Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.ExplosionsAcid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Germany, WestGlass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.LouisianaSorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.HydrocarbonsEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.TexasSilicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Coal MiningGreenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Although London was accustomed to heavy fogs, this one was denser and longer-lasting than any previous fog.[13] Visibility was reduced to a few metres ("It's like you were blind"[14]) making driving difficult or impossible. Public transport ceased, apart from the London Underground, and the ambulance service stopped, forcing users to transport themselves to hospital. The smog was so dense that it even seeped indoors, resulting in cancellation or abandonment of concerts and film screenings as visibility decreased in large enclosed spaces, and stages and screens became harder to see from the seats.[15] Outdoor sports events were also cancelled.[citation needed] In the inner London suburbs and away from town centres, there was no disturbance by moving traffic to thin out the dense fog in the back streets. The result was that visibility could be down to a metre or so in the daytime. Walking out of doors became a matter of shuffling one's feet to feel for potential obstacles such ...
Steven Dale Ittel (born 1946 in Hamilton, Ohio) is an American chemist specializing in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. His father was a superintendent of a rural school district and a YMCA camp director, so he spent the first 19 summers of his life at Camp Campbell Gard. He is married with two children. He attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1968. He was then commissioned as an officer in the United States Public Health Service and studyed photochemical smog in the New York City metropolitan area from 1968-1970. He attended Northwestern University where he received his PhD in chemistry under the direction of James A. Ibers in 1974. Ittel worked on hydride activation of lanthanides for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) at Monsanto's Mound Laboratories for a short time. Upon receiving his PhD from Northwestern, Ittel joined DuPont's Central Research Department at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, ...
... is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries. In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the National Air Quality Index. Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze ...
ஓசோன் (Ozone) என்பது மூன்று ஆக்சிசன் அணுக்கள் சேர்ந்திருக்கும் ஒரு மூலக்கூறு (சேர்மம்). இது வளிம நிலையில் உள்ளது. ஆக்சிசனின் பிறிதொரு மாற்றுரு (allotrope). இது ஈரணு ஆக்சிசன் மூலக்கூறு போல் நிலைத்தன்மை இல்லாதது. எளிதில் சிதைந்து விடும். தரைக்கு அருகே காணப்படும் ஓசோன் சூழல் மாசுத்தன்மை ஊட்டுவதாகக் கருதப்படுகின்றது. ஏனெனில் மாந்தர்கள் உட்பட, விலங்குகள் பலவற்றின் மூச்சு இயக்கத்திற்கு ...
Hangzhou Foreign Languages School had been the only school allowed to conduct entrance exams for elementary school graduates in Zhejiang Province. During the 1990s, the elementary schools in Hangzhou (capital of Zhejiang Province) were given a quota of one student for each class, normally the top student. Together with students recommended for their special talents in arts and music, around 1,000 students in the city sat the written exams of Mathematics and Chinese, after which around 100 students were qualified for second stage interviews and 80 students aged around 13 to 14 were finally admitted, forming 2 classes in entering the grade of Junior One. [5]. Due to the pressure from other secondary schools, the entrance exams of Hangzhou Foreign Language School evolved towards the form of pure interviews after 2000. The candidates pool was extended to all elementary schools in Zhejiang Province while both the candidates quota and number of admissions ...
China's huge and gradually aging population and strong biopharmaceutical sector have almost guaranteed a large but varied pharmaceutical market profile. Zhejiang, Guangdong, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Hebei provinces have always been among the top five most productive provinces in China. Each of these provinces has grown steadily by an average of 20 per cent per annum from 1998 to 2003 (with the exception of Jiangsu in 1998 and 1999) and reflects an increasingly healthy developing trend in the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. Most pharmaceutical firms are located in the southeastern zone that includes two well-developed areas and three under-developed areas. The two most popular areas of well-developed pharmaceutical industry, called the growth poles, are the Eastern China zone of which Zhejiang province is located in the centre and the South China zone represented by the ...
During the war with Japan, in the 1930s, China built many roads, the most famous of which is the Burma Road that leads southwest from Kunming to the city of Lashio. Since it came into power, the Communist government initiated a large effort into building highways that extend across China and beyond its borders.. Today, China is linked by an evolving network of highways (China National Highways) and expressways (Expressways of China). In the past few years, China has been rapidly developing its road network. Between 1990 and 2003, the total length of urban roads in China more than doubled; increasing from 95,000 to 208,000 kilometers of roads during that period. Similarly, during the same period of time, the total area allocated to roads more than tripled; from 892 million square meters in 1990, to 3,156.5 million square meters in 2003.[15] China National Highways stretch to all four corners of mainland China. Expressways reach the same destinations as China National Highways, except for the ...
... is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and the name in most European languages is equivalent. This name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea (Mare da China); later needs to differentiate it from nearby bodies of water led to calling it the South China Sea.[8] The International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as "South China Sea (Nan Hai)".[3] The Yizhoushu, which was a chronicle of the Western Zhou dynasty (1046-771 BCE) gives the first Chinese name for the South China Sea as Nanfang Hai (Chinese: 南方海; pinyin: Nánfāng Hǎi; literally: 'Southern Sea'), claiming that barbarians from that sea gave tributes of hawksbill sea turtles to the Zhou rulers.[9] The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period (771-476 BCE) also referred to the sea, but by the name Nan ...
In some studies, various subgroups of Q-M242 are observed in Mongolia. Q1a2-M346 (mostly Q-L330) occupies 1.4[25]~3.1%[46] of Mongols (1/2~2/3 among Q samples), followed by Q1a1a1-M120 (0.25[25]~1.25%[46]), Q1a1b-M25 (0.25[25]~0.63%[46]), Q1b-M378. In another study, Q is found in 4% of Mongols.[22] Based on these studies, the average frequency of Q-M242 in Mongols is estimated to be about 4~5%. However, most of Q-M242 people in East Asia belong to subclade Q-M120, which distributes most intensively across northern China (the provinces of which the capitals locate northern to Huai River-Qin Mountains line). Q-M242 ranged from 4~8% in northwest China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi), north China (Shanxi, Hebei), central China (Henan), and upper east China (Shandong) to 3~4% in northeast China. The average frequency of Q-M242 in northern China is around 4.5%. However, it decreases to about 2% in southern China.[39][40] In a study published in 2011, researchers have found Q-M242 in ...
In some studies, various subgroups of Q-M242 are observed in Mongolia. Q1a2-M346 (mostly Q-L330) occupies 1.4[25]~3.1%[46] of Mongols (1/2~2/3 among Q samples), followed by Q1a1a1-M120 (0.25[25]~1.25%[46]), Q1a1b-M25 (0.25[25]~0.63%[46]), Q1b-M378. In another study, Q is found in 4% of Mongols.[22] Based on these studies, the average frequency of Q-M242 in Mongols is estimated to be about 4~5%. However, most of Q-M242 people in East Asia belong to subclade Q-M120, which distributes most intensively across northern China (the provinces of which the capitals locate northern to Huai River-Qin Mountains line). Q-M242 ranged from 4~8% in northwest China (Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi), north China (Shanxi, Hebei), central China (Henan), and upper east China (Shandong) to 3~4% in northeast China. The average frequency of Q-M242 in northern China is around 4.5%. However, it decreases to about 2% in southern China.[39][40] In a study published in 2011, researchers have found Q-M242 in ...
Chongqing (also romanised Chungking) was the capital city of Ba State during Warring States period. Ming Yuzhen, the rebellion leader during the transition time between Yuan and Ming dynasties, established the Xia kingdom and set the capital city in Chongqing. Chongqing was also the provisional capital of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and briefly the seat of the Nationalist government in late 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War ...
Northeastern was founded on April 26, 1923 in Shenyang (previously known as Mukden), the capital city of Liaoning province, which at the time was the historic political and economic center of Northeast China. The institution attracted top scholars and teachers from throughout the region and quickly developed into a comprehensive university, with six schools for science, engineering, humanities, law, agriculture, and education. In July 1928, the university was taken over by Marshall Peter Chang Hsüeh-liang (Zhang Xueliang), the military warlord known as the "Young Marshal" who controlled all of Northeast China at the time. Marshall Chang assumed the title of president and became the university's most important financial and political patron in its early history. Less than a decade after it was founded, the university was forced to evacuate its campus following the Mukden Incident on 18 September 1931. After the incident, the Japanese invaded and annexed all of Northeast China, including ...
... is a major health concern according to the WHO, with overall rates of obesity below 5% in the country, but greater than 20% in some cities. This is a dramatic change from times when China experienced famine as a result from ineffective agriculturalization plans such as the Great Leap Forward. Currently, obesity in China is mostly confined to the cities where fast food culture and globalization have taken over, in comparison to poorer rural areas. Despite this concentration of obesity, the sheer size of China's population means that over one fifth of all one billion obese people in the world come from China. Statistics from the Chinese Health Ministry have revealed that urban Chinese boys age 6 are 2.5 inches taller and 6.6 pounds heavier on average than Chinese city boys 30 years ago. A leading child-health researcher, Ji Chengye, has stated that, "China has entered the era of obesity. The speed of growth is shocking." Economic expansion and the increase in living standards as a ...
... textile and cement factories and coal-fired power plants will ripple across major bulk commodity markets into 2017. ... Chinas crackdown on exhaust-spewing factories that shut or slashed output this week at sites including steel mills, ... Previous industrial shutdowns at steel mills and petrochemical plants, such as near cities like Hangzhou in Zhejiang province ... City and regional governments shut thousands of plants in Chinas industrial heartland, from Hebei province that surrounds ...
... reported on Wednesday.Companies ranging from petrochemical firms to metal producers will reduce output or shut down on heavy ... citing the environmental watchdog of Hebei province.There are no details on how the provincial government will implement the ... cement plants and utilities to adjust their production schedule between November and January as part of its battle against ... Chinas smog-ridden Hebei province has asked steel, ... Chinas smog-ridden Hebei province has asked steel, cement ...
The three sectors of steel, petrochemicals and construction materials account for half of its industrial output. Hebei churned ... "Heavy smog hit at the time of the "two sessions" in 2013 and again this year," said Liu Ronghua, a local political advisor, at ... To tackle the severe air pollution, the provincial government has banned approvals of new steel, cement, glass and nonferrous ... The firm said it is baffled by the government policy of not considering the companys eco co-combustion system, which cost only ...
Smog: On December 5, 2011, Beijing authorities cancelled hundreds of flights and shut motorways as thick smog descended on the ... In August 2010, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology quietly published a list of 2,087 steel mills, cement works ... "Chinas top coal province to trim coal output," Reuters UK, March 30, 2009. ... In early March 2011 MBT CEO Joe Cannon stated that the firm would withdraw consideration of the coal export proposal from its ...
The six industries include the coal-fired power generation, iron and steel, cement, non-ferrous metal, petrochemical and ... 2013/03/05: Reuters: Japans "Long War" to shut down Fukushima. *2013/03/05: CBC: Google begins to document post-tsunami ... The 47 cities are spread across 19 provinces, mainly in developed city clusters like the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei cluster, Yangtze ... 2013/03/06: ICN: Critical Part of Keystone Report Done by Firms with Deep Oil Industry Ties. Two consulting firms provided ...
... heathcare heathrow heating heats heave heaven heavenly heavens heavier heaviest heavily heavy heavyweight heavyweights hebei ... cellphone cellphones cells cellular cellulose cellulosic celsius celso celtic cem cemac cement cemented cementing cements ... fires firestorm firewall firewalls firewood fireworks firing firings firm firmament firmer firmeza firmly firmness firms first ... shultz shun shunned shunning shuns shunt shunted shunting shura shut shutdown shutdowns shuts shuttered shuttering shutting ...
  • Yet rural air pollution remains high courtesy of industrial plants, poor fuel standards, extensive garbage burning and a heavy reliance on diesel for electricity generation in areas not connected with the grid. (cleartheair.org.hk)
  • Heavy industry was already feeling the effects of years-long measures by China, the world's top steel and base metals producer, to shut excess capacity and clean up the bloated, polluting sector. (reuters.com)
  • The worst smog happened two years ago, but it didn't last more than 24 hours," said a coke trader in Tianjin. (reuters.com)
  • The Shanxi Province Coal Industry Administration also announced its decision to close 1,500 mines over the next two years. (sourcewatch.org)