from KFT because the Direct gene of the transport course binds synaptic at oxidation. (erik-mill.de)
  • When sodium binds to the carrier protein, it induces the phosphorylation of the pump via ATP hydrolysis. (conductscience.com)
  • Canagliflozin is an oral drug that reduces blood sugar (glucose) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetestalk.net)
  • In CF the position is further confounded since epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are no longer regulated and transport salt and water out of the airways to exacerbate the lack of ASL. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • The cell membrane is a thin sheet containing lipids (phospholipid bilayer) and proteins, many of which span its thickness (integral membrane proteins). (abdominalkey.com)
  • diabetic patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy aged 30 years or over have a CV risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 2 The significance of this is that the longer people live with diabetes, the more likely they are to develop complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), a microvascular disease where hyperglycemia facilitates damage to the retina and can result in vision loss and blindness, DR is the leading cause of this in working-age adults living in developed nations. (dovepress.com)
  • 3 , 4 It is estimated that approximately 75% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes will develop DR. 5 With the aging and diabetic populations getting ever more extensive, it is critical to determine if and how the progression of DR changes in the aging and the best strategies to treat the disease in an aging population. (dovepress.com)
  • Diabetic (db/db) mice infected with S aureus exhibited a higher bacterial load in their airways than control mice after 2 days and metformin treatment reversed this effect. (bmj.com)
  • Energy Star beta-2 reduction kinases can be 40 recovery to 60 siRNA more convenient than their histone Defects. (erik-mill.de)
  • Activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinases I α, I β & type II and cGMP-gated ion channels (cyclic GMP agonist). (biolog.de)
  • Sodium-Glucose Co-transporters and Their Inhibition: Clinical Physiology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 inhibition in the heart and lungs reduces sodium-induced calcium overload and pulmonary hypertension, respectively. (cfrjournal.com)
  • In the most energy-efficient form of spinabifida in double mutant mice in whom lysosomal efflux is defective and in vitro dev biol a wrobel k and dow j a perantoni a o incidence of many drugs are given for a maximum of oz of protein inhibition specii c thus although there is difficulty in creating a new catheter. (lincolnnova.com)
  • Renal glucosuria has also been reported in patients with acute pyelonephritis in the presence of a normal blood glucose level. (medscape.com)
  • thus, sodium and water accumulation in the extracellular compartment leads to volume expansion, hypertension, and edema, whereas loss of sodium and water leads to a decline in blood pressure and decrease in vital organ perfusion. (ajkd.org)
  • PDF] Insulin's impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • and including whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts, lowered blood pressures even more than a typical North American diet with similar reduced sodium content. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Consequently, blood glucose levels stay at abnormally high levels (hyperglycemia). (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • Our results showed that empagliflozin significantly ameliorated the levels of SUA and blood glucose in T2DM mice with HUA. (ijbs.com)
  • The FRU rats' mean blood pressure was significantly higher and fractional sodium excretion (FENa) was significantly lower, indicating that the high-fructose diet caused salt retention. (researchsquare.com)
  • Indeed, a randomized cross-over trial of dietary glucose and fructose loads in 15 adults reported a predominant increase in blood pressure in the high-fructose-diet group 9 . (researchsquare.com)
  • created a rat model fed a diet containing 20% fructose for 2 weeks, and they reported that the increase in blood pressure induced by salt loading was significantly higher in the fructose-fed group compared to controls, indicating that a high-fructose diet generates salt-sensitive hypertension 18 . (researchsquare.com)
  • Metformin did not decrease blood glucose but reduced paracellular flux across ex vivo murine tracheas. (bmj.com)
  • blood glucose response to carbohydrate ingestion. (examine.com)
  • Fortunately, these chronic complications can be mitigated in many patients by sustained control of the blood glucose. (mhmedical.com)
  • In healthy humans, blood glucose is tightly maintained despite wide fluctuations in glucose consumption, utilization, and production. (mhmedical.com)
  • Note that the deranged PT or INR seen in liver disease may not directly equate to increased bleeding risk, as these tests do not capture the concurrent reduced synthesis of anticoagulant factors, including protein C and protein S. In general, therefore, correction of PT using blood products before minor invasive procedures should be guided by clinical risk rather than the absolute value of the PT. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • His experience in the areas of glucose-6-phosphate biochemistry, carbon dioxide fixation, hexokinase and phosphate studies led him to hypothesize cotransport of glucose along with sodium through the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans of canonical type-I, the differentiation community elongation complex effects previously everywhere then extracellular as a key moiety intra are to lead established. (erik-mill.de)
  • This structure is both a barrier between the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid, and the pathway for ion and water transport between the two compartments. (abdominalkey.com)
  • Thus developing a new type of agent to improve hyperglycemia and HUA seems increasingly urgent. (ijbs.com)
  • As described below in the section Buckwheat Extract Reduces Hyperglycemia and Type II Diabetes , Yao et al (2008) tested the oral toxicity in mice of an extract of Tartary buckwheat bran, and found no ill-effects. (tartarybuckwheat.com)
  • DNA DSBs promote annotated by the MRN download semi supervised kernel mean( MRE11A: RAD50: NBN), blocking to planning hydroquinone and numerous P of a glucagon of DNA dehydrogenase Licensing and type stages to DNA DSB mutations( Lee and Paull 2005). (exklusive-duefte.eu)
  • An elevated level of serum urate, hyperuricemia, is associated with increased incidences of gout, and mutations in this gene cause renal hypouricemia type 1. (nih.gov)
  • The small intestinal epithelium is arranged in villi containing, among other cell types, absorptive enterocytes and EECs. (jci.org)
  • Colorectal cancer is among the most common human malignancies ( 1 ) and has been firmly linked to chronic intestinal inflammation, giving rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intestinal absorption of glucose in mice as determined by positron emission tomography. (ucla.edu)
  • They enable coupled or cotransport (secondary active transport) and include antiporters and symporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positron emission tomography of sodium glucose cotransport activity in high grade astrocytomas. (ucla.edu)
  • Many cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs), participate in the complex mechanism of RA pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One such dogma was the notion that EECs belong to distinct cell types such as the GLP1- and PYY-secreting L cells, CCK-secreting I cells, and GIP-secreting K cells. (jci.org)
  • The heterotetrameric migration interactions of proteins have between pathogens, nuclear rafts, irreversible receptors and p40 cells. (erik-mill.de)
  • Iodide is transported across the basement membrane of the thyroid cells by an intrinsic membrane protein called the Na/I symporter (NIS). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • In the experimental mice, the types and frequencies of deformations in sperm cells were unaffected by Tartary buckwheat extract in the diet. (tartarybuckwheat.com)
  • Third, we want to talk about transcellular transport, that is the movement across cells versus movement between cells, the paracellular pathways. (coursera.org)
  • Type 1 DM is an autoimmune illness in which the beta-cells of the pancreas are damaged. (bmbtrj.org)
  • mACE2 also serves as the entry point into cells for some coronaviruses , including HCoV-NL63 , SARS-CoV , and SARS-CoV-2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • mACE2 is a single-pass type I membrane protein , with its enzymatically active domain exposed on the surface of cells in the intestines and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer of the next composition was found in perfusion tests: 10 mM d-Glucose, 2.50 mM CaCl2, 0.49 mM MgCl2 6H2O, 4.56 mM KCl, 120 mM NaCl, 0.7 mM Na2HPO4, 1.5 mM NaH2PO4, and 24 mM NaHCO3, supplemented with Ficoll T-70 4% and BSA 0.1% and gassed with 95% O2, 5% CO2. (careersfromscience.org)
  • Currently available medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have limitations, and many patients do not achieve glycemic control. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • 5 Furthermore, the incidence of CV mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes has not substantially decreased in the last decade. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • There is high prevalence of HUA among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). (ijbs.com)
  • Various studies have indicated that incidence of HUA in patients with T2DM was respectively 24.1% [ 2 ] and 33.8% [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Despite the 13 classes of antidiabetes medications currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the majority of patients with this chronic disease do not achieve appropriate glycemic control with these medications. (ahdbonline.com)
  • These investigational agents may potentially offer new approaches to controlling glucose levels and improve outcomes in patients with diabetes. (ahdbonline.com)
  • Despite the abundance of FDA-approved therapeutic options for type 2 diabetes, the majority of American patients with diabetes are not achieving appropriate glycemic control. (ahdbonline.com)
  • however, the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes are unable to maintain such a rigid lifestyle regimen. (ahdbonline.com)
  • For most patients with type 2 diabetes, pharmacologic intervention will therefore be needed to maintain glycemic control. (ahdbonline.com)
  • Moreover, in pilot clinical trials, patients who received adjuvant psychoanalysis with adoptive trans- fer of tumor-derived lymphocytes expanded ex vivo with IL-2, following surgical debulking and frontline chemotherapy, L. Annul drinkable medications definitions. (daubnet.com)
  • While a number of physicians interviewed said they still prescribe the drug to lower their patients' glucose levels, attitudes among others began to change after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on May 16 issued what's called a black box warning about amputations. (diabetestalk.net)
  • Among patients with ulcerative colitis, the risk of colon cancer has been found to be as high as 2% at 10 years, 8% at 20 years, and 18% at 30 years after initial diagnosis ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study concluded that ER positive patients benefited from switching from tamoxifen to anastrozole in patients who have completed 2 years' adjuvant tamoxifen. (progenpeptide.com)
  • Free T4 measurements were primarily used for assessing thyroid function despite the technical difficulties in free thyroid hormone measurements owing to abnormal binding proteins, changes in binding protein concentrations, and the effects of drugs and illness on thyroid hormone binding. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • miR-185 directly targets the 3'-untranslated region of Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1), a protein involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress. (cusabio.com)
  • however, the epithelial barriers of gut necessarily restrain the microbiota outside the circulation to avoid bacterial translocation [ 2 ] and systemic inflammation[ 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • This effect is to form multiple cysts and dysplasia lam choyke branchio oto renal syndrome eya a mutation in the clear cell type specific nuclear translocation of vesicles is dependent upon the needs of their cellular structure and function in the. (lincolnnova.com)
  • In this form of transport, molecules are transported across the membrane by breaking down adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (conductscience.com)