Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
An order of parasitic EUKARYOTES typically having four to six flagella. True cysts are known in very few species. Trichomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.
Artiodactyla is an order of mammals characterized by an even number of digits (two or four) on each foot, hooves as terminal appendages, and a specialized stomach for fermentative digestion, which includes taxonomic families such as Suidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, and Camelidae among others.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A species of flagellate parasitic EUKARYOTE. It possesses a long undulating membrane that is bordered on its outer margin by a flagellum that becomes free posteriorly. This organism causes infections in cows that could lead to temporary infertility or abortion.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Gastrointestinal infection with organisms of the genus DIENTAMOEBA.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A group (or phylum) of flagellated, anaerobic EUKARYOTES that are endosymbionts of animals. They lack mitochondria but contain small energy-producing hydrogenosomes. The group is comprised of two major classes: HYPERMASTIGIA and TRICHOMONADIDA.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Leishmania donovani express a protein product. (1/7816)

We describe an unprecedented finding of an open reading frame present in the variable region in one of the minicircle sequence classes of a human pathogenic strain of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/90/RMRI 68) which is transcribed and translated. The encoded protein showed homologies to known transport proteins.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (2/7816)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (3/7816)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis. (4/7816)

RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts.  (+info)

Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins. (5/7816)

5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO.  (+info)

Expression of a Hox gene, Cnox-2, and the division of labor in a colonial hydroid. (6/7816)

We report the isolation and expression of the Hox gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a hydrozoan displaying division of labor. We found different patterns of aboral-to-oral Cnox-2 expression among polyp polymorphs, and we show that experimental conversion of one polyp type to another is accompanied by concordant alteration in Cnox-2 expression. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that polyp polymorphism, characteristic of hydractiniid hydroids, arose via evolutionary modification of proportioning of head to body column.  (+info)

Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum expresses a high affinity facilitative hexose transporter. (7/7816)

Asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum cause severe malaria and are dependent upon host glucose for energy. We have identified a glucose transporter of P. falciparum (PfHT1) and studied its function and expression during parasite development in vitro. PfHT1 is a saturable, sodium-independent, and stereospecific transporter, which is inhibited by cytochalasin B, and has a relatively high affinity for glucose (Km = 0.48 mM) when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Competition experiments with glucose analogues show that hydroxyl groups at positions C-3 and C-4 are important for ligand binding. mRNA levels for PfHT1, assessed by the quantitative technique of tandem competitive polymerase chain reaction, are highest during the small ring stages of infection and lowest in gametocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localizes PfHT1 to the region of the parasite plasma membrane and not to host structures. These findings have implications for development of new drug targets in malaria as well as for understanding of the pathophysiology of severe infection. When hypoglycemia complicates malaria, modeling studies suggest that the high affinity of PfHT1 is likely to increase the relative proportion of glucose taken up by parasites and thereby worsen the clinical condition.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (8/7816)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Ciliophora is a phylum in the taxonomic classification system that consists of unicellular organisms commonly known as ciliates. These are characterized by the presence of hair-like structures called cilia, which are attached to the cell surface and beat in a coordinated manner to facilitate movement and feeding. Ciliophora includes a diverse group of organisms, many of which are found in aquatic environments. Examples of ciliates include Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Vorticella.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid, which is a type of nucleic acid involved in various biological roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. On the other hand, protozoan refers to a unicellular organism from the kingdom Protista, which includes a wide variety of simple eukaryotic organisms such as amoebas, paramecia, and plasmodium (the malaria-causing parasite).

There isn't a specific medical definition for "RNA, protozoan" since RNA is a molecule present in all living cells, including human cells, and protozoans are a group of organisms. However, I can tell you that RNA plays crucial roles in protozoan biology, such as acting as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes during protein synthesis or regulating gene expression.

If you have any further questions or need more specific information about RNA in protozoans, please let me know!

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

Protozoan infections in animals refer to diseases caused by the invasion and colonization of one or more protozoan species in an animal host's body. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can exist as parasites and can be transmitted through various modes, such as direct contact with infected animals, contaminated food or water, vectors like insects, and fecal-oral route.

Examples of protozoan infections in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of the genus Eimeria that affects various animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and pets like cats and dogs. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death in severe cases.
2. Toxoplasmosis: It is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can infect various warm-blooded animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like cats. The parasite forms cysts in various tissues, such as muscles, brain, and eyes, causing mild to severe symptoms depending on the host's immune status.
3. Babesiosis: It is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of Babesia protozoa that affect various animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, and humans. The parasites infect red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, weakness, and sometimes death in severe cases.
4. Leishmaniasis: It is a vector-borne disease caused by several species of Leishmania protozoa that affect various animals, including dogs, cats, and humans. The parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected sandflies and can cause skin lesions, anemia, fever, weight loss, and sometimes death in severe cases.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: It is a waterborne disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum that affects various animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like dogs and cats. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Prevention and control of these diseases rely on various measures, such as vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, and environmental management. Public awareness and education are also essential to prevent the transmission and spread of these diseases.

'Entamoeba histolytica' is a species of microscopic, single-celled protozoan parasites that can cause a range of human health problems, primarily in the form of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. The medical definition of 'Entamoeba histolytica' is as follows:

Entamoeba histolytica: A species of pathogenic protozoan parasites belonging to the family Entamoebidae, order Amoebida, and phylum Sarcomastigophora. These microorganisms are typically found in the form of cysts or trophozoites and can infect humans through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces.

Once inside the human body, 'Entamoeba histolytica' parasites can colonize the large intestine, where they may cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery, depending on the individual's immune response and the location of the infection. In some cases, these parasites can also invade other organs, such as the liver, lungs, or brain, leading to more serious health complications.

The life cycle of 'Entamoeba histolytica' involves two main stages: the cyst stage and the trophozoite stage. The cysts are the infective form, which can be transmitted from person to person through fecal-oral contact or by ingesting contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these cysts excyst in the small intestine, releasing the motile and feeding trophozoites.

The trophozoites then migrate to the large intestine, where they can multiply by binary fission and cause tissue damage through their ability to phagocytize host cells and release cytotoxic substances. Some of these trophozoites may transform back into cysts, which are excreted in feces and can then infect other individuals.

Diagnosis of 'Entamoeba histolytica' infection typically involves the examination of stool samples for the presence of cysts or trophozoites, as well as serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can kill the trophozoites and help to control the infection. However, it is important to note that these drugs do not affect the cysts, so proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent the spread of the parasite.

"Giardia lamblia," also known as "Giardia duodenalis" or "Giardia intestinalis," is a species of microscopic parasitic protozoan that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine of various vertebrates, including humans. It is the most common cause of human giardiasis, a diarrheal disease. The trophozoite (feeding form) of Giardia lamblia has a distinctive tear-drop shape and possesses flagella for locomotion. It attaches to the intestinal epithelium, disrupting the normal function of the small intestine and leading to various gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and dehydration. Giardia lamblia is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with various clinical manifestations. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Southern Europe.

The Leishmania species have a complex life cycle that involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which is found in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which infects mammalian hosts, including humans. The clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on the specific Leishmania species and the host's immune response to the infection.

The three main forms of Leishmaniasis are:

1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): This form is characterized by skin lesions, such as ulcers or nodules, that can take several months to heal and may leave scars. CL is caused by various Leishmania species, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica.

2. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL): Also known as kala-azar, VL affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. VL is caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi species.

3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL): This form affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat, causing destruction of tissues and severe disfigurement. MCL is caused by L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis species.

Prevention and control measures for Leishmaniasis include vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and bed nets.

"Toxoplasma" is a genus of protozoan parasites, and the most well-known species is "Toxoplasma gondii." This particular species is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. It's known for its complex life cycle that involves felines (cats) as the definitive host.

Infection in humans, called toxoplasmosis, often occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with cat feces that contain T. gondii oocysts. While many people infected with Toxoplasma show no symptoms, it can cause serious health problems in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Alveolata is a group of predominantly unicellular eukaryotes that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans (such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria), and ciliates. This grouping is based on the presence of unique organelles called alveoli, which are membrane-bound sacs or vesicles located just beneath the cell membrane. These alveoli provide structural support and may also be involved in various cellular processes such as osmoregulation, nutrient uptake, and attachment to surfaces.

The medical significance of Alveolata lies primarily within the Apicomplexa, which contains many important parasites that infect humans and animals. These include Plasmodium spp., which cause malaria; Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis; and Cryptosporidium parvum, which is responsible for cryptosporidiosis. Understanding the biology and behavior of these parasites at the cellular level can provide valuable insights into their pathogenesis, transmission, and potential treatment strategies.

Tetrahymena pyriformis is not a medical term, but rather it's a species of ciliated protozoan that is commonly used in biological research. Here's a scientific definition:

Tetrahymena pyriformis is a free-living, freshwater ciliate protozoan species with a pear-shaped (pyriform) morphology. It belongs to the genus Tetrahymena and the family Euplotidae in the phylum Ciliophora. This microorganism is widely used as a model organism in various research fields, including cell biology, genetics, and molecular biology. Its relatively large size (50-60 µm), rapid growth rate, and ease of culturing make it an ideal subject for experimental studies. Tetrahymena pyriformis has complex cellular structures, such as macronuclei and micronuclei, which are involved in its reproduction and genetic inheritance. Additionally, this species is known for its ability to undergo rapid evolutionary changes, making it a valuable tool for studying evolution and adaptation.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

Apicomplexa is a phylum of single-celled, parasitic organisms that includes several medically important genera, such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which causes toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which causes cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique apical complex, which is a group of specialized structures at one end of the cell that are used during invasion and infection of host cells. They have a complex life cycle involving multiple stages, including sexual and asexual reproduction, often in different hosts. Many Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites, meaning they live and multiply inside the cells of their hosts.

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

Kinetoplastida is a group of flagellated protozoan parasites, which are characterized by the presence of a unique structure called the kinetoplast, a DNA-containing region within the single, large mitochondrion. The kinetoplast contains numerous maxicircles and minicircles that encode essential components for energy metabolism.

This order includes several medically important genera such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which are responsible for causing various diseases in humans and animals. Trypanosoma species cause diseases like African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), while Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis.

These parasites have complex life cycles involving different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting morphological and biochemical changes during their life cycle. They can be transmitted to humans through insect vectors such as tsetse flies (African trypanosomiasis) and sandflies (leishmaniasis).

The medical significance of Kinetoplastida lies in the understanding of their biology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, which are crucial for developing effective control strategies and treatments against the diseases they cause.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Trypanosomatina is not considered a medical term, but it is a taxonomic category in the field of biology. Trypanosomatina is a suborder that includes unicellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the order Kinetoplastida. Some notable members of this suborder include genera such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, which are medically important parasites causing diseases in humans and animals.

Trypanosoma species are responsible for various trypanosomiases, including African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi). Leishmania species cause different forms of leishmaniasis, a group of diseases affecting the skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs.

In summary, while not a medical term itself, Trypanosomatina is a biology taxonomic category that includes several disease-causing parasites of medical importance.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Trichomonas is a genus of protozoan parasites that are commonly found in the human body, particularly in the urogenital tract. The most well-known species is Trichomonas vaginalis, which is responsible for the sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis. This infection can cause various symptoms in both men and women, including vaginitis, urethritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

T. vaginalis is a pear-shaped flagellate protozoan that measures around 10 to 20 micrometers in length. It has four flagella at the anterior end and an undulating membrane along one side of its body, which helps it move through its environment. The parasite can attach itself to host cells using a specialized structure called an adhesion zone.

Trichomonas species are typically transmitted through sexual contact, although they can also be spread through the sharing of contaminated towels or clothing. Infection with T. vaginalis can increase the risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV).

Diagnosis of trichomoniasis typically involves the detection of T. vaginalis in a sample of vaginal or urethral discharge. Treatment usually involves the administration of antibiotics, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which are effective at killing the parasite and curing the infection.

Hartmannella is a genus of free-living amoebae, which are single-celled organisms found in soil and water. These amoebae are known to be able to ingest bacteria and other small particles as part of their feeding process. While they are generally harmless to humans, some species of Hartmannella have been associated with certain types of human illnesses, such as Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare but serious eye infection that can cause blindness if left untreated. However, it is important to note that Hartmannella itself is not typically considered a pathogenic genus and is mainly studied in the context of environmental and microbiological research.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Crithidia is a genus of protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These parasites are primarily found in the digestive tracts of insects, particularly blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and reduviid bugs. They are transmitted to the insect through the ingestion of infected prey, such as other insects.

Crithidia species are closely related to Trypanosoma species, which can cause serious diseases in humans and animals, such as sleeping sickness and Chagas disease. However, Crithidia species are not typically considered to be human pathogens, although there have been rare cases of human infection reported in the literature.

In general, Crithidia species are studied for their potential use as model organisms in research on topics such as evolution, genetics, and cell biology. They are also used in forensic entomology to help estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) in cases of insect-associated death investigations.

"Leishmania major" is a species of parasitic protozoan that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, a type of disease transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The organism's life cycle involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which develops in the sandfly vector and is infective to mammalian hosts; and the amastigote stage, which resides inside host cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where it replicates.

The disease caused by L. major typically results in skin ulcers or lesions that can take several months to heal and may leave permanent scars. While not usually life-threatening, cutaneous leishmaniasis can cause significant disfigurement and psychological distress, particularly when it affects the face. In addition, people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, may be at risk of developing more severe forms of the disease.

L. major is found primarily in the Old World, including parts of North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. It is transmitted by various species of sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and reducing outdoor activities during peak sandfly feeding times.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

There is no medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as such because there are currently no licensed vaccines available for human protozoan diseases. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

Researchers have been working on developing vaccines against some of these diseases, but none have yet been approved for use in humans. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as a recognized category of vaccines.

'Entamoeba' is a genus of protozoan parasites that are commonly found in the intestinal tract of humans and other primates. The most well-known species is 'Entamoeba histolytica,' which can cause a serious infection known as amoebiasis. This parasite is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated food or water, and it can invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs in the body, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. Other species of Entamoeba are generally considered non-pathogenic, meaning that they do not cause disease in healthy individuals.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis. It primarily infects the urogenital tract, with women being more frequently affected than men. The parasite exists as a motile, pear-shaped trophozoite, measuring about 10-20 micrometers in size.

T. vaginalis infection can lead to various symptoms, including vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, itching, and irritation in women, while men may experience urethral discharge or discomfort during urination. However, up to 50% of infected individuals might not develop any noticeable symptoms, making the infection challenging to recognize and treat without medical testing.

Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or urine samples, although nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming more common due to their higher sensitivity and specificity. Treatment usually consists of oral metronidazole or tinidazole, which are antibiotics that target the parasite's ability to reproduce. It is essential to treat both partners simultaneously to prevent reinfection and ensure successful eradication of the parasite.

Giardiasis is a digestive infection caused by the microscopic parasite Giardia intestinalis, also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis. The parasite is found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water.

The infection typically occurs after ingesting contaminated water, food, or surfaces that have been exposed to fecal matter containing the cyst form of the parasite. Once inside the body, the cysts transform into trophozoites, which attach to the lining of the small intestine and cause symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, dehydration, and greasy stools that may float due to excess fat.

In some cases, giardiasis can lead to lactose intolerance and malabsorption of nutrients, resulting in weight loss and vitamin deficiencies. The infection is usually diagnosed through a stool sample test and treated with antibiotics such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated water and food, and washing hands regularly.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

'Leishmania donovani' is a species of protozoan parasite that causes a severe form of visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar. This disease primarily affects the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, leading to symptoms such as fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies. It's worth noting that this organism can also affect dogs and other animals, causing a disease known as canine leishmaniasis.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoan parasites that can cause the diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. These microscopic pathogens infect the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

Cryptosporidium parasites have a complex life cycle, including several developmental stages within host cells. They are protected by an outer shell called oocyst, which allows them to survive outside the host's body for extended periods, making them resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants commonly used in water treatment.

Transmission of Cryptosporidium occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated water or food, or direct contact with infected individuals or animals. People at higher risk for severe illness include young children, elderly people, pregnant women, and those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer treatment, or organ transplantation.

Preventive measures include proper hand hygiene, avoiding consumption of untreated water or raw fruits and vegetables likely to be contaminated, and practicing safe sex. For immunocompromised individuals, antiparasitic medications such as nitazoxanide may help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

Amoebozoa is a supergroup of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that includes various kinds of amoebas and slime molds. These organisms are characterized by the presence of lobose pseudopodia, which are temporary protrusions of cytoplasm used for locomotion and feeding. Amoebozoa is a diverse group with over 9,000 described species, including both free-living and symbiotic forms. Some amoebozoans can form multicellular structures during their life cycle, such as slime molds, which are known for their complex behaviors and social interactions. The study of Amoebozoa is important for understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of eukaryotic organisms.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. It is found worldwide and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food. The parasite infects the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and fever. It is particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The parasite is highly resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants, making it difficult to eradicate from water supplies.

'Blastocystis hominis' is a species of microscopic single-celled organisms (protozoa) that can inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract. It is often found in the stool of both healthy individuals and those with gastrointestinal symptoms. The role of 'Blastocystis hominis' as a pathogen or commensal organism remains a subject of ongoing research and debate, as some studies have associated its presence with various digestive complaints such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea, while others suggest it may not cause any harm in most cases.

Medical professionals typically do not consider 'Blastocystis hominis' a primary pathogen requiring treatment unless there is clear evidence of its involvement in causing symptoms or if the individual has persistent gastrointestinal issues that have not responded to other treatments. The recommended treatment, when necessary, usually involves antiprotozoal medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole. However, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Sarcocystosis is a parasitic infection caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. It can also occur in humans through the accidental ingestion of spores that are shed in feces of infected animals. The two main species that infect humans are S. hominis and S. suihominis, with S. hominis being transmitted via cattle and S. suihominis from pigs.

The infection typically occurs without symptoms (asymptomatic) but can sometimes cause mild to severe illness, depending on the species of the parasite and the immune status of the infected person. Symptoms may include muscle pain, weakness, fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

In rare cases, sarcocystosis can affect the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis) and cause neurological symptoms such as seizures, balance problems, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, kidney failure, or even death.

Diagnosis of sarcocystosis is usually made by identifying the parasite in tissue samples (biopsy) or through serological tests that detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves supportive care and anti-parasitic medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, or nitazoxanide. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly before consumption and practicing good hygiene when handling raw meat.

Leishmania mexicana is a species of protozoan parasite that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, a skin infection, in humans and other mammals. It is transmitted to its hosts through the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily of the genus Lutzomyia. The parasites multiply within the skin lesions of the host, leading to symptoms such as ulcers, scarring, and disfigurement. The severity and duration of the infection can vary widely, and in some cases, the infection may heal on its own without treatment. However, in other cases, the infection can become chronic and lead to significant morbidity.

Leishmania mexicana is found primarily in Mexico and Central America, although it has also been reported in other parts of the world. It is one of several species of Leishmania that can cause cutaneous leishmaniasis, and diagnosis typically involves identifying the parasite through microscopic examination of tissue samples or through molecular testing. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana include systemic medications such as antimony compounds, miltefosine, and amphotericin B, as well as local treatments such as heat therapy and cryotherapy.

"Legionella pneumophila" is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. It can also be found in man-made water systems like hot tubs, cooling towers, and decorative fountains. This bacterium is the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness resembling the flu. Infection typically occurs when people inhale tiny droplets of water containing the bacteria. It is not transmitted from person to person.

"Theileria parva" is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoa that causes East Coast fever in cattle. It is a member of the genus Theileria and family Theileriidae within the phylum Apicomplexa. This parasite infects and reproduces within bovine lymphocytes, leading to the destruction of host cells and the development of clinical signs such as high fever, lymphadenopathy, anemia, and respiratory distress. Transmission occurs through the bite of infected ticks, primarily of the genus Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The disease is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and poses a significant threat to the livestock industry in endemic areas.

Tetrahymena is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus of unicellular organisms known as ciliates. They are commonly found in freshwater environments and can be studied in the field of biology and microbiology. Some species of Tetrahymena have been used in scientific research, including studies on genetics, cell division, and protein function. It is not a term that would typically be used in a medical context.

Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease caused by microscopic parasites called Cryptosporidium. The parasites are found in the feces of infected animals and humans. People can become infected with Cryptosporidium by ingesting contaminated water or food, or by coming into contact with infected persons or animals.

The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, including watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, the infection can be severe and even life-threatening.

Cryptosporidiosis is typically treated with increased fluid intake to prevent dehydration, and in some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or changing diapers, can help prevent the spread of Cryptosporidium.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is a species of free-living amoebae that are widely found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and air. These amoebae are known for their ability to survive under various conditions and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Acanthamoeba castellanii' is known to be associated with a range of diseases, including Acanthamoeba keratitis, a sight-threatening eye infection that primarily affects contact lens wearers, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, a rare but serious central nervous system infection.

It is important to note that while 'Acanthamoeba castellanii' can cause infections in humans, these cases are relatively uncommon and typically occur in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who come into contact with contaminated water or soil. Proper hygiene practices and the use of sterile solutions when handling contact lenses can help reduce the risk of infection.

Tritrichomonas is a genus of protozoan parasites that are commonly found in the digestive tracts of various animals, including humans. The most well-known species is Tritrichomonas foetus, which is a significant pathogen in cattle, causing a venereal disease known as bovine trichomoniasis.

In humans, Tritrichomonas vaginalis is the species that is associated with infection, specifically in the urogenital tract of women. It can cause a condition called trichomoniasis, which is typically characterized by vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and discharge. However, it's important to note that many people infected with T. vaginalis are asymptomatic, and the infection can sometimes lead to more severe complications such as preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy.

Tritrichomonas species are characterized by having three flagella at the anterior end and one at the posterior end, which they use for movement. They are usually transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated fomites. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the spread of infection and potential complications.

'Eimeria' is a genus of protozoan parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to cause a disease called coccidiosis in various animals, including birds, ruminants, and pigs. The life cycle of Eimeria involves both sexual and asexual reproduction, and it typically takes place within the intestinal cells of the host animal.

The infection can lead to a range of symptoms, such as diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and even death in severe cases, particularly in young animals. Eimeria species are highly host-specific, meaning that each species tends to infect only one type of animal. For example, Eimeria tenella primarily infects chickens, while Eimeria bovis is known to infect cattle.

Prevention and control measures for coccidiosis include good sanitation practices, such as cleaning and disinfecting animal living areas, as well as the use of anticoccidial drugs in feed or water to prevent infection. Additionally, vaccines are available for some Eimeria species to help protect animals from infection and reduce the severity of clinical signs.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It can infect humans, birds, and most warm-blooded animals, including marine mammals. In humans, it is usually contracted through eating undercooked, contaminated meat or ingesting oocysts (a form of the parasite) from cat feces, often through contact with litter boxes or gardening in soil that has been contaminated with cat feces.

The infection can also be passed to the fetus if a woman becomes infected during or just before pregnancy. Most healthy individuals who become infected with Toxoplasma gondii experience few symptoms and are not aware they have the disease. However, for those with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause severe complications, including damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in individuals with weakened immune systems may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and headache. In pregnant women, infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, or severe developmental problems in the baby. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Sarcocystis is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to infect both animals and humans, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host.

Sarcocystis spp. have a complex life cycle involving two hosts: an intermediate host, which is typically a herbivorous animal, and a definitive host, which is usually a carnivorous or omnivorous animal. The parasites form cysts, known as sarcocysts, in the muscles of the intermediate host, which are then ingested by the definitive host during feeding.

In humans, Sarcocystis spp. can cause two main types of infections: intestinal and muscular. Intestinal infection occurs when humans accidentally ingest undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The parasites then invade the human's intestinal wall, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Muscular infection, on the other hand, is caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated with sporocysts shed in the feces of infected definitive hosts. This type of infection is relatively rare in humans and typically causes mild symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, and fever.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystis spp. can cause illness in humans, they are not usually considered a significant public health concern. Proper cooking of meat and good hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

Tetrahymena thermophila is not a medical term, but rather it refers to a species of ciliated protozoan that is commonly used in scientific research, including biomedical research. Here's a brief biological definition:

Tetrahymena thermophila is a free-living, freshwater ciliate protozoan found in various aquatic environments. It has a complex cell structure with two types of nuclei (a macronucleus and a micronucleus) and numerous cilia for movement. This organism is known for its ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually, making it a valuable model for studying genetic processes. Its genome has been fully sequenced, and it is widely used in research fields such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics due to its ease of cultivation and manipulation.

While not directly related to medical terminology, Tetrahymena thermophila has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes with potential implications for medical research, including gene regulation, protein function, and DNA repair mechanisms.

Entamoebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It can affect various organs, but the most common site of infection is the large intestine (colon), leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and cramping. In severe cases, it may cause invasive disease, including amoebic dysentery or extraintestinal infections like liver abscesses.

The life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica involves two stages: the infective cyst stage and the proliferative trophozoite stage. Transmission occurs through ingestion of contaminated food, water, or hands containing cysts. Once inside the human body, these cysts excyst in the small intestine, releasing trophozoites that colonize the large intestine and cause disease.

Entamoebiasis is more prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Preventive measures include proper handwashing, safe food handling, and access to clean water. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as metronidazole or tinidazole.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

'Leishmania tropica' is a species of parasitic protozoan that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, a skin infection commonly known as "Old World" or Middle Eastern form of the disease. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World.

The infection often results in skin ulcers, typically on exposed parts of the body such as the face, arms, and legs. These lesions can be disfiguring and may take several months to heal, leaving scars. In some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe forms of the disease.

The incubation period for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica can range from a few weeks to several months after the sandfly bite. The severity and duration of the disease can vary widely depending on various factors, including the immune status of the infected individual and the specific strain of the parasite.

Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets in areas where sandflies are prevalent. There is no vaccine available for cutaneous leishmaniasis, but several treatment options are available, including topical treatments, intralesional injections, and systemic medications, depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health condition.

'Crithidia fasciculata' is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the order Trypanosomatida and family Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of insects, particularly mosquitoes and other blood-sucking dipterans. They are non-pathogenic to humans but have been widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of molecular biology, genetics, and cell biology.

The cells of 'Crithidia fasciculata' are elongated and slender, typically measuring 15-30 micrometers in length and 2-3 micrometers in width. They possess a single flagellum that emerges from the anterior end of the cell and is used for locomotion. The cells also contain a distinct kinetoplast, a unique structure found within the mitochondrion that contains DNA.

'Crithidia fasciculata' has been used as a model organism to study various aspects of trypanosome biology, including the mechanisms of gene expression, protein trafficking, and cell division. Additionally, it has been used in studies on the development of new drugs and therapies for treating trypanosomiasis, a group of diseases caused by infection with parasites of the genus Trypanosoma.

Ciliophora is a group of protozoan organisms that are characterized by the presence of hair-like structures called cilia. Some species of Ciliophora can cause infections in humans, known as ciliophoriasis or ciliate infections. These infections typically occur in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or who are taking immunosuppressive drugs.

The most common way that Ciliophora infect humans is through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the ciliates can cause a range of symptoms depending on the species and the location of the infection. For example, infections in the gastrointestinal tract can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, while lung infections can lead to coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.

Treatment for Ciliophora infections typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Preventing ciliophoriasis involves practicing good hygiene, avoiding contaminated food and water, and taking steps to boost the immune system in individuals who are at high risk of infection.

Theileriasis is a disease caused by the intracellular parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria, which primarily infects and affects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells) of various animals, including domestic and wild ruminants. This disease is mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

Infection with Theileria parasites can lead to a wide range of clinical signs in affected animals, depending on the specific Theileria species involved and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include fever, anemia, weakness, weight loss, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), jaundice, and abortion in pregnant animals.

Two major Theileria species that cause significant economic losses in livestock are:

1. Theileria parva: This species is responsible for East Coast fever in cattle, which is a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Eastern and Southern Africa.
2. Theileria annulata: This species causes Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean coast fever in cattle and buffaloes, primarily found in regions around the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and Asia.

Preventive measures for theileriasis include tick control, use of live vaccines, and management practices that reduce exposure to infected ticks. Treatment options are limited but may involve chemotherapeutic agents such as buparvaquone or parvaquone, which can help control parasitemia (parasite multiplication in the blood) and alleviate clinical signs. However, these treatments do not provide complete immunity against reinfection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paramecium" is not a medical term. It is a genus of unicellular organisms commonly found in freshwater environments. Paramecia are classified as ciliates due to the presence of hair-like structures called cilia on their surface. They use these cilia for locomotion and feeding. If you have any questions about biology or another topic, I'd be happy to try to help!

Dientamoeba is a genus of protozoan parasites that can infect the human gastrointestinal tract and cause digestive symptoms. It is a species of amoeba that belongs to the family Dientamoebidae. Dientamoeba fragilis is the only known species within this genus, and it is commonly found in the stools of infected individuals.

Dientamoeba fragilis is a non-invasive parasite, which means that it does not typically invade the tissues of the host. Instead, it lives in the lumen of the intestine and feeds on bacteria and other microorganisms present in the gut. The exact mode of transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis is not well understood, but it is thought to be spread through the fecal-oral route, possibly via contaminated food or water.

Infection with Dientamoeba fragilis can cause a variety of digestive symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence. However, some people infected with the parasite may not experience any symptoms at all. The diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis infection is typically made through microscopic examination of stool samples. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics to eliminate the parasite from the gut.

"Leishmania infantum" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes a type of disease known as leishmaniasis. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World.

The parasite has a complex life cycle, alternating between the sandfly vector and a mammalian host. In the sandfly, it exists as an extracellular flagellated promastigote, while in the mammalian host, it transforms into an intracellular non-flagellated amastigote that multiplies within macrophages.

"Leishmania infantum" is the primary causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean basin, parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. VL, also known as kala-azar, is a systemic infection that can affect multiple organs, including the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver. If left untreated, VL can be fatal.

In addition to VL, "Leishmania infantum" can also cause cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms of leishmaniasis, which are characterized by skin lesions and ulcers, respectively. These forms of the disease are typically less severe than VL but can still result in significant morbidity.

Prevention and control measures for "Leishmania infantum" infection include avoiding sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents, protective clothing, and bed nets, as well as reducing sandfly breeding sites through environmental management. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, including antimonial drugs, amphotericin B, and miltefosine, among others. However, access to treatment and drug resistance remain significant challenges in many endemic areas.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan parasites of the Leishmania species, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease presents with a variety of clinical manifestations, depending upon the Leishmania species involved and the host's immune response.

There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar. CL typically presents with skin ulcers, while MCL is characterized by the destruction of mucous membranes in the nose, mouth, and throat. VL, the most severe form, affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, causing symptoms like fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen.

Leishmaniasis is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and southern Europe. The prevention strategies include using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and improving housing conditions to minimize exposure to sandflies. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, depending on the form and severity of the disease, geographical location, and the Leishmania species involved.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

"Euplotes" is a genus of ciliate protozoans, which are single-celled organisms with hair-like structures called cilia. These cilia help the organism move and also aid in feeding. "Euplotes" species are typically found in freshwater or brackish environments and have a complex cell structure with two types of nuclei and specialized organelles for digestion. They are often used as model organisms in studies of cellular differentiation, evolution, and ecology.

Trichomonadida is an order of predominantly parasitic flagellated protozoans, characterized by the presence of four anterior flagella and an undulating membrane. The most well-known member of this group is Trichomonas vaginalis, which causes the common sexually transmitted infection known as trichomoniasis in humans. This infection primarily affects the urogenital tract and can lead to symptoms such as vaginitis or urethritis in women and men, respectively. However, many Trichomonadida infections are asymptomatic. Other species in this order can infect various animals, including birds and reptiles.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Cyclospora is a single-celled parasite that causes an intestinal infection known as cyclosporiasis. The parasite is primarily transmitted through contaminated food or water. When ingested, Cyclospora infects the small intestine and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach cramps, bloating, nausea, and fatigue. In some cases, the infection may be asymptomatic. The treatment for cyclosporiasis typically involves antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra). It is important to note that Cyclospora should not be confused with other similar parasites like Cryptosporidium or Giardia.

Artiodactyla is an order of mammals that includes even-toed ungulates, or hooved animals, with an odd number of toes. This group includes animals such as pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and ruminants like cattle, sheep, and goats. The primary identifying feature of Artiodactyls is the presence of a pair of weight-bearing toes located in the middle of the foot, with the other toes being either reduced or absent. This arrangement provides stability and adaptability for these animals to thrive in various habitats worldwide.

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. It is caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite can infect a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, as intermediate hosts. However, cats are the primary definitive host for this parasite because the sexual stage of the parasite's life cycle occurs in their intestines, leading to the shedding of oocysts (environmentally resistant stages) in their feces.

Animals can become infected with Toxoplasma gondii through several routes:

1. Ingestion of sporulated oocysts from contaminated soil, water, or food.
2. Consumption of tissue cysts present in the tissues of infected animals during predation.
3. Vertical transmission (transplacental) from an infected mother to her offspring.

Clinical signs and symptoms of toxoplasmosis in animals can vary depending on their age, immune status, and the parasite's virulence. In many cases, animals may not show any apparent signs of infection, but some may develop:

1. Generalized illness with fever, lethargy, and loss of appetite.
2. Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes).
3. Neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (lack of coordination), or seizures if the central nervous system is affected.
4. Eye lesions, including inflammation and scarring of the retina, which can lead to vision loss in severe cases.
5. Reproductive issues, such as abortion, stillbirths, or birth defects in offspring when pregnant females are infected.

It is important to note that while toxoplasmosis can cause significant health problems in animals, particularly in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses, it is often asymptomatic or mild in healthy adult animals. Nonetheless, the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasma gondii highlights the importance of practicing good hygiene and taking necessary precautions when handling infected animals or their waste to minimize the risk of transmission to humans.

"Theileria annulata" is a type of intracellular parasitic protozoan that causes a tick-borne disease known as tropical theileriosis in cattle. This disease is prevalent in areas with warm climates, such as the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and parts of Asia.

The parasite infects and reproduces within the host's white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, anemia, weakness, lymph node enlargement, and occasionally death. Transmission occurs through the bite of infected ticks, primarily species belonging to the genus Hyalomma.

Diagnosis is typically made by identifying the parasite in blood smears or through molecular techniques such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, and control measures focus on tick control and prevention strategies.

"Plasmodium" is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of malaria in humans and other animals. There are several species within this genus, including Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, among others.

These parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito and a vertebrate host (such as humans). When a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, the parasites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause the symptoms of malaria.

Plasmodium species are transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, which become infected after taking a blood meal from an infected person. The parasites then develop in the mosquito's midgut, eventually making their way to the salivary glands, where they can be transmitted to another human through the mosquito's bite.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and anemia, among other symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent severe illness and death from malaria.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Oligohymenophorea is a class within the phylum Ciliophora, which includes protozoans commonly known as ciliates. This group is characterized by having a complex ciliary structure called an undulating membrane and a reduced number of oral primordia (hence the name "oligo" meaning few and "hymenophorea" referring to the oral apparatus).

Members of Oligohymenophorea are diverse, ranging from free-living species found in various aquatic environments to parasitic forms that infect animals. Some well-known examples include Tetrahymena, Paramecium, and Ichthyophthirius (the causative agent of "white spot" disease in freshwater fish).

It's important to note that the classification of ciliates has undergone significant revisions in recent years due to advances in molecular biology and ultrastructural studies. As a result, some sources may use different names or classifications for this group.

Trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by various species of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (in African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) or reduviid bug (in American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease). The parasites enter the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, skin lesions, and muscle pain. Untreated, it can lead to severe neurological complications and death in both forms of the disease. Prevention measures include avoiding insect bites, using insect repellents, and sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets.

An oocyst is a thick-walled, environmentally resistant spore-like structure produced by some protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, during their life cycle. These oocysts can survive for long periods in the environment and can infect a host when ingested, leading to infection and disease. The term "oocyst" is specific to certain groups of protozoan parasites and should not be confused with other types of spores produced by fungi or bacteria.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Trophozoites are the feeding and motile stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa, including those that cause diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. They are typically larger than the cyst stage of these organisms and have a more irregular shape. Trophozoites move by means of pseudopods (false feet) and engulf food particles through a process called phagocytosis. In the case of pathogenic protozoa, this feeding stage is often when they cause damage to host tissues.

In the case of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, trophozoites can invade the intestinal wall and cause ulcers, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. In malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, trophozoites infect red blood cells and multiply within them, eventually causing their rupture and release of more parasites into the bloodstream, which can lead to severe complications like cerebral malaria or organ failure.

It's important to note that not all protozoa have a trophozoite stage in their life cycle, and some may refer to this feeding stage with different terminology depending on the specific species.

Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that infects the reproductive and urinary tracts of various animals, including cattle and cats. In cattle, it causes a venereal disease known as trichomoniasis, which can lead to early embryonic death, abortion, or the birth of weak calves. In cats, it can cause chronic diarrhea. The parasite is transmitted through sexual contact or from an infected mother to her offspring during birth. It is characterized by its pear-shaped body and three flagella at the anterior end.

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.

Coccidia are a group of single-celled, microscopic parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. They are obligate intracellular parasites, which means they need to infect and live inside the cells of a host organism to survive and multiply. Coccidia are primarily found in animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, but some species can also infect humans.

Coccidia are known to cause coccidiosis, a common intestinal disease that affects various animal species, including poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and pets such as cats and dogs. The disease is characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death, particularly in young animals.

In humans, coccidia infection is usually caused by the species Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora. These parasites can infect the small intestine and cause watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss. In immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those undergoing chemotherapy, coccidia infections can be severe and life-threatening.

Coccidia are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either by ingesting contaminated food or water or by direct contact with infected animals or their feces. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or using the restroom, avoiding drinking untreated water from sources that may be contaminated with animal feces, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

A Blastocystis infection is a condition caused by the presence and reproduction of the single-celled microscopic parasite, Blastocystis spp., in the human gastrointestinal tract. This organism is commonly found in the stool of both healthy individuals and those with gastrointestinal symptoms. The exact role of Blastocystis in human health and disease is not well understood, but its presence has been associated with a range of intestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and nausea.

Infection occurs through the ingestion of Blastocystis cysts, usually via contaminated food or water, or directly from contact with infected individuals or animals. Once inside the human body, the parasite transforms into its active form, multiplies, and sheds cysts in the stool, continuing the transmission cycle.

Diagnosis of Blastocystis infection is typically made through microscopic examination of stool samples, where the presence of the parasite can be detected. In some cases, more advanced diagnostic techniques like PCR or DNA sequencing may be used to identify the specific Blastocystis subtype involved.

Treatment for Blastocystis infections is often not necessary for asymptomatic individuals, as the organism can sometimes coexist harmoniously within the gastrointestinal tract without causing any issues. However, for those experiencing persistent or severe symptoms, antiparasitic medications like metronidazole or tinidazole may be prescribed to help eliminate the infection. Maintaining good hygiene practices and avoiding potential sources of contamination can also help prevent Blastocystis infections.

The kinetoplast is a unique structure found in the single, mitochondrion of certain protozoan parasites, including those of the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania. It consists of a network of circular DNA molecules that are highly concentrated and tightly packed. These DNA molecules contain genetic information necessary for the functioning of the unique mitochondrion in these organisms.

The kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is organized into thousands of maxicircles and minicircles, which vary in size and number depending on the species. Maxicircles are similar to mammalian mitochondrial DNA and encode proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, while minicircles contain sequences that code for guide RNAs involved in the editing of maxicircle transcripts.

The kDNA undergoes dynamic rearrangements during the life cycle of these parasites, which involves different morphological and metabolic forms. The study of kDNA has provided valuable insights into the biology and evolution of these important pathogens and has contributed to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Cercozoa is a major group of predominantly heterotrophic protists that are characterized by the presence of unique feeding structures called "cercomonads" or "filose pseudopodia." These pseudopods are thin, filamentous extensions used for capturing and engulfing prey. Cercozoa includes a wide variety of species, many of which are important decomposers and contributors to nutrient cycling in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Some members of this group can form symbiotic relationships with other organisms or have the ability to photosynthesize through endosymbiosis with algae. Due to their diverse morphology, ecological roles, and molecular characteristics, Cercozoa has been challenging to define and classify precisely, but recent advances in molecular phylogeny have helped clarify its position within the eukaryotic tree of life.

Isospora is a genus of protozoan parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a type of gastrointestinal infection that primarily affects birds and mammals, including humans. The disease is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss.

Isospora species have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: an intermediate host, where the parasite reproduces asexually, and a definitive host, where the parasite undergoes sexual reproduction. The infectious stage of the parasite is called an oocyst, which is shed in the feces of the infected host and can survive in the environment for long periods. When ingested by another host, the oocyst releases sporozoites, which invade the intestinal cells and multiply, causing damage to the intestinal lining and leading to the symptoms of coccidiosis.

In humans, Isospora belli is the most common species that causes infection. It is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either by ingesting contaminated food or water or by person-to-person contact. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at higher risk of developing severe and chronic infections with Isospora. Treatment usually involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Leishmania enriettii is a species of protozoan parasite that belongs to the genus Leishmania. This genus includes several species that are known to cause different forms of leishmaniasis, a group of diseases that affect various organs and tissues in humans and animals.

Leishmania enriettii is primarily associated with causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, a skin infection characterized by the development of ulcers or lesions on the exposed parts of the body such as the face, arms, and legs. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies, which serve as vectors for the disease.

The parasite's life cycle involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which occurs in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which occurs in the mammalian host. In the sandfly, the parasites multiply in the midgut and transform into infective promastigotes. When the infected sandfly bites a human or other mammalian host, it injects the promastigotes into the skin, where they are taken up by immune cells called macrophages. Once inside the macrophages, the parasites transform into amastigotes and multiply within the phagolysosome, an organelle within the macrophage that is responsible for breaking down foreign particles.

The clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania enriettii are typically milder than those caused by other Leishmania species. The lesions tend to be smaller and heal more quickly, often without leaving scars. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more severe forms of the disease, such as mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat.

Diagnosis of Leishmania enriettii infection is typically based on clinical symptoms, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as direct observation of parasites in tissue samples or detection of parasite DNA using molecular techniques. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, or miltefosine.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are complex glycolipids that are attached to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. They play a role in anchoring proteins to the cell surface by serving as a post-translational modification site for certain proteins, known as GPI-anchored proteins.

The structure of GPIs consists of a core glycan backbone made up of three mannose and one glucosamine residue, which is linked to a phosphatidylinositol (PI) anchor via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor addition site. The PI anchor is composed of a diacylglycerol moiety and a phosphatidylinositol headgroup.

GPIs are involved in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein targeting, and cell adhesion. They have also been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can be disfiguring and stigmatizing. There are several clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including localized, disseminated, and mucocutaneous.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, characterized by the development of one or more nodular or ulcerative lesions at the site of the sandfly bite, typically appearing within a few weeks to several months after exposure. The lesions may vary in size and appearance, ranging from small papules to large plaques or ulcers, and can be painful or pruritic (itchy).

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis is a more severe form of the disease, characterized by the widespread dissemination of lesions across the body. This form of the disease typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form of the disease, characterized by the spread of infection from the skin to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. This can result in extensive tissue destruction, disfigurement, and functional impairment.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as parasite detection using microscopy or molecular techniques, or serological tests to detect antibodies against the Leishmania parasites. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis include systemic or topical medications, such as antimonial drugs, miltefosine, or pentamidine, as well as physical treatments such as cryotherapy or thermotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the species of Leishmania involved, the clinical form of the disease, and the patient's overall health status.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Paramecium tetraurelia" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name of a species of ciliate protists, which are single-celled organisms commonly found in freshwater environments. These organisms are often studied in biology and microbiology as models for cellular and molecular processes. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or definitions, I would be happy to help with those instead.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Euglenozoa is a group of primarily unicellular organisms that includes both free-living and parasitic forms. It is a major clade within the eukaryotes, characterized by the presence of unique flagella with specialized structures called mastigonemes. This group includes two main classes: Euglenida, which are mostly free-living and photosynthetic; and Kinetoplastea, which include parasitic forms such as trypanosomes and leishmanias. The members of this group have diverse morphologies and life styles, ranging from free-living heterotrophs to phototrophs, and from parasites that cause serious diseases in humans and other animals to saprophytes.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a systemic protozoan disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. It is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is characterized by fever, weight loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. If left untreated, it can be fatal in over 95% of cases within 2 years of onset of symptoms. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies (Phlebotomus spp. or Lutzomyia spp.). The parasites enter the skin and are taken up by macrophages, where they transform into amastigotes and spread to internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Diagnosis is typically made through demonstration of the parasite in tissue samples or through serological tests. Treatment options include antimonial drugs, amphotericin B, miltefosine, and paromomycin. Prevention measures include vector control, early detection and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites.

Amebic dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus, abdominal pain, and cramping. The infection is typically acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the parasites invade the intestinal lining, causing damage and leading to the symptoms of dysentery. In severe cases, the parasites can spread to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or brain, causing more serious infections. Amebic dysentery is treated with medications that kill the parasites, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including proper handwashing and safe food handling practices.

A macronucleus is a large, polyploid nucleus found in certain protozoa and some algal cells. It is responsible for the majority of the cell's vegetative functions, such as gene expression and protein synthesis, and it typically contains multiple copies of the genetic material. In contrast to the micronucleus, which is a smaller, diploid nucleus that is involved in the sexual reproduction of the cell, the macronucleus does not participate in the reproductive process.

In ciliates, such as Paramecium and Tetrahymena, the macronucleus is derived from the micronucleus during a process called differentiation. The micronucleus undergoes a series of divisions and develops into a multinucleated structure, which then fragments to form multiple macronuclei. These macronuclei are retained in the vegetative cells and are essential for their survival and function.

It is important to note that not all protozoa or algal cells have both a macronucleus and a micronucleus. Some species only have a single nucleus, while others may have multiple nuclei of different types. The presence and function of these various types of nuclei can vary significantly between different groups of organisms.

A micronucleus is a small extranuclear body that can be formed when chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes fail to incorporate into the main nucleus during cell division. A germline micronucleus specifically refers to this occurrence in the cells that give rise to gametes, or reproductive cells (such as sperm or egg cells). Germline micronuclei are of particular interest in genetic toxicology and genetics research because they can indicate genetic damage or mutations, which may have implications for the health of future generations.

The omasum is the third compartment of the ruminant stomach, located between the rumen and the abomasum. It is also known as the manyplies because of its structure, which consists of numerous folds or leaves that are arranged in a circular pattern. The main function of the omasum is to absorb water, electrolytes, and volatile fatty acids from the digesta that passes through it, helping to concentrate the solids and prepare them for further digestion in the abomasum.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

Sarcocystidae is a family of parasitic protozoa that are primarily known for infecting various animals, including both domestic and wild species. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving at least two hosts: a definitive host (usually a carnivore) and an intermediate host (usually a herbivore).

The most well-known genus within Sarcocystidae is Sarcocystis, which includes several species that can infect humans. Infection with these parasites typically occurs through the consumption of undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The resulting disease in humans is called sarcocystosis and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the species involved and the location of the cysts within the body.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystidae includes several important parasites, it is not typically considered a medical term per se. Instead, it falls more under the purview of veterinary medicine and parasitology.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Euglenozoa is a group of unicellular organisms that includes both free-living and parasitic species. Two major parasitic groups within Euglenozoa are the kinetoplastids, which include organisms such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania, and the diplonemids.

Trypanosoma infections can cause diseases such as African sleeping sickness (also known as human African trypanosomiasis) and Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis), while Leishmania infections can cause various forms of leishmaniasis, including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. These diseases are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insect vectors, such as tsetse flies (in the case of African sleeping sickness) or sandflies (in the case of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease).

Diplonemid infections in humans have not been well-studied, and it is currently unclear whether these organisms are capable of causing disease in humans. However, diplonemids have been found to infect a wide range of marine and freshwater organisms, including fish, crustaceans, and other protists.

In general, euglenozoan infections can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific organism involved and the location of the infection within the body. Symptoms may include fever, swelling, skin lesions, anemia, and damage to various organs. Treatment for these infections typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as pentamidine, suramin, or benznidazole, although the specific treatment approach will depend on the organism involved and the severity of the infection.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Coccidiostats are a type of medication used to prevent and treat coccidiosis, which is an infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Coccidia. These medications work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, particularly poultry and livestock.

Coccidiostats are commonly added to animal feed to prevent infection and reduce the spread of coccidiosis within a flock or herd. They can also be used to treat active infections, often in combination with other medications. Common examples of coccidiostats include sulfaquinoxaline, monensin, and lasalocid.

It's important to note that the use of coccidiostats in food-producing animals is regulated by government agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to ensure their safe use and to minimize the risk of residues in animal products.

Food parasitology is not a commonly used term in medical or scientific communities. However, it generally refers to the study of parasites that are transmitted through food, including parasitic protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., tapeworms, roundworms, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.). Food parasitology involves understanding the life cycles, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these foodborne parasites. It is an important field within medical and veterinary parasitology, as well as food safety and public health.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Hymenostomatida is an order of ciliated protozoans, which are characterized by the presence of a unique structure called the "hymenium," a sheet or fold of cilia that covers the oral opening. These organisms are typically found in freshwater and marine environments, where they feed on bacteria, algae, and other small particles. Some species can also be found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including humans, where they may cause disease.

The hymenium is a distinctive feature of Hymenostomatida, and it plays an important role in their feeding behavior. When the organism is ready to feed, the hymenium retracts, exposing the oral opening and allowing particles to be drawn into the cell by the action of the cilia. The particles are then engulfed by phagocytosis and digested within food vacuoles.

Hymenostomatida includes several families of ciliates, such as Colpodidae, Cyclotrichiidae, and Parauronematidae, among others. Some species in this order are known to form cysts, which can help them survive in unfavorable environments. They may also have complex life cycles involving multiple stages or forms.

It's worth noting that medical definitions of protozoans like Hymenostomatida typically focus on their potential as pathogens or parasites in humans and animals. However, most species in this order are not harmful to humans and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

Microsporidiosis is an infection caused by microscopic, single-celled parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. These parasites are primarily intracellular and can infect various organisms, including humans. Infection typically occurs through ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil, or through inhalation of spores. Once inside a host, the spores germinate, releasing the infective sporoplasm that invades host cells and multiplies within them.

In humans, microsporidiosis can cause various symptoms depending on the species involved and the immune status of the host. In immunocompetent individuals, it may present as self-limiting diarrhea or mild gastrointestinal disturbances. However, in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or using immunosuppressive medications), microsporidiosis can lead to severe and chronic diarrhea, wasting, and potentially life-threatening complications affecting various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, and respiratory system.

Diagnosis of microsporidiosis typically involves detecting the parasites in stool or tissue samples using specialized staining techniques (e.g., chromotrope stains) or molecular methods (e.g., PCR). Treatment usually includes antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole, which has activity against many microsporidian species. In severe cases or when the infection involves multiple organs, additional supportive care and management of underlying immunodeficiencies may be necessary.

A Blastocystis is a single-celled microscopic organism (protozoan) that can inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the stool of infected individuals and is classified as a stramenopile, which is a group of organisms that also includes algae and water molds.

Blastocystis is often considered a commensal organism, meaning that it can live in the human gut without causing any harm. However, some studies have suggested that Blastocystis may be associated with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating, particularly in people with compromised immune systems or other underlying health conditions.

There is ongoing debate among researchers about the role of Blastocystis in human health, and more research is needed to fully understand its impact on the gut microbiome and overall health. Currently, there is no consensus on whether or not to treat Blastocystis in asymptomatic individuals.

Variants surface glycoproteins (VSGs) in Trypanosoma are a group of molecules found on the surface of the parasitic protozoan that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. These proteins play a crucial role in the survival of the parasite within the host's body by allowing it to evade the host's immune system.

Trypanosoma parasites have a single VSG gene that is actively expressed at any given time, while thousands of other VSG genes remain silent. The expressed VSG protein is located on the surface of the parasite and serves as a target for the host's immune response. However, when the host's immune system produces antibodies against the VSG protein, the parasite undergoes a process called "antigenic variation" where it switches to expressing a different VSG gene, allowing it to evade the immune response.

This continuous switching of VSG genes allows the parasite to avoid clearance by the host's immune system and establish a chronic infection. Understanding the mechanisms of antigenic variation and VSG gene regulation is important for developing new strategies for treating African trypanosomiasis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Isosporiasis is a gastrointestinal infection caused by the protozoan parasite Isospora belli. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is typically spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at an increased risk for severe and chronic infections. Diagnosis is made through identification of the parasite's oocysts in stool samples. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Alcohol" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of adhesives, paints, and medical devices. Polyvinyl Alcohol is a type of synthetic polymer made from the polymerization of vinyl acetate monomer, followed by alcoholysis to replace the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups.

In a medical context, Polyvinyl Alcohol might be used in certain medical devices or applications, such as contact lenses, eye drops, and drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility and resistance to protein absorption. However, it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I believe you may have meant to ask for the definition of "pyruvate dehydrogenase complex" rather than "pyruvate synthase," as I couldn't find any relevant medical information regarding a specific enzyme named "pyruvate synthase."

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a crucial enzyme complex in the human body, playing an essential role in cellular energy production. PDC is located within the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis, into acetyl-CoA. This process connects the glycolytic pathway to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and enables the continuation of aerobic respiration for efficient energy production in the form of ATP.

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex consists of three main enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (E2), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). Additionally, two accessory proteins, E3-binding protein (E3BP) and protein X, are part of the complex. These enzymes work together to facilitate the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, CO2, and NADH. Dysfunction in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can lead to various metabolic disorders and neurological symptoms.

'Isoptera' is an outdated term for a taxonomic order of social insects commonly known as termites. These eusocial insects are closely related to cockroaches and share some similarities in their appearance, but they have specialized castes including workers, soldiers, and reproductives that live in colonies. Termites feed on wood, plant fibers, and other materials containing cellulose, which they break down with the help of symbiotic protozoa living in their gut. The order Isoptera is no longer recognized by modern taxonomists, who now place termites within the cockroach family Blattodea.

Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions essential for the cell's survival and proper functioning. They can be thought of as the "organs" of the cell, and they are typically membrane-bound to separate them from the rest of the cellular cytoplasm. Examples of organelles include the nucleus (which contains the genetic material), mitochondria (which generate energy for the cell), ribosomes (which synthesize proteins), endoplasmic reticulum (which is involved in protein and lipid synthesis), Golgi apparatus (which modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for transport), lysosomes (which break down waste materials and cellular debris), peroxisomes (which detoxify harmful substances and produce certain organic compounds), and vacuoles (which store nutrients and waste products). The specific organelles present in a cell can vary depending on the type of cell and its function.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

'Eimeria tenella' is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. It is one of the several Eimeria species that cause coccidiosis, a common and economically significant intestinal disease in poultry.

Eimeria tenella primarily infects the caeca (plural of cecum) of chickens, turkeys, and other birds. The life cycle of this parasite involves several stages, including sporulation, ingestion, excystation, merogony, gametogony, and oocyst shedding.

The oocysts are passed in the feces of infected birds and can survive in the environment for long periods. Once ingested by another bird, the oocysts release sporozoites, which invade the epithelial cells lining the caeca. Here, they undergo asexual reproduction (merogony), producing numerous merozoites that infect neighboring cells.

After several rounds of merogony, the parasite enters the sexual phase of its life cycle (gametogony). Male and female gametes fuse to form zygotes, which develop into oocysts and are shed in the feces, completing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of Eimeria tenella infection include diarrhea, bloody droppings, decreased appetite, weight loss, and decreased egg production. Severe infections can lead to death, particularly in young birds. Coccidiosis is typically treated with anticoccidial drugs, which are added to the feed or water of infected birds. Good management practices, such as proper sanitation and biosecurity, can help prevent the spread of Eimeria tenella and other coccidian species.

Cysteine proteases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, and they require a cysteine residue in their active site to do so. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They can be found in various tissues and organisms, including humans, where they are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions.

Cysteine proteases are characterized by a conserved catalytic mechanism that involves a nucleophilic attack on the peptide bond carbonyl carbon by the thiolate anion of the cysteine residue, resulting in the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. This intermediate is then hydrolyzed to release the cleaved protein fragments.

Some examples of cysteine proteases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains, which are involved in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and signal transduction. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, cysteine proteases have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs to treat these conditions.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Dryopteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales, also known as the "wood fern" family. It includes several genera of terrestrial and epiphytic ferns, characterized by having typically large, divided fronds with sori (spore cases) protected by an indusium on the underside of the leaf. Examples of genera in this family include Dryopteris, Polystichum, and Athyrium. These ferns are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including temperate and tropical forests.

Water quality, in the context of public health and environmental medicine, refers to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water that determine its suitability for various uses, such as drinking, recreation, or industrial processes. The term encompasses a wide range of parameters, including but not limited to:

1. Microbial contaminants: Presence of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microorganisms that can cause waterborne diseases.
2. Chemical contaminants: Including heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), disinfection byproducts, and other potentially harmful substances.
3. Physical parameters: Such as temperature, turbidity (cloudiness), color, taste, and odor, which can affect the water's acceptability for different uses.
4. Radiological contaminants: Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive elements present in water sources.

Regulatory agencies establish guidelines and standards for water quality to protect public health and minimize potential adverse effects associated with exposure to contaminated water. Regular monitoring, treatment, and management of water sources are essential to ensure safe and reliable water supplies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "waste water" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Wastewater is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of environmental science and engineering. Here is a definition from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

Wastewater: Water that has been affected by human use and is no longer suitable for immediate reuse without treatment. Wastewater includes sewage, which is a combination of liquid wastes from homes, businesses, and industries, as well as runoff from streets and agricultural operations.

It's important to note that while wastewater may not be a medical term, there are certainly public health implications when it comes to the treatment and disposal of wastewater. Improperly treated wastewater can contain pathogens and other contaminants that can pose risks to human health.

Parasitic skin diseases are conditions caused by parasites living on or in the skin. These parasites can be insects, mites, or fungi that feed off of the host for their own survival. They can cause a variety of symptoms including itching, rashes, blisters, and lesions on the skin. Examples of parasitic skin diseases include scabies, lice infestations, and ringworm. Treatment typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Glycosphingolipids are a type of complex lipid molecule found in animal cell membranes, particularly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. They consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone, which is composed of sphingosine and fatty acids, linked to one or more hydrophilic sugar residues, such as glucose or galactose.

Glycosphingolipids can be further classified into two main groups: neutral glycosphingolipids (which include cerebrosides and gangliosides) and acidic glycosphingolipids (which are primarily gangliosides). Glycosphingolipids play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion.

Abnormalities in the metabolism or structure of glycosphingolipids have been implicated in several diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Fabry's disease) and certain types of cancer (e.g., ganglioside-expressing neuroblastoma).

Diplomonadida is a group of mostly free-living, parasitic flagellated protozoans that are characterized by having two nuclei in their trophozoites (the feeding and dividing stage of the cell): a larger macronucleus that controls vegetative functions and a smaller micronucleus that is involved in reproduction. The most well-known member of this group is Giardia lamblia, a common cause of waterborne diarrheal disease in humans. Other members of Diplomonadida are found in various aquatic environments and are important components of microbial food webs.

Trichomonas vaginitis is a type of vaginal infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is transmitted through sexual contact and primarily affects the urogenital tract. The infection can cause various symptoms in women, such as vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during urination or sex. However, up to 50% of infected individuals may be asymptomatic. In men, it often does not cause any symptoms but can lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole, targeting both sexual partners to prevent reinfection.

Trifluralin is a selective, pre-emergence herbicide that is primarily used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in various crops such as corn, soybeans, vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. It works by inhibiting the germination of weed seeds and preventing their growth by disrupting the cell division process. Trifluralin is a dinitroaniline compound and its chemical formula is C12H16F3N3O4.

In a medical context, trifluralin may be relevant in cases of accidental or intentional ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact, which can result in toxicity or other adverse health effects. Symptoms of trifluralin exposure may include irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, tremors, and seizures. Chronic exposure to trifluralin has been linked to reproductive and developmental toxicity in animals, but its effects on human health are not well-studied.

It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential health hazards associated with trifluralin exposure and to take appropriate measures to protect themselves and their patients. This may include using personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling trifluralin, providing proper ventilation in areas where it is used or stored, and seeking medical attention promptly in cases of suspected exposure.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Aminoethylphosphonic acid is a chemical compound with the formula (HO)₂P(O)CH₂CH₂NH₂. It is an organophosphorus compound that contains both phosphonic and amino groups. This compound is a colorless solid that is soluble in water and has various applications in industry, including as a corrosion inhibitor and a scale inhibitor in water treatment systems. It may also have potential uses in medicine, such as in the treatment of kidney stones, although its use in this context is still being studied.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhizaria" is not a term used in medical definition. It is a taxonomic group in biology that includes various unicellular and multicellular organisms such as foraminifera, radiolarians, and some amoebae. These organisms are often found in marine environments and can be important contributors to marine sediments and food webs. They are not typically relevant to medical definitions or human health.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Antitrichomonatal agents are a group of medications specifically used to treat infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The most common antitrichomonal agent is metronidazole, which works by disrupting the parasite's ability to reproduce and survive within the human body. Other antitrichomonal agents include tinidazole and secnidazole, which also belong to the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics. These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, or topical creams, and are typically prescribed by healthcare professionals for the treatment of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. It is important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they may have potential side effects and drug interactions.

"Theileria" is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are primarily transmitted by ticks and infect various species of mammals, including cattle, sheep, and humans. Theileria species are known to cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to the diseases they cause, which can result in severe anemia, fever, and even death in infected animals.

Theileria parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: the tick vector and the mammalian host. The parasites infect and multiply within the tick's salivary glands and are transmitted to the mammalian host during feeding. Once inside the host, the parasites invade and multiply within the host's white blood cells, causing a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the species of Theileria involved.

One of the most well-known species of Theileria is Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever in cattle. This disease is highly fatal and can result in mortality rates of up to 90% in infected animals if left untreated. Other notable species include Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in cattle, and Theileria lestoquardi, which infects sheep and goats.

The diagnosis of Theileria infections typically involves the examination of blood smears or other clinical samples using microscopy, as well as molecular techniques such as PCR to identify the specific species of parasite involved. Treatment options for Theileria infections include the use of antiprotozoal drugs such as buparvaquone and halofuginone, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and blood transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures include the use of tick control strategies such as acaricides and vaccination.

Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases and injuries as recorded in bones, mummies, and other archaeological remains. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from pathology, epidemiology, anthropology, and archaeology to understand the health and disease patterns of past populations. The findings of paleopathology can provide valuable insights into the evolution of diseases, the effectiveness of ancient medical practices, and the impact of environmental and social factors on human health over time. Examples of conditions that may be studied in paleopathology include infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis or leprosy), nutritional deficiencies, trauma, cancer, and genetic disorders.

Microsporidia are a group of small, spore-forming, obligate intracellular parasites that were once considered to be primitive protozoans but are now classified within the fungi. They are characterized by a unique infection mechanism called "polysporous invasion," where a single spore can infect multiple host cells and produce numerous progeny spores.

Microsporidia infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. In humans, microsporidiosis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and those undergoing chemotherapy.

The most common Microsporidia species that infect humans are Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, which can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Other species can infect various organs, including the eyes, muscles, and respiratory system, causing a range of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia have a complex life cycle that involves several developmental stages, including spores, meronts, and sporonts. The spores are highly resistant to environmental stresses and can survive for long periods outside the host, facilitating their transmission. Once inside the host cell, the spore releases its infectious contents, including a coiled tubular structure called the polar filament, which penetrates the host cell membrane and injects the parasite's genetic material into the host cytoplasm. The parasite then undergoes rapid multiplication, eventually producing numerous progeny spores that are released into the environment upon host cell lysis.

Microsporidia have been identified as potential bioterrorism agents due to their high infectivity, environmental resistance, and ability to cause severe disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, there are currently no effective vaccines or specific antimicrobial therapies available for microsporidiosis, and treatment is mainly supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and improving immune function.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Totiviridae is a family of non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. The name "Totiviridae" is derived from the Latin word "totus," meaning "complete" or "whole," which refers to the fact that these viruses have a single segment of linear, non-segmented, double-stranded RNA genome.

The genome of Totiviridae viruses is around 4.6-5.3 kilobases in length and encodes two major proteins: the capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The capsid protein forms a icosahedral symmetry capsid that protects the genome, while the RdRp is responsible for replicating the viral genome.

Totiviridae viruses are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring and can establish persistent infections in their hosts. They are not known to cause any significant disease symptoms in their natural hosts, but they can interfere with the host's growth and development. In some cases, Totiviridae viruses have been shown to provide resistance to other viral infections in their hosts.

Overall, Totiviridae viruses are important pathogens in fungi and protozoa, and understanding their biology and interactions with their hosts can provide insights into the development of novel antiviral strategies.

Zinc sulfate is not a medical condition, but a chemical compound. It is often used in medical and health contexts as a dietary supplement or for the treatment of certain medical conditions.

Medical Definition:
Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) is an inorganic salt of zinc with sulfuric acid, available in several hydrated forms. It is a white or colorless crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. In medical applications, it is used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat zinc deficiency, and for the treatment of certain conditions such as Wilson's disease, which involves copper overload, and acrodermatitis enteropathica, a rare inherited disorder of zinc metabolism. Zinc sulfate may also be used topically in ointments or eye drops to aid wound healing and treat various eye conditions.

Trichomonas infection, also known as trichomoniasis, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It primarily affects the urogenital tract and is more common in women than men. The symptoms in women can include vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during sexual intercourse or urination. Many men with trichomoniasis do not develop any symptoms, although some may experience discomfort, burning after urination, or a slight discharge from the penis. If left untreated, trichomoniasis can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of a sample of vaginal or urethral discharge, and treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

Microsporidia are a group of small, obligate intracellular parasites that belong to the kingdom Fungi. They are characterized by their spore stage, which contains a unique infection apparatus called the polar tube or coiled filament. These spores can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects.

In humans, Microsporidia can cause chronic diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. They can also infect various other tissues, including the eye, muscle, and kidney, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia were once considered to be protozoa but are now classified as fungi based on genetic and biochemical evidence. There are over 1,300 species of Microsporidia, with at least 14 species known to infect humans.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Oxytricha" is not a medical term. It is actually a genus of ciliate protozoa, which are commonly found in various aquatic environments. These microorganisms are known for their complex cell structure and movement by means of cilia. If you have any questions regarding biology or another topic, I would be happy to try and help!

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that is a key component of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures where protein synthesis occurs in cells. In ribosomes, rRNA plays a crucial role in the process of translation, where genetic information from messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins.

Ribosomal RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and then transported to the cytoplasm, where it assembles with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Within the ribosome, rRNA provides a structural framework for the assembly of the ribosome and also plays an active role in catalyzing the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids during protein synthesis.

There are several different types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA, which vary in size and function. These rRNA molecules are highly conserved across different species, indicating their essential role in protein synthesis and cellular function.

Parasite load, in medical terms, refers to the total number or quantity of parasites (such as worms, protozoa, or other infectious agents) present in a host organism's body. It is often used to describe the severity of a parasitic infection and can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment plan for the infected individual.

Parasite load can vary widely depending on the type of parasite, the route of infection, the immune status of the host, and other factors. In some cases, even a small number of parasites may cause significant harm if they are highly virulent or located in critical areas of the body. In other cases, large numbers of parasites may be necessary to produce noticeable symptoms.

Measuring parasite load can be challenging, as it often requires specialized laboratory techniques and equipment. However, accurate assessment of parasite load is important for both research and clinical purposes, as it can help researchers develop more effective treatments and allow healthcare providers to monitor the progression of an infection and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Dientamoebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan *Dientamoeba fragilis*. This microscopic organism typically infects the large intestine and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. However, some infected individuals may not show any signs or symptoms at all. The transmission of *Dientamoeba fragilis* occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces. It is essential to maintain good personal hygiene and proper sanitation practices to prevent the spread of this infection.

The medical definition of Dientamoebiasis includes:

1. Infection by the protozoan *Dientamoeba fragilis*
2. Parasitic infestation primarily affecting the large intestine
3. Transmission through ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces
4. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting (though asymptomatic cases also occur)
5. Prevention involves maintaining good personal hygiene and sanitation practices

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

Legionella is the genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that can cause serious lung infections known as legionellosis. The most common species causing disease in humans is Legionella pneumophila. These bacteria are widely found in natural freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. However, they can also be found in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot tubs, decorative fountains, and plumbing systems. When people breathe in small droplets of water containing the bacteria, especially in the form of aerosols or mist, they may develop Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, or Pontiac fever, a milder flu-like illness. The risk of infection increases in individuals with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, older age, and smokers. Appropriate disinfection methods and regular maintenance of water systems can help prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Antibiosis is a type of interaction between different organisms in which one organism, known as the antibiotic producer, produces a chemical substance (known as an antibiotic) that inhibits or kills another organism, called the susceptible organism. This phenomenon was first discovered in bacteria and fungi, where certain species produce antibiotics to inhibit the growth of competing species in their environment.

The term "antibiosis" is derived from Greek words "anti" meaning against, and "biosis" meaning living together. It is a natural form of competition that helps maintain the balance of microbial communities in various environments, such as soil, water, and the human body.

In medical contexts, antibiosis refers to the use of antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthesized artificially that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms. The discovery and development of antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives from bacterial infections that were once fatal.

However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be killed or inhibited by conventional antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that requires urgent attention and action from healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public.

'Euglena gracilis' is a species of unicellular flagellate belonging to the genus Euglena. It is a common freshwater organism, characterized by its elongated, flexible shape and distinct eyespot that allows it to move towards light sources. 'Euglena gracilis' contains chloroplasts for photosynthesis but can also consume other organic matter through phagocytosis, making it a facultative autotroph. It is often used as a model organism in scientific research due to its unique combination of features from both plant and animal kingdoms.

Leishmania braziliensis is a species of protozoan parasite that causes American cutaneous leishmaniasis, also known as "espundia." This disease is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily from the genus Lutzomyia. The infection can lead to skin lesions, ulcers, and scarring, and in some cases, it can disseminate and affect other organs, causing a more severe form of the disease called mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

The parasite's life cycle involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which occurs in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which takes place inside the mammalian host's macrophages. The infection can be diagnosed through various methods, including microscopic examination of tissue samples, culture isolation, or molecular techniques such as PCR. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, or miltefosine, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

A guide RNA (gRNA) is not a type of RNA itself, but rather a term used to describe various types of RNAs that guide other molecules to specific target sites in the genome or transcriptome. The most well-known example of a guide RNA is the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) used in the CRISPR-Cas system for targeted gene editing.

The crRNA contains a sequence complementary to the target DNA or RNA, and it guides the Cas endonuclease to the correct location in the genome where cleavage and modification can occur. Other types of guide RNAs include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to specific mRNA targets for degradation or translational repression.

Overall, guide RNAs play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including gene regulation, genome editing, and defense against foreign genetic elements.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Parabasalidea is not a medical term that refers to a specific condition or disease. Instead, it is a taxonomic category used in the classification of certain types of single-celled organisms known as protozoa. Parabasalidea is a supergroup that includes several orders of parasitic protozoa, such as Trichomonadida and Hypermastigida. These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called the parabasal apparatus, which is involved in various cellular functions including energy metabolism and cell division. Some members of Parabasalidea can be pathogenic in humans, causing diseases such as trichomoniasis.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells, which are characterized by the presence of ribosomes on their cytoplasmic surface. These ribosomes give the RER a "rough" appearance and are responsible for the synthesis of proteins that are destined to be exported from the cell or targeted to various organelles within the cell.

The RER is involved in several important cellular processes, including:

1. Protein folding and modification: Once proteins are synthesized by ribosomes on the RER, they are transported into the lumen of the RER where they undergo folding and modifications such as glycosylation.
2. Quality control: The RER plays a crucial role in ensuring that only properly folded and modified proteins are transported to their final destinations within the cell or exported from the cell. Misfolded or improperly modified proteins are retained within the RER and targeted for degradation.
3. Transport: Proteins that are synthesized on the RER are packaged into vesicles and transported to the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo further modifications and sorting before being transported to their final destinations.

Overall, the rough endoplasmic reticulum is a critical organelle for protein synthesis, folding, modification, and transport in eukaryotic cells.

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is a species of protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, in humans. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly and is endemic to certain regions of East and Southern Africa.

The life cycle of T. b. rhodesiense involves two hosts: the tsetse fly and a mammalian host (such as a human). In the tsetse fly, the parasite undergoes development and multiplication in the midgut, then migrates to the salivary glands where it transforms into the metacyclic trypomastigote stage. When the infected tsetse fly bites a mammalian host, the metacyclic trypomastigotes are injected into the skin and enter the lymphatic system and bloodstream, where they multiply by binary fission as bloodstream trypomastigotes.

The symptoms of African trypanosomiasis caused by T. b. rhodesiense include fever, headache, joint pain, and itching, which may progress to more severe symptoms such as sleep disturbances, confusion, and neurological disorders if left untreated. The disease can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

It is important to note that T. b. rhodesiense is distinct from another subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei called T. b. gambiense, which causes a different form of African trypanosomiasis that is endemic to West and Central Africa.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Eimeriida is an order of coccidian parasites, which are single-celled organisms that infect and multiply within the cells of a host organism. Eimeriida includes several genera of parasites that primarily infect the digestive systems of various animals, including birds, reptiles, and mammals. The most well-known genus in this order is Eimeria, which includes many species that can cause coccidiosis in domestic animals such as chickens, turkeys, and cattle. Coccidiosis is a disease characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased productivity, and it can be fatal in severe cases. Other genera in Eimeriida include Cyclospora, which can cause diarrheal illness in humans, and Isospora, which infects a variety of animals including dogs and cats.

Amebic liver abscess is a medical condition characterized by the presence of a pus-filled cavity (abscess) in the liver caused by the infection of the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite typically enters the body through contaminated food or water and makes its way to the liver, where it can cause tissue damage and abscess formation. The abscess is usually solitary and contains necrotic debris and inflammatory cells, primarily composed of neutrophils. Symptoms may include fever, right upper quadrant pain, and tender hepatomegaly (enlarged liver). If left untreated, amebic liver abscess can lead to serious complications such as perforation of the liver, bacterial superinfection, or spread of the infection to other organs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indian Ocean Islands" is a geographical term referring to the islands located in the Indian Ocean, and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about these islands.

The Indian Ocean Islands include a diverse group of island nations and territories, such as Madagascar, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Réunion (a French territory), and the British Indian Ocean Territory (including the Chagos Archipelago). These islands have unique ecosystems and diverse cultures, with flora and fauna that are often endemic to each island. Some of these islands face challenges in terms of healthcare access, resources, and infrastructure due to their remote locations and smaller populations.

Micropore filters are medical devices used to filter or sterilize fluids and gases. They are made of materials like cellulose, mixed cellulose ester, or polyvinylidene fluoride with precise pore sizes, typically ranging from 0.1 to 10 micrometers in diameter. These filters are used to remove bacteria, fungi, and other particles from solutions in laboratory and medical settings, such as during the preparation of injectable drugs, tissue culture media, or sterile fluids for medical procedures. They come in various forms, including syringe filters, vacuum filters, and bottle-top filters, and are often used with the assistance of a vacuum or positive pressure to force the fluid through the filter material.

Cyclosporiasis is a gastrointestinal infection caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. It is typically acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water. The main symptoms include profuse, watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and fatigue. In some cases, there may also be vomiting, weight loss, and fever. Symptoms can appear anytime from two days to two weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or longer if not treated. The recommended treatment for cyclosporiasis is typically a course of antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra).

Acetylgalactosamine (also known as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or GalNAc) is a type of sugar molecule called a hexosamine that is commonly found in glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to proteins and lipids. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding.

In the context of medical research and biochemistry, Acetylgalactosamine is often used as a building block for synthesizing glycoconjugates, which are molecules that consist of a carbohydrate attached to a protein or lipid. These molecules play important roles in many biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune response.

Acetylgalactosamine is also used as a target for enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which add sugar molecules to proteins and lipids. In particular, Acetylgalactosamine is the acceptor substrate for a class of glycosyltransferases known as galactosyltransferases, which add galactose molecules to Acetylgalactosamine-containing structures.

Defects in the metabolism of Acetylgalactosamine have been linked to various genetic disorders, including Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease, which are characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormal accumulation of glycoproteins in various tissues.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

Sarraceniaceae is a family of carnivorous plants that includes the genera Sarracenia, Darlingtonia, and Heliamphora. These plants are characterized by their passive pitcher-shaped traps, which they use to capture insects as a source of nutrients.

* Sarracenia species, also known as North American pitcher plants, have tubular or funnel-shaped leaves that trap insects in a pool of water at the bottom. The walls of the trap are slippery and often have downward-pointing hairs that prevent the prey from escaping.
* Darlingtonia californica, also known as the cobra lily, has a unique hooded pitcher shape with a forked "tongue" that attracts and traps insects. The lid of the pitcher is perforated, allowing rainwater to enter and drown the prey.
* Heliamphora species, also known as sun pitchers or marsh pitcher plants, are found in South America and have tall, slender pitchers with a wide mouth that trap insects on a slippery surface. The traps contain a digestive fluid that helps break down the captured prey.

Sarraceniaceae plants are native to North and South America and are found in wet, nutrient-poor habitats where they have adapted to supplement their diet with insects.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a specific type of heart disease that is caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is spread through the feces of infected triatomine bugs (also known as "kissing bugs"). The disease is named after Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite in 1909.

In Chagas cardiomyopathy, the infection can lead to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), which can cause damage to the heart over time. This damage can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and stretched, leading to an enlarged heart chamber and reduced pumping ability.
* Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.
* Heart failure: This is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the body.
* Cardiac arrest: In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to sudden cardiac arrest, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in Latin America, where the parasite that causes the disease is endemic. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas cardiomyopathy have been reported in other parts of the world, including the United States. Treatment for Chagas cardiomyopathy typically involves medications to manage symptoms and prevent further complications, as well as lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise modifications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices may be necessary to treat severe complications of the disease.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Trematode infections, also known as trematodiasis or fluke infections, are parasitic diseases caused by various species of flatworms called trematodes. These parasites have an indirect life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts (such as snails or fish) and a definitive host (usually a mammal or bird).

Humans can become accidentally infected when they consume raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, or contaminated water that contains the larval stages of these parasites. The most common trematode infections affecting humans include:

1. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia): Caused by several species of blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.). Adult worms live in the blood vessels, and their eggs can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, such as the liver, intestines, bladder, or lungs.
2. Liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are common liver fluke species that infect humans through contaminated watercress or other aquatic plants. These parasites can cause liver damage, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia (elevated eosinophil count in the blood).
3. Lung flukes: Paragonimus spp. are lung fluke species that infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. These parasites can cause coughing, chest pain, and bloody sputum.
4. Intestinal flukes: Various species of intestinal flukes (e.g., Haplorchis spp., Metagonimus yokogawai) infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish. These parasites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia.
5. Eye fluke: The oriental eye fluke (Drepanotrema spp.) can infect the human eye through contaminated water. It can cause eye inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss.

Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, and their products; practicing good hygiene; and treating drinking water to kill parasites. Treatment typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel, albendazole, or mebendazole, depending on the specific fluke species involved.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Naegleria is a genus of free-living excavate protists, commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It's also found in soil. The most notorious species within this genus is Naegleria fowleri, which is known to cause a rare but often fatal brain infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. This occurs when the amoeba enters the nose and migrates to the brain through the olfactory nerve. It's important to note that this type of infection is extremely rare, but can be deadly if not treated promptly and effectively.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

Encephalitozoon is a genus of intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. The two species that are most relevant to human health are Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (previously known as Septata intestinalis). These microscopic organisms are capable of infecting a wide range of hosts, including humans, and are often associated with opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

E. cuniculi is well-known for causing encephalitozoonosis, a disease that can lead to various symptoms depending on the infected organ. In humans, it primarily affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurological issues such as seizures, cognitive impairment, and motor function loss. E. intestinalis, on the other hand, tends to infect the gastrointestinal tract, causing diarrhea and wasting syndrome.

Transmission of these parasites typically occurs through the ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil. Once inside a host, the spores germinate and invade various cells, including intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. The subsequent infection can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe, life-threatening disease.

Effective treatment for encephalitozoonosis involves the administration of antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or nitazoxanide. In immunocompromised patients, improving immune function through appropriate therapy is also crucial to prevent recurrence and manage the infection effectively.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

Rupil, Lucía Lara; Serradell, Marianela Del Carmen; Luján, Hugo Daniel (January 2020). "Using Protozoan Surface Proteins for ... They are targeting: recombinant proteins, DNA vaccine, variant-specific surface proteins (VSP), cyst wall proteins (CWP), ... "Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins". Nature Communications. 10 ( ... substantial downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. These ...
Roy, Nainita; Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Ranade, Shatakshi; Tatu, Utpal (2012). "Heat shock protein 90 from neglected protozoan ... Protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected bibliography section " ... "Oxidative Folding and Assembly with Transthyretin Are Sequential Events in the Biogenesis of Retinol Binding Protein in the ...
Kutuzov MA, Andreeva AV (October 2008). "Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of parasitic protozoa". Molecular and Biochemical ... Cohen PT (July 1997). "Novel protein serine/threonine phosphatases: variety is the spice of life". Trends in Biochemical ... Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA (1 March 2001). "PPP family of protein Ser/Thr phosphatases: two distinct branches?". Molecular Biology ... Shewanella-like phosphatases, abbreviated as Shelphs, are a group of enzymes structurally related to protein serine/threonine ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Protein pages needing a picture, Toll-like receptors, LRR proteins). ... Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders. ... Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice and rats is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Upon activation, TLRs recruit adaptor proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of ... These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein ... IRAK kinases then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF6, which in turn polyubiquinates the protein TAK1, as well as ...
Kuźnicki J, Kuźnicki L, Drabikowski W (Jan 1979). "Ca2+-binding modulator protein in protozoa and myxomycete". Cell Biology ... G-protein coupled receptor 97 also known as adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3) is a protein that in humans is ... Gupte J, Swaminath G, Danao J, Tian H, Li Y, Wu X (Apr 2012). "Signaling property study of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors ... "Entrez Gene: GPR97 G protein-coupled receptor 97". Hamann J, Aust G, Araç D, Engel FB, Formstone C, Fredriksson R, Hall RA, ...
Entry signals have been found in ciliary/flagellar proteins of the protozoans Leishmania and Trypanosoma. The RVxP motif was ... Proteins employed in the cilia are targeted there when they bear specific entry signals, whereas proteins not situated in cilia ... RVxP motif is a protein motif involved in localizing proteins into cilia. Cilia are sensory organelle of cells, whose ... "Regulation of ciliary retrograde protein trafficking by the Joubert syndrome proteins ARL13B and INPP5E". Journal of Cell ...
... or a protozoan parasite. After finding the target protein in the bacterium (or protozoan parasite), one could design small ... 2002). "Dip, the database of interacting proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions". ... w is personalized to proteins; w is larger for those proteins that appear in higher concentrations in the proteomics analysis ... The reason for this is that some already known, important protein targets do not have a high degree (are not hubs) and also, ...
TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein. Science 308: 1626-1629. Lee, K.-Y., D'Acquisto, F., ... Fenwick, C., Na, S-Y., Voll, R.E., Zhong, H., Im, S-Y., Lee, J.W. and Ghosh, S. (2000) A sub-class of Ras proteins that ... Ghosh's research led to the first cloning and characterization of NF-κB and IkB proteins, including the demonstration of the ... Initiation factors in eukaryotic protein synthesis. Sue Golding Graduate Division of Medical Sciences, Albert Einstein College ...
The proteins of the SWEET family have been found in plants, animals, protozoans, and bacteria. Eukaryotic family members have 7 ... Additionally, protein levels were shown to be maternally controlled: in a sweet11;12;15 mutant crossed with a wild-type plant, ... Proteins of the SWEET family appear to catalyze facilitated diffusion (entry or export) of sugars across the plant plasma ... The team noticed that mRNA and protein for SWEETs 11, 12, and 15 are each expressed at high levels during some stage of embryo ...
Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... and heme-bearing protein subunits bound together into a single protein complex with a molecular mass greater than 3.5 million ... Improperly degraded hemoglobin protein or hemoglobin that has been released from the blood cells too rapidly can clog small ...
2012-02-15). "A MAP6-related protein is present in protozoa and is involved in flagellum motility". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31344. ... Microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) or stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP or STOP protein) is a protein that in humans is ... A MAP6-related protein, TbSAXO, has been discovered in Trypanosoma brucei. The domains of the protein responsible for ... This gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). The encoded protein is a calmodulin binding, and calmodulin-regulated ...
... (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to ... VSG dimers make up ~90% of all cell surface protein and ~10% of total cell protein.[citation needed] For this reason, these ... The VSG proteins in T. equiperdum are also phosphorylated. A VSG gene from Trypanosoma evansi, a parasite that causes a form of ... The smallest VSG protein (40 kDa in size) to date (1996) has been found in Trypanosoma vivax, which bears little carbohydrate. ...
Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Surfactant protein A (SP-A) Surfactant protein D (SP-D) CL-L1 CL-P1 CL-K1 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) PGLYRP1 ... Royet J, Gupta D, Dziarski R (December 2011). "Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: modulators of the microbiome and ... proteins Amyloid SAP SAA Positive Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin Alpha 1-antitrypsin Alpha 2-macroglobulin C-reactive protein ...
Later studies show TCTP involvement in a protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. TCTP is a 20-25 kDa protein abundantly and ubiquitously ... Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPT1 gene. TPT1 is mapped to ... Many of these protein-protein interactions have been validated, albeit only few received an in-depth structural ... TCTP in the human is a growth-related, calcium-binding protein. Translationally controlled tumor protein was first discovered ...
The pellicle structure in the protist is a thin layer of protein that helps provide the cell with some support and protection. ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Some protozoa are photoautotrophic protists. These protists include strict aerobes, and use photosystems I and II in order to ... Protozoa are chemoorganotrophic protists and have three different ways of acquiring nutrients. The first method of acquiring ...
... linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. ... This protein domain contains 120 amino acids. There is a fold within this structure which is conserved amongst SRS proteins, ... linked proteins (SRSs), of which SAG1 is the prototypic member. SAG1 and the rest of the SRS protein family mediate cell ... The structure of this fold is analogous to the topology of the cupredoxin, azurin, a form of copper binding protein. He XL, ...
Individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. ... Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each ... These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY ... VQ proteins appear to bind the WRKY domain, thus inhibiting protein-DNA interactions. At least one WRKY transcription factor, ...
The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium ... E protein plays a role in binding to receptor and could play a role in evading the host immune system. It has three major ... Many of the proteins known to show antigenic or phase variation are related to virulence. Antigenic variation in bacteria is ...
Sacerdoti-Sierra N, Jaffe CL (December 1997). "Release of ecto-protein kinases by the protozoan parasite Leishmania major". The ... The AD hallmark proteins tau in NFTs or GVBs and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in GVBs colocalize with CK1δ. In ... Meanwhile, CK1δ homologous proteins have been isolated from organisms like yeast, basidiomycetes, plants, algae, and protozoa. ... So far, C-terminal phosphorylation of CK1δ by upstream kinases has been confirmed for protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B ...
... protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection or colonization that does not and will ... The microorganisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and ...
Its rapid killing abilities are used to quickly kill live specimens such as protozoa. OsO4 stabilizes many proteins by ... Tissue proteins that are stabilized by OsO4 are not coagulated by alcohols during dehydration. Osmium(VIII) oxide is also used ...
Merozoite surface proteins, or MSPs, are important in understanding malaria, a disease caused by protozoans of the genus ... Merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP-1 & MSP-2) are the most abundant (GPI)-anchored proteins on the surface of Plasmodium ... Merozoite /ˌmɛrəˈzoʊˌaɪt/ surface proteins are both integral and peripheral membrane proteins found on the surface of a ... Additional forms include integral membrane proteins and peripherally associated proteins, which are found to a lesser extent ...
Studies show biological effects with Gram-positive bacteria and even in infection by the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. The N- ... Bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a 456-residue (~50kDa) protein that is part of the innate immune system, ... NRC-1 GvpC protein was bound to the surface of gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) and tested for protective activity using a ... bactericidal+permeability+increasing+protein at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e ( ...
In euglenids, the pellicle is formed from protein strips arranged spirally along the length of the body. Familiar examples of ... Protozoa (SG: protozoan or protozoon; alternative plural: protozoans) are a polyphyletic group of single-celled eukaryotes, ... Some protozoa attach to the substrate or form cysts so they do not move around (sessile). Most sessile protozoa are able to ... The Protozoa in this scheme were paraphyletic, because it excluded some descendants of Protozoa. The continued use by some of ...
During his days at Public Health Research Institute, Sharma was successful in cloning the knob protein gene of Plasmodium ... another non-cultivable protozoan parasite, as well as the development of a genomic library of Plasmodium vivax. It was his ... "Genetic diversity in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1(42)) among Indian ... falciparum, one of the protozoan parasites causing malaria, in 1984. At AIIMS, he led a group of researchers who carried out ...
... protozoan and parasite growth seems to depend on their interaction with proteins and/or on their membrane-disturbing properties ...
... protozoa, and higher eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the three groups of domain arrangements were acquired and ... Regardless of which protein comes first, this fusion protein may show similar function. Thus, if a fusion between two proteins ... Find insertion sites for other proteins. Inserting one protein as a domain into another protein can be useful. For instance, ... Jung J, Lee B (September 2001). "Circularly permuted proteins in the protein structure database". Protein Science. 10 (9): 1881 ...
... protozoa and plants. Proteins containing the domain are induced by many environmental stressors such as nutrient starvation, ... 2008). "The crystal structure of an universal stress protein UspA family protein from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1". Protein ... Aravind suggested that these proteins were part of a much larger protein structural family which was present and diversified in ... implications for protein evolution in the RNA". Protein. 48 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1002/prot.10064. PMID 12012333. S2CID 32908067.. ...
... and protein. Although protozoa are not essential for rumen functioning, their presence has pronounced effects. Ruminal fungi ... Microbes in the reticulorumen include bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Bacteria, along with protozoa, are the ... and protein, respectively. Protozoa (40-60% of microbial mass) derive their nutrients through phagocytosis of other microbes, ... Protein encoding genes that encode for bacterial cell functions, such as aguA, ptb, K01188, and murD, also are associated with ...
... which has recently been shown to recognize a profilin-like protein homologous to rEA from the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. ... A protein antigen from an Eimeria protozoan has recently been reported to induce antitumor activity in mice. This activity most ... A protein antigen from an Eimeria protozoan has recently been reported to induce antitumor activity in mice. This activity most ... Recombinant Eimeria protozoan protein elicits resistance to acute phlebovirus infection in mice but not hamsters Antimicrob. ...
This is the first iso-enzyme and the second protein analysis to indicate strain differences in B. hominis. ... Protozoan Proteins * Malate Dehydrogenase * malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) * Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase * ... This is the first iso-enzyme and the second protein analysis to indicate strain differences in B. hominis. ...
... group E gene which encodes a UV-damaged DNA binding protein. The repE gene maps to chromosome 4 and it is the first gene ... DDB1 protein, human * DNA-Binding Proteins * Fungal Proteins * Protozoan Proteins * RNA, Messenger ... The predicted protein encodes a leucine zipper motif. The repE gene is not expressed by mitotically dividing cells, and repE ... group E gene which encodes a UV-damaged DNA binding protein. The repE gene maps to chromosome 4 and it is the first gene ...
Rupil, Lucía Lara; Serradell, Marianela Del Carmen; Luján, Hugo Daniel (January 2020). "Using Protozoan Surface Proteins for ... They are targeting: recombinant proteins, DNA vaccine, variant-specific surface proteins (VSP), cyst wall proteins (CWP), ... "Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins". Nature Communications. 10 ( ... substantial downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and upregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. These ...
Protein Protozoan/bacterial hemoglobin [46460] (6 species). *. Species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HbN [TaxId:1773] [63437] (8 ... PDB Compounds: (A:) Hemoglobin-like protein HbN. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1s56a_:. Sequence; same for both SEQRES and ATOM ... Class a: All alpha proteins [46456] (290 folds). *. Fold a.1: Globin-like [46457] (2 superfamilies). core: 6 helices; folded ... Family a.1.1.1: Truncated hemoglobin [46459] (2 proteins). lack the first helix (A). ...
Fernández-Robledo JA, Vasta GR (2010) Production of recombinant proteins from protozoan parasites. Trends Parasitol 26:244-254 ... Studier FW (2005) Protein production by auto-induction in high density shaking cultures. Protein Expr Purif 41:207-234 ... Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas ... A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye ...
Two proteins of 80 and 95 kDa copurified and coimmunoprecipitated with telomerase activity and the previously identified ... We describe the purification of telomerase and the cloning of cDNAs encoding two protein subunits from the ciliate Tetrahymena ... At the primary sequence level, the two telomerase proteins share only limited homologies with other polymerases and polymerase ... Protozoan Proteins/genetics. , Genes. , Protozoan/genetics. , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase/genetics. Citation. Reprinted from ...
New Insights on Cytoskeleton Proteins in Protozoan Parasites edited by Mélanie Bonhivers and Karine Frenal ... Conformational Landscape and Dynamics of G Protein-Coupled Receptors edited by Libin Ye ... Function, Regulation, and Dysfunction of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins edited by Stefano Gianni ...
In this review we summarize the latest insights into protein lipidation in protozoan parasites. We discuss how recent chemical ... Starch binding domain-containing protein 1 (Stbd1) is a carbohydrate-binding protein that has been proposed to be a selective ... tipifarnib did not increase the expression levels of Rho proteins.Conclusions.Our study demonstrates the importance of protein ... Infections by protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum or Leishmania donovani, have a significant health, social and ...
... a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. ... It was initially mistaken for a trypanosome and then later for a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic ... composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoan ...
... a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. ... It was initially mistaken for a trypanosome and then later for a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic ... composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoan ...
Structure of the R2R3 DNA binding domain of MYB1 protein from protozoan parasite trichomonas vaginalis in complex with MRE-1/ ... Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SANT domain in the selected ... Solution NMR structure of the R2R3 DNA binding domain of Myb1 protein from protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. ... STRUCTURE OF MYB TRANSFORMING PROTEIN, NMR, MINIMIZED AVERAGE STRUCTURE. 1idz. STRUCTURE OF MYB TRANSFORMING PROTEIN, NMR, 20 ...
Firmino Torres de Castro, he worked with the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. ...
Lysine acetylation is widespread on proteins of diverse function and localization in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii ... protein-protein interactions (Nishi et al., 2011), and protein stability (Amm et al., 2014) and activity (Kapoor and Lozano, ... lysine acetylation and protein quality control. Indeed, many proteins involved in protein quality control and ERAD (such as ... Monomeric proteins are preferentially degraded by the proteasome through the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway ( ...
The first phase involves elucidating the three-dimensional structure of parasitic protozoan proteins that are potential drug ... This method involves designing drugs for the target protein by analyzing and comparing the structure of various compounds and ... The target of this research is infectious diseases caused by parasitic protozoans, namely leishmaniasis※3, Chagas disease※4 and ... The second phase consists of the structural analysis of target proteins in complex with the inhibitory compound. ...
The MB2 protein has an amino-terminal basic domain, a central acidic domain, and a carboxyl-terminal domain with similarity to ... The MB2 protein is distributed as a approximately 120-kDa moiety on the surface of sporozoites and is imported into the nucleus ... Proteolytic processing is favored as the mechanism regulating the distinct subcellular localization of the MB2 protein. This ... The single-exon, single-copy MB2 gene is predicted to encode a protein with an M(r) of 187,000. ...
A comparison of their known functions has identified, besides a common role within protein folding, multiple roles for the ... class of proteins is present in all known eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, and it is comprised of three member families ... and cyclosporin-binding protein) in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii [1] and the identification of three further ... protein vs. protein) and TBLASTN (protein against DNA sequence) searches [146] on all genomes except for that of R. oryzae, ...
Protozoan Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors", ... The crystal structure of the parasite protein has been solved ... The crystal structure of the parasite protein has been solved and shows prospects for design of inhibitors to be used as leads ... The crystal structure of the parasite protein has been solved and shows prospects for design of inhibitors to be used as leads ... The crystal structure of the parasite protein has been solved and shows prospects for design of inhibitors to be used as leads ...
After CRISPR-mediated targeting of the peroxidase APEX2 to a genomic locus of interest, the proteins at that locus are labeled ... and quantitative proteomics to discover proteins associated with a specific genomic locus in native cellular contexts. ... Regulation of gene expression is primarily controlled by changes in the proteins that occupy genes regulatory elements. We ... Long non-coding RNAs as possible therapeutic targets in protozoa, and in Schistosoma and other helminths *Gilbert O. Silveira ...
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.. Annotation:. /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; /physiol permitted for function ... within the protozoon; coord IM with specific protein (IM) + specific protozoon (IM). ... Protozoan Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0024201. Scope note. Proteins found in any species of protozoan. ...
keywords = "ATP-dependent RNA helicases, DEAD-box proteins, Helicase C domain, Protozoan proteins, Trypanosoma brucei, ZC3H41", ... The protein crystals were optimized at a 1:1 protein:reservoir solution ratio using PPGBA 2000. The optimized crystals ... The protein crystals were optimized at a 1:1 protein:reservoir solution ratio using PPGBA 2000. The optimized crystals ... The protein crystals were optimized at a 1:1 protein:reservoir solution ratio using PPGBA 2000. The optimized crystals ...
Protozoan Proteins * RNA, Messenger * RNA, Protozoan * Rna Editing * Rna, Guide, Kinetoplastida * Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei ...
Analysis of protein post-translational modifications revealed extensive phosphorylation of glideosome proteins as well as ... our analysis identified several as-yet uncharacterized proteins, including a putative 6-Cys protein with no known ortholog ... Additionally, the sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP, which were recently discovered to be glycosylated in P. falciparum ... Finally, we employed chemical labeling of live sporozoites to isolate and identify 36 proteins that are putatively surface- ...
MSP-7 is a surface protein expressed by the Plasmodium merozoite as part of a protein-complex involved in initial interaction ... Protozoan proteins. spa. dc.subject.keyword. Selection. eng. dc.subject.keyword. Sequence alignment. spa. ... MSP-7 is a surface protein expressed by the Plasmodium merozoite as part of a protein-complex involved in initial interaction ... Differential expansion of the merozoite surface protein (msp)-7 gene family in Plasmodium species under a birth-and-death model ...
Protozoan Proteins, Antibodies, Protozoan, Antigens, Protozoan, Antigenic Variation, Gene Expression Regulation, Infant, Infant ... Prevalence of group A Streptococcus in primary care patients and the utility of C-reactive protein and clinical scores for its ... Causes of fever in primary care in Southeast Asia and the performance of C-reactive protein in discriminating bacterial from ... Effect of point-of-care C-reactive protein testing on antibiotic prescription in febrile patients attending primary care in ...
Engagement of the highly polymorphic domain II of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein (DBPII) with the erythrocytes Duffy Ag ... Protozoan Proteins, Antibodies, Blocking, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antigens, Protozoan, Antibody Specificity, Immunologic Memory ... Prevalence of group A Streptococcus in primary care patients and the utility of C-reactive protein and clinical scores for its ... Engagement of the highly polymorphic domain II of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein (DBPII) with the erythrocytes Duffy Ag ...
They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. They need to use another cells structures ... Protozoa. Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. But they are bigger than bacteria and ... For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. Some protozoa are ... Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive ...
... proteins and carbohydrates. Explore pancreatic enzymes, enzyme insufficiency, and enzyme supplement tips. ... Proteases break down proteins. They help keep the intestine free of parasites such as bacteria, yeast and protozoa. ... Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates. A normally functioning pancreas secretes about 8 cups of ... Allergies or the formation of toxic substances due to incomplete digestion of proteins. ...
  • Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the dominant protein on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites and plays a critical role in the invasion by sporozoites of hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Efforts to knock out Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 ( Pf CDPK1) from asexual erythrocytic stage have not been successful, indicating an indispensable role of the enzyme in asexual growth. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the known protozoan AQPs, such as those of the Plasmodium species, of T. brucei and, in part, of Leishmania species clearly fall into the branch of aquaglyceroporins represented by the prototypical E. coli GlpF. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical trials involving the two leading adjuvanted malaria vaccines directed to the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) are ongoing. (medscimonit.com)
  • We have developed the Antibody-free Dual-biomarker Rapid Enrichment Workflow (AnDREW) for purifying histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (PLDH) from large volume (150 μL) blood samples. (duke.edu)
  • Programmes to control Plasmodium falciparum, the protozoan responsible for the deadliest form of malaria, have fizzled out recently as chloroquine-resistant strains have spread across Asia, Africa and the American tropics. (newscientist.com)
  • A similar dose response for the probability of infection was seen for humans given a pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate targeting circumsporozoite protein (CSP), and in mice with and without transfusion of anti-CSP antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Frequency of circumsporozoite protein was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The goal of my laboratory is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that account for host resistance to protozoan parasites. (rochester.edu)
  • Our approach has been multidisciplinary, ranging from the creation of new mouse models with altered innate immune functions, to detailed biochemical and structural analyses of TLRs involved in recognition of protozoan parasites. (rochester.edu)
  • Moreover, the accessible protein structures at the pore mouth are substantially dissimilar compared with human AQPs, a factor that would facilitate the targeting of parasites' AQPs by small molecules - possibly specific and potent AQP-inhibitory drugs. (medscape.com)
  • We had discovered that protozoan parasites contain the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase," he says. (autm.net)
  • We were working on the hypothesis that protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors might work against parasites," Buckner says. (autm.net)
  • Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are important human pathogens that differentiate inside host macrophages into an amastigote life cycle stage. (hal.science)
  • Some protozoa are parasites. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive. (kidshealth.org)
  • ATS, US CDC, and IDSA Recommendations:Streptomycin and Neomycin act by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome leading to inhibition of protein synthesis and death in susceptible bacteria. (rebelfun.eu)
  • The term "germs" refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Protozoa (pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Reduced binding correlates with the altered display of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), the parasite's major cytoadherence ligand and virulence factor on the erythrocyte surface. (duke.edu)
  • A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria ( MALARIA, FALCIPARUM ). (lookformedical.com)
  • Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. (nih.gov)
  • [ 67 , 68 ] This presents the opportunities for antiparasitic drug development since various genes coding for AQP water and solute channels have been identified in protozoan genomes. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent genomic sequence analysis of multiple genes including elongation factor 3, a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. (medscape.com)
  • Previously, researchers in other laboratories had identified the genes responsible for producing human telomerase RNA and one telomerase-associated human protein, but careful studies of these genes revealed that neither could explain the regulation of telomerase activity: expression of the genes does not correlate with observed levels of telomerase activity in normal or cancerous cells. (mit.edu)
  • The main difficulty in isolating telomerase proteins has been that even when telomerase genes are turned on full blast, the quantity of telomerase in a human cell is vanishingly small," Dr. Weinberg said. (mit.edu)
  • The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts. (umassmed.edu)
  • Most protein-coding genes are organized in large directional gene clusters, which are transcribed polycistronically by RNA polymerase II (pol II) with subsequent processing to generate mature mRNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The researchers then found where the protein encoded by the gene occurred in the parasite by using specially prepared antibodies that bind to it. (newscientist.com)
  • The foliage of some tree legumes has been shown to be selectively toxic to rumen protozoa. (cambridge.org)
  • The research evaluated the potential of forest plants to improve protein efficiency through inhibiting rumen protozoa, known for adversely affecting feed-conversion ratios. (cgiar.org)
  • Protozoa love moisture, so intestinal infections and other diseases they cause, such as amebiasis and giardiasis, often spread through contaminated water. (kidshealth.org)
  • Transcriptional Profiling Suggests T Cells Cluster around Neurons Injected with Toxoplasma gondii Proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinanat Toxoplasma gondii is an Escherichia coli -derived recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 24-100 of Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 7, also known as 29 kDa excretory dense granule protein, p29/GRA7 or p29. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica , a DNA methyltransferase has been identified and treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, has been reported to attenuate parasite virulence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exquisite specificity of human protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) toward Arg-X-Arg sites. (ucla.edu)
  • Indeed, owing to the presence of multiple domains TSN protein can interact with nucleic acids, individual proteins and protein complexes in a promiscuous manner. (nature.com)
  • We address this gap by utilizing our T. gondii-Cre system that allows permanent marking and tracking of neurons injected with parasite effector proteins in vivo Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) and RNA sequencing using RNA-seq, we isolated and transcriptionally profiled T. gondii-injected neurons (TINs), Bystander neurons (nearby non-T. gondii-injected neurons), and neurons from uninfected mice (controls). (nih.gov)
  • Western blotting showed that both proteins could react with sera from E. granulosus-infected sheep, dog, and mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular cold-adaptation: Comparative analysis of two homologous families of psychrophilic and mesophilic signal proteins of the protozoan ciliate, Euplotes" IUBMB Life 61, 838-845 (2009). (bmrb.io)
  • Each of these processes is in turn controlled by a highly dedicated repertoire of proteins. (nature.com)
  • Through secretion of a repertoire of proteins on to the parasite surface or translocated into the host cell compartment, the schizont fine tunes host cell signalling pathways to create an infected leukocyte with cancer-like properties 8 . (nature.com)
  • for now we are going to retain the other MeSH descriptors with the word "Protozoan. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins found in any species of protozoan. (bvsalud.org)
  • This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species. (lookformedical.com)
  • In a paper published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry in 2011 we established that TLR11, a protozoan protein sensor, has an intracellular localization that is controlled by a chaperone protein, Unc93B1. (rochester.edu)
  • Although this stage causes the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis, only few proteins have been implicated in amastigote intracellular survival. (hal.science)
  • Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. (lookformedical.com)
  • The vast majority of new descriptors treed under Eukaryota comprise most of the organisms that were previously treed under the old Protozoa. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic names. (nih.gov)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing SANT domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Proteins identified by MS analysis include the anti-oxidant enzyme tryparedoxin peroxidase, and enzymes implicated in protein and amino acid metabolism. (hal.science)
  • The telomerase enzyme is a complex structure containing multiple proteins and an RNA molecule (RNA is a chemical cousin of DNA and, in this case, acts as a template for the production of new telomere segments). (mit.edu)
  • These virulence factors include a protein that can form a hole in the intestinal wall of the host, a protein-dissolving enzyme (protease), a glycocalyx that covers the surface of the protozoan, and a toxin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was initially mistaken for a trypanosome and then later for a protozoan. (medscape.com)
  • Identification and characterization of two trypanosome TFIIS proteins exhibiting particular domain architectures and differential nuclear localizations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Repetitive failure to generate a double knockout of TbTFIIS1 and TbTFIIS2-1 strongly suggests synthetical lethality and thus an essential function shared by the two proteins in trypanosome growth. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ABSTRACT In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. (who.int)
  • The study shows the usefulness of proteomics in identifying proteins that may express differences between sensitive and resistant L. tropica isolates. (who.int)
  • This research included the study of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and its role in both the activation of Ca2+-dep. (iup.edu)
  • Owing to its high protein-protein binding affinity coexistent with enzymatic activity, TSN can exert its biochemical function by acting as both a scaffolding molecule of large multiprotein complexes and/or as a nuclease. (nature.com)
  • The retroviral oncogene v-myb, and its cellular counterpart c-myb, encode nuclear DNA-binding proteins. (embl.de)
  • This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact allergy based on the concept of hapten-protein binding and (ii) mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein-energy undernutrition (PEU), previously called protein-energy malnutrition, is an energy deficit due to deficiency of all macronutrients, but primarily protein. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is suggested that facilitation of glycoprotein folding mediated by the interaction of monoglucosylated oligosaccharides with calnexin is essential for cell viability under conditions of extreme ER stress such as underglycosylation of proteins caused by the alg6 mutation and high temperature. (rupress.org)
  • Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that invades human intestine leading to ulceration and destruction of tissue. (pasteur.fr)
  • Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscesses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The descriptor Protozoa, formerly under Invertebrates, was deleted because it has become an outmoded phylogenetic concept. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning of the EhracG gene and analysis of the protein activity either in murine fibroblasts or in E. histolytica revealed that EhRacG induces a characteristic Rac phenotype. (pasteur.fr)
  • SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS . (lookformedical.com)
  • In the Kcne2 potassium channel ancillary subunit knockout model, disruption of this gene induces achlorhydria and is related to reduced parietal cell protein secretion and abnormal parietal cell morphology. (medscape.com)
  • Results from in vivo experiments have clearly shown that duodenal flow of both undegraded dietary and bacterial protein is generally increased by defaunation. (cambridge.org)
  • Streptomycin belongs to the family of aminoglycoside antibiotics, and inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis. (rebelfun.eu)
  • He has worked for years with a group of chemists led by Michael Gelb to develop compounds to treat infectious diseases caused by protozoan pathogens. (autm.net)
  • We have also shown that this frequency also has a circadian component as well that is altered when the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 is inhibited. (iup.edu)
  • Image analysis of the matched maps identified 7 proteins that were either over- or down-expressed: activated protein kinase c receptor (LACK), alpha tubulin (×2), prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase, protein disulfide isomerase, vesicular transport protein and a hypothetical protein. (who.int)
  • Giardiasis is caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • TSN is an evolutionarily conserved protein having a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. (nature.com)
  • Eukaryotic gene expression is a cumulative outcome of a multitude of molecular processes, including transcription, mRNA splicing, stability and translation, chromatin modification, as well as protein stability and modification. (nature.com)
  • However, one protein, Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (TSN, also known as Tudor-SN, SND1 or p100) appears to act in most of the gene expression pathways. (nature.com)
  • Only the T. gondii AQP gene contains a putative in-frame intron of 87 bp close to the 5´-end, which codes for the N-terminal cytosolic protein part. (medscape.com)
  • Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure. (lookformedical.com)
  • The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. (lookformedical.com)
  • Nairobi, Kenya, 8 July 2020 - More than 60% of protein fed to ruminant animals is excreted in the form of waste. (cgiar.org)
  • Together with a number of so far uncharacterized AQPs from Leishmania major and T. cruzi, the Coccidian AQPs are the closest to the water-specific TIPs (tonoplast intrinsic proteins) from plants, represented in the phylogenetic tree by the Arabidopsis thaliana g-TIP1. (medscape.com)
  • Réponse immunitaire anti-TRAP (thrombospondin related adhesive protein) et morbidité palustre dans une zone d' hyperendémie palustre du Mali (Afrique de l' ouest) / présentée par Amagana Dolo. (who.int)
  • They discovered the protein exactly where a resistance protein would occur-on the protozoan's outer membrane, where it could block chloroquine, and on the membrane of a vacuole where nutrients and waste products accumulate, which is where chloroquine attacks susceptible strains of malaria. (newscientist.com)
  • In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic acid composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoan. (medscape.com)
  • Microbial protein turnover due to protozoal predation in the rumen may result in the net microbial protein outflow being less than half the total protein synthesized. (cambridge.org)
  • Most SNP detected in this study were clustered within a region in the cytosolic head of the protein. (hal.science)
  • This protein belongs to the Rac subfamily of small GTPases implicated in interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane of mammalian cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • While looking for regulators of capping and uroid formation, we identified RacG, an E. histolytica protein that is homologous to human Rac1. (pasteur.fr)
  • Conservation along significant evolutionary distance, from protozoa to plants and animals, suggests important physiological functions for TSN. (nature.com)
  • When expressed in amoebae, an EhRacG-V12 mutant protein not only deregulated cell polarity, but also caused a defect in cytokinesis. (pasteur.fr)
  • Protein Methylation and Translation: Role of Lysine Modification on the Function of Yeast Elongation Factor 1A. (ucla.edu)