Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
An order of parasitic EUKARYOTES typically having four to six flagella. True cysts are known in very few species. Trichomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A species of flagellate parasitic EUKARYOTE. It possesses a long undulating membrane that is bordered on its outer margin by a flagellum that becomes free posteriorly. This organism causes infections in cows that could lead to temporary infertility or abortion.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Gastrointestinal infection with organisms of the genus DIENTAMOEBA.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A group (or phylum) of flagellated, anaerobic EUKARYOTES that are endosymbionts of animals. They lack mitochondria but contain small energy-producing hydrogenosomes. The group is comprised of two major classes: HYPERMASTIGIA and TRICHOMONADIDA.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Leishmania donovani express a protein product. (1/7816)

We describe an unprecedented finding of an open reading frame present in the variable region in one of the minicircle sequence classes of a human pathogenic strain of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/90/RMRI 68) which is transcribed and translated. The encoded protein showed homologies to known transport proteins.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (2/7816)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (3/7816)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis. (4/7816)

RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts.  (+info)

Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins. (5/7816)

5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO.  (+info)

Expression of a Hox gene, Cnox-2, and the division of labor in a colonial hydroid. (6/7816)

We report the isolation and expression of the Hox gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a hydrozoan displaying division of labor. We found different patterns of aboral-to-oral Cnox-2 expression among polyp polymorphs, and we show that experimental conversion of one polyp type to another is accompanied by concordant alteration in Cnox-2 expression. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that polyp polymorphism, characteristic of hydractiniid hydroids, arose via evolutionary modification of proportioning of head to body column.  (+info)

Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum expresses a high affinity facilitative hexose transporter. (7/7816)

Asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum cause severe malaria and are dependent upon host glucose for energy. We have identified a glucose transporter of P. falciparum (PfHT1) and studied its function and expression during parasite development in vitro. PfHT1 is a saturable, sodium-independent, and stereospecific transporter, which is inhibited by cytochalasin B, and has a relatively high affinity for glucose (Km = 0.48 mM) when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Competition experiments with glucose analogues show that hydroxyl groups at positions C-3 and C-4 are important for ligand binding. mRNA levels for PfHT1, assessed by the quantitative technique of tandem competitive polymerase chain reaction, are highest during the small ring stages of infection and lowest in gametocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localizes PfHT1 to the region of the parasite plasma membrane and not to host structures. These findings have implications for development of new drug targets in malaria as well as for understanding of the pathophysiology of severe infection. When hypoglycemia complicates malaria, modeling studies suggest that the high affinity of PfHT1 is likely to increase the relative proportion of glucose taken up by parasites and thereby worsen the clinical condition.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (8/7816)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Vol 9: Diversifying Selection on the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP) Gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractSporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are transmitted to human hosts by A. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane. On electron microscopy they have an electron-dense matrix due to the high protein content. They are specialized secretory organelles important for gliding motility and host cell invasion. These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and facilitating erythrocyte entry. Only by this initial chemical exchange can the parasite enter into the erythrocyte via actin-myosin motor complex. It has been posited that this organelle works cooperatively with its counterpart organelle, the rhoptry, which also is a secretory organelle. It is possible that, while the microneme initiates erythrocyte-binding, the rhoptry secretes ...
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4F1K: Structure of Plasmodium falciparum TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) A domain highlights distinct features in apicomplexan von Willebrand factor A homologues.
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The gene product of the cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 (clag9) (64) was used as a second rhoptry-specific marker. CLAG9 was previously localized exclusively to the bulb of the rhoptry (31). The distribution of CLAG9 predominantly overlaps with that of RALP1 (Fig. 5B). In contrast, the apical distribution of RALP1 was clearly distinct from that of the micronemal marker proteins EBA-175 and EBA-181 (19, 53) (Fig. 5C and D). Together, these findings establish RALP1 as a novel rhoptry-resident protein. ...
The gene product of the cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 (clag9) (64) was used as a second rhoptry-specific marker. CLAG9 was previously localized exclusively to the bulb of the rhoptry (31). The distribution of CLAG9 predominantly overlaps with that of RALP1 (Fig. 5B). In contrast, the apical distribution of RALP1 was clearly distinct from that of the micronemal marker proteins EBA-175 and EBA-181 (19, 53) (Fig. 5C and D). Together, these findings establish RALP1 as a novel rhoptry-resident protein. ...
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasites blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 12802682. Parasitol. Res. 2003 Aug;90(6):467-72. Plasmodium falciparum parasites remodel the surface of human erythrocytes on invasion by the insertion of parasite-derived proteins in knob-like protrusions. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP-1), a variant surface antigen, has been shown to be anchored in these knobs and mediates adhesion to various host endothelial receptors. These proteins also undergo clonal antigenic variation as a means of immune evasion. Duffy binding-like-alpha(DBL-alpha) domain together with the cysteine-rich interdomain region form the head structure of the PfEMP1 molecule. In this report, we used ten different recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies in experimental animals. Five out of ten recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins were immunogenic and induced antibodies that reacted with conserved peptides derived from PfEMP1. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to localise ...
Emerging evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite proteins involved in Plasmodium falciparum invasion into the red blood cell (RBC) play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. The protein family of parasite antigens known as P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein like homolog (PfRh) is required for RBC invasion. PfRh5 is the only member within the PfRh family that cannot be genetically deleted, suggesting it plays an essential role in parasite survival. This antigen forms a complex with the cysteine-rich P. falciparum Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr), on the merozoite surface during RBC invasion. The PfRh5 ectodomain sequence and a C-terminal fragment of PfRipr were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus-infected cells, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with these recombinant proteins induced antibodies able to inhibit growth of various P. falciparum strains. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment re-infection study ...
Looking for online definition of apical complex in the Medical Dictionary? apical complex explanation free. What is apical complex? Meaning of apical complex medical term. What does apical complex mean?
We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, cysteine interdomain region-1alpha (CIDR-1alpha). Responses to CIDR-1alpha were striking in that both exposed and nonexposed donors responded. The IFN-gamma response to CIDR-1alpha in the nonexposed donors was partially independent of TCR engagement of MHC class II and peptide. Contrastingly, CD4 T cell and IFN-gamma responses in malaria-exposed donors were MHC class II restricted, suggesting that the CD4 T cell response to CIDR-1alpha in malaria semi-immune adults also has a TCR-mediated component, which may represent a memory response. Dendritic cells isolated from human peripheral blood were activated by CIDR-1alpha to produce IL-12, IL-10, and IL-18. IL-12 was detectable only between 6 and 12 h of culture, whereas the IL-10 continued to increase throughout the 24-h time course. These data strengthen previous observations that P. falciparum interacts directly with
Malaria presents a considerable threat to public health. Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP 2) is the major protein released into human blood upon infection by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of HRP 2 exon II and the efficacy of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HRP 2 for Point-of-Care Test (POCT). The recombinant protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and used to immunize mice for mAb production. Two IgG1 mAbs (1A5 and 1C10) with high affinity, specificity and sensitivity for both native and recombinant HRP 2 were selected after fusion of mouse spleen with myeloma cells. The affinity constant of 1A5 and 1C10 were 7.15 and 4.91 × 10-7 L/mol, respectively. Subsequently, an immunochromatograhic assay was used for screening of clinical samples in endemic regions of China and Myanmar. The immunochromatographic test retrospectively showed an overall sensitivity of 99.07%, and specificity of 100%. Sensitivity at parasite densities | 200, 200-2000,
A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS beta-lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ...
Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. Since the early studies demonstrating that antibodies transferred from immune individuals diminish P. falciparum parasitaemia [11] a lot of effort has been put forward to identify parasite epitopes and mechanisms of action of antibody-mediated immune response to malaria. Besides their role in infection control, antibodies can modulate parasite development in the sporogonic [3 - 5], exoerythrocytic [6] and erythrocytic [7] cycle. However, there is almost no information on the effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium immunogenic molecules.. There are evidences that antibodies can interfere with parasite multiplication. An increase on sporozoite number recovered from the salivary glands when mosquitoes were fed on anti-Plasmodium antibodies was observed [3, 4] and IgG isolated from Kenyan immune adults enhanced parasite growth in culture while the serum from which they were isolated had an inhibitory ...
The clinical symptoms of malaria are attributed to the blood stage life cycle of parasite in which merozoite invades erythrocyte, undergoes multiplication and exit to re-invade into new erythrocyte to continue its life cycle. The interaction of repertoire of parasite proteins with host cell receptors is essential for invasion process. Identification, characterization and localization of the proteins involved in invasion will enrich our understanding of this complex process. In the present study we have identified a novel Apical Rhoptry Neck Protein in Plasmodium falciparum, which harbours a predicted signal and transmembrane domain and is conserved across the species. The transcription and translation analysis confirmed its expression in schizont stage of asexual cycle of P. falciparum. Immunoflouresence microscopy in schizonts and merozoites revealed its localization in the neck of rhoptries of P. falciparum. Furthermore, PfARNP has been found at the tight junction during invasion of P. ...
Placental malaria is typified by selective clustering of Plasmodium falciparum in the intervillous blood spaces of the placenta. Sequestration of malaria parasite in the human placenta is mediated by interactions between chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts and proteins expressed on the surface of infected human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) encoded by the var2CSA gene is believed to be the main parasite ligand for CSA-mediated placental binding. Extensive sequence and structure comparisons of the various CSA-binding and non-binding DBL domains from the var2CSA gene from A4 and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum were performed. Three-dimensional structural models of various DBL domains were built and analysed with a view to assessing conservation of CSA interaction sites across various DBL domains. Each of the six DBL domains from var2CSA are likely to retain the disulfide linkages evident from previously published DBL domain crystal structures
Placental malaria is typified by selective clustering of Plasmodium falciparum in the intervillous blood spaces of the placenta. Sequestration of malaria parasite in the human placenta is mediated by interactions between chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts and proteins expressed on the surface of infected human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) encoded by the var2CSA gene is believed to be the main parasite ligand for CSA-mediated placental binding. Extensive sequence and structure comparisons of the various CSA-binding and non-binding DBL domains from the var2CSA gene from A4 and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum were performed. Three-dimensional structural models of various DBL domains were built and analysed with a view to assessing conservation of CSA interaction sites across various DBL domains. Each of the six DBL domains from var2CSA are likely to retain the disulfide linkages evident from previously published DBL domain crystal structures
Looking for online definition of circumsporozoite protein in the Medical Dictionary? circumsporozoite protein explanation free. What is circumsporozoite protein? Meaning of circumsporozoite protein medical term. What does circumsporozoite protein mean?
BACKGROUND: Var genes encode a family of virulence factors known as PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) which are responsible for both antigenic variation and cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes. Although these molecules play a central role in malaria pathogenesis, the mechanisms generating variant antigen diversification are poorly understood. To investigate var gene evolution, we compared the variant antigen repertoires from three geographically diverse parasite isolates: the 3D7 genome reference isolate; the recently sequenced HB3 isolate; and the IT4/25/5 (IT4) parasite isolate which retains the capacity to cytoadhere in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: These comparisons revealed that only two var genes (var1csa and var2csa) are conserved in all three isolates and one var gene (Type 3 var) has homologs in IT4 and 3D7. While the remaining 50 plus genes in each isolate are highly divergent most can be classified into the three previously defined major groups (A, B, and C) on
|jats:p|Ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-positive,Plasmodium falciparum-negative red blood cells (RBCs) are cells from which the malaria parasite has been removed by the host without the destruction of the erythrocyte (
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) builds up the surface coat of sporozoites and is the leading malaria pre-erythrocytic-stage vaccine candidate. CSP has been shown to induce robust CD8+ T cell responses that are capable of eliminating developing parasites in hepatocytes resulting in protective immunity. In this study, we characterised the importance of the immunodominant CSP-derived epitope, SYIPSAEKI, of Plasmodium berghei in both sporozoite- and vaccine-induced protection in murine infection models. In BALB/c mice, where SYIPSAEKI is efficiently presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecule H-2-Kd, we established that epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses contribute to parasite killing following sporozoite immunisation. Yet, sterile protection was achieved in the absence of this epitope substantiating the concept that other antigens can be sufficient for parasite-induced protective immunity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SYIPSAEKI-specific CD8+ T cell
Abstract: The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), encoded by the multigene family named var, is responsible for the cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes in malarial infections. Approximately 50 var genes exist per parasite genome, which are mostly located in subtelomeric regions of all chromosomes, but are also found as clusters in central chromosomal regions. It was shown that almost all var transcripts are detectable in ring stage whereas in trophozoite stage one or only a few genes are transcribed while the rest of the family remains transcriptionally downregulated. Recent data published by Deitsch et al. indicate that var gene silencing requires the presence of a var intron and elements within it and an upstream element in the promoter. In the present study we selected a parasite adhesion phenotype by multiple panning procedures on E-selectin and identified a transcribed var gene in a centromeric/central cluster of 4 var genes and 1 rif gene.In order to describe ...
Plasmodium falciparum synthesizes P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), a product of the multicopy var gene family, which localizes on the surface of infected erythrocytes. This protein plays an important role in cytoadherence and immune evasion. Comparative analysis of the molecular sequences of the DBLα domain of the var gene from different isolates of the parasite reveals variations in the number of cysteines and presence of small conserved motifs like DGEA, RGD, GAG-binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis while highlighting the extensive diversity leads to clustered them in separate clades far apart from each other. Discriminant factor analysis of physicochemical properties of amino acid sequences revealed that the aliphatic index, isoelectric point, and instability index have more effect in deciding the variance of different isolates sequences. The origin of diverse repertoire of the DBLα domain in the parasites highlights the complexity of host-parasite relationship in ...
Antibodies can bind proteins via the Fab and Fc regions. The Fc interacts with receptors on the cells of the immune system causing effector responses such as phagocytosis and complement mediating lysis, however, pathogens have also developed a way to interact with human antibodies through regions on the Fc. We are currently trying to understand the mechanism underlying the binding of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to IgM. The Cμ4 domain of multimeric IgM has been shown to bind to the C-terminal Duffy Binding Like (DBL) domains of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) expressed by CSA-binding and rosetting strains of Plasmodium falciparum. CSA-binding has been linked to pregnancy associated malaria and rosetting (the binding of infected to uninfected erythrocytes) has been shown to correlate with many clinical manifestations of severe malaria in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The binding of IgM has been termed as non-immune because its interaction ...
The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the intracellular parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The African continent bears the greatest burden of malaria with 90% of all malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa where the high risk populations include pregnant woman and children under the age of five. Fatal cases of malaria are often a result of the progression of the disease to a life threatening syndrome where intravenous quinine or artesunate are administered as an emergency treatment, however a 15-20% mortality rate is still observed among treated individuals. Pathogenesis of severe malaria is associated with the mature or late trophozoite stage of the parasite s intra-erythrocyte life cycle. At this stage the intracellular parasite expresses parasite derived proteins on the surface of the red blood cell (RBCs) that bind to host endothelial receptors. This cytoadhesion ultimately allows the parasite to multiply unhindered by the host resulting in high parasitaemia levels which ...
As with other infectious diseases, much discussion has been generated in the past about whether the malaria parasite population is structured into strains that have variable virulence (27). PfEMP1 presents us with a scenario in which a repertoire of molecules that play a central role in the host-parasite interaction, both through cytoadherence and immunogenicity, appear to be functionally and genetically differentiated within every parasite genome (13, 28), potentially giving each parasite line the ability to alter its pathogenicity depending on the combination of selection pressures experienced within the host (29). However, there is no direct evidence for links between the structure of the PfEMP1 antigen repertoire and a role for PfEMP1 in parasite immune evasion and pathogenicity.. A frequently cited study supporting a link between group A var expression and parasite virulence is based on the in vitro selection of a lab-adapted parasite isolate using pooled serum from semi-immune children ...
We describe the cloning of a novel antigen of Plasmodium falciparum which contains a hydrophobic domain typical of an integral membrane protein. This antigen is designated apical membrane antigen 1 because it appears to be located in the apical complex. Apical membrane antigen 1 appears to be transported to the merozoite surface near the time of schizont rupture. ...
Plasmodium falciparum expresses on the host erythrocyte surface clonally variant antigens and ligands that mediate adherence to endothelial receptors. Both are central to pathogenesis, since they allow chronicity of infection and lead to concentration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral vessels. Here we show that expression of variant antigenic determinants is correlated with expression of individual members of a large, multigene family named var. Each var gene contains copies of a motif that has been previously shown to bind diverse host receptors; expression of a specific var gene correlated with binding to ICAM-1. Thus, our findings are consistent with the involvement of var genes in antigenic variation and binding to endothelium.
Adhesin proteins are used by Plasmodium parasites to bind and invade target cells. Hence, characterising molecules that participate in reticulocyte interaction is key to understanding the molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax invasion. This study focused on predicting functionally restricted regions of the P. vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) and characterising their reticulocyte binding activity. The pvgama gene was initially found in P. vivax VCG-I strain schizonts. According to the genetic diversity analysis, PvGAMA displayed a size polymorphism very common for antigenic P. vivax proteins. Two regions along the antigen sequence were highly conserved among species, having a negative natural selection signal. Interestingly, these regions revealed a functional role regarding preferential target cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this study describes PvGAMA reticulocyte binding properties for the first time. Conserved functional regions were predicted according to natural selection analysis and
Successful transmission of malaria into the mammalian host is dependent on the ability of sporozoites to invade and establish a proper PV within the host hepatocyte. To date, only a handful of genes have been identified that play a role during invasion or early development of the sporozoite within hepatocytes. In this study we have characterized the rhomboid protease, ROM1, throughout the lifecycle of the malaria rodent model, Plasmodium yoelii.. Quantitative expression analysis of pyrom1 shows it is expressed at various invasive stages of the malaria life cycle. Expression of pyrom1 follows a pattern similar to genes involved in merozoite invasion with maximal erythrocytic stage expression in schizonts. Relative to schizont stages, expression of pyrom1 is increased by at least 10-fold during the sporozoite stages with pyrom1 transcript levels upregulated by 2-fold from midgut sporozoites to salivary gland sporozoites. Midgut sporozoites are substantially less infectious in the mammalian host ...
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Five new articles published this week in PLOS Medicine ranging from malaria to HIV to cardiovascular health. Arjen Dondorp and colleagues investigate whether the plasma level of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 can be ...
Many microneme proteins are secreted onto the parasite surface to play a role in host cell entry and then ultimately shed. This study demonstrates that EBA-175, and, by extrapolation, all other DBL-EBPs, are subject to a similar fate. Given their role in invasion and their capacity to bind erythrocyte surface receptors with high affinity, these ligands presumably function in membrane bound form at the merozoite surface. Our results show that the truncated form of EBA-175 released into supernatants is a result of a physiologically important, precise cleavage event that takes place at the merozoite surface and is mediated via intramembrane cleavage by a rhomboid-like malarial protease.. IFA of newly invaded rings showed that, irrespective of whether EBA-175 was used as the dominant invasion ligand, invasion is associated with shedding of EBA-175. Western blot showed that the shed protein retains much or all of region VI, and mass spectrometric analysis allowed us to map its C terminus to an Ala ...
The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding motility or
3. The differences between CDKs in mammals and those in human parasites. Both humans and protozoan parasites are eukaryotes, however they diverged long ago and belong to different phylogenetic kingdoms. The reproduction of a single-celled malarial parasite and that of a human or a human cell are very different processes, however they both use similar CDK machinery. The genome sequence of the malarial parasite Plasmodia falciparum has recently been finished and with it came the discovery of several homologs of the cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. I am working with several other groups to elucidate the differences between the mammalian CDKs and those of the parasite. There are two reasons for this study. First, we are currently trying to study these enzymes with an eye toward finding inhibitors which will stop the cell cycle of the parasite without stopping the cell cycle of the human host. This will hopefully lead to the development of malarial treatments. Second, evolutionarily, protists ...
3HGF: Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94) of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii
Identification of nuclear proteins that interact differentially with Plasmodium falciparum var gene promoters.: The Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor PfEMP
To investigate the role of the coreceptor CD8 and lipid rafts in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, we used soluble mono-and multimeric H-2K,sup,d,/sup,-peptide complexes and cloned S14 CTL specific for a photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide 252-260 [PbCS(ABA)]. We report that activation of CTL in suspension requires multimeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes co-engaging TCR and CD8. Using TCR ligand photo-cross-linking, we find that monomeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes promote association of TCR/CD3 with CD8/p56,sup,lck,/sup,. Dimerization of these adducts results in activation of p56lck in lipid rafts, where phosphatases are excluded. Additional cross-linking further increases p56,sup,lck,/sup, kinase activity, induces translocation of TCR/CD3 and other signaling molecules to lipid rafts and intracellular calcium mobilization. These events are prevented by blocking Src kinases or CD8 binding to TCR-associated K,sup,d,/sup, molecules, ...
Stratmann, Thomas, Schmida, Stefanie R., Harperb, Jeffrey F. and Kang, Angray S. (1997) Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein. Protein Expression and Purification, 11 (1). pp. 72-78. ISSN 1046-5928 ...
This gene encodes a glutamate-rich protein that contains five WD-repeat motifs. The encoded protein may play a critical role in ribosome biogenesis and may also play a role in histone methylation through interactions with CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin E3 ligase. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
One of the key processes in the pathobiology of the malaria parasite is the invasion and subsequent modification of the human erythrocyte. In this complex process, an unknown number of parasite proteins are involved, some of which are leading vaccine candidates. The majority of the proteins that play pivotal roles in invasion are either stored in the apical secretory organelles or located on the s ...
Every month through fall, the government-funded COVID-19 Prevention Network will roll out a new study of a leading vaccine candidate - each with 30,000 new volunteers.
Every month through fall, the government-funded COVID-19 Prevention Network will roll out a new study of a leading vaccine candidate - each with 30,000 new volunteers.
Genes are transcribed in polysictronic messages (pre-mRNA) that are destined for either maturation into mRNAs, or degradation. Since transcription regulation is non-existent with few exceptions, the rate of pre-mRNA processing, together with mRNA decay and translation rates, are believed to control gene expression. In this assay, 2T1 blood form trypanosomes are subject to treatment by ActinomycinD for 5 minutes, inhibiting transcription. The cells are harvested, depleted for ribosomal RNA, and ...
One expert said Canada could find itself at the back of the line, if it doesnt move quickly to secure some of the leading vaccines in development
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If you havent heard ...according to, but contrary to conventional medical literature, the CDC, and leading vaccine experts - the anti-vaccine
Tran, T., P. Büscher, G. Vandenbussche, L. Wyns, J. Messens, and H. De Greve, Heterologous expression, purification and characterisation of the extracellular domain of trypanosome invariant surface glycoprotein ISG75., J Biotechnol, vol. 135, issue 3, pp. 247-54, 2008 Jun 30. ...
Here we review both the structural details and functional significance of interactions at the hydrophobic cleft of AMA1, and argue that this feature of the protein represents an excellent target for the development of drugs that would block host cell invasion by malarial parasites.. ...
Patel, A, Perrin, AJ, Flynn, HR, Bisson, C, Withers-Martinez, C, Treeck, M, Flueck, C, Nicastro, G, Martin, SR, Ramos, A, Gilberger, TW, Snijders, AP, Blackman, MJ and Baker, D (2019). Cyclic AMP signalling controls key components of malaria parasite host cell invasion machinery. [Data Collection]. PLoS Biology. ...
Roy, Nainita; Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Ranade, Shatakshi; Tatu, Utpal (2012). "Heat shock protein 90 from neglected protozoan ... Protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected bibliography section ... "Oxidative Folding and Assembly with Transthyretin Are Sequential Events in the Biogenesis of Retinol Binding Protein in the ...
Kutuzov MA, Andreeva AV (October 2008). "Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of parasitic protozoa". Molecular and Biochemical ... Cohen PT (July 1997). "Novel protein serine/threonine phosphatases: variety is the spice of life". Trends in Biochemical ... Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA (1 March 2001). "PPP family of protein Ser/Thr phosphatases: two distinct branches?". Molecular Biology ... Shewanella-like phosphatases, abbreviated as Shelphs, are a group of enzymes structurally related to protein serine/threonine ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders. ... Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice and rats is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is ... But only some species' TLR11 can successfully code for the functional protein that is able to play an active role in the innate ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Upon activation, TLRs recruit adaptor proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of ... These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein ... IRAK kinases then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF6, which in turn polyubiquinates the protein TAK1, as well as ...
Entry signals have been found in ciliary/flagellar proteins of the protozoans Leishmania and Trypanosoma. The RVxP motif was ... Proteins employed in the cilia are targeted there when they bear specific entry signals, whereas proteins not situated in cilia ... RVxP motif is a protein motif involved in localizing proteins into cilia. Cilia are sensory organelle of cells, whose ... "Regulation of ciliary retrograde protein trafficking by the Joubert syndrome proteins ARL13B and INPP5E". Journal of Cell ...
Its rapid killing abilities are used to quickly kill live specimens such as protozoa. OsO4 stabilizes many proteins by ... Tissue proteins that are stabilized by OsO4 are not coagulated by alcohols during dehydration.[14] Osmium(VIII) oxide is also ...
... or a protozoan parasite. After finding the target protein in the bacterium (or protozoan parasite), one could design small ... 2002). "Dip, the database of interacting proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions". ... w is personalized to proteins; w is larger for those proteins that appear in higher concentrations in the proteomics analysis ... The reason for this is that some already known, important protein targets do not have a high degree (are not hubs) and also, ...
"Iron-saturated lactoferrin and pathogenic protozoa: Could this protein be an iron source for their parasitic style of life?". ...
The proteins of the SWEET family have been found in plants, animals, protozoans, and bacteria. Eukaryotic family members have 7 ... Additionally, protein levels were shown to be maternally controlled: in a sweet11;12;15 mutant crossed with a wild-type plant, ... Proteins of the SWEET family appear to catalyze facilitated diffusion (entry or export) of sugars across the plant plasma ... The team noticed that mRNA and protein for SWEETs 11, 12, and 15 are each expressed at high levels during some stage of embryo ...
Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. There is more ... Hemoglobin consists of protein subunits (the globin molecules), and these proteins, in turn, are folded chains of a large ...
... (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to ... VSG dimers, ~90% of all cell surface protein. It also makes up ~10% of total cell protein. For this reason, these proteins are ... The VSG proteins in T. equiperdum are also phosphorylated. A VSG gene from Trypanosoma evansi, a parasite that causes a form of ... The smallest VSG protein (40 kDa in size) to date (1996) has been found in Trypanosoma vivax, which bears little carbohydrate. ...
TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein. Science 308: 1626-1629. Lee, K.-Y., D'Acquisto, F., ... Fenwick, C., Na, S-Y., Voll, R.E., Zhong, H., Im, S-Y., Lee, J.W. and Ghosh, S. (2000) A sub-class of Ras proteins that ... Ghosh's research led to the first cloning and characterization of NF-kB and IkB proteins, including the demonstration of the ... Initiation factors in eukaryotic protein synthesis. Sue Golding Graduate Division of Medical Sciences, Albert Einstein College ...
... protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection or colonization that does not and will ... The micro-organisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and ...
Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Surfactant protein A (SP-A) Surfactant protein D (SP-D) CL-L1 CL-P1 CL-K1 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) PGLYRP1 ... Royet J, Gupta D, Dziarski R (December 2011). "Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: modulators of the microbiome and ... proteins Amyloid SAP SAA Positive Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin Alpha 1-antitrypsin Alpha 2-macroglobulin C-reactive protein ...
... linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. ... This protein domain contains 120 amino acids. There is a fold within this structure which is conserved amongst SRS proteins, ... linked proteins (SRSs), of which SAG1 is the prototypic member. SAG1 and the rest of the SRS protein family mediate cell ... The structure of this fold is analogous to the topology of the cupredoxin, azurin, a form of copper binding protein. He XL, ...
The pellicle structure in the protist is a thin layer of protein that helps provide the cell with some support and protection. ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Some protozoa are photoautotrophic protists. These protists include strict aerobes, and use photosystems I and II in order to ... Protozoa are chemoorganotrophic protists and have three different ways of acquiring nutrients. The first method of acquiring ...
Individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. ... Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each ... These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY ... VQ proteins appear to bind the WRKY domain, thus inhibiting protein-DNA interactions. At least one WRKY transcription factor, ...
The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium ... E protein plays a role in binding to receptor and could play a role in evading the host immune system. It has three major ... Many of the proteins known to show antigenic or phase variation are related to virulence. Antigenic variation in bacteria is ...
Sacerdoti-Sierra N, Jaffe CL (December 1997). "Release of ecto-protein kinases by the protozoan parasite Leishmania major". The ... The AD hallmark proteins tau in NFTs or GVBs and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in GVBs colocalize with CK1δ. In ... Meanwhile, CK1δ homologous proteins have been isolated from organisms like yeast, basidiomycetes, plants, algae, and protozoa. ... So far, C-terminal phosphorylation of CK1δ by upstream kinases has been confirmed for protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B ...
... protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection that does not and will not produce ...
The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... Historically the role of this antigen other than its importance as a receptor for Plasmodium protozoa has not been appreciated ... The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylated membrane protein and a non-specific receptor for several chemokines. The ... "Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development". PLOS ...
Merozoite surface proteins, or MSPs, are important in understanding malaria, a disease caused by protozoans of the genus ... Merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP-1 & MSP-2) are the most abundant (GPI)-anchored proteins on the surface of Plasmodium ... Merozoite /ˌmɛrəˈzoʊˌaɪt/ surface proteins are both integral and peripheral membrane proteins found on the surface of a ... Additional forms include integral membrane proteins and peripherally associated proteins, which are found to a lesser extent ...
In euglenids, it is formed from protein strips arranged spirally along the length of the body. Familiar examples of protists ... Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or ... Protozoa." (First class. Primordial animals. Protozoa.) [Note: each column of each page of this journal is numbered; there are ... The word "protozoa" (singular protozoon or protozoan) was coined in 1818 by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek ...
During his days at Public Health Research Institute, Sharma was successful in cloning the knob protein gene of Plasmodium ... another non-cultivable protozoan parasite, as well as the development of a genomic library of Plasmodium vivax. It was his ... "Genetic diversity in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1(42)) among Indian ... falciparum, one of the protozoan parasites causing malaria, in 1984. At AIIMS, he led a group of researchers who carried out ...
The cell membrane of the protozoan host contains an 18-domain β-barrel porin, which is a characteristic protein of Gram- ... The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... As each symbiont is each of a single bacterium and a protozoan, and each daughter cell contains the same number, the two cells ... The two organisms have depended on each other so much that the bacterium cannot reproduce and the protozoan can no longer ...
... protozoa and plants. Proteins containing the domain are induced by many environmental stressors such as nutrient starvation, ... 2008). "The crystal structure of an universal stress protein UspA family protein from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1". Protein ... Aravind suggested that these proteins were part of a much larger protein structural family which was present and diversified in ... implications for protein evolution in the RNA". Protein. 48 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1002/prot.10064. PMID 12012333. S2CID 32908067.. ...
... protozoan and parasite growth seems to depend on their interaction with proteins and/or on their membrane-disturbing properties ...
... protozoa, and higher eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the three groups of domain arrangements were acquired and ... Regardless of which protein comes first, this fusion protein may show similar function. Thus, if a fusion between two proteins ... Find insertion sites for other proteins. Inserting one protein as a domain into another protein can be useful. For instance, ... Jung J, Lee B (September 2001). "Circularly permuted proteins in the protein structure database". Protein Science. 10 (9): 1881 ...
... and protein. Although protozoa are not essential for rumen functioning, their presence has pronounced effects. Ruminal fungi ... Microbes in the reticulorumen include bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Bacteria, along with protozoa, are the ... and protein, respectively. Protozoa (40-60% of microbial mass) derive their nutrients through phagocytosis of other microbes, ... Protein is hydrolysed to peptides and amino acids by microbial enzymes, which are subsequently transported across the microbial ...
... protein indicates that transposable elements have been acquired from prokaryotes by horizontal gene transfer in this protozoan ... In particular, expression of the Rad51 protein (a recombinase) is increased about 15-fold by UV treatment. List of parasites ( ... The parasite has several enzymes such as pore forming proteins, lipases, and cysteine proteases, which are normally used to ... Caler, E & Lorenzi, H (2010). "Entamoeba histolytica: Genome Status and Web Resources". Anaerobic Parasitic Protozoa: Genomics ...
The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.[68][69] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and the importance of their detection and diagnosis". International Journal for ...
A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ... When the tick feeds, the Borrelia downregulates OspA and upregulates OspC, another surface protein. After the bacteria migrate ...
Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol Lett 6 (3): 342-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948 ... A Kingdom-level phylogeny of Eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290 (5493): 972-977. [1] ... They are part of the wastebasket taxon known as the Protozoa, which contained many obviously different protists. ...
Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous 'letter on the protozoa', gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria ... Hodgkin used advanced techniques to crystallize proteins, allowing their structures to be elucidated by X-ray crystallography, ...
In 1957, Deamer submitted his research on self-organizing protozoa to the Westinghouse Science Talent Search and was among the ... Deamer and Branton demonstrated that the freeze-etch method split the lipid bilayer of membranes to reveal integral proteins ...
In anaerobic protozoa, such as Plagiopyla frontata, archaea reside inside the protozoa and consume hydrogen produced in their ... Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ... The proteins that archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes share form a common core of cell function, relating mostly to transcription ...
In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ... The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar ... The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free ... and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes.[10] Prokaryotic cells, ...
... even death from this procedure because the human body sometimes recognizes antibodies from other animals as foreign proteins.[ ...
... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ...
2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ... Lange M; Westermann P; Ahring BK; Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring B.K. (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied ... Nguyen L, Paulsen IT, Tchieu J, Hueck CJ, Saier MH (2000). "Phylogenetic analyses of the constituents of Type III protein ... O'Connor EM, Shand RF (2002). "Halocins and sulfolobicins: the emerging story of archaeal protein and peptide antibiotics". J. ...
Protozoa infection like Acanthamoeba keratitis is characterized by severe pain and is associated with contact lens users ... There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and ... Among them are bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and chlamydia: *Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, ... Proper nutrition, including protein intake and Vitamin C are usually advised. In cases of Keratomalacia, where the corneal ...
This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no Extracellular protozoa. *Entamoeba histolytica ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ... The cascade is composed of many plasma proteins, synthesized in the liver, primarily by hepatocytes. The proteins work together ...
... s are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases of humans and other animals, as well as of protozoan and ... fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow ... and Trypanosome protozoans.[30]:74 The chigoe flea or jigger (Tunga penetrans) causes the disease tungiasis, a major public ... "Adult Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Excretion of Host Blood Proteins in Relation to Larval Nutrition" (PDF). Journal of ...
Cellulase, a suite of enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis (i.e. the ... proteins. Beta-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D- ...
In this process the first protein encoded on the genome, and this the first to be translated, is a replicase. This protein will ... These protozoa are not phytopathogenic themselves, but parasitic. Transmission of the virus takes place when they become ... In non-persistent and semi-persistent viruses, these domains are in the coat protein and another protein known as the helper ... Viruses use the plant ribosomes to produce the 4-10 proteins encoded by their genome. However, since many of the proteins are ...
Zatiaľ čo niektoré systémy sa stále držia taxónov prvoky (Protozoa), Protista či Chromista[53], iné systémy s týmito termínmi ... The complement of protein kinases of the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi in relation to those of Saccharomyces ... Cavalier-Smith ďalej rozdelil ríšu protista na dve menšie, a to protozoa a chromista.[47] Dnes sa však presadzujú úplne odlišné ... CAVALIER-SMITH, T.. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. International Journal of ...
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum.[6] ...
Procyclins are proteins developed in the surface coating of trypanosomes whilst in their tsetse fly vector.[22] ... Trypanosomes are animal parasites, specifically protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma. These organisms are about the size of red ...
... a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that the parasite uses to invade. ... Protozoan infection: SAR and Archaeplastida (A07, B50-B54,B58, 007, 084). SAR. ... knowlesi malaria may also present itself with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and thrombocytopenia. ...
In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... The leverage of ciliate protozoa". Dev. Biol. (NY). 7: 229-58. PMID 1804215. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6823-0_11.. ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 84, John Wiley & Sons, ... Felix Rey, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris has constructed the 3D structure of the EFF1 protein[39] and shown it does the ... About 800 million years ago,[37] a minor genetic change in a single molecule called guanylate kinase protein-interaction domain ... or even in protozoa.[21] For example, plant galls have been characterized as tumors[22] but some authors argue that plants do ...
The current types of vaccines which are in research are particle-based vaccines, attenuated vaccines, protein subunit vaccines ...
Certain protozoa, including: *Apicomplexans (Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum[8]) ... Self-degradation of host proteins into amino acids provides the parasite with its primary carbon and energy source.[13] ...
... green fluorescent protein with the protein of interest).. Techniques used for horizontal scanning[edit]. Four types of confocal ... GFP fusion protein being expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The fluorescence is visible by confocal microscopy. ...
Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. ... Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ...
Characterization of a protein that causes immediate but not delayed hypersensitivity". Journal of Immunology 147 136, 96-101 ( ... Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ...
"The Structure of the Membrane Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Resembles the Sugar Transporter SemiSWEET". Pathogens & Immunity. 5 (1): ...
Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (July 1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation ... essential adapter proteins in TLR signaling), they were still able to induce inflammatory responses, increase T cell activation ...
Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid, VP7, proteins (serotypes G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the ... candidate made of the P2-VP8 fusion protein, which is currently undergoing development and trials in South Africa. Rotavirus ... outer capsid protein VP7 (serotype G6) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. In February 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug ...
Raikov, IB (1994). "The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: A comparative review". European Journal of Protistology. 30 ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... Volume 15 of Protein Reviews. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 15. ISBN 9781461405146.. ... Prescott DM, Bender MA (March 1962). "Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells". ...
Giardia lamblia express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite ... Surface proteins with the VSP signature (protein family database PF03302) are also present in other parasitic protozoa such as ... Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins. *Marianela C. Serradell1. ... Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia, express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) ...
The SAG1 Toxoplasma gondii Surface Protein Is Not Required for Acute Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Mice Elizabeth Charles, Michelle C ... Immunoglobulin G Antibody Reactivity to a Group A Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 and Protection from P. ... Expression of Merozoite Surface Protein Markers by Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in Peripheral Blood and Tissues ... Priming with an Adenovirus 35-Circumsporozoite Protein (CS) Vaccine followed by RTS,S/AS01B Boosting Significantly Improves ...
gRNA-binding protein complexes facilitate the binding of gRNA to mRNA by stabilizing both molecules in a state that allows the ... Computer model showing a guide RNA-binding protein complex (green and blue), bound to guide RNA (gRNA, yellow and red)). gRNA ... a type of protozoa). gRNA binds to the region of mRNA to be edited, and the differences in genetic code between it and the mRNA ... protein, proteins, proteomics, protozoa, protozoan, ribonucleic acid, rna editing, rna-editing, space fill, space filled, space ...
... a putative bolA-like protein from the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... Solution structure of PFE0790c, a putative bolA-like protein from the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... suggesting that the BolA family of proteins may use a novel protein-nucleic acid interface. A well conserved arginine residue, ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A Biological assembly 1& ...
In some parasitic protozoa palmatoylated proteins have been predicted to play a role in the evasion of the host immune response ... Protein Coding Gene Nucleotide Substitution Pattern in the Apicomplexan Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ... Protein functions were assigned based on sequence similarity search against NCBI nonredundant protein database. ... A majority of these genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins. In addition, proteins with transmembrane and signal peptide ...
Protein Coding Gene Nucleotide Substitution Pattern in the Apicomplexan Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ... N. G. C. Smith and A. Eyre-Walker, "Adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila," Nature, vol. 415, no. 6875, pp. 1022-1024, 2002. ... N. Goldman and Z. Yang, "A codon-based model of nucleotide substitution for protein-coding DNA sequences," Molecular Biology ... A. Krogh, B. Larsson, G. von Heijne, and E. L. L. Sonnhammer, "Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov ...
Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila.. ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. ...
A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Jorge ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ...
Genes encoding the VP2 protein from a very virulent strain of IBDV (vvVP2) and glycoprotein I from ILTV (gI) were cloned ... The development of protocols to express foreign proteins in Eimeria species has opened up the possibility of using Eimeria live ... Eimeria species are parasitic protozoa that cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease commonly characterised by malabsorption, ... Viral proteins expressed in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella are detected by the chicken immune system. *Virginia Marugan ...
"Protozoan Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Protozoan Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Protozoan Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Protozoan Proteins" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Protozoan Proteins". ...
Landfear, S. (2019). Protean permeases: Diverse roles for membrane transport proteins in kinetoplastid protozoa. Molecular and ... Landfear, S 2019, Protean permeases: Diverse roles for membrane transport proteins in kinetoplastid protozoa, Molecular and ... Protean permeases: Diverse roles for membrane transport proteins in kinetoplastid protozoa. Molecular and Biochemical ... Protean permeases : Diverse roles for membrane transport proteins in kinetoplastid protozoa. In: Molecular and Biochemical ...
2008) In vitro analysis of the TAT protein transduction domain as a drug delivery vehicle in protozoan parasites. Experimental ... In vitro analysis of the TAT protein transduction domain as a drug delivery vehicle in protozoan parasites ... fused with Green Fluorescent Protein (TAT-GFP) as a delivery vehicle into a range of protozoan parasites. Successful ... The ability to transduce peptides and other cargo into protozoan parasites, will greatly assist in the delivery of future ...
... via multiple adhesive interactions of several protozoan ligands with the target receptors on the host cell surface. Aft … ... while proteins secreted from apical organelles (rhoptry, microneme, and spherical body) are proposed to play roles mainly in ... 1 National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-cho, ... In this review, these identified or suspected molecules (protozoan ligands/erythrocyte receptors) are described by especially ...
title = "Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans",. abstract = "This chapter discusses the DNA-protein ... Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology. 1988 Jan 1;2(C):291-307. ... Gottschling, Daniel E. ; Zakian, Virginia A. / Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. In: Advances in ... Dna-Protein Interactions at Telomeres in Ciliated Protozoans. / Gottschling, Daniel E.; Zakian, Virginia A. ...
Effects of unsaturation of long-chain fatty acids on rumen protozoal engulfment and microbial protein recycling in protozoa in ... Rumen protozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the ingestion of chloroplasts *Sharon A. Huws ... WRIGHT, D. Hydrogenation of Lipids by Rumen Protozoa. Nature 184, 875-876 (1959) doi:10.1038/184875a0 ...
The degradation rate of maltose was only 0.05 μmol/L glucose per mg protein per min. Two peaks in α-amylase and a single peak ... 2007). The ciliate D. affine ingested and fermented starch, releasing about 45 pmol VFA per protozoan per h. The control ... Enzymes were identified by a zymography technique following separation of protein on polyacrylamide gel (Gabriel and Wang 1969 ... The ability of the rumen ciliate protozoan Diploplastron affine to digest and ferment starch ...
Protozoan Proteins/genetics. *Transcriptome*. Substance. *Protozoan Proteins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. * ... Changes in protein expression during formation and activation of P. falciparum gametocytes. (A) Immunofluorescence assays, ... For 40% of the identified genes there has as yet not been any protein evidence.For a subset of 27 genes, transcript changes ... B) Diagram showing the average signal intensity of the immunolabeled proteins in gametocytes before and at 30 min p.a. in vitro ...
Protozoan Proteins/genetics. *Protozoan Proteins/metabolism. *Trypanosoma brucei brucei/cytology. *Trypanosoma brucei brucei/ ...
Protein-Bound - Protozoan. In: Venes D. Venes D Ed. Donald Venes.eds. Tabers® Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 23e New York, NY ... "Protein-Bound - Protozoan." Tabers® Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 23e Venes D. Venes D Ed. Donald Venes. New York, NY: McGraw ... protein chip. ++. A tool for evaluating very large numbers of proteins, e.g., the entire proteome of an organism, using DNA ... protein folding. ++. The shaping of a protein into its unique three-dimensional conformation from the linked amino acids of ...
Background The poultry industry provides the principal source of animal protein in many developed and developing countries [1 ... Viral proteins expressed in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella are detected by the chicken immune system. ... recombinant proteins were checked by SDS-PAGE (Invitrogen) and protein concentration estimated by Bradford assay (Invitrogen) ... Eimeria tenella microneme protein 1; EYFP, Enhanced yellow fluorescent protein; FACS, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting; FBS ...
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics * Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism * Protozoan Proteins / genetics * Protozoan ... by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. Here, we review recent advances that illustrate how these ...
Protozoa.Parasitol United J 2015;8:14-37 How to cite this URL:. Abaza SM. Heat shock proteins and parasitic diseases: Part II. ... Heat shock proteins and parasitic diseases: Part II. Protozoa. Sherif M Abaza Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, ... Heat shock protein; ITS: Internal transcribed spacer; KMP-11: Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 gene; MAb: Monoclonal antibody ... Applications 6. Other protozoa 6.1. Babesia spp. 6.2. Microsporidium spp. 6.3. Giardia lamblia 6.4. Eimeria spp. 6.5. ...
Toxoplasma gondii expresses two mitogen-activated protein kinase genes that represent distinct protozoan subfamilies. Journal ... Toxoplasma gondii expresses two mitogen-activated protein kinase genes that represent distinct protozoan subfamilies. In: ... Toxoplasma gondii expresses two mitogen-activated protein kinase genes that represent distinct protozoan subfamilies. / Lacey, ... title = "Toxoplasma gondii expresses two mitogen-activated protein kinase genes that represent distinct protozoan subfamilies", ...
Viral proteins expressed in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella are detected by the chicken immune system ... Viral proteins expressed in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella are detected by the chicken immune system. Parasites & ...
Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan ... Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan ... Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan ... Photoactivated inhibition of superoxide generation and protein kinase C activity in neutrophils by blepharismin, a protozoan ...
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved and ... The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved and ... The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved and ... T1 - The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved ...
I Move Forward, I Protozoan, Pure Protein. Genthiner Straße 36, 10785 Berlin 030 4980 8487 ... I Protozoan, Pure Protein, you can see them up close. Printed on paper or sheer fabric in a blend of analogue and digital ...
Protein palmitoylation in protozoan parasites. Maria Martha Corvi, Luc Gerard Berthiaume, Maximiliano Gabriel De Napoli. [ ... MTSS1: a multifunctional protein and its role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Fei Xie, Lin Ye, Martin TA, Lijian Zhang, Wen ... Protein kinase B/Akt regulation in diabetic kidney disease. Mediha Heljic, Derek P. Brazil. [Frontiers In Bioscience, Scholar, ... Low protein diets are mainstay for management of chronic kidney disease. Natale Gaspare De Santo, Alessandra Perna, Massimo ...
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Leishmaniasis Vaccines); 0 (Protozoan Proteins); EC ( ... 0 (Membrane Proteins); 0 (PGRMC1 protein, mouse); 0 (PGRMC2 protein, mouse); 0 (Receptors, Progesterone). ... 0 (Actin Depolymerizing Factors); 0 (Microfilament Proteins); 0 (Wdr1 protein, mouse); EC (Lim Kinases); EC ( ... Trp-Asp (WD) repeat domain 1 (WDR1) is a highly conserved actin-binding protein across all eukaryotes and is involved in ...
  • To explore the evolution of these parasites, and identify genes under positive selection, we performed a pairwise whole-genome comparison between all orthologous protein coding genes in C. parvum and C. hominis . (
  • During an asexual growth cycle of Babesia parasites in a natural host, the extracellular merozoites invade (i.e., attach to, penetrate, and internalize) the host erythrocytes (RBC) via multiple adhesive interactions of several protozoan ligands with the target receptors on the host cell surface. (
  • On the other hand, several components located on the surface of the RBC, such as sialic acid residues, protease-sensitive proteins, or sulphated glycosaminoglycans, are identified or suspected as the host receptors of erythrocyte invasion by Babesia parasites. (
  • The present study was undertaken to analyse the capability of HIV-1 derived TAT protein transduction domain (PTD) fused with Green Fluorescent Protein (TAT-GFP) as a delivery vehicle into a range of protozoan parasites. (
  • The ability to transduce peptides and other cargo into protozoan parasites, will greatly assist in the delivery of future peptide-based drugs and target validation peptides. (
  • In this sense, recent work has shown S-acylation as a key modification that regulates pathogenesis in different protozoan parasites. (
  • Importantly, treatment of parasites with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate causes a significant decrease in parasite: parasite aggregation as well as adherence to host cells suggesting that palmitoylation could be modifying proteins that are key regulators of Trichomonas vaginalis pathogenesis. (
  • In this sense, recent works have unraveled the role of protein S-palmitoylation as a significant post-translational modification (PTM) 1 that regulates invasion and motility in different protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum , Trypanosoma cruzi , Giardia lamblia , and Toxoplasma gondii ( 11 , 12 ) as well as adherence to host cell in the fungus C. neoformans ( 13 ). (
  • The compound collection was systematically screened against protozoan parasites, T. b. rhodesiense , L. donovani , T. cruzi and P. falciparum . (
  • Infections caused by protozoan parasites are among the most widespread and intractable transmissible diseases affecting the developing world, with malaria and leishmaniasis being the most costly in terms of morbidity and mortality. (
  • Finally, we outline the next steps required in terms of both tools to understand N -myristoylation in protozoan parasites, and the generation of potential development candidates based on the output of our recently-reported high-throughput screens. (
  • are protozoan parasites, spread by the tsetse fly, which cause the Neglected Tropical Diseases, sleeping sickness (humans) and Nagana (livestock) in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • The parasites are dependent on a robust protein folding machinery for their survival in stressful environments. (
  • Zininga T, Shonhai A. (2019) Small molecule inhibitors targeting the heat shock protein system of human obligate protozoan parasites. (
  • One feature common to all protozoan parasites that is fundamentally different from mammals is that these pathogens lack the capability of synthesizing purines de novo and therefore are solely dependent on their host for purine uptake ( 4 ). (
  • The selectivities and the efficacies of purine derivatives can thus be partially achieved by the cell surface transporters that mediate access to the cell, as substrate recognition by nucleobase and nucleoside transporters is strikingly different in humans and protozoa and purine salvage by the parasites is far more efficient at low substrate concentrations ( 10 ). (
  • Many animal diseases are caused by external factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, proteins, prions, and infections while other diseases are caused by dysfunctions within the animal's body, such as autoimmune diseases. (
  • The rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal, most prokaryotic cells and some protozoan parasites, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis. (
  • in protozoan parasites such as Giardia species, it's made of carbohydrates and proteins. (
  • In medical diagnosis applications, CANARY can detect pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and proteins from samples in a variety of formats. (
  • gRNA is a form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that controls the process of RNA editing, within the mitochondria of kinetoplastid organisms (a type of protozoa). (
  • Landfear, S 2019, ' Protean permeases: Diverse roles for membrane transport proteins in kinetoplastid protozoa ', Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology , vol. 227, pp. 39-46. (
  • 2003. Transcription in kinetoplastid protozoa: why be normal. (
  • 1995 ). Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa. (
  • Here we provide evidence for a critical role of PP2As (protein phosphatase 2As) in the transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which displayed a high degree of homology (86%) with the catalytic subunit of Trypanosoma brucei PP2A. (
  • These two proteins are from the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. (
  • 1996 ). A novel epitope tag system to study protein targeting and organelle biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei . (
  • 1994 ). The major components of the paraflagellar rod of Trypanosoma brucei are two similar but distinct proteins which are encoded by two different gene loci. (
  • 1990 ). Homologous recombination and stable transfection in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei . (
  • Study of Trypanosoma MAATS1's orthologue (TbCFAP91) highlighted high sequence and structural analogies with the human protein and confirmed the axonemal localisation of the protein. (
  • All known proteins that accumulate in the vacuolar space surrounding the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are derived from parasite dense granules. (
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a single-cell obligate intracellular protozoan parasite acquired by the eating of contaminated foods. (
  • In this study, we establish that, in addition to TLR11, TLR12 recognizes the profilin protein of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and regulates IL-12 production by DCs in response to the parasite. (
  • We have previously established that TLR11 is involved in the recognition of an unconventional profilin protein present in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii ( 7 ). (
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely widespread intracellular protozoan parasite that establishes long-lasting infection in humans and animals. (
  • Ocular toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , is the leading cause of retinochoroiditis. (
  • We are interested in asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii , because their N-glycan structures have been controversial and because we hypothesize that there might be selection against N-glycans in nucleus-encoded proteins that must pass through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) prior to threading into the apicoplast. (
  • Second, secreted proteins of Toxoplasma , which uses its own 10-sugar precursor (Glc 3 Man 5 GlcNAc 2 ) and the host 14-sugar precursor (Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 ) to make N-glycans, have very few sites for N glycosylation, and there is additional selection against N-glycan sites in its apicoplast-targeted proteins. (
  • To identify proteins expressed by H. vermiformis upon contact with L. pneumophila, we radiolabeled amoebal proteins after contact with bacteria in bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. (
  • Incubation of the bacteria-free ciliates with starch in the presence of antibiotics resulted in a release of volatile fatty acids with the net rate of 25 pmol per protozoan per h. (
  • Bacteria that carry a virus (a bacteriophage) that packs the Shiga toxin gene (Stx) may depend on it for protection from bacterial predators like the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena. (
  • This project mainly aimed to establish the methods to separate and collect, and to quantitatively determine the three stereoisomers of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) , to clarifiy the distribution of DAP-stereoisomers (DAPSI) in rumen bacterial cell walls, and to examine the lysine production from each DAPSI by rumen protozoa and bacteria. (
  • In 1994, metabolism of DAPSI by rumen protozoa and bacteria was examined and in these experiment, it was realized at first that we should use sterilized vessels and buffers. (
  • Hybrid cluster proteins (HCP, or Prismane) have been identified in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic protozoa. (
  • A disease antibody which is also known as an immunoglobulin is typically a large protein and is produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign objects that might do harm on the body, for example, a bacteria or a virus. (
  • 2KDN: Solution structure of PFE0790c, a putative bolA-like protein from the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium are responsible for malaria, which is perhaps the most important parasitic disease to infect mankind. (
  • Among the potential targets for new antimalarial drugs is the BolA-like protein PFE0790c from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf-BolA). (
  • Our findings support the identification of proteins important for sexual reproduction and further development of the mosquito midgut stages and provide insights into the genetic basis of the rapid adaption of Plasmodium to the insect vector. (
  • Use of a chimeric Hsp70 to enhance the quality of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase protein produced in Escherichia coli. (
  • S-palmitoylation refers to the covalent attachment of a 16-carbon chain palmitic acid to cysteine residues of a protein through a thioester bond. (
  • 5. The polypeptide analog according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 comprising, except for the cysteine replacement at either position 132 or 135, from 176 to 199 of the amino terminal residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (
  • 6. The polypeptide analog according to claim 5 comprising the initial 193 amino terminal amino acid residues of bactericidal/permeability- increasing protein. (
  • 8. The DNA of claim 7 encoding the thirty-one amino acid leader sequence and the first 193 N-terminal residues of bacterial/permeability- increasing protein and having a stop codon immediately following the codon for the leucine residue at position 193. (
  • These protozoan proteins are 460-500 residues long and exhibit 10 putative TMSs. (
  • The low speed or high speed cytoskeleton pellets were resuspended on ice in 20% lysate volume and Western blotted using anti-capping protein-α antibodies followed by densitometry. (
  • One of the tyrosine dephosphorylated proteins was identified as the 170-kD galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-inhibitable lectin (Gal/GalNAc) using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting by antibodies generated against the Gal/GalNAc lectin of the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. (
  • Researchers identify antibodies for two commonly used Cas9 proteins in human blood. (
  • The site has now added the new category Animal Disease, which contains scientific information on any kind of disorder in the structure or function of living animals, and the new category Disease Antibodies which contains information on blood proteins produced by the body in response to a specific disease antigen. (
  • The new Disease Antibodies category contains scientific information on blood proteins produced by the body in response to a specific disease antigen. (
  • She has also used protein fusions with fluorescent reporters for protein localization in a single step that could significantly simplifying the conventional time-consuming procedures for protein characterization and avoiding the use of animals for the production of antibodies. (
  • A majority of these genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins. (
  • Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of nucleotide substitution patterns in C. parvum / C. hominis orthologous protein coding genes. (
  • Genes encoding the VP2 protein from a very virulent strain of IBDV ( vvVP2 ) and glycoprotein I from ILTV ( gI ) were cloned downstream of 5' Et-Actin or 5' Et-TIF promoter regions in plasmids that also contained a mCitrine fluorescent reporter cassette under control of the 5' Et-MIC1 promoter. (
  • Among these, 17.5% had putative functions in signaling, 14.3% were assigned to cell cycle and gene expression, 8.7% were linked to the cytoskeleton or inner membrane complex, 7.9% were involved in proteostasis and 6.4% in metabolism, 12.7% were cell surface-associated proteins, 11.9% were assigned to other functions, and 20.6% represented genes of unknown function. (
  • For 40% of the identified genes there has as yet not been any protein evidence.For a subset of 27 genes, transcript changes during gametogenesis were studied in detail by real-time RT-PCR. (
  • For selected genes, a regulated expression during gametogenesis was confirmed on the protein level, using quantitative confocal microscopy. (
  • Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that an ERK8-like family, which includes the pzMAPK2 subfamily, is represented across a large variety of eukaryotic kingdoms and is evolutionarily very distant from other MAPK families. (
  • From the nucleus to the plasma membrane trypanosomes have provided fascinating insights including unusual genome organisation, pol I transcription of coding genes, expression sites and novel nuclear substructures, RNA editing, mitochondrial repression/activation, compartmentalization of glycolysis, GPI anchors, unusual organisation of surface proteins and the endocytic pathway, polarized cytoskeletons, golgi duplication and many other phenomena. (
  • 1997 ). Transcription of protein-coding genes in trypanosomes by RNA polymerase I. (
  • Gladyshev and his colleagues analyzed the __E. crassus__ genome sequence and found eight genes for proteins that incorporate selenocysteine, four of which contained multiple UGA codons. (
  • By expressing these genes in human embryonic kidney cells and using mass spectrometry on the __E. crassus__ proteins, Gladyshev's team showed that UGA differentially coded for either cysteine or selenocysteine. (
  • Acts via the formation of a heterodimer with JUN family proteins that recognizes and binds DNA sequence 5'-TGA[CG]TCA-3' and regulates expression of target genes (By similarity). (
  • gRNA-binding protein complexes facilitate the binding of gRNA to mRNA by stabilizing both molecules in a state that allows the process to occur. (
  • In the invasion stage, several surface-coating molecules of merozoites might be involved in the initial attachment to the RBC, while proteins secreted from apical organelles (rhoptry, microneme, and spherical body) are proposed to play roles mainly in erythrocyte penetration or internalization. (
  • In this review, these identified or suspected molecules (protozoan ligands/erythrocyte receptors) are described by especially focusing on Babesia bovis. (
  • The terminal ∼135 bp of Oxytricha macronuclear DNA molecules are packaged in a non-nucleosomal protein complex. (
  • Structure of the hybrid cluster protein (HCP) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 containing molecules in the oxidized and reduced states. (
  • Thus, these telomere-limited binding proteins could theoretically help cells distinguish intact from broken DNA molecules. (
  • C. parvum and C. hominis protein coding gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences were downloaded from CryptoDB [ 12 ] ( ) release 3.2. (
  • A subsequent study involving a forward genetic approach, in which type II and III strains were intercrossed, identified a highly polymorphic rhoptry protein, ROP16, as a candidate gene product responsible for Stat3 activation. (
  • 1999 ). Gene silencing in Neurospora crassa requires a protein homologous to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (
  • Results We identified six unrelated affected patients carrying a homozygous deleterious variants in MAATS1, a gene encoding CFAP91, a calmodulin-associated and spoke-associated complex (CSC) protein. (
  • BATF2 (Basic Leucine Zipper ATF-Like Transcription Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Two transcription activators, Myb2 and Myb3, and a Myb1 repressor were demonstrated to coregulate inducible transcription of the ap65-1 gene ( 15 , 34 , 35 , 44 ), which encodes a 65-kDa malic enzyme that may also serve as an adhesion protein under iron-replete conditions ( 21 , 31 ). (
  • Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia , express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host's intestine. (
  • The Legionnaire's disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular pathogen which invades and replicates within two evolutionarily distant hosts, free-living protozoa and mammalian cells. (
  • This pigment inhibited the generation of Superoxide anion (O 2 - ) in neutrophils not only via a diacylglycerol-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent reaction but also by an arachidonate-induced PKC-independent reaction. (
  • Trypanosome cell division, especially its final stage (cytokinesis) is very divergent from mammalian cell division (1-3) , suggesting that a better understanding of the protein kinase (PK) signalling pathways regulating it would reveal novel drug targets. (
  • Tyrosine dephosphorylation of host proteins was blocked by a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor but not by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (
  • The in silico study suggested that among all the molecular targets identified by our target fishing approach, Protein Kinase 3 (PK5) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK-3β) are the most likely molecular targets for the synthesised compounds. (
  • This "chromosomal cap" assay has revealed that the telomeric end-binding proteins, Cdc13p and Ku, both protect the chromosome end from homologous recombination, as does the ATM-related kinase, Tel1p. (
  • abstract = "This chapter discusses the DNA-protein complexes found at telomeres in the macronuclei of ciliated protozoans, with special attention given to studies in Oxytricha (a hypotrichous ciliate) and Tetrahymena (a holotrichous ciliate). (
  • abstract = "All eukaryotes express mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that govern diverse cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (
  • abstract = "Blepharismin is an endogenous photosensitizing pigment found in the protozoan Blepharisma. (
  • N. Goldman and Z. Yang, "A codon-based model of nucleotide substitution for protein-coding DNA sequences," Molecular Biology and Evolution , vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 725-736, 1994. (
  • Over the past two decades, infection studies in the mouse, combined with forward-genetics approaches aimed at unravelling the molecular basis of infection, have revealed that T. gondii virulence is mediated, in part, by secretion of effector proteins into the host cell during invasion. (
  • Molecular biologists are constantly challenged by the need to improve and optimise the existing expression systems, and also develop novel approaches to face the demands of producing the complex proteins of tomorrow. (
  • Mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins, molecular model. (
  • To define the molecular events involved in invasion of protozoa by L. pneumophila, we examined the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of the protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis upon attachment and invasion by L. pneumophila. (
  • The Zininga Group focuses on investigating the role of molecular chaperones in protein folding in cells under stress. (
  • Invasion and intracellular replication within protozoa are thought to be major factors in the transmission of Legionnaire's disease. (
  • WRIGHT, D. Hydrogenation of Lipids by Rumen Protozoa. (
  • These results suggested that rumen protozoa might have epimerases. (
  • Are they effective against spores, protozoan cysts and certain non-enveloped viruses? (
  • The shaping of a protein into its unique three-dimensional conformation from the linked amino acids of which it is composed. (
  • If __Euplotes__ can use a codon for targeted and specific insertion of two amino acids into different positions in a protein, why not other organisms, too? (
  • This subfamily is heterogeneous with respect to the presence or absence of a region of about 100 amino acids not far from the N terminus of the protein. (
  • Subsequently, I moved to Brussels in 1992, as an EMBO fellow, to join the group of Etienne Pays to study the expression and function of surface proteins in trypanosomes. (
  • According to integral surface proteins that are part of each lymphocytes cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • The protein was also submitted to MS and, from the peptides obtained, degenerate primers were used to clone a novel T. cruzi PP2A enzyme by PCR. (
  • Inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis, such as cycloheximide and emetine, had no effect on the uptake of L. pneumophila by macrophages but completely abolished ingestion by the amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis. (
  • We discuss the limitations of current knowledge regarding the downstream targets of this enzyme in protozoa, and our recent progress towards potent cell-active NMT inhibitors against the most clinically-relevant species of parasite. (
  • The authors showed that plasmepsin V activity is critical for protein export in these stages and that specific inhibitors block parasite transmission to mosquitoes. (
  • Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. (
  • Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. (
  • The subcellular discrimination of bacterial effectors by MΦs is particularly well understood for Escherichia coli , where engagement of TLR4/MD2 by LPS at the plasma membrane induces recruitment of the adapter proteins TIR domain-containing adaptor protein and MyD88, which results in TNF and IL-6 formation. (
  • Furthermore, the parasite possesses two organelles of bacterial origin, the apicoplast and mitochondrion, both of which carry their own genomes and may harbour distinct drug targets in the form of prokaryotic-type replication proteins (apicoplast replication was recently well-reviewed [ 7 ], so this article focusses only on nuclear replication). (
  • Although attachment and invasion of human macrophages by L. pneumophila is mediated in part by the complement receptors CR1 and CR3, the protozoan receptor involved in bacterial attachment and invasion has not been identified. (
  • Bacterial attachment and invasion were associated with a time-dependent tyrosine dephosphorylation of multiple host cell proteins. (
  • Interestingly, inhibition of invasion by Gal and GalNAc was associated with inhibition of bacterial-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of H. vermiformis proteins. (
  • Although uncapping of barbed ends by capping protein has been proposed as a mechanism for the generation of free barbed ends after stimulation, in vitro and in situ analysis of the association of capping protein with the actin cytoskeleton after stimulation reveals that capping protein enters, but does not exit, the cytoskeleton during the initiation of actin polymerization. (
  • In vitro , the ciliate proteins protect telomeres from exonucleolytic degradation ( 16 , 18 ) and mediate telomere-telomere interactions ( 19 ). (
  • Targeting of secreted proteins to T. gondii dense granules and the plasma membrane uses general mechanisms identified in higher eukaryotic cells but is simplified and exaggerated in scope, while targeting of secreted proteins beyond the boundaries of the parasite involves unusual sorting events. (
  • The ends of most eukaryotic linear chromosomes terminate in telomeric DNA, repeats of 5-25 bp that vary in sequence among species and end in a 3′ single-stranded overhang ( W ellinger and S en 1997 ). (
  • It is not known, however, whether TLR11 directly senses its ligand or whether other accessory proteins are involved in the recognition of T. gondii profilin. (
  • TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein. (
  • Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are related protozoan pathogens which infect the intestinal epithelium of humans and other vertebrates. (
  • The development of protocols to express foreign proteins in Eimeria species has opened up the possibility of using Eimeria live vaccines to deliver heterologous antigens and function as multivalent vaccine vectors that could protect chickens against a range of pathogens. (
  • 1 National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan. (
  • and the diagnosis of diseases, such as immunological disorders, in which small concentrations of abnormal proteins or antigens occur in body fluids. (
  • Heat shock proteins and parasitic diseases: Part II. (
  • iNTRODB is an integrated system for searching drug-target proteins from parasitic protozoa genomes that cause neglected tropical diseases, including leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and human African trypanosomiasis. (
  • These parasitic protozoans cause sleeping sickness in humans and related diseases in domestic animals. (
  • We hope to understand the parasite protein folding system and we intend to apply the knowledge to other diseases. (
  • She was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2012 and her current research interests include the signalling pathways that regulate cytokinesis in T. brucei as well as the roles of trypanosome cytoskeleton proteins in cell division. (
  • We are investigating the signalling pathways that regulate cell division, with a view to identifying the component enzymes and investigating their roles in cell division, and have previously validated a number of cell division protein kinases as drug targets (4-6). (
  • These proteins contain one 4Fe-4S cluster, and one hybrid 4Fe-2O-2S cluster, the latter being similar to the Ni-Fe-S cluster found in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzymes ( IPR010047 ) [ PMID: 12764602 , PMID: 14646063 ]. (
  • The genetics of a marine protozoan may overturn one of the long-held tenets of protein synthesis. (
  • Therefore, host cell protein synthesis is required for the bacterium to infect the amoeba but not human macrophages. (
  • Inhibits protein synthesis. (
  • Inhibits protein synthesis (50S rib subu). (
  • Blocks protein synthesis. (
  • The quiescent-cell expression system for protein synthesis in Escherichia coli . (
  • Still, the observation that the SECIS element was differentially affecting the ribosome at various UGA triplets has major mechanistic implications about the fine-tuned control of ribosome-based protein synthesis, he said. (
  • The flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. (
  • Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan pathogen that causes the most widespread sexually transmitted disease of nonviral origin, especially affecting reproductive age females ( 9 , 43 ). (
  • Cystatins comprise a superfamily of evolutionarily related proteins, present in all living organisms, from protozoa to mammals. (
  • Genetic ( 20 ) and biochemical ( 21 ) data suggest that other organisms, including yeast, also have telomere-limited binding proteins. (
  • Our investigations, extending over three decades, indicate that there is an evolutionary trend in the vertebrates from variability of sperm nuclear basic proteins in bony fish and frogs with external fertilization, to relative constancy amongst reptiles, birds and mammals where fertilization is internal. (
  • VSPs are integral membrane proteins consisting of an extracellular variable region rich in cysteine (mainly as CXXC motifs), a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail 10 . (
  • Nutrients and ions critical for parasite survival are taken up across the parasite plasma membrane by transporters and channels, polytopic membrane proteins that provide substrate-specific pores across the hydrophobic barrier. (
  • This article highlights the diversity of activities that these integral membrane proteins serve and underscores the emerging complexity of their functions. (
  • The major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109, binds to choline phospholipids of the sperm plasma membrane and induces an efflux of cholesterol and choline phospholipids (cholesterol efflux), which is crucial for sperm capacitation. (
  • Interestingly, spermine/spermidine alone did not perturb membrane structure but exhibited chaperone-like activity by protecting target proteins against thermal and oxidative stress. (
  • Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor Attachment protein Receptors (SNAREs) participate in the specificity of membrane fusions in the cell. (
  • the iceberg itself being the ubiquitous super family of membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that facilitate trans-membrane transport of water and an increasing number of small, water-soluble and uncharged compounds. (
  • They also detected an abnormal blood-brain barrier response to osmotic stress in vivo and proposed that CLN3 facilitates golgi-to-plasma membrane transport of microdomain-associated proteins. (
  • The early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia is perhaps the only protozoan capable of colonizing the lumen of the upper small intestine of many vertebrates, including humans 6 . (
  • The telomeric DNA sequences are synthesized by telomerase ( G reider and B lackburn 1987 ), a protein-RNA complex, and the DNA repeats are bound by telomere-specific binding proteins that, with other proteins, form a telomeric complex (reviewed in B lackburn and G reider 1995 ). (
  • More recently, we performed an RNA interference screen of the trypanosome kinome, and linked a number of protein kinases to cell cycle roles in bloodstream form T. brucei for the first time (7). (
  • She has standardised RNA interference and inhibition assays for the investigation of functional roles of parasite and host proteins identified in the previous approaches for identification of new therapeutic targets (funded by the BBSRC BB/L00299X). (
  • In collaboration with research groups in Victoria, B.C., and Barcelona, Spain, we are also comparing sperm nuclear basic proteins in animals with those in plants, algae and protozoans in order to determine the origins of these sperm nuclear basic proteins and their roles in the dynamic remodeling of chromatin during spermiogenesis. (
  • The qualitative and quantitative demand for recombinant proteins is steadily increasing. (
  • The aim of this review is to present the conventional and alternative expression systems, focusing on prokaryotic expression systems and briefly exploring other complementary recombinant protein production systems and their unique features. (
  • Recombinant protein production driven by the tryptophan promoter is tightly controlled in ICONE 200, a new genetically engineered E. coli mutant. (
  • An enzyme that activates or inactivates cell proteins or enzymes by adding a phosphate moiety, thereby changing cell functions. (
  • Set in the context of drugs currently in use and under development, we present the evidence for N -myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme that N -terminally lipidates a wide range of specific target proteins through post-translational modification, as a potential drug target in malaria and the leishmaniases. (
  • Sorting of the v-SNARE VAMP7 in Dictyostelium discoideum: a role for more than one Adaptor Protein (AP) complex. (
  • We investigated the possible role of Adaptor Protein (AP) complexes in sorting of the Dictyostelium discoideum v-SNARE VAMP7. (
  • Eimeria species are parasitic protozoa that cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease commonly characterised by malabsorption, diarrhoea and haemorrhage that is particularly important in chickens. (
  • The hENT1 and rENT1 proteins appear to exhibit broad specificity for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and cytotoxic nucleoside analogues used in cancer and viral chemotherapy. (
  • Alkaline phosphatase fused to the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from the endogenous dense granule protein GRA4 localized to dense granules. (
  • Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal-3 (CLN3), a transmembrane protein of unresolved function. (
  • The PFR is composed of 2 major proteins, PFRA and PFRC. (
  • The cell extract for enzymatic studies was obtained by homogenization of purified protozoa and removal of the particulate matter by centrifugation. (
  • The part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles but which does contain other particulate matter, such as protein complexes. (
  • vvVP2, Very virulent viral protein 2 (capsid protein). (
  • Recently we have developed servers for:- Plant viral suppressors (server: VSupPred), Cyclins (server: CyclinPred), Lipocalins (LipocalinPred), CDK inhibitor proteins (CDKIPred), virulent proteins (VirulentPred) and Fungal Adhesions (FaaPred). (
  • Consequently, for oral immunization to be effective, protein antigens must be protected from the harsh environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). (
  • Proteins found in any species of protozoan. (
  • Even though these proteins are highly conserved throughout nature, MAPKs from closely related species often possess distinct signature sequences, making them well suited as drug discovery targets. (
  • We conclude that attachment of L. pneumophila to the H. vermiformis 170-kD lectin is required for invasion and is associated with tyrosine dephosphorylation of the Gal lectin and other host proteins. (
  • PDC-109 also exhibits chaperone-like activity and protects target proteins against various kinds of stress. (
  • Protozoan Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • An isogenic, avirulent variant of L. pneumophila, incapable of infecting either macrophages or amoebae, induced a different pattern of protein expression upon contact with H. vermiformis. (
  • This is the first demonstration of a potential receptor used by L. pneumophila to invade protozoa. (