China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.ArgentinaLaosThailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.IranVietnamSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.CambodiaEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)TurkeyDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.PolandNova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.PakistanSchistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)PhilippinesTrematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Saudi ArabiaKorea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.ItalyUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Vanuatu: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.EcuadorAnimals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.AfghanistanTibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.New Brunswick: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Sri LankaMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.PanamaTopography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Orientia tsutsugamushi: A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Scrub Typhus: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Paragonimus: A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.SicilyRegional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Remuneration: Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
  • Alternatively, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is a promising technique for the extraction and enrichment of volatile compounds from different sample matrices [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The volatile compounds in foxtail millet sake were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Different methods of sample preparation were used to optimize this method (SPME fiber types, sample amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, content of NaCl, and rotor speed). (hindawi.com)
  • 18-K Description of the Province - March 31, 2018 - Registration information filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on Form 18-K including description of the Province. (gov.mb.ca)
  • The chiral nematic liquid crystalline phase (CNLCP) of noble metal nanorods induces a strong chiroptical response due to their intrinsic physical and chemical properties. (springer.com)
  • The chirality of the liquid crystalline phase of [email protected] 2 O hyper branched coaxial nanorods (HBCNRs) can be switched from left-handed to right-handed by increasing Cu 2 O thickness. (springer.com)
  • The Syrian province of Idlib and surrounding areas are the last major enclave held by rebels opposed to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, a close Iranian ally. (reuters.com)
  • Syria: Al-Qaida-linked militants undertook an offensive against Turkey-backed rebels by trying to cut off Turkey-backed fighters in Afrin from those in the province of Idlib. (livingcosmos.com)
  • The previous two days of fighting in the provinces of Aleppo and Idlib left thirty-one dead, including five civilians. (livingcosmos.com)
  • Talking to journalists in Biratnagar, Gachhadar said it had been clear that the agitating Rastriya Janata Party-Nepal will skip the second phase polls scheduled for June 28 despite the government's efforts to take the newly united party on board by amending the Registration of Political Parties Act. (ekantipur.com)
  • TEHRAN- Iranian Energy Minister Reza Ardakanian announced that projects worth 90 trillion rials (about $2.14 billion) have been already inaugurated in the water and electricity sectors of the country in the second phase of the A-B-Iran program, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • The second phase two activity was the development and pilot of a digital savings product with incorporated financial education tools. (adb.org)
  • The second phase upgrades the biosolids facilities and will cost $553 million and the city is preparing for the planning stage of this project. (winnipegsun.com)
  • In the second phase, after 2014, the demand for electric power was slowed down due mainly to economic deceleration. (brookings.edu)
  • IBM ) today announced the first stage of a $22.5 million project to create an electronic healthcare records (EHR) system for the province of Manitoba has gone live, providing clinicians with unprecedented access to their patients' lab results, dispensed drug records and immunization histories, in seconds. (mdtmag.com)
  • EChart Manitoba, the first province-wide EHR system in Canada, enables the secure sharing of information about a patient's health to authorized healthcare professionals across Manitoba. (mdtmag.com)
  • EChart improves continuity of care for Manitoba's more than 1,000,000 patients, regardless of where in the province they access care, by ensuring a secure and private lifetime record of key health history and care is available electronically to authorized healthcare providers anywhere, anytime. (mdtmag.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the safety, effectiveness, and tolerability of the anti-HIV drugs efavirenz and lamivudine/zidovudine given to treatment-naive HIV infected people in Wenxi County, Shanxi Province, China. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The research project aim to build the capacity for a large-scale, multi-site EEG study in infants in an 8 month demonstration project (Phase I), to be following by a Phase II application in which we will propose to add EEG measurements to all scheduled visits during the first year (3, 6, 9, 12 months) for the remaining length of the ACE network grant (years 2-5). (autismspeaks.org)
  • The Transit Feasibility Study presented Monday is the result of a study commissioned from experts from Calgary Transit and outlines a phased approach to implement transit in Cochrane. (cochrane.ca)
  • This study was therefore investigated the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its correlated factors among people aged 18-85 years in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. (springer.com)
  • Phase one involved (i) development of knowledge products on financial capability and digital financial services, (ii) a review of the Central Bank of Solomon Islands' (CBSI) guarantee scheme, and (iii) a study on coconut value chain financing. (adb.org)
  • Geochemical studies of North American soils: Results from the pilot study phase of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project by David B. Smith (1355-1356) . (chemweb.com)
  • Field work and collection of new data are not part of the first phase of study. (google.ca)
  • This direct assistance was through peer-to-peer knowledge transfer including to fishers in other provinces and participation at national fora/exhibitions, a study tour (to Senegal) and on-site training. (fao.org)
  • More than 5,000 dengue cases and 17 deaths have been reported in Pakistan, with 4,400 of those cases and 12 of the deaths occurring in Punjab province where just over half of the country's total population resides. (healthmap.org)
  • The $150 million Punjab Cities Governance Improvement Project is aimed at realizing the growth potential of five largest cities of the province through strengthening systems for improved planning, resource management and accountability. (worldbank.org)
  • The additional financing of $70 million for Punjab Land Records Management and Information Systems Project is meant for further strengthening and expanding better service delivery of land record management throughout the province. (worldbank.org)
  • Alberta is putting aside $40 million to help workers losing their jobs as the province transitions away from thermal coal mines and coal-fired power plants over the next decade. (globalnews.ca)
  • Ainsi, les cas signalés sont passés de 11 050 en 2000 à 248 115 en 2008. (who.int)
  • At the last stage, within ultimate sampling units, households were selected with probabilities such that an equal probability (self-weighting) sample was obtained within each province or municipality. (princeton.edu)
  • The province and city of Winnipeg released their Interim Phosphorous Reduction Plan and Nutrient Removal Plan, but funding for the $1.8-billion upgrade remains up in the air. (winnipegsun.com)
  • The city will test and model several options for interim phosphorous removal over the next year to determine home much can be removed before presenting the best option to the city and province for approval. (winnipegsun.com)
  • The plan had a deadline put on the city by the province to be implemented by Saturday. (winnipegsun.com)
  • So far only the city has committed any funding to the project, with $408 million set for phase one and $15 million for designing for stage two. (winnipegsun.com)
  • NDP Critic for the Environment and Climate Change Lisa Naylor said this was a lost opportunity for the city and the province to institute changes to reduce phosphorous levels in the lake now. (winnipegsun.com)
  • The province should have required the city to immediately implement interim measures this year. (winnipegsun.com)
  • During the initial reflecting phase, you will think about the process you will follow in each phase of your writing task: planning, retrieving, processing, creating, sharing and evaluating. (ualberta.ca)
  • TEHRAN - Iranian Energy Ministry Inaugurated 43 electricity projects in three provinces on Tuesday, during the 10th week of the ministry's A-B-Iran scheme under which every week major energy projects are going to be inaugurated in various provinces across the country, IRIB reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • LONDON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Data were published in The Lancet today from a Phase IIb clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of MVA85A in preventing tuberculosis (TB) in infants. (aol.com)
  • But one unintended recent consequence has been a province-wide bark beetle outbreak that has devastated the region's forests - with the dying trees heightening the fire threat. (newscientist.com)
  • Two experimental vaccines developed by Sinovac Biotech and a unit of China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm) are already approved for Phase III trials. (theprovince.com)
  • Member of NITI Aayog, VK Paul on August 18 informed that three vaccines of COVID-19 are being developed in India among which one of them will enter in phase 3 trial today or tomorrow and other 2 are in phase 1 and 2 trials. (yahoo.com)
  • She will also work with Laurent Pharmaceuticals to develop protocols for Phase 2a trials and the documentation needed for regulatory agencies such as the Investigators Brochure. (mitacs.ca)
  • Henry warned that as the province begins to reopen, the potential for a flare-up does go up. (cbc.ca)
  • Currently PRT-15, formed by the Lithuanian Grand Duchess Birutė Motorized Infantry Battalion of the Lithuanian army, ensures security in Ghor province. (dvidshub.net)
  • On Sunday the 17th of April we had phase 4 of the Chosspile Rehab Project was a success. (climbing.co.za)
  • The first phase of the project, to be done in mid-2015, includes two office towers with a total area of 81,000 square meters and 39,000 square meters of retail space, plus a 400-room 5-star hotel. (tuoitrenews.vn)
  • The other two components of the project support the cities and province through technical assistance and capacity building to achieve governance related targets and enhancement in revenue, and preparedness for rapid response to a natural disaster, emergency, and/or catastrophic event as needed. (worldbank.org)
  • The additional financing for the project will allow the government to complete this first phase throughout the province. (worldbank.org)
  • There are two main provinces: the African LLSVP and the Pacific LLSVP. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the first phase, from 2010 to 2012, the main causes of curtailment were the rapid growth of installation and inadequate buildup of transmission grid in the early stage of development. (brookings.edu)
  • Improved planning, resource management, and accountability in larger cities of the province will turn them into true engines of growth, improving quality of life for citizens and reducing poverty. (worldbank.org)
  • TEHRAN - Iranian President Hassan Rouhani inaugurated five water and electricity projects worth over $210 million in three provinces during the 18th week of the Energy Ministry's A-B-Iran program, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN - Head of Iran's Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution Management Company (Tavanir) inaugurated 14 water and electricity projects worth 3.37 trillion rials (about $80.2 million) in the Southwestern Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari province in a ceremony on Wednesday. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN - Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, on Thursday, inaugurated 10 electricity and water projects worth 19 trillion rials (about $452.3 million) in two provinces, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN - Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, on Thursday, inaugurated eight electricity and water projects in the southern province Bushehr and northwestern West Azarbaijan province via video conference. (tehrantimes.com)
  • TEHRAN - Iranian Energy Minister Reza Ardakanian inaugurated 18 water and electricity projects worth 95.4 trillion rials (about $227 million) on Tuesday during his one-day visit to the northeastern province of Khorasan Razavi, IRNA reported. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Province-based electricity operations limit the system's ability to absorb wind volatility, hinders system reliability, and increases operational cost. (brookings.edu)
  • Cortical connectivity can be assessed by measuring EEG coherence, which represents the consistency of the phase difference between two EEG signals when compared over time. (autismspeaks.org)
  • We're going to lose 200 full-time, well-paying jobs': impact of coal phase-out on Hanna, Alta. (globalnews.ca)
  • Direct causes for curtailment change over time and across different provinces. (brookings.edu)
  • PITTSBURGH (Reuters) - The world's largest economies agreed on Friday to phase out subsidies for oil and other carbon dioxide-spewing fossil fuels in the "medium term" as part of efforts to combat global warming. (reuters.com)
  • A source has told Reuters Assad is preparing a phased offensive to regain the province. (reuters.com)
  • In-depth Fertility Survey in China, Phase II, Preliminary Report. (princeton.edu)
  • The statement from the G20, comprised of major rich and emerging economies, said energy and finance ministers would develop timeframes and strategies for implementing the subsidies phase-out and report back at the next G20 summit. (reuters.com)
  • Large low-shear-velocity provinces, LLSVPs, also called LLVPs or superplumes, are characteristic structures of parts of the lowermost mantle (the region surrounding the outer core) of the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is bounded to the northeast by the province of Jilin , to the east by North Korea , to the south by the Yellow Sea , to the southwest by the province of Hebei , and to the northwest by the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. (britannica.com)
  • Alberta is asking the federal government to not claw back existing benefits as the province tops up those EI benefits, while also extending EI benefits for retiring coal workers. (globalnews.ca)