Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
An order of parasitic EUKARYOTES typically having four to six flagella. True cysts are known in very few species. Trichomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A species of flagellate parasitic EUKARYOTE. It possesses a long undulating membrane that is bordered on its outer margin by a flagellum that becomes free posteriorly. This organism causes infections in cows that could lead to temporary infertility or abortion.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Gastrointestinal infection with organisms of the genus DIENTAMOEBA.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A group (or phylum) of flagellated, anaerobic EUKARYOTES that are endosymbionts of animals. They lack mitochondria but contain small energy-producing hydrogenosomes. The group is comprised of two major classes: HYPERMASTIGIA and TRICHOMONADIDA.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Kinetoplast DNA minicircles of Leishmania donovani express a protein product. (1/7816)

We describe an unprecedented finding of an open reading frame present in the variable region in one of the minicircle sequence classes of a human pathogenic strain of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/90/RMRI 68) which is transcribed and translated. The encoded protein showed homologies to known transport proteins.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (2/7816)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (3/7816)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

The involvement of gRNA-binding protein gBP21 in RNA editing-an in vitro and in vivo analysis. (4/7816)

RNA editing in the parasitic organism Trypanosoma brucei is characterised by the insertion and deletion of uridylate residues into otherwise incomplete primary transcripts. The processing reaction is a required pathway for the expression of most mitochondrial genes and proceeds by a cascade of enzyme-catalysed steps. RNA editing involves one or more macromolecular ribonucleoprotein complexes which are likely to interact with additional components as the reaction proceeds. Here we examined the involvement of the gRNA-binding polypeptide gBP21, a protein which has been demonstrated to be associated with active RNA editing complexes. We show that in vitro RNA editing can be suppressed by the addition of a gBP21-specific antibody or by immunodepletion of the protein. By creating a gBP21 knockout mutant we analysed the requirement for the protein in vivo. gBP21(-) trypanosomes are viable as bloodstream stage cells and contain edited mRNAs. However, the knockout mutant is not capable of differentiating from the bloodstream to the insect life cycle stage in vitro. Moreover, mutant cells are characterised by a low mitochondrial transcript abundance. Together, these data establish that gBP21 contributes a non-essential function to the RNA editing reaction and further suggest that the protein is involved in additional mitochondrial processes which impact a larger pool of mitochondrial transcripts.  (+info)

Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins. (5/7816)

5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO.  (+info)

Expression of a Hox gene, Cnox-2, and the division of labor in a colonial hydroid. (6/7816)

We report the isolation and expression of the Hox gene, Cnox-2, in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a hydrozoan displaying division of labor. We found different patterns of aboral-to-oral Cnox-2 expression among polyp polymorphs, and we show that experimental conversion of one polyp type to another is accompanied by concordant alteration in Cnox-2 expression. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that polyp polymorphism, characteristic of hydractiniid hydroids, arose via evolutionary modification of proportioning of head to body column.  (+info)

Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum expresses a high affinity facilitative hexose transporter. (7/7816)

Asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum cause severe malaria and are dependent upon host glucose for energy. We have identified a glucose transporter of P. falciparum (PfHT1) and studied its function and expression during parasite development in vitro. PfHT1 is a saturable, sodium-independent, and stereospecific transporter, which is inhibited by cytochalasin B, and has a relatively high affinity for glucose (Km = 0.48 mM) when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Competition experiments with glucose analogues show that hydroxyl groups at positions C-3 and C-4 are important for ligand binding. mRNA levels for PfHT1, assessed by the quantitative technique of tandem competitive polymerase chain reaction, are highest during the small ring stages of infection and lowest in gametocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localizes PfHT1 to the region of the parasite plasma membrane and not to host structures. These findings have implications for development of new drug targets in malaria as well as for understanding of the pathophysiology of severe infection. When hypoglycemia complicates malaria, modeling studies suggest that the high affinity of PfHT1 is likely to increase the relative proportion of glucose taken up by parasites and thereby worsen the clinical condition.  (+info)

Induction of CD8+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (8/7816)

Trypanosoma cruzi was transformed with the Plasmodium yoelii gene encoding the circum-sporozoite (CS) protein, which contains the well-characterized CD8+ T cell epitope, SYVPSAEQI. In vivo and in vitro assays indicated that cells infected with the transformed T. cruzi could process and present this malaria parasite-derived class I MHC-restricted epitope. Immunization of mice with recombinant influenza and vaccinia viruses expressing the SYVPSAEQI epitope induced a large number of specific CD8+ T cells that strongly suppressed parasitemia and conferred complete protection against the acute T. cruzi lethal infection. CD8+ T cells mediated this immunity as indicated by the unrelenting parasitemia and high mortality observed in immunized mice treated with anti-CD8 antibody. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that vaccination of mice with vectors designed to induce CD8+ T cells is effective against T. cruzi infection.  (+info)

Vol 9: Diversifying Selection on the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP) Gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractSporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are transmitted to human hosts by A. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane. On electron microscopy they have an electron-dense matrix due to the high protein content. They are specialized secretory organelles important for gliding motility and host cell invasion. These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and facilitating erythrocyte entry. Only by this initial chemical exchange can the parasite enter into the erythrocyte via actin-myosin motor complex. It has been posited that this organelle works cooperatively with its counterpart organelle, the rhoptry, which also is a secretory organelle. It is possible that, while the microneme initiates erythrocyte-binding, the rhoptry secretes ...
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4F1K: Structure of Plasmodium falciparum TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) A domain highlights distinct features in apicomplexan von Willebrand factor A homologues.
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The gene product of the cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 (clag9) (64) was used as a second rhoptry-specific marker. CLAG9 was previously localized exclusively to the bulb of the rhoptry (31). The distribution of CLAG9 predominantly overlaps with that of RALP1 (Fig. 5B). In contrast, the apical distribution of RALP1 was clearly distinct from that of the micronemal marker proteins EBA-175 and EBA-181 (19, 53) (Fig. 5C and D). Together, these findings establish RALP1 as a novel rhoptry-resident protein. ...
The gene product of the cytoadherence-linked asexual gene 9 (clag9) (64) was used as a second rhoptry-specific marker. CLAG9 was previously localized exclusively to the bulb of the rhoptry (31). The distribution of CLAG9 predominantly overlaps with that of RALP1 (Fig. 5B). In contrast, the apical distribution of RALP1 was clearly distinct from that of the micronemal marker proteins EBA-175 and EBA-181 (19, 53) (Fig. 5C and D). Together, these findings establish RALP1 as a novel rhoptry-resident protein. ...
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasites blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 12802682. Parasitol. Res. 2003 Aug;90(6):467-72. Plasmodium falciparum parasites remodel the surface of human erythrocytes on invasion by the insertion of parasite-derived proteins in knob-like protrusions. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP-1), a variant surface antigen, has been shown to be anchored in these knobs and mediates adhesion to various host endothelial receptors. These proteins also undergo clonal antigenic variation as a means of immune evasion. Duffy binding-like-alpha(DBL-alpha) domain together with the cysteine-rich interdomain region form the head structure of the PfEMP1 molecule. In this report, we used ten different recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies in experimental animals. Five out of ten recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins were immunogenic and induced antibodies that reacted with conserved peptides derived from PfEMP1. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to localise ...
Emerging evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite proteins involved in Plasmodium falciparum invasion into the red blood cell (RBC) play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. The protein family of parasite antigens known as P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein like homolog (PfRh) is required for RBC invasion. PfRh5 is the only member within the PfRh family that cannot be genetically deleted, suggesting it plays an essential role in parasite survival. This antigen forms a complex with the cysteine-rich P. falciparum Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr), on the merozoite surface during RBC invasion. The PfRh5 ectodomain sequence and a C-terminal fragment of PfRipr were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus-infected cells, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with these recombinant proteins induced antibodies able to inhibit growth of various P. falciparum strains. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment re-infection study ...
Looking for online definition of apical complex in the Medical Dictionary? apical complex explanation free. What is apical complex? Meaning of apical complex medical term. What does apical complex mean?
We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, cysteine interdomain region-1alpha (CIDR-1alpha). Responses to CIDR-1alpha were striking in that both exposed and nonexposed donors responded. The IFN-gamma response to CIDR-1alpha in the nonexposed donors was partially independent of TCR engagement of MHC class II and peptide. Contrastingly, CD4 T cell and IFN-gamma responses in malaria-exposed donors were MHC class II restricted, suggesting that the CD4 T cell response to CIDR-1alpha in malaria semi-immune adults also has a TCR-mediated component, which may represent a memory response. Dendritic cells isolated from human peripheral blood were activated by CIDR-1alpha to produce IL-12, IL-10, and IL-18. IL-12 was detectable only between 6 and 12 h of culture, whereas the IL-10 continued to increase throughout the 24-h time course. These data strengthen previous observations that P. falciparum interacts directly with
Malaria presents a considerable threat to public health. Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP 2) is the major protein released into human blood upon infection by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of HRP 2 exon II and the efficacy of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HRP 2 for Point-of-Care Test (POCT). The recombinant protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and used to immunize mice for mAb production. Two IgG1 mAbs (1A5 and 1C10) with high affinity, specificity and sensitivity for both native and recombinant HRP 2 were selected after fusion of mouse spleen with myeloma cells. The affinity constant of 1A5 and 1C10 were 7.15 and 4.91 × 10-7 L/mol, respectively. Subsequently, an immunochromatograhic assay was used for screening of clinical samples in endemic regions of China and Myanmar. The immunochromatographic test retrospectively showed an overall sensitivity of 99.07%, and specificity of 100%. Sensitivity at parasite densities | 200, 200-2000,
A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS beta-lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ...
Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. Since the early studies demonstrating that antibodies transferred from immune individuals diminish P. falciparum parasitaemia [11] a lot of effort has been put forward to identify parasite epitopes and mechanisms of action of antibody-mediated immune response to malaria. Besides their role in infection control, antibodies can modulate parasite development in the sporogonic [3 - 5], exoerythrocytic [6] and erythrocytic [7] cycle. However, there is almost no information on the effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium immunogenic molecules.. There are evidences that antibodies can interfere with parasite multiplication. An increase on sporozoite number recovered from the salivary glands when mosquitoes were fed on anti-Plasmodium antibodies was observed [3, 4] and IgG isolated from Kenyan immune adults enhanced parasite growth in culture while the serum from which they were isolated had an inhibitory ...
The clinical symptoms of malaria are attributed to the blood stage life cycle of parasite in which merozoite invades erythrocyte, undergoes multiplication and exit to re-invade into new erythrocyte to continue its life cycle. The interaction of repertoire of parasite proteins with host cell receptors is essential for invasion process. Identification, characterization and localization of the proteins involved in invasion will enrich our understanding of this complex process. In the present study we have identified a novel Apical Rhoptry Neck Protein in Plasmodium falciparum, which harbours a predicted signal and transmembrane domain and is conserved across the species. The transcription and translation analysis confirmed its expression in schizont stage of asexual cycle of P. falciparum. Immunoflouresence microscopy in schizonts and merozoites revealed its localization in the neck of rhoptries of P. falciparum. Furthermore, PfARNP has been found at the tight junction during invasion of P. ...
Placental malaria is typified by selective clustering of Plasmodium falciparum in the intervillous blood spaces of the placenta. Sequestration of malaria parasite in the human placenta is mediated by interactions between chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts and proteins expressed on the surface of infected human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) encoded by the var2CSA gene is believed to be the main parasite ligand for CSA-mediated placental binding. Extensive sequence and structure comparisons of the various CSA-binding and non-binding DBL domains from the var2CSA gene from A4 and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum were performed. Three-dimensional structural models of various DBL domains were built and analysed with a view to assessing conservation of CSA interaction sites across various DBL domains. Each of the six DBL domains from var2CSA are likely to retain the disulfide linkages evident from previously published DBL domain crystal structures
Placental malaria is typified by selective clustering of Plasmodium falciparum in the intervillous blood spaces of the placenta. Sequestration of malaria parasite in the human placenta is mediated by interactions between chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts and proteins expressed on the surface of infected human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) encoded by the var2CSA gene is believed to be the main parasite ligand for CSA-mediated placental binding. Extensive sequence and structure comparisons of the various CSA-binding and non-binding DBL domains from the var2CSA gene from A4 and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum were performed. Three-dimensional structural models of various DBL domains were built and analysed with a view to assessing conservation of CSA interaction sites across various DBL domains. Each of the six DBL domains from var2CSA are likely to retain the disulfide linkages evident from previously published DBL domain crystal structures
Looking for online definition of circumsporozoite protein in the Medical Dictionary? circumsporozoite protein explanation free. What is circumsporozoite protein? Meaning of circumsporozoite protein medical term. What does circumsporozoite protein mean?
BACKGROUND: Var genes encode a family of virulence factors known as PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) which are responsible for both antigenic variation and cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes. Although these molecules play a central role in malaria pathogenesis, the mechanisms generating variant antigen diversification are poorly understood. To investigate var gene evolution, we compared the variant antigen repertoires from three geographically diverse parasite isolates: the 3D7 genome reference isolate; the recently sequenced HB3 isolate; and the IT4/25/5 (IT4) parasite isolate which retains the capacity to cytoadhere in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: These comparisons revealed that only two var genes (var1csa and var2csa) are conserved in all three isolates and one var gene (Type 3 var) has homologs in IT4 and 3D7. While the remaining 50 plus genes in each isolate are highly divergent most can be classified into the three previously defined major groups (A, B, and C) on
|jats:p|Ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-positive,Plasmodium falciparum-negative red blood cells (RBCs) are cells from which the malaria parasite has been removed by the host without the destruction of the erythrocyte (
The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) builds up the surface coat of sporozoites and is the leading malaria pre-erythrocytic-stage vaccine candidate. CSP has been shown to induce robust CD8+ T cell responses that are capable of eliminating developing parasites in hepatocytes resulting in protective immunity. In this study, we characterised the importance of the immunodominant CSP-derived epitope, SYIPSAEKI, of Plasmodium berghei in both sporozoite- and vaccine-induced protection in murine infection models. In BALB/c mice, where SYIPSAEKI is efficiently presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecule H-2-Kd, we established that epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses contribute to parasite killing following sporozoite immunisation. Yet, sterile protection was achieved in the absence of this epitope substantiating the concept that other antigens can be sufficient for parasite-induced protective immunity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SYIPSAEKI-specific CD8+ T cell
Abstract: The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), encoded by the multigene family named var, is responsible for the cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes in malarial infections. Approximately 50 var genes exist per parasite genome, which are mostly located in subtelomeric regions of all chromosomes, but are also found as clusters in central chromosomal regions. It was shown that almost all var transcripts are detectable in ring stage whereas in trophozoite stage one or only a few genes are transcribed while the rest of the family remains transcriptionally downregulated. Recent data published by Deitsch et al. indicate that var gene silencing requires the presence of a var intron and elements within it and an upstream element in the promoter. In the present study we selected a parasite adhesion phenotype by multiple panning procedures on E-selectin and identified a transcribed var gene in a centromeric/central cluster of 4 var genes and 1 rif gene.In order to describe ...
Plasmodium falciparum synthesizes P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), a product of the multicopy var gene family, which localizes on the surface of infected erythrocytes. This protein plays an important role in cytoadherence and immune evasion. Comparative analysis of the molecular sequences of the DBLα domain of the var gene from different isolates of the parasite reveals variations in the number of cysteines and presence of small conserved motifs like DGEA, RGD, GAG-binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis while highlighting the extensive diversity leads to clustered them in separate clades far apart from each other. Discriminant factor analysis of physicochemical properties of amino acid sequences revealed that the aliphatic index, isoelectric point, and instability index have more effect in deciding the variance of different isolates sequences. The origin of diverse repertoire of the DBLα domain in the parasites highlights the complexity of host-parasite relationship in ...
Antibodies can bind proteins via the Fab and Fc regions. The Fc interacts with receptors on the cells of the immune system causing effector responses such as phagocytosis and complement mediating lysis, however, pathogens have also developed a way to interact with human antibodies through regions on the Fc. We are currently trying to understand the mechanism underlying the binding of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to IgM. The Cμ4 domain of multimeric IgM has been shown to bind to the C-terminal Duffy Binding Like (DBL) domains of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) expressed by CSA-binding and rosetting strains of Plasmodium falciparum. CSA-binding has been linked to pregnancy associated malaria and rosetting (the binding of infected to uninfected erythrocytes) has been shown to correlate with many clinical manifestations of severe malaria in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The binding of IgM has been termed as non-immune because its interaction ...
The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the intracellular parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The African continent bears the greatest burden of malaria with 90% of all malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa where the high risk populations include pregnant woman and children under the age of five. Fatal cases of malaria are often a result of the progression of the disease to a life threatening syndrome where intravenous quinine or artesunate are administered as an emergency treatment, however a 15-20% mortality rate is still observed among treated individuals. Pathogenesis of severe malaria is associated with the mature or late trophozoite stage of the parasite s intra-erythrocyte life cycle. At this stage the intracellular parasite expresses parasite derived proteins on the surface of the red blood cell (RBCs) that bind to host endothelial receptors. This cytoadhesion ultimately allows the parasite to multiply unhindered by the host resulting in high parasitaemia levels which ...
As with other infectious diseases, much discussion has been generated in the past about whether the malaria parasite population is structured into strains that have variable virulence (27). PfEMP1 presents us with a scenario in which a repertoire of molecules that play a central role in the host-parasite interaction, both through cytoadherence and immunogenicity, appear to be functionally and genetically differentiated within every parasite genome (13, 28), potentially giving each parasite line the ability to alter its pathogenicity depending on the combination of selection pressures experienced within the host (29). However, there is no direct evidence for links between the structure of the PfEMP1 antigen repertoire and a role for PfEMP1 in parasite immune evasion and pathogenicity.. A frequently cited study supporting a link between group A var expression and parasite virulence is based on the in vitro selection of a lab-adapted parasite isolate using pooled serum from semi-immune children ...
We describe the cloning of a novel antigen of Plasmodium falciparum which contains a hydrophobic domain typical of an integral membrane protein. This antigen is designated apical membrane antigen 1 because it appears to be located in the apical complex. Apical membrane antigen 1 appears to be transported to the merozoite surface near the time of schizont rupture. ...
Plasmodium falciparum expresses on the host erythrocyte surface clonally variant antigens and ligands that mediate adherence to endothelial receptors. Both are central to pathogenesis, since they allow chronicity of infection and lead to concentration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral vessels. Here we show that expression of variant antigenic determinants is correlated with expression of individual members of a large, multigene family named var. Each var gene contains copies of a motif that has been previously shown to bind diverse host receptors; expression of a specific var gene correlated with binding to ICAM-1. Thus, our findings are consistent with the involvement of var genes in antigenic variation and binding to endothelium.
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Adhesin proteins are used by Plasmodium parasites to bind and invade target cells. Hence, characterising molecules that participate in reticulocyte interaction is key to understanding the molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax invasion. This study focused on predicting functionally restricted regions of the P. vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA) and characterising their reticulocyte binding activity. The pvgama gene was initially found in P. vivax VCG-I strain schizonts. According to the genetic diversity analysis, PvGAMA displayed a size polymorphism very common for antigenic P. vivax proteins. Two regions along the antigen sequence were highly conserved among species, having a negative natural selection signal. Interestingly, these regions revealed a functional role regarding preferential target cell adhesion. To our knowledge, this study describes PvGAMA reticulocyte binding properties for the first time. Conserved functional regions were predicted according to natural selection analysis and
Successful transmission of malaria into the mammalian host is dependent on the ability of sporozoites to invade and establish a proper PV within the host hepatocyte. To date, only a handful of genes have been identified that play a role during invasion or early development of the sporozoite within hepatocytes. In this study we have characterized the rhomboid protease, ROM1, throughout the lifecycle of the malaria rodent model, Plasmodium yoelii.. Quantitative expression analysis of pyrom1 shows it is expressed at various invasive stages of the malaria life cycle. Expression of pyrom1 follows a pattern similar to genes involved in merozoite invasion with maximal erythrocytic stage expression in schizonts. Relative to schizont stages, expression of pyrom1 is increased by at least 10-fold during the sporozoite stages with pyrom1 transcript levels upregulated by 2-fold from midgut sporozoites to salivary gland sporozoites. Midgut sporozoites are substantially less infectious in the mammalian host ...
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Five new articles published this week in PLOS Medicine ranging from malaria to HIV to cardiovascular health. Arjen Dondorp and colleagues investigate whether the plasma level of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 can be ...
Many microneme proteins are secreted onto the parasite surface to play a role in host cell entry and then ultimately shed. This study demonstrates that EBA-175, and, by extrapolation, all other DBL-EBPs, are subject to a similar fate. Given their role in invasion and their capacity to bind erythrocyte surface receptors with high affinity, these ligands presumably function in membrane bound form at the merozoite surface. Our results show that the truncated form of EBA-175 released into supernatants is a result of a physiologically important, precise cleavage event that takes place at the merozoite surface and is mediated via intramembrane cleavage by a rhomboid-like malarial protease.. IFA of newly invaded rings showed that, irrespective of whether EBA-175 was used as the dominant invasion ligand, invasion is associated with shedding of EBA-175. Western blot showed that the shed protein retains much or all of region VI, and mass spectrometric analysis allowed us to map its C terminus to an Ala ...
The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding motility or
3. The differences between CDKs in mammals and those in human parasites. Both humans and protozoan parasites are eukaryotes, however they diverged long ago and belong to different phylogenetic kingdoms. The reproduction of a single-celled malarial parasite and that of a human or a human cell are very different processes, however they both use similar CDK machinery. The genome sequence of the malarial parasite Plasmodia falciparum has recently been finished and with it came the discovery of several homologs of the cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins. I am working with several other groups to elucidate the differences between the mammalian CDKs and those of the parasite. There are two reasons for this study. First, we are currently trying to study these enzymes with an eye toward finding inhibitors which will stop the cell cycle of the parasite without stopping the cell cycle of the human host. This will hopefully lead to the development of malarial treatments. Second, evolutionarily, protists ...
3HGF: Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94) of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii
Identification of nuclear proteins that interact differentially with Plasmodium falciparum var gene promoters.: The Plasmodium falciparum virulence factor PfEMP
To investigate the role of the coreceptor CD8 and lipid rafts in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, we used soluble mono-and multimeric H-2K,sup,d,/sup,-peptide complexes and cloned S14 CTL specific for a photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS) peptide 252-260 [PbCS(ABA)]. We report that activation of CTL in suspension requires multimeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes co-engaging TCR and CD8. Using TCR ligand photo-cross-linking, we find that monomeric K,sup,d,/sup,-PbCS(ABA) complexes promote association of TCR/CD3 with CD8/p56,sup,lck,/sup,. Dimerization of these adducts results in activation of p56lck in lipid rafts, where phosphatases are excluded. Additional cross-linking further increases p56,sup,lck,/sup, kinase activity, induces translocation of TCR/CD3 and other signaling molecules to lipid rafts and intracellular calcium mobilization. These events are prevented by blocking Src kinases or CD8 binding to TCR-associated K,sup,d,/sup, molecules, ...
Stratmann, Thomas, Schmida, Stefanie R., Harperb, Jeffrey F. and Kang, Angray S. (1997) Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein. Protein Expression and Purification, 11 (1). pp. 72-78. ISSN 1046-5928 ...
This gene encodes a glutamate-rich protein that contains five WD-repeat motifs. The encoded protein may play a critical role in ribosome biogenesis and may also play a role in histone methylation through interactions with CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin E3 ligase. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
One of the key processes in the pathobiology of the malaria parasite is the invasion and subsequent modification of the human erythrocyte. In this complex process, an unknown number of parasite proteins are involved, some of which are leading vaccine candidates. The majority of the proteins that play pivotal roles in invasion are either stored in the apical secretory organelles or located on the s ...
Every month through fall, the government-funded COVID-19 Prevention Network will roll out a new study of a leading vaccine candidate - each with 30,000 new volunteers.
Every month through fall, the government-funded COVID-19 Prevention Network will roll out a new study of a leading vaccine candidate - each with 30,000 new volunteers.
Genes are transcribed in polysictronic messages (pre-mRNA) that are destined for either maturation into mRNAs, or degradation. Since transcription regulation is non-existent with few exceptions, the rate of pre-mRNA processing, together with mRNA decay and translation rates, are believed to control gene expression. In this assay, 2T1 blood form trypanosomes are subject to treatment by ActinomycinD for 5 minutes, inhibiting transcription. The cells are harvested, depleted for ribosomal RNA, and ...
One expert said Canada could find itself at the back of the line, if it doesnt move quickly to secure some of the leading vaccines in development
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If you havent heard ...according to, but contrary to conventional medical literature, the CDC, and leading vaccine experts - the anti-vaccine
Tran, T., P. Büscher, G. Vandenbussche, L. Wyns, J. Messens, and H. De Greve, Heterologous expression, purification and characterisation of the extracellular domain of trypanosome invariant surface glycoprotein ISG75., J Biotechnol, vol. 135, issue 3, pp. 247-54, 2008 Jun 30. ...
Here we review both the structural details and functional significance of interactions at the hydrophobic cleft of AMA1, and argue that this feature of the protein represents an excellent target for the development of drugs that would block host cell invasion by malarial parasites.. ...
Patel, A, Perrin, AJ, Flynn, HR, Bisson, C, Withers-Martinez, C, Treeck, M, Flueck, C, Nicastro, G, Martin, SR, Ramos, A, Gilberger, TW, Snijders, AP, Blackman, MJ and Baker, D (2019). Cyclic AMP signalling controls key components of malaria parasite host cell invasion machinery. [Data Collection]. PLoS Biology. ...
Patel, A, Perrin, AJ, Flynn, HR, Bisson, C, Withers-Martinez, C, Treeck, M, Flueck, C, Nicastro, G, Martin, SR, Ramos, A, Gilberger, TW, Snijders, AP, Blackman, MJ and Baker, D (2019). Cyclic AMP signalling controls key components of malaria parasite host cell invasion machinery. [Data Collection]. PLoS Biology. ...
Roy, Nainita; Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Ranade, Shatakshi; Tatu, Utpal (2012). "Heat shock protein 90 from neglected protozoan ... Protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum India portal Biology portal Medicine portal Please see Selected bibliography section " ... "Oxidative Folding and Assembly with Transthyretin Are Sequential Events in the Biogenesis of Retinol Binding Protein in the ...
Kutuzov MA, Andreeva AV (October 2008). "Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases of parasitic protozoa". Molecular and Biochemical ... Cohen PT (July 1997). "Novel protein serine/threonine phosphatases: variety is the spice of life". Trends in Biochemical ... Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA (1 March 2001). "PPP family of protein Ser/Thr phosphatases: two distinct branches?". Molecular Biology ... Shewanella-like phosphatases, abbreviated as Shelphs, are a group of enzymes structurally related to protein serine/threonine ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Protein pages needing a picture, Toll-like receptors, LRR proteins). ... Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders. ... Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice and rats is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is ...
June 2005). "TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein". Science. 308 (5728): 1626-9. Bibcode: ... Upon activation, TLRs recruit adaptor proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of ... These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein ... IRAK kinases then phosphorylate and activate the protein TRAF6, which in turn polyubiquinates the protein TAK1, as well as ...
Kuźnicki J, Kuźnicki L, Drabikowski W (Jan 1979). "Ca2+-binding modulator protein in protozoa and myxomycete". Cell Biology ... G-protein coupled receptor 97 also known as adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3) is a protein that in humans is ... Gupte J, Swaminath G, Danao J, Tian H, Li Y, Wu X (Apr 2012). "Signaling property study of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors ... "Entrez Gene: GPR97 G protein-coupled receptor 97". Hamann J, Aust G, Araç D, Engel FB, Formstone C, Fredriksson R, Hall RA, ...
Entry signals have been found in ciliary/flagellar proteins of the protozoans Leishmania and Trypanosoma. The RVxP motif was ... Proteins employed in the cilia are targeted there when they bear specific entry signals, whereas proteins not situated in cilia ... RVxP motif is a protein motif involved in localizing proteins into cilia. Cilia are sensory organelle of cells, whose ... "Regulation of ciliary retrograde protein trafficking by the Joubert syndrome proteins ARL13B and INPP5E". Journal of Cell ...
... or a protozoan parasite. After finding the target protein in the bacterium (or protozoan parasite), one could design small ... 2002). "Dip, the database of interacting proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions". ... w is personalized to proteins; w is larger for those proteins that appear in higher concentrations in the proteomics analysis ... The reason for this is that some already known, important protein targets do not have a high degree (are not hubs) and also, ...
The proteins of the SWEET family have been found in plants, animals, protozoans, and bacteria. Eukaryotic family members have 7 ... Additionally, protein levels were shown to be maternally controlled: in a sweet11;12;15 mutant crossed with a wild-type plant, ... Proteins of the SWEET family appear to catalyze facilitated diffusion (entry or export) of sugars across the plant plasma ... The team noticed that mRNA and protein for SWEETs 11, 12, and 15 are each expressed at high levels during some stage of embryo ...
Organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins whose known and predicted roles include ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... In all proteins, it is the amino acid sequence that determines the protein's chemical properties and function. There is more ... Hemoglobin consists of protein subunits (the globin molecules), and these proteins, in turn, are folded chains of a large ...
... (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to ... VSG dimers, ~90% of all cell surface protein. It also makes up ~10% of total cell protein. For this reason, these proteins are ... The VSG proteins in T. equiperdum are also phosphorylated. A VSG gene from Trypanosoma evansi, a parasite that causes a form of ... The smallest VSG protein (40 kDa in size) to date (1996) has been found in Trypanosoma vivax, which bears little carbohydrate. ...
TLR11 activation of dendritic cells by a protozoan profilin-like protein. Science 308: 1626-1629. Lee, K.-Y., D'Acquisto, F., ... Fenwick, C., Na, S-Y., Voll, R.E., Zhong, H., Im, S-Y., Lee, J.W. and Ghosh, S. (2000) A sub-class of Ras proteins that ... Ghosh's research led to the first cloning and characterization of NF-kB and IkB proteins, including the demonstration of the ... Initiation factors in eukaryotic protein synthesis. Sue Golding Graduate Division of Medical Sciences, Albert Einstein College ...
2012-02-15). "A MAP6-related protein is present in protozoa and is involved in flagellum motility". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31344. ... Microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) or stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP or STOP protein) is a protein that in humans is ... A MAP6-related protein, TbSAXO, has been discovered in Trypanosoma brucei. The domains of the protein responsible for ... This gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). The encoded protein is a calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated ...
Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... Surfactant protein A (SP-A) Surfactant protein D (SP-D) CL-L1 CL-P1 CL-K1 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) PGLYRP1 ... Royet J, Gupta D, Dziarski R (December 2011). "Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: modulators of the microbiome and ... proteins Amyloid SAP SAA Positive Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin Alpha 1-antitrypsin Alpha 2-macroglobulin C-reactive protein ...
The pellicle structure in the protist is a thin layer of protein that helps provide the cell with some support and protection. ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Some protozoa are photoautotrophic protists. These protists include strict aerobes, and use photosystems I and II in order to ... Protozoa are chemoorganotrophic protists and have three different ways of acquiring nutrients. The first method of acquiring ...
... linked proteins named SRSs (SAG1 related sequence). SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. ... This protein domain contains 120 amino acids. There is a fold within this structure which is conserved amongst SRS proteins, ... linked proteins (SRSs), of which SAG1 is the prototypic member. SAG1 and the rest of the SRS protein family mediate cell ... The structure of this fold is analogous to the topology of the cupredoxin, azurin, a form of copper binding protein. He XL, ...
Individual WRKY proteins do appear in the human protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. ... Group I WRKY proteins are primarily denoted by the presence of two WRKY protein domains, whereas both groups II and III each ... These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY ... VQ proteins appear to bind the WRKY domain, thus inhibiting protein-DNA interactions. At least one WRKY transcription factor, ...
The genus Flavivirus has a prototypical envelope protein (E-protein) on its surface which serves as the target for virus ... Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium ... E protein plays a role in binding to receptor and could play a role in evading the host immune system. It has three major ... Many of the proteins known to show antigenic or phase variation are related to virulence. Antigenic variation in bacteria is ...
Sacerdoti-Sierra N, Jaffe CL (December 1997). "Release of ecto-protein kinases by the protozoan parasite Leishmania major". The ... The AD hallmark proteins tau in NFTs or GVBs and TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in GVBs colocalize with CK1δ. In ... Meanwhile, CK1δ homologous proteins have been isolated from organisms like yeast, basidiomycetes, plants, algae, and protozoa. ... So far, C-terminal phosphorylation of CK1δ by upstream kinases has been confirmed for protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase B ...
... protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection or colonization that does not and will ... The microorganisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and ...
Its rapid killing abilities are used to quickly kill live specimens such as protozoa. OsO4 stabilizes many proteins by ... Tissue proteins that are stabilized by OsO4 are not coagulated by alcohols during dehydration. Osmium(VIII) oxide is also used ...
Merozoite surface proteins, or MSPs, are important in understanding malaria, a disease caused by protozoans of the genus ... Merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP-1 & MSP-2) are the most abundant (GPI)-anchored proteins on the surface of Plasmodium ... Merozoite /ˌmɛrəˈzoʊˌaɪt/ surface proteins are both integral and peripheral membrane proteins found on the surface of a ... Additional forms include integral membrane proteins and peripherally associated proteins, which are found to a lesser extent ...
In euglenids, the pellicle is formed from protein strips arranged spirally along the length of the body. Familiar examples of ... Protozoa (singular: protozoan or protozoon; alternative plural: protozoans) are a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either ... Some protozoa attach to the substrate or form cysts so they do not move around (sessile). Most sessile protozoa are able to ... Protozoa may also live as mixotrophs, combining a heterotrophic diet with some form of autotrophy. Some protozoa form close ...
During his days at Public Health Research Institute, Sharma was successful in cloning the knob protein gene of Plasmodium ... another non-cultivable protozoan parasite, as well as the development of a genomic library of Plasmodium vivax. It was his ... "Genetic diversity in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1(42)) among Indian ... falciparum, one of the protozoan parasites causing malaria, in 1984. At AIIMS, he led a group of researchers who carried out ...
... protozoa and plants. Proteins containing the domain are induced by many environmental stressors such as nutrient starvation, ... 2008). "The crystal structure of an universal stress protein UspA family protein from Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1". Protein ... Aravind suggested that these proteins were part of a much larger protein structural family which was present and diversified in ... implications for protein evolution in the RNA". Protein. 48 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1002/prot.10064. PMID 12012333. S2CID 32908067.. ...
... protozoan and parasite growth seems to depend on their interaction with proteins and/or on their membrane-disturbing properties ...
... protozoa, and higher eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the three groups of domain arrangements were acquired and ... Regardless of which protein comes first, this fusion protein may show similar function. Thus, if a fusion between two proteins ... Find insertion sites for other proteins. Inserting one protein as a domain into another protein can be useful. For instance, ... Jung J, Lee B (September 2001). "Circularly permuted proteins in the protein structure database". Protein Science. 10 (9): 1881 ...
... and protein. Although protozoa are not essential for rumen functioning, their presence has pronounced effects. Ruminal fungi ... Microbes in the reticulorumen include bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Bacteria, along with protozoa, are the ... and protein, respectively. Protozoa (40-60% of microbial mass) derive their nutrients through phagocytosis of other microbes, ... Protein encoding genes that encode for bacterial cell functions, such as aguA, ptb, K01188, and murD, also are associated with ...
... protein indicates that transposable elements have been acquired from prokaryotes by horizontal gene transfer in this protozoan ... In particular, expression of the Rad51 protein (a recombinase) is increased about 15-fold by UV treatment. List of parasites ( ... The parasite has several enzymes such as pore forming proteins, lipases, and cysteine proteases, which are normally used to ... Caler, E & Lorenzi, H (2010). "Entamoeba histolytica: Genome Status and Web Resources". Anaerobic Parasitic Protozoa: Genomics ...
... effector proteins and their redundancy is likely a result of the bacterium having evolved in many different protozoan hosts. ... The bacteria use a type IVB secretion system known as Dot/Icm to inject effector proteins into the host. These effectors are ... One key way in which L. pneumophila uses its effector proteins is to interfere with fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole ... Pan X, Lührmann A, Satoh A, Laskowski-Arce MA, Roy CR (June 2008). "Ankyrin repeat proteins comprise a diverse family of ...
... and protozoa like Trypanosoma brucei. Mammalian TCTP is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and cell types. ... Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein found in eukaryotes, across animal and plant ... The Mammalian translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) (or P23) is a protein which has been found to be preferentially ... The translationally controlled tumour protein, commonly known as TCTP, is a highly conserved protein among many eukaryotic ...
It damages the intestines, bladder, and other organs and can lead to anemia and protein-energy deficiency. Along with malaria, ... These include helminths like hookworms, roundworms, and flukes and protozoa like giardia, amoebas and Leishmania. They can ... HIV infection can affect the production of hormones that interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In ... Woodward B (January 1998). "Protein, calories, and immune defenses". Nutr. Rev. 56 (1 Pt 2): S84-92. doi:10.1111/j.1753- ...
Infection with Chagas disease occurs after Rhodnius releases protozoans in its feces immediately following a blood meal. The ... Convergent Recruitment of Proteins Into Animal Venoms". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. Annual Reviews. 10 (1): ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR6 gene. TLR6 is a transmembrane protein, member of toll- ... Moreover, TLR2/6 is known to bind one protozoan ligand - lipopeptidophosphoglycan. TLR2/6 can also be activated by synthetic ... It is also known that TLR2/6 binds some viral products, among them hepatitis C core and NS3 protein from the hepatitis C virus ... TLR6 has also been designated as CD286 (cluster of differentiation 286). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ...
To develop, the larvae must be fed both nectar for carbohydrates and pollen for protein. Bumblebees feed nectar to the larvae ... 4-6 Lipa, JJ; Triggiani, O. (1992). "A newly recorded neogregarine (Protozoa, Apicomplexa), parasite in honey bees (Apis ... Bumblebees are parasitised by tracheal mites, Locustacarus buchneri; protozoans including Crithidia bombi and Apicystis bombi; ...
doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1974.tb03614.x. Jahn, Theodore Louis (1949). How to Know the Protozoa. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. p. ... However, while Peranema lack a localized photoreceptor, they do possess the light-sensitive protein rhodopsin, and respond to ... ISBN 0-697-04829-2. Patterson, D.J. (1996) [1992]. Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa: A Colour Guide. Washington: Manson. p. 51. ...
One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein ... and protozoa, as well as the α-proteobacteria group of bacteria, the committed step for porphyrin biosynthesis is the formation ... Huang X, Groves JT (March 2018). "Oxygen Activation and Radical Transformations in Heme Proteins and Metalloporphyrins". ...
The mode of action is by denaturing the proteins. Alcohols interfere with the hydrogen bonds present in the protein structure. ... protozoa, algae, or slime. The EPA monitors products, such as disinfectants/sanitizers for use in hospitals or homes, in order ... In the presence of water, 70% alcohol causes coagulation of the proteins thus inhibiting microbial growth. Alcohols are not ... The growth of microorganisms is inhibited when iodine penetrates into the cells and oxidizes proteins, genetic material, and ...
... s use, in addition to the digestive proteins, a class of surface active compounds called drilodefensins, which help ... This organic matter includes plant matter, living protozoa, rotifers, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. An ... The intestine secretes pepsin to digest proteins, amylase to digest polysaccharides, cellulase to digest cellulose, and lipase ... including protozoa, platyhelminthes, and nematodes; they can be found in the worms' blood, seminal vesicles, coelom, or ...
Nordgren, I. K.; Tavassoli, A. (2014). "A bidirectional fluorescent two-hybrid system for monitoring protein-protein ... protozoa, comb jellies, cnidaria including jellyfish and corals, crustaceans, molluscs, arrow worms and vertebrates (ray-finned ... In this early paper, he suggested that proto-bioluminescence could have arisen from respiratory chain proteins that hold ... In Vivo luminescence cell and animal imaging uses dyes and fluorescent proteins as chromophores. The characteristics of each ...
Bacterial cellulose is produced using the same family of proteins, although the gene is called BcsA for "bacterial cellulose ... Some termites contain in their hindguts certain flagellate protozoa producing such enzymes, whereas others contain bacteria or ... Taylor, N. G. (2003). "Interactions among three distinct CesA proteins essential for cellulose synthesis". Proceedings of the ... The RTCs are hexameric protein structures, approximately 25 nm in diameter, that contain the cellulose synthase enzymes that ...
... which bind to ribonucleases in one of the tightest known protein-protein interactions. A special case of protein enzyme ... For example, in the figure showing trypanothione reductase from the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, two molecules ... For example, some protein kinase inhibitors have chemical structures that are similar to ATP, one of the substrates of these ... Protein kinases can also be inhibited by competition at the binding sites where the kinases interact with their substrate ...
Some ciliates are mouthless and feed by absorption (osmotrophy), while others are predatory and feed on other protozoa and in ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2018-01-01). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein ... In some older systems of classification, such as the influential taxonomic works of Alfred Kahl, ciliated protozoa are placed ... 2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, ...
Near weaning, the protein level continues to increase; this may be due to the need for keratin synthesis for hair and spines, ... Echidnas are also known to be affected by other tapeworms, protozoans and herpes-like viral infections, but little is known of ... At the moment of birth, the solution is dilute and contains 1.25% fat, 7.85% protein, and 2.85% carbohydrates and minerals. ...
... peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and the LRR, XA21D are all secreted proteins. One very important collectin is mannan ... fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly recognizes certain sugar groups on the surface of microorganisms but also binds ... Interaction with other proteins (e.g. the adaptor molecule ASC) is mediated via N-terminal pyrin (PYD) domain. There are 14 ... This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. Three RLR ...
Mussels utilize adhesive proteins, or MAPs. The service life of PEG coatings is also doubtful. Fouling Biomimetic antifouling ... and protozoans (e.g. Vorticella, Zoothamnium sp.) to attach themselves. Within two to three weeks, the tertiary colonizers-the ... They rely on high amounts of hydration in order to increase the energetic penalty of removing water for proteins and ... Is the Sixth Residue in the Tandemly Repeated Consensus Decapeptides of an Adhesive Protein from Mytilus edulis". J. Am. Chem. ...
Previously thought to be protozoa from their flagellated zoospores, they are biomass degraders and help the animal by breaking ... Chang, Jongsoo; Park, Hyunjin (2020). "Nucleotide and protein researches on anaerobic fungi during four decades". Journal of ...
... as exclusively present in members of this genus in the proteins 30S ribosomal protein S6-L-glutamate ligase, crossover junction ... Members of this genus grow in protozoa and can be isolated from hydrothermal areas. All members are strictly aerobic, non- ... endodeoxyribonuclease RuvC, Tim44 domain-containing protein, pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring), homodimeric type, c- ...
This protozoan species has an asymmetrical oval shape to its single-celled body. It has been likened to a rugby ball. The cell ... 2003). Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate ... Predators of O. marina include protozoa such as the ciliate Strombidinopsis jeokjo, copepods such as Acartia tonsa and rotifers ... 2011). Oxyrrhis marina-based models as a tool to interpret protozoan population dynamics. Journal of Plankton Research 33(4) ...
Determination of parasitic protein structures may help to better understand how these proteins function differently from ... These include organisms such as: Plasmodium spp., the protozoan parasite which causes malaria. The four species infective to ... In addition, protein structures may inform the process of drug discovery. Parasites exhibit an aggregated distribution among ... This is the study of structures of proteins from parasites. ... This was the first protozoan parasite of humans that he ...
... proto-oncogene proteins c-mo - proto-oncogene proteins c-myc - proto-oncogene proteins c-raf - proton - proton pump - protozoan ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Strain CCMP1507 has a chloroplast genome size of 94,346 bp, encoding 110 proteins and containing 10 tandem repeats, 8 of which ... The adhesive EPS layer surrounding A. lagunensis reduces grazing by hypotrichous filter-feeding protozoans such as Aspidisca sp ... and behavior of protozoa". Limnology and Oceanography. 45 (5): 1187-1191. Bibcode:2000LimOc..45.1187L. doi:10.4319/lo.2000.45. ... and Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions and of Its Phosphate Limitation-Specific Protein with Alkaline Phosphatase Activity". Appl. ...
... the time to senescence can be extended by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins - p53 and Retinoblastoma protein (pRb). ... Cano MI, Dungan JM, Agabian N, Blackburn EH (March 1999). "Telomerase in kinetoplastid parasitic protozoa". Proceedings of the ... TERT proteins from many eukaryotes have been sequenced. By using TERC, TERT can add a six-nucleotide repeating sequence, 5'- ... The protein consists of four conserved domains (RNA-Binding Domain (TRBD), fingers, palm and thumb), organized into a "right ...
When he first examined it, he had found only protozoan cells and placed the sample into a jar of alcohol to preserve it. Now he ... ", "an amorphous sheet of a protein compound, irritable to a low degree and capable of assimilating food... a diffused formless ...
Fresh and saltwater fish are the main source of protein for about one billion people and comprise 15% of an additional 3.5 ... protozoans and helminths) are expected to be removed to some extent in a constructed wetland. Subsurface wetlands provide ... billion people's protein intake. Another food staple found in wetland systems is rice, a popular grain that is consumed at the ...
"Kelch-like Protein 11 Antibodies in Seminoma-Associated Paraneoplastic Encephalitis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 381 ... profiling gene expression throughout the lifecycle of the malaria-causing protozoan Plasmodium falciparum, his discovery of the ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ... However, in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, MUS81 appears to be part of an essential (if not the predominant) CO pathway ... Boddy MN, Lopez-Girona A, Shanahan P, Interthal H, Heyer WD, Russell P (Dec 2000). "Damage tolerance protein Mus81 associates ...
Protozoa to Mollusca. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York State. 628 pp. Jokinen, E. H. and J. Pondick. 1981. Rare and ... four nucleotide sequences and one protein sequence of Elimia virginica were determined. Elimia virginica is found in freshwater ...
Plant genomes encode for dicer like proteins with similar functions and protein domains as animal and insect dicer. For example ... In terms of crystal structure, the first Dicer to be explored was that from the protozoan Giardia intestinalis. The work was ... The protein size is 82 kDa, representing the conserved functional core that was subsequently been found in larger Dicer ... As an example, Drosophila C virus encodes for protein 1A which binds to dsRNA thus protecting it from dicer cleavage as well as ...
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of proteins, including basement membrane collagen and ... NHMec This enzyme is present in the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). " ...
... proteins are also the autoantigenic target for some anti-nuclear antibodies, such as anti-centromere antibodies. It ... Holocentricity has evolved at least 13 times independently in various green algae, protozoans, invertebrates, and different ... It has been proposed that histone H3 variant CENP-A (Centromere Protein A) is the epigenetic mark of the centromere. The ... In addition to some protein coding genes, human acrocentric p-arms also contain Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), from which ...
Here we characterize a new member of the TRAP/MIC2 family, named TRAP-Like Protein (TL … ... In the apicomplexan protozoans motility and cell invasion are mediated by the TRAP/MIC2 family of transmembrane proteins, ... In the apicomplexan protozoans motility and cell invasion are mediated by the TRAP/MIC2 family of transmembrane proteins, ... Similar to the Plasmodium sporozoite protein, TRAP, and the ookinete protein, CTRP, TLP possesses an extracellular domain ...
Klatt, S.: Evaluation of the trypanosomatid protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae for recombinant protein expression. Diploma, ...
... a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. ... It was initially mistaken for a trypanosome and then later for a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic ... composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoan ...
ANR TransLeish - Discovery of druggable protein kinases in the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani using hit compounds ...
Infectious pathogens include some viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as ...
1) constitute a family ofsmall oxygen-binding heme proteins distributed in eubacteria,cyanobacteria, protozoa, and plants ( ...
Protein lactylation critically regulates energy metabolism in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Front Cell Dev Biol. ... Lactate levels were normalized to total protein content (Qubit Protein Assay, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Q33211). ... A Western blots showing H3K18la and H3 protein expression in all included samples (n = 3). The arrows indicate 15 kDa. B MDS of ... We thank the Protein Production and Structure Core Facility at EPFL for the production and purification of pA-Tn5, especially ...
... blue lines refer to gastropod hits and green lines refer to lancelet proteins. Protozoan and bacterial yellow-like proteins ... blue lines refer to gastropod hits and green lines refer to lancelet proteins. Protozoan and bacterial yellow-like proteins ... 17 yellow-like protein sequences identified from insects salivary secretions, 7 MRJP-domain containing proteins of protozoans ... belcheri proteins, based on to two similar structures identified in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database: the salivary protein ...
... endogenous insect proteins as well as fungal, bacterial, and protozoan proteins. The query sequences from NCBI were blast-ed ... Table S11. - Species and NCBI Accession Nos for beta-1,3-glucanase proteins compared to phasmid proteins. Sequences with *were ... Table S10. - Species and NCBI Accession Nos for cellobiase (beta-glucosidase) proteins compared to phasmid proteins. Sequences ... Table S9. - Species and NCBI Accession Nos for pectinase (polygalacturonase) proteins compared to phasmid proteins. Sequences ...
Eur J Cell Biol 49:295В-302 Weise F, StierhofYD, Kuhn C et al (2000) Distribution of GPI-anchored proteins in the protozoan ... The gang of A2 isoforms varies between strains, with up to nine different-sized A2 proteins detected in the L. Most endocrine ... Moreover, the end effector of the signalling pathway regulated by means of STAT5 proteins includes Bcl-xL and XIAP. We, and ... Genes with vital roles in embryonic maturing and grow stall business such as mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and ...
... family such as suramin and probenecid are currently used for treatment of parasitic diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan. ... a third protein family composed by proteins denominated pannexins is present in vertebrates and shows primary sequence homology ... Gap junction proteins are present in both vertebrates and invertebrates permitting direct and indirect cellular communication. ... In this chapter, we summarized the current knowledge about the role of gap junction family proteins and channels in parasitic ...
Weve heard a lot about vaccines recently, but compared to a virus protozoan parasites have a huge number of proteins, making ... Each protein was produced using mammalian cell lines and then used to vaccinate mice to determine if the host immune system had ... By targeting a protein on the cell surface of the parasite Trypanosoma vivax, researchers were able to confer long-lasting ... One cell surface protein, named invariant flagellum antigen from T. vivax (IFX), was observed to confer immunity against ...
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.. Annotation:. /drug eff /ultrastruct permitted; /physiol permitted for function ... within the protozoon; coord IM with specific protein (IM) + specific protozoon (IM). ... Protozoan Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0024201. Scope note. Proteins found in any species of protozoan. ...
This family of proteins is represented in protozoa, algae, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and humans (Hill et al., 2000). ... A novel protein targeting domain directs proteins to the anterior cytoplasmic face of the flagellar pocket in African ... A novel protein targeting domain directs proteins to the anterior cytoplasmic face of the flagellar pocket in African ... The GAS11 microtubule-binding domain directs a green fluorescent protein (GFP)* fusion protein to the plus ends of trypanosome ...
Protozoan Proteins --genetics. en_US. dc.title. Markers for population genetic analysis of human plasmodia species, P. ...
a.10: Protozoan pheromone-like [47013] (2 superfamilies). 3 helices; bundle, closed, left-handed twist, up-and-down. ... More info for Class a: All alpha proteins. Timeline for Class a: All alpha proteins: *Class a: All alpha proteins first ... a.155: H-NS histone-like proteins [81274] (1 superfamily). multihelical oligomeric protein; structure of whole subunit is not ... a.131: Peridinin-chlorophyll protein [48607] (1 superfamily). multihelical: forms a boat-shaped protein shell around cofactors ...
Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui fermentasi rumen dan sintesia protein mikroba pada kambing Peranakan Ettawa (PE) ... Protein protozoa lebih banyak tertahan di dalam rumen, hanya sekitar 20 - 40% (Jouany, 1996) sel protozoa yang menuju ... Dengan demikian, protozoa berperan dalam mengatur laju pergerakan N di dalam rumen dan memasok protein mudah larut untuk ... Sintesis Protein Mikroba dan Populasi Protozoa Kambing yang diberi pakan ransum dengan komposisi berbeda menghasilkan bahan ...
strong,Recombinanat ,em,Toxoplasma gondii,/em,,/strong, is an ,em,Escherichia coli,/em,-derived recombinant protein ... Protozoan. Product Form. Purified Recombinant Protein - liquid. Buffer Solution. 50mM Tris-HCl. 1.5M Urea. ... Recombinant Protein. Specificity. Toxoplasma gondii p29 GRA7. Region. (aa24-100). Quick Links:. * Applications ... Recombinanat Toxoplasma gondii is an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 24-100 of ...
D12 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins .. D12.776 Proteins .. D12.776.820 Protozoan Proteins .. D13 Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides ... Genes, Protozoan .. Gene, Protozoan .. Protozoan Gene .. Protozoan Genes .. Genes, Structural, Protozoan .. Protozoan ... G05.360.340.024.340.396 Genes, Protozoan .. G05.360.340.397 Genome, Protozoan .. G05.360.340.397.500 Genes, Protozoan .. ... D13.444.308.442 DNA, Protozoan .. D13.444.735 RNA 12333 .. D13.444.735.650 RNA, Protozoan .. G05 Genetic Phenomena .. G05.360 ...
A single var protein variant type is expressed on each infected red blood cell, with antigenic variation allowing progeny ... Amanitins, Animals, Gene Expression Regulation, Plasmodium falciparum, Protozoan Proteins, RNA Polymerase II, Transcription, ... A single var protein variant type is expressed on each infected red blood cell, with antigenic variation allowing progeny ...
They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. They need to use another cells structures ... Protozoa. Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. But they are bigger than bacteria and ... For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. Some protozoa are ... Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive ...
Aegerolysins are proteins produced by bacteria, fungi, plants and protozoa. The most studied fungal aegerolysins share a common ... The genetic code that specifies the identity of amino acids incorporated into proteins during protein synthesis is almost ... Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like (NLP) proteins constitute a superfamily of proteins produced by plant pathogenic ... Nep1-like proteins as a target for plant pathogen control. Pirc, Katja; Hodnik, Vesna; Snoj, Tina; Lenarcic, Tea; Caserman, ...
Protozoan. Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. ... Common usage of the word protozoan still exists in the literature, though it is diminishing; for now we are going to retain ... Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic ... The 20th century classification of Protozoa emphasized modes of nutrition and locomotion; 21st century classification is based ...
Protozoan. Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. ... Common usage of the word protozoan still exists in the literature, though it is diminishing; for now we are going to retain ... Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic ... The 20th century classification of Protozoa emphasized modes of nutrition and locomotion; 21st century classification is based ...
Protozoan. Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. ... Common usage of the word protozoan still exists in the literature, though it is diminishing; for now we are going to retain ... Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic ... The 20th century classification of Protozoa emphasized modes of nutrition and locomotion; 21st century classification is based ...
Protozoan. Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. ... Common usage of the word protozoan still exists in the literature, though it is diminishing; for now we are going to retain ... Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic ... The 20th century classification of Protozoa emphasized modes of nutrition and locomotion; 21st century classification is based ...
Protozoan. Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. ... Common usage of the word protozoan still exists in the literature, though it is diminishing; for now we are going to retain ... Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic ... The 20th century classification of Protozoa emphasized modes of nutrition and locomotion; 21st century classification is based ...
  • One cell surface protein, named 'invariant flagellum antigen from T. vivax ' (IFX), was observed to confer immunity against infection in almost all vaccinated mice for at least 170 days after experimental challenge with T. vivax parasites. (
  • We've heard a lot about vaccines recently, but compared to a virus protozoan parasites have a huge number of proteins, making it very difficult to identify the right targets. (
  • A single var protein variant type is expressed on each infected red blood cell, with antigenic variation allowing progeny parasites to escape host immune detection. (
  • Some protozoa are parasites, which means that they need to live on or in another organism (like an animal or plant) to survive. (
  • RNAi is functional in trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that separated very early from the main eukaryotic lineage and exhibit several intriguing features in terms of the control of gene expression. (
  • Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites belonging to the order Kinetoplastida, which diverged very early from the main eukaryotic lineage. (
  • Diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed with serum virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. (
  • Protozoan parasites belonging to the genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma of the Trypanosomatidae family cause a variety of life threatening and debilitating diseases including kala-azar (the visceral form of leishmaniasis), sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, or HAT) and Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis). (
  • Under vaccines, we develop vaccines for livestock diseases, focusing especially on ways to improve immune responses to protozoa parasites. (
  • The causes of diarrhea are often multifactorial, but predominantly come from the dam or other nearby cattle that contaminate the calf housing area with manure containing various bacteria, viruses, protozoa or parasites. (
  • Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania . (
  • Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasites which are transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. (
  • The term "germs" refers to the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. (
  • Protozoa (pronounced: pro-toe-ZO-uh) are one-celled organisms, like bacteria. (
  • Many of the most important microbial plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes, secrete necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs), which critically contribute to the virulence and spread of the disease. (
  • Active against various anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. (
  • Inhibits protein synthesis and thus bacterial growth by binding to 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible bacteria. (
  • MBLs bind with sugars, allowing the protein to interact with many different kinds of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi and protozoa cloaked with such sugars. (
  • Viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa are germs which infect humans causing diseases and if unchecked can lead to death. (
  • The official LifeStraw filters 1,000 liters of water and removes 99.99% of bacteria and protozoa, including e-coli, campylobacter, vibrio cholera, salmonella and more. (
  • 1. Toxins are poisonous molecules, peptides, or protein produced by plants, animals, and other organisms while poisons are substances that are absorbed through the skin or gut of organisms and causes chemical reactions. (
  • The acute effect is attributed to the presence of peptides (amino acid chains like proteins, but shorter in length) that last for several minutes before fading. (
  • By targeting a protein on the cell surface of the parasite Trypanosoma vivax , researchers were able to confer long-lasting protection against animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) infection in mice. (
  • Each protein was produced using mammalian cell lines and then used to vaccinate mice to determine if the host immune system had been instructed to identify and destroy the T. vivax parasite. (
  • BACKGROUND:Antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium vivax) are proven to be important in protection against clinical disease. (
  • Our results indicate that 2-BP inhibits key cellular processes of T. cruzi that may be regulated by palmitoylation of vital proteins and suggest a metacyclic trypomastigote unique target dependency during the parasite development. (
  • However, no 2-BP or global palmitoylation studies have been reported yet for Trypanosoma cruzi , a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease in Latin America. (
  • Although a decade has passed since their first description, to date, most PHIST proteins remain uncharacterized and are of unknown function and localization within the host cell, and there are few data on their interactions with other host or parasite proteins. (
  • Recombinant CpEF1α protein was used to evaluate its effect on the invasion by the parasite. (
  • and Implication of the Roles of a Rhomboid Membrane Protein (CpROM1) in Host-Parasite Interaction. (
  • P. falciparum (Pf) is one of five protozoan parasite species of the genus Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. (
  • The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is coated by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. (
  • These are clearly the best targets to go after with the hope that a specific inhibitor binding to the protein will mimic the knock-down of the gene expression and kill the parasite. (
  • Earlier work on NMT from the sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei and the malarial protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum , also showed that the organisms died when the enzyme was inhibited or knocked-down. (
  • This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host tick R. appendiculatus, the vector of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. (
  • Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects some 8 million people worldwide. (
  • Leishmaniasis is caused by a tiny parasite called leishmania protozoa. (
  • Leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoa parasite from over 20 Leishmania species and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. (
  • Here we characterize a new member of the TRAP/MIC2 family, named TRAP-Like Protein (TLP), that is highly conserved within the Plasmodium genus. (
  • Similar to the Plasmodium sporozoite protein, TRAP, and the ookinete protein, CTRP, TLP possesses an extracellular domain architecture that is comprised of von Willebrand factor A (vWA) and thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) domains, plus a short cytoplasmic domain. (
  • Comparison of the vWA domain of TLP genes from multiple Plasmodium falciparum isolates showed relative low sequence diversity, suggesting that the protein is not under selective pressures of the host immune system. (
  • Plasmodium Helical Interspersed Subtelomeric (PHIST) Proteins, at the Center of Host Cell Remodeling. (
  • Among the exported proteins, a family of 89 proteins, called the Plasmodium helical interspersed subtelomeric (PHIST) protein family, has been identified. (
  • Here we use double-stranded RNA interference to block trypanin expression in Trypanosoma brucei , and demonstrate that this protein is required for directional cell motility. (
  • Little is known on such important process in the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of Chagas disease. (
  • The disease is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei, which in a mammalian blood system become a trypomastigote and travels throughout the host mammalian and infects spinal fluid and lymph nodes. (
  • The protozoa Trypanosoma brucei infects the tsetse fly when it feeds on the blood of an infected mammal. (
  • In this report, we identify a protein from the Trypanosoma cruzi (the protozoan agent of Chagas disease) endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as responsible for, at least an important part of the antitumor effect of this infection. (
  • Evaluation of the trypanosomatid protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae for recombinant protein expression. (
  • ABSTRACT In order to define the protein expressional changes related to the process of meglumine antimoniate resistance in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), we performed a comparative proteomics analysis on sensitive and resistant strains of Leishmania tropica isolated from Iranian CL patients. (
  • Recent evidences suggest that gap junction proteins play a critical role in bacterial and viral infections. (
  • In this chapter, we summarized the current knowledge about the role of gap junction family proteins and channels in parasitic infections. (
  • Protozoa love moisture, so intestinal infections and other diseases they cause, such as amebiasis and giardiasis, often spread through contaminated water. (
  • Thus the headings Protozoan Infections, Protozoan Genes, and Protozoan Proteins, etc. have not changed. (
  • The vast majority of new descriptors treed under Eukaryota comprise most of the organisms that were previously treed under the old Protozoa. (
  • By searching through genome databases, novel Argonaute-like proteins were identified in several protozoa that belong to the kinetoplastid order, a group of organisms that diverged early from the main eukaryotic lineage. (
  • Protozoa are one-celled organisms. (
  • Recombinanat Toxoplasma gondii is an Escherichia coli -derived recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 24-100 of Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 7, also known as 29 kDa excretory dense granule protein, p29/GRA7 or p29. (
  • For example, the protozoa that causes malaria grows inside red blood cells, eventually destroying them. (
  • Expression of PHIST proteins has been implicated in molecular and cellular processes such as the surface display of PfEMP1, gametocytogenesis, changes in cell rigidity, and also cerebral and pregnancy-associated malaria. (
  • Whole microbes, microbial subunits and extracts, and peptide and protein antigens have been the focus of much vaccine research and development. (
  • While studies of peptide and protein antigens have been facilitated by the rapid advances in genomics and proteomics, studies of sugar chains, which are abundantly expressed on the outer surfaces of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal pathogens and on the membranes of mammalian cells, have not kept pace with technologic advances. (
  • A number of presentations were focused on the role of CD1 proteins, which present lipid antigens (e.g., from mycobacteria or Francisella tularensis , a potential weapon of bioterrorism) to T cells. (
  • Along with antibodies, there are also many cells, chemicals, and proteins involved in destroying these antigens. (
  • Proteins found in any species of protozoan. (
  • Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. (
  • Structural comparison of assembly intermediates with mature mt-SSU combined with RNAi experiments suggests a noncanonical role of mt-IF-2 and a stepwise assembly process, where modular exchange of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors together with mt-IF-2 ensure proper 9S rRNA folding and protein maturation during the final steps of assembly. (
  • In kinetoplasts, maxicircles play an important role in encoding ribosomal RNAs as well as various proteins involved in bioenergetic processes within the mitochondria. (
  • They are simply genetic material (DNA or RNA) packaged inside of a protein coating. (
  • The genetic code that specifies the identity of amino acids incorporated into proteins during protein synthesis is almost universally conserved. (
  • For example, African trypanosomes display a protein on their surface that constantly changes and prevents host antibodies from recognising the pathogen. (
  • Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are special proteins that are created by WBCs to kill or neutralize infection-causing microbes. (
  • Subsequent genomic sequence analysis of multiple genes including elongation factor 3, a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. (
  • Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, synthetized in the cytosol and targeted into the organelle. (
  • Recently, haemoglobin has been recognised in Vitreoscilla, a bacterium, and homology between this protein and its gene and animal and plant haemoglobins and their genes is demonstrated. (
  • Inhibitors of channels formed by proteins of the gap junction family such as suramin and probenecid are currently used for treatment of parasitic diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan. (
  • Alcohol which is one of the active ingredients of KilRox wipes kills germs by denaturing the outer proteins of microbes and dissolving their membranes according to Google. (
  • We previously discovered a family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that includes GAS11 , a candidate human tumor suppressor upregulated in growth-arrested cells, and trypanin, a component of the flagellar cytoskeleton of African trypanosomes. (
  • The requirement of TbAGO1 for RNAi in trypanosomes demonstrates the evolutionary ancient involvement of Argonaute proteins in RNAi silencing processes. (
  • The palmitate analogue 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) is a non-selective membrane tethered cysteine alkylator of many membrane-associated enzymes that in the last years emerged as a general inhibitor of protein S-palmitoylation. (
  • Palmitoylation is a reversible, dynamic modification regulated by enzymes that either transfer palmitic acid to a target protein (palmitoyl acyltransferases: PATs) or cleave the thioester linkages between palmitic acid and the modified proteins (palmitoyl protein thioesterases: PPTs) [ 4 ]. (
  • These proteins (enzymes) are released from the phage-induced clearance zone. (
  • Antigenic N-terminal half of the major surface antigen (SAG1) was linked with intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of dense granule protein 2 (GRA2). (
  • Another group of brain disorders, called spongiform encephalopathies, are caused by abnormal proteins called prions. (
  • In addition, recombinant CpEF1α protein could effectively interfere the invasion of sporozoites into host cells. (
  • Your skin cells generate and release essential immune cells and antimicrobial proteins that can be located in different layers of your skin. (
  • Mitochondrial ribosomes are specialized for the synthesis of membrane proteins responsible for oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • Bactericidal activity results from inhibiting cell wall synthesis by binding to 1 or more penicillin-binding proteins. (
  • Intermediate-metabolized compounds formed bind DNA and inhibit protein synthesis, causing cell death. (
  • May block dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest. (
  • Gap junction proteins are present in both vertebrates and invertebrates permitting direct and indirect cellular communication. (
  • These cellular specializations are formed by two protein families corresponding to connexins (vertebrates) and innexins (invertebrates). (
  • The descriptor Protozoa, formerly under Invertebrates, was deleted because it has become an outmoded phylogenetic concept. (
  • In this study, scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute analysed the genome of T. vivax to identify 60 cell surface proteins that could be viable vaccine targets. (
  • Only four proteins have previously been identified or proposed to be located in micronemes, one of which, GP900, was confirmed using immunogold electron microscopy (IEM) to be present in the micronemes of intracellular merozoites. (
  • In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic acid composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoan. (
  • Most of the organism descriptors that were treed under Protozoa are now treed under Eukaryota, some under different taxonomic names. (
  • Apart from their role in energy transduction processes, maxicircles are also involved in the formation of some of the proteins that make up the organism. (
  • Do these DNA breaks potentially affect innate immune molecules such as the mannose binding lectins (MBLs) , which are primarily located on lung surfactant proteins A and D? (
  • The critical importance of these cytoskeletal linker proteins is evidenced by severe neurological and skin blistering diseases that result from defects in plakins, a family of coiled-coil proteins that physically link intermediate filaments with actin microfilaments and microtubules ( Klymkowsky, 1999 ). (
  • The Potential of Secondary Metabolites from Plants as Drugs or Leads against Protozoan Neglected Diseases-Part III: In-Silico Molecular Docking Investigations. (
  • Prion diseases are rare progressive, fatal, and currently untreatable degenerative disorders of the brain (and rarely of other organs) that result when a protein changes into an abnormal form called prion. (
  • Only 30 % of T. cruzi infected people presents variable symptoms, years or decades after infection [ 1 ], thus indicating that the protozoan components, as occurs in many parasitisms, are relatively well tolerated during the infection. (
  • Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) play a central role in synthesizing mitochondrial inner membrane proteins responsible for oxidative phosphorylation. (
  • This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact allergy based on the concept of hapten-protein binding and (ii) mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (
  • for now we are going to retain the other DeCS/MeSH descriptors with the word 'Protozoan. (
  • A large number of exported proteins facilitate this remodeling process, which causes erythrocytes to become more rigid, cytoadherent, and permeable for nutrients and metabolic products. (
  • Surfactant-free anionic PLA nanoparticles coated with HIV-1 p24 protein induced enhanced cellular and humoral immune responses in various animal models. (
  • This post-translational modification is used to anchor the protein into membranes within the cell. (
  • The binding of intrinsically disordered proteins to globular ones can require the folding of motifs into α-helices. (
  • Palmitoylation is a post-translational protein modification that adds palmitic acid to a cysteine residue through a thioester linkage, promoting membrane localization, protein stability, regulation of enzymatic activity, and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. (
  • It has been suggested that 2-BP also inhibits PPTs, disturbing the acylation cycle of the protein GAP-43 at the depalmitoylation level and consequently affecting its kinetics of membrane association [ 22 ]. (
  • Migrate from blood stream in to tissue spaces, especially mucous membrane Important in defense against protozoans and helminthes. (
  • Here we review current knowledge, shed light on the definition of PHIST proteins, and discuss these proteins with respect to their localization and probable function. (
  • Is 5G accelerating the virility of coronavirus by weakening important cellular surveillance systems on the proteins of lung cells? (
  • In addition, a third protein family composed by proteins denominated pannexins is present in vertebrates and shows primary sequence homology to innexins. (
  • This suggested these reactive aldehydes clout advancement spoken opening tissue assisting a cancerous have at near damaging proteins that normally arrest tumour incident (e. 1877: Glaciated mut shipped from Argentina to writer symptoms 8 days after ovulation. (
  • The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is comprised of a complex network of distinct but interconnected filament systems that function in cell division, cell motility, and subcellular trafficking of proteins and organelles. (
  • Particle-based transcutaneous administration of HIV-1 p24 protein to human skin explants and targeting of epidermal antigen presenting cells. (