The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (1/1558)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

Enhancer-like properties of an RNA element that modulates Tombusvirus RNA accumulation. (2/1558)

Prototypical defective interfering (DI) RNAs of the plus-strand RNA virus tomato bushy stunt virus contain four noncontiguous segments (regions I-IV) derived from the viral genome. Region I corresponds to 5'-noncoding sequence, regions II and III are derived from internal positions, and region IV represents a 3'-terminal segment. We analyzed the internally located region III in a prototypical DI RNA to understand better its role in DI RNA accumulation. Our results indicate that (1) region III is not essential for DI RNA accumulation, but molecules that lack it accumulate at significantly reduced levels ( approximately 10-fold lower), (2) region III is able to function at different positions and in opposite orientations, (3) a single copy of region III is favored over multiple copies, (4) the stimulatory effect observed on DI RNA accumulation is not due to region III-mediated RNA stabilization, (5) DI RNAs lacking region III permit the efficient accumulation of head-to-tail dimers and are less effective at suppressing helper RNA accumulation, and (6) negative-strand accumulation is also significantly depressed for DI RNAs lacking region III. Collectively, these results support a role for region III as an enhancer-like element that facilitates DI RNA replication. A scanning-type mutagenesis strategy was used to define portions of region III important for its stimulatory effect on DI RNA accumulation. Interestingly, the results revealed several differences in the requirements for activity when region III was in the forward versus the reverse orientation. In the context of the viral genome, region III was found to be essential for biological activity. This latter finding defines a critical role for this element in the reproductive cycle of the virus.  (+info)

A function for the plasmalemma grooves of a fission yeast. (3/1558)

Ultrastructural studies on regenerating protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe show that the spatial differentiation of the plasmalemma into grooves and flat areas is reflected in a functional differentiation in cell-wall synthesis. The grooves are the initial site of production of wall fibrils.  (+info)

Protection of Escherichia coli cells against extreme turgor by activation of MscS and MscL mechanosensitive channels: identification of genes required for MscS activity. (4/1558)

Mechanosensitive channels are ubiquitous amongst bacterial cells and have been proposed to have major roles in the adaptation to osmotic stress, in particular in the management of transitions from high to low osmolarity environments. Electrophysiological measurements have identified multiple channels in Escherichia coli cells. One gene, mscL, encoding a large conductance channel has previously been described, but null mutants were without well-defined phenotypes. Here, we report the characterization of a new gene family required for MscS function, YggB and KefA, which has enabled a rigorous test of the role of the channels. The channel determined by KefA does not appear to have a major role in managing the transition from high to low osmolarity. In contrast, analysis of mutants of E.coli lacking YggB and MscL shows that mechanosensitive channels are designed to open at a pressure change just below that which would cause cell disruption leading to death.  (+info)

The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development. (5/1558)

During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.  (+info)

RNA polymerase I transcription in a Brassica interspecific hybrid and its progenitors: Tests of transcription factor involvement in nucleolar dominance. (6/1558)

In interspecific hybrids or allopolyploids, often one parental set of ribosomal RNA genes is transcribed and the other is silent, an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. Silencing is enforced by cytosine methylation and histone deacetylation, but the initial discrimination mechanism is unknown. One hypothesis is that a species-specific transcription factor is inactivated, thereby silencing one set of rRNA genes. Another is that dominant rRNA genes have higher binding affinities for limiting transcription factors. A third suggests that selective methylation of underdominant rRNA genes blocks transcription factor binding. We tested these hypotheses using Brassica napus (canola), an allotetraploid derived from B. rapa and B. oleracea in which only B. rapa rRNA genes are transcribed. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes were active when transfected into protoplasts of the other species, which argues against the species-specific transcription factor model. B. oleracea and B. rapa rRNA genes also competed equally for the pol I transcription machinery in vitro and in vivo. Cytosine methylation had no effect on rRNA gene transcription in vitro, which suggests that transcription factor binding was unimpaired. These data are inconsistent with the prevailing models and point to discrimination mechanisms that are likely to act at a chromosomal level.  (+info)

Long-distance RNA-RNA interactions and conserved sequence elements affect potato virus X plus-strand RNA accumulation. (7/1558)

Conserved octanucleotide sequences located upstream of two major potato virus X (PVX) subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs), as well as elements in the 5' end of the genome, affect accumulation of sgRNA. To determine if complementarity between these sequences is important for PVX RNA accumulation, we analyzed the effects of mutations within these elements and compensatory mutations in a tobacco protoplast system and in plants. Mutations in the 5' nontranslated region (NTR mutants) that reduced complementarity resulted in lower genomic RNA (gRNA) and sgRNA levels, whereas mutations to the octanucleotide elements affected only the corresponding sgRNA levels. However, for both the NTR and octanucleotide mutants, the extent of reductions in RNA levels did not directly correlate with the degree of complementarity, suggesting that the sequences of these elements are also important. Mutants containing changes in the NTR and compensatory changes in one of the octanucleotide elements restored levels of gRNA and the other sgRNA species with an unaltered octanucleotide element to those of wild-type. Although compensatory changes significantly increased levels of the sgRNA species with the modified octanucleotide element, levels were not restored to those of wild-type. Our data indicate that long distance RNA-RNA interactions and the sequences of the interacting elements are required for PVX plus-strand RNA accumulation.  (+info)

Development of a self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora and identification of polyketide synthase genes essential for production of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin. (8/1558)

A self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora, a producer of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin A (PRM A), has been developed. The system is based on reproducible and reliable protoplasting and regeneration conditions for A. verrucosospora and a novel plasmid vector that consists of a replicon from a newly found Actinomadura plasmid and a selectable marker cloned from the Actinomadura strain. The system has an efficiency of more than 10(5) CFU/microgram of DNA. Using this system, we have cloned and identified the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes essential for PRM A biosynthesis from A. verrucosospora. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3.5-kb SalI-SphI fragment showed that ketosynthase subunits (open reading frame 1 [ORF1] and ORF2) of the essential PKS genes have strong similarities (59 to 89%) to those for angucyclic antibiotic biosynthesis.  (+info)

Protoplast isolation from tomato - posted in Botany and Plant Biology: I am trying to isolate protoplast from tomato, exactly the way Jen Sheens lab does for Arabidopsis, but the yield is very very poor. Moreover I know that eventually all I see after isolation is collection of chloroplast. I think that the osmotic pressure is very to disturbed. Does anybody have a set of protocol to isolate protoplast from tomato. Kindly suggest.
Transient assays using protoplasts are ideal for processing large quantities of genetic data coming out of hi-throughput assays. Previously, protoplasts have routinely been prepared from dicot tissue or cell suspension cultures and yet a good system for rice protoplast isolation and manipulation is lacking.. We have established a rice seedling protoplast system designed for the rapid characterization of large numbers of genes. We report optimized methods for protoplast isolation from 7-14 day old etiolated rice seedlings. We show that the reporter genes luciferase GL2 and GUS are maximally expressed approximately 20 h after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation into protoplasts. In addition we found that transformation efficiency varied significantly with plasmid size. Five micrograms of a 4.5 kb plasmid resulted in 60-70% transformation efficiency. In contrast, using 50 microg of a 12 kb plasmid we obtained a maximum of 25-30% efficiency. We also show that short interfering RNAs ...
Plant transformation and exogenous protein expression is essential for molecular biology and biotechnology. Current approaches of stable plant transformation might be problematic and very time-consuming. Because of this, transient expression in protoplasts has become valuable alternative, being less cost and time-effective at the same time. Excellent for eukaryotic proteins, representing a natural cell habitat, protoplast isolation is widely used in protein interaction visualization techniques, like BiFC (Bimolecular fluorescence complementation) and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer). In this protocol we present a another use of Arabidopsis protoplast in protein degradation assay, proving its high versatility as a tool in proteomics.
Explant-dependent receptivity to isolation and a cell-wall resynthesis in protoplast culture of recalcitrant yellow lupin. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
SUMMARY: Conditions for highly efficient genetic recombination in Streptomyces by protoplast fusion are described. Protoplasts of S. fradiae and S. griseofuscus were formed by a modification of the glycine-lysozyme-lytic enzyme method (Okanishi, Suzuki & Umezawa, 1974). Regeneration of cells from protoplasts was monitored throughout the growth cycle and was most efficient when cells of either S. fradiae or S. griseofuscus were taken from the transition phase between the exponential and stationary growth phases. Fusion of protoplasts carrying different auxotrophic or chromosomal drug-resistance markers was achieved by treatment with polyethylene glycol, and high frequencies of stable genetic recombinants were obtained.
Guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) were isolated from the adaxial epidermis of Vicia leaves. The properties of isolated adaxial GCPs (ad GCPs) were compared with tho
Uptake and metabolism of exogenous naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) have been studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) mesophyll protoplasts. Both auxins entered protoplasts by diffusion under the action of the transmembrane pH gradient without any detectable participation of an influx carrier. Molecules were accumulated by an anion-trapping mechanism and most of them were metabolized within hours, essentially as glucose-ester and amino-acid conjugates. Protoplasts were equipped with a functional auxin-efflux carrier as evidenced by the inhibitory effect of naphthylphtalamic acid on IAA efflux. Basically, similar mechanisms of NAA and IAA uptake occurred in protoplasts. However, the two auxins differed in their levels of accumulation, due to different membrane-transport characteristics, and the nature of the metabolites produced. This shows the need to estimate the accumulation and the metabolism of auxins when analyzing their effects in a given cell system. The
Author】 ZHANG Xiao-li1, HE Rui1*, TONG Jia-yun1,2, ZHAN Ruo-ting1, LIN Chao1 1. Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Resources from Lingnan of Ministry of Education, Research Centre of Chinese Herbal Resource Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China; 2. College of Chinese Traditional Medicine,Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, GuangZhou, Guangdong 510006, China. 【摘要】 [Objective] To set up protoplast preparation and purification method from Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr. leaves. [Method] Taking the yield and survival rate of protoplast as indices, the effects of different factors, including pretreatment, enzymolysis method, enzymolysis temperature, centrifugation speed, illumination, and sieve mesh number were studied for the separation and purification of protoplast from N. fordii leaves. [Result] The optimum process for protoplast isolation was obtained as follows: N. fordii leaves were first pretreated for 1 h in CPW ...
SUMMARY: Protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivaued in sporulation medium with an osmotic stabilizer at pH 7.0 were studied by means of light and electron microscopy. After 15 h, mature ascospores with complese cell walls were formed in the protoplasts. During sporulation, protoplasts regenerated only the fibrillar wall component and were osmotically sensitive. By using snail enzymes to block fibril regeneration on the protoplast surface, it was proved that sporulation was quite independent of such regeneration. Most of the ascospores produced by protoplasts were viable, osmotically resistant and save rise to new yeast cells. Meiotic division and sporulation in the yeasts are processes quite independent of the presence of the ascus wall.
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Among the eight strains of Listeria monocytogenes tested for lysozyme sensitivity, two were resistant to lysozyme but became sensitive after lipase pretreatment. Among the other six, one was very sensitive to lipase and another one was extremely susceptible to lysozyme. Stable protoplasts were formed from the lysozyme-resistant strain (42) by lipase and lysozyme treatment, which completely digested the cell wall. The cell wall (uranyl acetate-lead stained) was of a thick triple-layered profile, with the intermediate layer of low density. Lipase treatment for a short time (60 min) did not cause any alteration in structure, but prolonged treatment (180 min) caused extensive digestion of the plasma membrane and the cell wall, liberating cytoplasmic material. When the cells were treated with either lipase or lysozyme, a small number of protoplasts were extruded through the partly digested or weakened transverse cell wall, leaving an almost intact cell wall ghost. There were small vesicular structures in the
106. Abstract Protoplasts of Boergesenia forbesii (Hanvey) were treated with inhibitors of protein synthesis in order to investigate their effects on cellulose synthesis. Cellulose synthesis was reversibly inhibited by 10 M cycloheximide as assayed by fluorescence microscopy of Tinopal binding to cellulose. Freeze fracture and image analysis of cycloheximide-treated cells indicated a reduction in the number of intramembrane particles; however, the terminal synthesizing complexes remained at all times. Treatment with 10 M actinomycin D, when applied during the first hour of protoplast formation, irreversibly inhibits cellulose synthesis and terminal complex formation. De novo protein synthesis is required for cell wall regeneration by protoplasts. The data suggest that the structural subunits visualized in the terminal complex do not undergo signifi-cant turnover, but that there may exist an essential proteinaceous component of cellulose synthesis which must be continually renewed ...
Light micrograph of protoplasts from a tobacco leaf, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, showing two different cell types, epidermal (colourless) & mesophyll (green). A protoplast is a single intact cell, which has been chemically treated to remove the tough outer cellulose wall, leaving only the delicate plasma membrane binding the cell contents into a whole. The cell wall can later be regrown. The epidermal cells, a layer at the surface, protect the leaf from external damage. The mesophyll, a layer beneath, contain numerous chloroplasts, sites of photosynthesis. Protoplast cells, being easier to manipulate, are used in plant genetic experimentation. Mag: X125 (35mm). - Stock Image B060/0002
1) Two extracellular staphylolytic enzymes have been Isolated and purified from submerged cultures of Streptomyces griseus. 2) The enzymes were electrophoretically homogeneous at several pH values. A single peak was obtained for each protein on ultracentrifugation. Based on gel-filtration molecular weights of 11,800 and 13,000 were determined for enzyme 1 and enzyme 2 respectively. 3) The ionic strength and pH optima for lytic activity of the two enzymes against staphylococcal cells and their isolated cell walls have been detenained. The effects of several cations and certain known enzyme inhibitors have been tested on lytic action of the two enzymes against cell walls. 4) Both enzymes were N-acetylhexosaminidases. Examination of the acid hydrolysis products of fully digested cell walls treated with naBH4 demonstrated that both enzymes were muramidases. 5) Both enzymes caused lysis to varying extents, of the cell walls of a range of gram positive organisms. However, E. coli, the only gram ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marco Ieronimo, Sergii Afonin, Katja Koch, Marina Berditsch, Parvesh Wadhwani, Anne S Ulrich].
A process for the production of aminoglycoside antibiotics using fused protoplasts derived from streptomyces. The cells are precultured in a medium containing sucrose, calcium and magnesium salts. Protoplasts are formed and then fused. The fused protoplasts are regenerate and antibiotic producing ability is screened for. The regenerate cells produced an antibiotic complex of modified composition or demonstrated increased or reduced antibiotic productivity compared to the fusion partners.
soft agar (0.8%) plates containing In some cases, protoplasts were resus- pended in LB medium containing 0.5 M sucrose and spread onto soft agar plates containing LB medium and 0.5 M sucrose with autoclaved plastic spreaders. The plates were subsequently incubated at either 25 or 37 1C. In other cases, the protoplasts were diluted into molten soft agar at 45 1C containing either LB medium and 0.5 M sucrose or M9 medium, 0.5 M sucrose, and either Leu (100 mg/ml) or Arg (100 mg/ml), depending on the nutritional requirements of the auxotrophic strains used, and then poured onto soft agar plates of the same composition. ...
Auxin modifies the electrical transmembrane potential of isolated protoplasts according to an inverted bell-shaped dose-response curve (Ephritikhine et al, 1987; Shen et al, 1988). The sensitivity of...
Abundant microtubules (MTs) were present both in protoplasts isolated from tobacco BY-2 cells and on membrane ghosts prepared from such protoplasts. However, only a few MTs or none at all were observed on membrane ghosts prepared from protoplasts pretreated with protease, trypsin or chymotrypsin, although abundant MTs were present in protease-pretreated protoplasts. These observations suggest that the digestion of the extracellular portion of transmembrane protein(s) results in the dissociation of cortical MTs from the plasma membrane. Exogenously applied extensin or poly-L-lysine increased the cold-stability of cortical MTs in the control protoplasts, but not in protease-pretreated protoplasts. It appears that the transmembrane protein(s) is also involved in the stabilization of cortical MTs by extensin or poly-L-lysine. Cortical MTs in BY-2 cells were arranged parallel to one another and were resistant to cold. Treatment with protease rendered the MTs sensitive to cold and often disturbed the ...
Plant, bacterial or fungal protoplasts & spheroplasts: what are the key differences, how are they prepared and what are they ultimately used for?
Automated isolation of protoplasts from plant cells with the ALS CellCelector for downstream processes like single cell RNA analysis
The data presented in this paper show that second messengers such as cGMP and cAMP can provoke [Ca2+]cyt elevations in tobacco protoplasts. In the case of cAMP and cGMP, the targets of action are likely to be intracellular, because even though membrane-permeable analogs at concentrations as low as 0.1 μm provoked a large [Ca2+]cyt response (Fig.1, A and B), membrane-impermeable cAMP and cGMP did not produce any significant effect (Fig. 6). An intracellular site of action is also supported by the fact that a significant [Ca2+]cyt response was induced by db-cGMP and db-cAMP in the absence of external Ca2+. Protoplasts in EGTA (zero external Ca2+) still showed [Ca2+]cyt responses to these second messengers, implicating the release of Ca2+ from internal stores as a mechanism for this response. Although variability was seen between protoplast preparations, cyclic-nucleotide-mediated [Ca2+]cyt increases were generally higher in the presence of external Ca2+. This suggests that cyclic mononucleotides ...
Consider a water balloon inside a cardboard box. This is a good model for a plant cell. Thus, there are two major components to a plant cell: (1) the box which is analogous to the cell wall, and (2) the water balloon which is analogous to the cytoplasm or protoplast. The protoplast is everything inside the cell wall. It is the living part of the cell and includes the cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, and other goodies. Like a cardboard box, the cell wall is relatively rigid, it is non-living and highly structured. Its more obvious functions are to support and protect the cell. It is produced by the protoplast.. Pores or air spaces (called intercellular spaces) exist between adjacent cells because of the difficulty of packing of cells with rigid walls. Try and squeeze a bunch of irregularly boxes into a room without leaving any space between them! The intercellular spaces are important for gas exchange and water transport, some movements (i.e., sensitive plants - water moves into/out of theses ...
Using freshly isolated maize mesophyll protoplasts and a transient expression method, I showed that the transcriptional activity of seven maize photosynthetic gene promoters is specifically and coordinately repressed by the photosynthetic end products sucrose and glucose and by the exogenous carbon source acetate. Analysis of deleted, mutated, and hybrid promoters showed that sugars and acetate inhibit the activity of distinct positive upstream regulatory elements without a common consensus. The metabolic repression of photosynthetic genes overrides other forms of regulation, e.g., light, tissue type, and developmental stage. Repression by sugars and repression by acetate are mediated by different mechanisms. The identification of conditions that avoid sugar repression overcomes a major obstacle to the study of photosynthetic gene regulation in higher plants.. ...
Bargmann, Bastiaan O.R., and Kenneth D. Birnbaum. Positive Fluorescent Selection Permits Precise, Rapid, and In-Depth Overexpression Analysis in Plant Protoplasts. Plant Physiology 149.3 (2009): 1231-1239. Web. 29 Nov. 2020. ...
* found in: Casamino Acids, Wheat Regeneration Medium (MMS2C), Murashige & Skoog (MS) Medium, Gellan Gum Powder, Murashige & Skoog(MS) Medium,..
DNA-free gene editing can be achieved by using purified Cas9 enzymes with gRNA and transfecting them directly into your cells or protoplasts of interest.
The freeze-fracture morphology of the plasma membrane of cells and isolated protoplasts of plant callus suspensions has been investigated. Plasmolysis of suspension cells leads to the formation of 2 types of hexagonal arrays of intramembrane particles situated on the inner fracture face (PF). These arrays are interpreted as proteins that have crystallized in the plane of the membrane as the area of surrounding lipid bilayer is reduced during protoplast retraction from the cell wall. Time-course studies have revealed no positive relationship between the distribution of hexagonal arrays and the occurrence of microfibrils regenerated around isolated protoplasts during periods of culture. No evidence for the specialized transport functions attributed to hexagonal arrays of plant cells by previous workers has been found. ...
Looking for online definition of Protoplasts in the Medical Dictionary? Protoplasts explanation free. What is Protoplasts? Meaning of Protoplasts medical term. What does Protoplasts mean?
The location of coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) strain 425 was determined in protoplasts isolated from infected tobacco leaves and in in vitro inoculated tobacco protoplasts, using immunocytochemistry on ultrathin frozen sections labeled with colloidal gold. In infected tobacco leaves 5 days postinoculation (p.i.) coat protein is present ... read more in the cytoplasm and nucleus, especially around the nucleolus. In in vitro inoculated tobacco protoplasts coat protein was not present in the nucleus 6 hr p.i. These results indicate that the presence of coat protein in the nucleus is not necessary for viral replication. However, coat protein could be detected in the nucleus 48 hr p.i. Probably coat protein or virus particles accumulate in the nucleus late in infection. Minus-strand RNA, as part of the replication complex, could be detected in a 650 g pellet fraction of infected tobacco leaves but not in the nucleus, suggesting that replication of AIMV occurs outside the nucleus. show ...
A variety of red algal species have been identified as potential food sources for juvenile Greenlip Abalone, Haliotis laevigata (,5 mm shell length). To provide the red algal species in a diet suitable for juvenile abalone three propagation methods; spore production, protoplast isolation, and fragment culture were investigated. The potential algae requirements and consumable costs for each propagation method were determined, using experimental data and values from the literature, to assess the viability of utilizing each of these propagation methods in a commercial abalone nursery. The use of red algal spores required 592-52,000 kg of algae, depending on the level of spore release and the percentage of fertile algal thalli collected. Protoplast isolation reduced the amount of algal biomass to 8.55-910 kg but was affected by the efficiency of the isolation procedure. Even at an efficient production of 1 × 108 protoplasts·g-1 wet weight alga the cost of consumables (enzymes) was $US 13,576. A ...
Morphogenesis-Protoplast Culture: Questions 1-3 of 3. Get to the point IFS (Forests Services) Botany (Mains) questions for your exams.
Since the development of genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9, it is possible to modify the sequences of genes in a very specific manner. The molecular delivery into plant protoplasts to improve the quality of agricultural crops represents a major bottleneck in the routine application of CRISPR/Cas9 in modern plant breeding. To approach this need, we suppose using gold nanoparticle mediated (GNOME) laser transfection for delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNP) into potato protoplasts with high-throughput. As a proof-of-concept, we aim to reduce the toxic steroidal glykoalkaloid α-solanine in potatoes. GNOME laser transfection utilizes a picosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm to excite surface plasmon resonance of membrane-attached gold nanoparticles. The strong absorption of laser light results in a temperature increase, leading to vaporization of the surrounding medium and to the formation of cavitation bubbles, which causes a transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. The ...
Dear colleagues! I am wondering if there is any rules or restrictions for vectors, used in electroporation of protoplasts. Can the same vector used for Agro-mediated transformation be used for protoplasts electroporation? Thanks in advance, Nikolai __________________________________ Ph.D.c. Nikolai Scherbak Örebro University 701 82 Örebro, SWEDEN Tel. +46-19-301034 Fax. +46-19-303566 email: nikolai.scherbak at nat.oru.se ...
Rapid transient elevation of cytoplasmic calcium (Ca2+) levels in plant cells is an early signaling event triggered by many environmental cues including abiotic and biotic stresses. Cellular Ca2+ levels and their alterations can be monitored by genetically encoded reporter systems such as the bioluminescent protein, aequorin. Employment of proteinaceous Ca2+ sensors is usually performed in transgenic lines that constitutively express the reporter construct. Such settings limit the usage of these Ca2+ biosensors to particular reporter variants and plant genetic backgrounds, which can be a severe constraint in genetic pathway analysis. Here we systematically explored the potential of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mesophyll protoplasts, either derived from a transgenic apoaequorin-expressing line or transfected with apoaequorin reporter constructs, as a complementary biological resource to monitor cytoplasmic changes of Ca2+ levels in response to various biotic stress elicitors. We tested a range of ...
Aluminium (Al), a non-essential metal widespread in the environment that is known to be toxic to humans as well as to plants, can cause damage not only to the roots but also to the aerial parts of plants. Its toxicity has been recognized as one of the major factors that limit crop production on acid soil. Alternative oxidase, the respiratory terminal oxidase in plants, which contributes to maintain the electron flux and reduce mitochondrial ROS levels, is often dramatically induced to make plants to adapt better to stress conditions like Al stress. In this protocol, the expression of alternative oxidase induced by Al treatment was detected in Arabidopsis protoplasts using an adaptation of previous methods (Yamamoto et al., 2002; Li et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2014), which contribute to research on the mechanism of alternative oxidase in Al treatment.
A key to successful genome editing is efficient delivery of genetic materials, and it has been the main bottleneck in transformation of microalgae. In general, the cell wall is considered as the most significant barrier for the introduction of macromolecules into plant cells [16]. To avoid this problem, the cell wall is removed, and the resulting protoplasts are subjected to PEG-mediated transfection, which appears to be very effective without the need for expensive supplies and equipment [18, 30, 96]. With the proper removal of the cell wall, this technique can result in a transfection efficiency of up to 70% in cassava mesophyll protoplasts [97], which may offer an opportunity to improve microalgal transformation. In fact, as summarized in Table 1, there have been a few reports on PEG-mediated transformation of microalgae including Chlorella [26, 27, 29] and Cyanidioschyzon [28]. These attempts did not result in a greatly improved transformation efficiency; however, this technique can be ...
Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) is a member of Tobamovirus and its full-length cDNA clones were constructed. The in vitro transcripts from two HLSV full-length cDNA clones, which contain a hepta-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-7A) and an octo-adenosine stretch (pHLSV-8A), are both infectious. The replication level of HLSV-7A in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts was 5-fold lower, as compared to that of HLSV-8A. The replicase proteins of HLSV-7A were produced through programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift (-1 PRF) and the 7A stretch was a slippery sequence for -1 PRF. Mutations to the downstream pseudoknot of 7A stretch showed that the pseudoknot was not required for the frameshift in vitro. The stretch was found to be extended to 8A after subsequent replication cycles in vivo. It is envisaged that HLSV employs the monotonous runs of A and -1 PRF to convert its 7A to 8A to reach higher replication for its survival in plants. © 2013 Elsevier Inc ...
The technique is highly dynamic and could be varied to suit the particular type of cell cultureâ ¦ The techniques include culture of cells, anthers, ovules and embryos on experimental to industrial scales, protoplast isolation and fusion, cell selection and meristem and bud culture. Plant tissue culture (PTC) is one among the group of biotechnological methods, utilizing in vitro strategies and techniques to culture living plant cells under controlled conditions. This technique primarily involves â ¦ The plant tissue culture industry has recorded a tremendous pace of growth reaching 500 million Mark in 1990 from a production of only 130 million in 1985-86. Plant tissue culture is a straightforward technique and many developing countries have already mastered it. Plant Tissue Culture is the process of growing isolated plant cells or organs in an artificial nutrient media outside the parent organism.. These topics are discussed from an academic as well industrial â ¦ Two different garlic ...
The experimental design required the analysis of four, partially confounded treatment groups; i.e. the TT treatment contains both B and M cell types found in TB and TM treatments, while the TM treatment combines the effects of cell-specificity and the stress effect that is also seen in TS. In the following discussion, the term stress is used to refer specifically to the effect of protoplast isolation on transcript levels. Importantly, although the aim of the experiment is to compare expression levels between B and M cell types, the level of gene expression within the intact M could never be directly measured because of the stress effect of M cell isolation. A model was constructed in order to formally describe this situation and to allow statistical elimination of the stress effect.. Let V 1f and V 2f represent the log2 transformed expression level of a given feature (f) in B and M cell types, respectively. The aim is to estimate (V 1f - V 2f ) on a feature-by-feature basis. We use c to label ...
Freshly isolated cell suspension protoplasts of Solanum dulcamara were mixed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, allowed to settle for 2 h, exposed to electrical pulses and further incubated for 2h. Two...
BTC 501 Plant Biotechnology 3 CreditsThe plant biotechnology course covers principles and different aspects of plant biotechnology.Topics include:- Plant cell cultures; growing tissue-, axillary bud, root- and meristem cultures- Protoplast culture, somatic hybridisation and importance, cybridization- Application of mass propagation (micropropagation) for virus-free
Villanueva, M.A.; Metcalf, T.N.IIi; Wang, J.L., 1986: Monoclonal antibodies directed against protoplasts of soybean glycine max cells generation of hybridomas and characterization of a monoclonal antibody reactive with the cell surface
Jan. 15, 1974 H QGAWA ETAL 3,786,141 METHOD OF THE PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Filed Sept. 50, 1971 United States Patent (3 3,786,141 METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF ANTI-TUMOR SUBSTANCES Haruki Ogawa, Fuchu, Akihiro Yamamoto, Higashimurayama, Yutaka Sugawara, Iruma-gun, and Shigeo Suzuki and Yoshio Takagalci, Kodaira, Japan, assignors to Chngai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Filed Sept. 30, 1971, Ser. No. 185,112 Claims priority, application Japan, Sept. 30, 1970, 45/ 85,006 Int. Cl. A01n /00 U.S. Cl. 424-95 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A water-insoluble anti-tumor active substance is prepared from the living cells of hemolytic streptococci by lysing the cells of hemolytic streptococci with a lytic enzyme and collecting a water-insoluble fraction which corresponds to a protoplast membrane fraction of the cells. The preparation of the anti-tumor substance is far superior in the anti-tumor activity to that of water-soluble fraction and has less inflammation-, feverand paincausing ...
Transgenesis is the process of introducing an exogenous gene-called a transgene-into a living organism so that the organism will exhibit a new property and transmit that property to its offspring. Transgenesis can be facilitated by liposomes, enzymes, plasmid vectors, viral vectors, pronuclear injection, protoplast fusion, and ballistic DNA injection. Transgenesis can occur in nature. Transgenic organisms are able to express foreign genes because the genetic code is similar for all organisms. This means that a specific DNA sequence will code for the same protein in all organisms. Due to this similarity in protein sequence, scientists can cut DNA at these common protein points and add other genes. An example of this is the super mice of the 1980s. These mice were able to produce the human protein tPA to treat blood clots. The most common type of transgenesis research is done with bacteria and viruses which are able to replicate foreign DNA. The plasmid DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, ...
Zhicheng Zhang is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: mRNA Interactome Capture from Plant Protoplasts
From complete isolation kits that simplify your workflows to individual reagents, we make it easy to get high-quality DNA and RNA from even difficult-to-lyse samples ...
Martin Hughes (Bioc) (mjgh at uk.ac.cam.bio.mbfs) wrote: : ,In article ,26lcir$n6j at bigboote.WPI.EDU, eeyore at wpi.WPI.EDU ( eeYORE ) writes: : ,,Subject: viability assays : , : [about wanting a viability assay for roots : ,,I have tried FDA (fluorescein diacetate) stain, but this is not quantitative : ,,or reliable for plant tissue. Anyone have any ideas or experience? : ,, Melissa : I would also like to add a request. I have been using FDA to assay : for viability in protoplasts, which is a normal recomended method. : I am trying (as a control) to kill off protoplasts. Unfortunately, : follwing a death treatment (30 min in 0.1% NaAzide, or 0.3% KCyanide)- : which I imagine should be pretty fatal to the cells, the FDA stain : still shows positive (this is also the case with even higher toxin : levels). Any suggestions for a more sensitive method of viability : staining would be appreciated. I used neutral red which is accumulated in the vacuoles of living cells with a characteristic ...
CRISPRs capabilities have been expanded once again, this time to be used to increase the amount of healthy fats in soybeans. Lets skip right into the details for once without any backstory. To The Research! Researchers at the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea have been working on their own variant of CRISPR […]. ...
Highly purified enzyme from Aspergillus niger used for isolation of biologically active protoplasts from a wide spectrum of higher plants and tissues.
Protoplast[editovat , editovat zdroj]. Stavbou svého protoplastu (obsahu buněk) jsou archea výrazně srovnatelná s bakteriemi. ...
"Protoplasts and spheroplasts". www.encyclopedia.com. Encyclopedia.com. 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2019. "Definition of ... Bacterial morphological plasticity Protoplast L-form bacteria Silver, L.L (2011). "Chapter 2, Rational approaches to antibiotic ...
Potrykus; Harms; Hinnen; Hütter; King; Shillito (2013). Protoplasts 1983: Lecture Proceedings. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-0348 ...
Protoplasts cultures have been used. Cunninghamella elegans can be used for phenanthrene bioconversion or for steroid ... Długoński, J.; Sedlaczek, L.; Jaworski, A. (1984). "Protoplast release from fungi capable of steroid transformation". Canadian ...
Filamentation Protoplasts Spheroplasts Justice, SS; Hunstad, DA; Cegelski, L; Hultgren, SJ (February 2008). "Morphological ... Antibiotics can induce a broad range of morphological changes in bacterial cells including spheroplast, protoplast and ovoid ...
J. 82: 28 P. Pilet, P.E. (2012). The Physiological Properties of Plant Protoplasts. Proceedings in Life Sciences. Springer ...
Simpson, J.; Montes-Hernandez, S.; Gutierrez-Campos, R.; Assad-Garcia, N.; Herrera-Estrella, L. (1995). Plant Protoplasts and ...
... it produces amoeboid protoplasts. These are cells without cell walls and seem to elude the insect's immune system. They ...
Akamatsu T, Taguchi H (April 2001). "Incorporation of the whole chromosomal DNA in protoplast lysates into competent cells of ... Saito Y, Taguchi H, Akamatsu T (April 2006). "DNA taken into Bacillus subtilis competent cells by lysed-protoplast ... yields protoplasts. Mycelial fungi consist of filamentous hyphae, which are, if at all, separated by internal cell walls ...
Zeiger, E.; P. K. Hepler (1976). "Production of Guard Cell Protoplasts from Onion and Tobacco". Plant Physiology. 58 (4): 492- ... blue light stimulates swelling of guard cell protoplasts". Science. 196 (4292): 887-889. Bibcode:1977Sci...196..887Z. doi: ...
Instead, regenerating moss protoplasts behave like germinating moss spores. Of further note sodium nitrate and calcium ion at ... The procedure for seed plants describe above, fusion of moss protoplasts can be initiated without electric shock but by the use ... Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of ... The possibilities of this technology are great; however, not all species are easily put into protoplast culture. Sink, K. C.; ...
Nguyen, M.; Kormelink, R.; Goldbach, R.; Haenni, A.-L. (November 1999). "Infection of barley protoplasts with rice hoja blanca ...
... generation of whole plants from single cells called protoplasts; development of synthetic seed technology. Plant ...
In May 1951, Stähelin was the first to observe naked anthrax bacilli protoplasts, called gymnoplasts, which had left behind ... Stähelin H (1954). "[Osmotic behavior and fusion of naked protoplasts of Bacillus anthracis]". Schweiz Z Pathol Bakteriol (in ... he discovered and described the occasional fusion of naked protoplasts. This seminal paper in German immediately caught the ...
ILRs are found on the cellular membrane of plant protoplasts. The dispersion of the ILRs on these protoplasts can vary from ...
Url, W. G. (1971-12-01). "The site of penetration resistance to water in plant protoplasts". Protoplasma. 72 (4): 427-447. doi: ...
... and transformation of protoplasts of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628". Folia Microbiologica. 59 (2): 93-97. doi:10.1007/ ...
ND137 for the production of protoplasts of Porphyra yezoensis Eur. J. Phycol. 41: 321-328. "Laver Seaweed - A Foraging Guide to ...
"Activity of yeast FLP recombinase in maize and rice protoplasts". Nucleic Acids Research. 21 (4): 969-75. doi:10.1093/nar/21.4. ...
Smith HH, Kao KN, Combatti NC (1976). Interspecific hybridization by protoplast fusion in Nicotiana. The Journal of Heredity, ...
Hybrids may also be produced by a technique called protoplast fusion. In this case protoplasts are fused, usually in an ... The classical plant breeder may also make use of a number of in vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, embryo rescue or ...
After dispersal, these four-nucleate spores germinate and naked protoplasts emerge. The protoplasts take in water upon ... The protoplasts then form short thread-like filaments that later retract back into round globules. In some cases, the ... The nuclei then migrate to four points of a tetrahedron and the protoplast cleaves into a tetrad of lobes. Soon after, the ... protoplast skips the thread phase and remains isodiametric. ...
Laurila, Heikki O.; Nevalainen, Helena; Mikinen, Veijo (February 1985). "Production of protoplasts from the fungi Curvularia ...
Protoplast Du L, Lin G, Lu G (2011). "Cytoplast containing reprogramming-related factors from human embryonic stem cells ...
Mirdamadi-Tehrani, J.; Mitchell, J.I.; Williams, S.T.; Ritchie, D.A. (March 1992). "Interspecific protoplast fusion and genetic ...
Machmudi, M., Purnobasuki, H., & Wida Utami, E. S. (2019). The optimization mesophyll protoplast isolation for Phalaenopsis ...
Ohlrogge JB, Kuhn DN, Stumpf PK (March 1979). "Subcellular localization of acyl carrier protein in leaf protoplasts of Spinacia ...
"Red light stimulates an electrogenic proton pump in Vicia guard cell protoplasts". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
"Improvement of macrolide antibiotic-producing streptomycete strains by the regeneration of protoplasts". The Journal of ... "Improvement of macrolide antibiotic-producing streptomycete strains by the regeneration of protoplasts". The Journal of ...
protoplast That part of a plant cell which is actively engaged in metabolic processes (i.e. the protoplasm other than the cell ... protoplast (energid) The living unit of a cell, consisting of the nucleus and cytoplasm bounded by the plasma membrane. ... Protoplasts of bacterial and plant cells can be prepared by removing the cell wall; they are used to study the processes ... protoplast The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English © The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2009, originally ...
Fungal cells can form protoplasts after chitinase treatment, while plant cells form protoplasts following pectinase, cellulase ... Plant protoplasts can also be used to recreate an entire plant from a single cell by forming a callus. ... Applications of Spheroplasts and Protoplasts. DNA transfection. The loss of the cell wall means that these cells can be induced ... Both spheroplasts and protoplasts adopt a spherical shape which protect against hostile environments. However, despite this ...
... Nikolai Scherbak nikolai.scherbak at nat.oru.se Wed Dec 17 07:25:00 EST 2003 *Previous message ... Dear colleagues! I am wondering if there is any rules or restrictions for vectors, used in electroporation of protoplasts. Can ... the same vector used for Agro-mediated transformation be used for protoplasts electroporation? Thanks in advance, Nikolai ...
Protoplasts may also be used for plant breeding, using a technique called protoplast fusion. Protoplasts from different species ... Unlike protoplasts from vascular plants, protoplasts from mosses, such as Physcomitrella patens, do not need phytohormones for ... the protoplast becomes very sensitive to osmotic stress. This means cell wall digestion and protoplast storage must be done in ... Protoplasts can be used to study membrane biology, including the uptake of macromolecules and viruses . These are also used in ...
A protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), in a religious context initially referred to the ...
Protoplasts are spherical naked plant cells produced by the removal of the cell wall with digestive enzymes (Fig. 1). They are ... E.C. Cocking, Protoplasts: past and present, in: "Advances in Protoplast Research," Proceedings, 5th Intl. Protoplast Symposium ... E. Galun, Plant protoplasts as physiological tools, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 32:237-266 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... L.C. Fowke and O.L. Gamborg, Applications of protoplasts to the study of plant cells, Intl. Rev. Cytol. 68:9-51 (1980).CrossRef ...
... Ujwal ujwal Mon Feb 12 14:38:13 EST 1996 *Previous message: Transcient Expression ... 1) Any advice/suggestions/protocols to make viable root protoplasts from Arabidopsis. (2) Suggest methods for Transformation ...
Cell Suspension Culture Somatic Hybrid Protoplast Fusion Fusion Product Mesophyll Protoplast These keywords were added by ... Nagata, T., 1978, A novel cell-fusion method of protoplasts by polyvinylalcohol, Naturwiss. 65:263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Power, J. B., Cummings, S. E., and Cocking, E. C., 1970, Fusion of isolated plant protoplasts, Nature 225:1016-1018.PubMed ... Kameya, T., 1973, The effects of gelatin on aggregation of protoplasts from higher plants, Planta 115:77-82.CrossRefGoogle ...
Effect of amino acids on the growth of the lactic acid streptococci Streptococcus lactis and the process of their protoplast ...
The Regeneration of Potato Plants from Leaf-Cell Protoplasts. A new approach to the cloning, or asexual propagation, of plants ...
Protoplast Regeneration. Serial dilutions of protoplast suspensions were made in distilled water and in KCl 0.7M and plated (0, ... 1981) to obtain protoplasts from several other species of fungi, was also efficient for protoplast production in M. flavoviride ... CP to obtain protoplasts. The percentages of protoplast regeneration values, although varied according to the strains, being ... Protoplast Formation. Conidial suspensions in aqueous solution of Tween 80 (0.1% v/v) were prepared from ten days old cultures ...
The method includes protoplast isolation, PEG-calcium transfection of plasmid DNA and protoplast culture. Physiological ... Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts: a versatile cell system for transient gene expression analysis.. Yoo SD1, Cho YH, Sheen J. ... The protoplast isolation and DNA transfection procedures take 6-8 h, and the results can be obtained in 2-24 h. The cell system ... The transient gene expression system using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts has proven an important and versatile tool for ...
Whereas the reversion of ring-lacking protoplasts coincided with the p … ... of the protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. japonicus var. versatilis, in addition to randomly distributed F-actin ... F-actin contractile rings in protoplasts of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces Cell Biol Int Rep. 1991 Jul;15(7):607-10. doi: ... versatilis than in S. pombe protoplasts and it was blocked when the reversion was inhibited by Novozyme 234 indicating that the ...
Because protoplast isolation requires enzymatic removal of the cell wall, there is the mistaken impression that protoplasts are ... Arabidopsis protoplasts were transiently transformed by the PEG method. Maize protoplasts were transiently transformed by ... Protoplast transient expression assays. Arabidopsis and maize mesophyll protoplasts are versatile systems for the elucidation ... A BRIEF HISTORY OF PROTOPLAST TRANSIENT EXPRESSION SYSTEMS. *ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF MESOPHYLL PROTOPLAST TRANSIENT ...
... Igamberdiev, Abir U Umeå University, Faculty of Science and ... Gunilla) protoplasts and after illumination for 10 min at high and very low CO2 in the presence of respiratory and ... In dark-adapted protoplasts no difference was observed between inhibitor treatments in high and very low CO2. The respiratory ... Antimycin A inhibited respiration more in dark-adapted protoplasts than after illumination whereas SHAM gave the opposite ...
Fusing protoplasts from two different species into a single cell can produce a hybrid plant. Protoplasts are used instead of ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts fusing. A protoplast is a ... Fusing protoplasts from two different species into a single cell can produce a hybrid plant. Protoplasts are used instead of ... Caption: Protoplasts. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts fusing. ...
... compared to electroporated protoplasts (50%). To obtain stable transformants we used two methods of protoplast culture after ... Chemical methods for direct gene transfer to protoplasts. II: Recovery of stable transformants after direct gene transfer using ... Table 1. Selection of kanamycin-resistant cell lines after treatment of BMS protoplasts with PEG and pCaMVNeo (50ug.) a. b. c. ... In the second procedure, protoplasts were plated immediately after PEG treatment in a 2ml slab of 0.6% low melting agarose ( ...
We found that the protoplast system largely reflects the Ca2+ signatures seen in intact transgenic seedlings. Results of ... Thus, in addition to the prevalent use of seedlings, the leaf mesophyll protoplast setup represents a versatile and convenient ... Aequorin - Arabidopsis thaliana - Calcium signature - Elicitor - flg22 - Lanthanum chloride - Mesophyll protoplasts - ... We tested a range of endogenous and pathogenderived elicitors in seedlings and protoplasts of the corresponding apoaequorin- ...
... X-H. He , A. L. N. Rao , and ... A Chenopodium quinoa protoplast system also was used to study BYV replication. The temporal accumulation of BYV-specific RNAs ... The development of this protoplast system is significant for studies of closterovirus replication. ... and CP was investigated in protoplasts transfected with purified virion RNA. Accumulation of genomic plus-strand RNA was ...
... revealing the involvement of RyAAAT3 in 2PE biosynthesis in rose protoplasts and indicating that rose protoplasts have ... from l-Phe in isolated petal protoplasts. We have cloned three full length cDNAs (RyAAAT1-3) of aromatic amino acid ... of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase involved in 2-phenylethanol biosynthesis in isolated rose petal protoplasts.. Hirata H1 ...
We have demonstrated that a yeast FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system functions in maize and rice protoplasts. FLP ... Activity of Yeast FLP Recombinase in Maize and Rice Protoplasts Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Feb 25;21(4):969-75. doi: 10.1093/nar/ ... We have demonstrated that a yeast FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system functions in maize and rice protoplasts. FLP ... The stimulation of GUS activity in protoplasts cotransformed with vectors containing FRT inactivated gusA gene and a chimeric ...
Enzymatic lysis and protoplast preparation is very specific to cell wall and membrane morphology. Each cell type requires ... Enzymatic lysis and protoplast preparation is very specific to cell wall and membrane morphology. Each cell type requires ...
Transport and Subcellular Localization of Polyamines in Carrot Protoplasts and Vacuoles. Rossella Pistocchi, Felix Keller, ... Transport and Subcellular Localization of Polyamines in Carrot Protoplasts and Vacuoles. Rossella Pistocchi, Felix Keller, ... Transport and Subcellular Localization of Polyamines in Carrot Protoplasts and Vacuoles Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Transport and Subcellular Localization of Polyamines in Carrot Protoplasts and Vacuoles. Rossella Pistocchi, Felix Keller, ...
Biotin ligase BirAG was obtained by removing a cryptic intron site in the BirA∗ gene when expressed in rice protoplasts. We ... Biotin ligase BirAG was obtained by removing a cryptic intron site in the BirA* gene when expressed in rice protoplasts. We ... In this report, we established the BioID system in rice protoplasts. ... can also be achieved by exogenous supplementation of high concentrations of biotin and long incubation time with protoplasts. ...
Molecular Sieving by the Bacillus megaterium Cell Wall and Protoplast Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Altogether, the best estimate of the limiting equivalent porosity of the protoplast was 0.4 to 0.6 nm in radius and of the cell ... Molecular Sieving by the Bacillus megaterium Cell Wall and Protoplast. Rene Scherrer, Philipp Gerhardt ... Passive permeabilities of the cell wall and protoplast of Bacillus megaterium strain KM were characterized by use of 50 ...
From complete isolation kits that simplify your workflows to individual reagents, we make it easy to get high-quality DNA and RNA from even difficult-to-lyse samples ...
Highly purified enzyme from Aspergillus niger used for isolation of biologically active protoplasts from a wide spectrum of ...
Does anybody have a set of protocol to isolate protoplast from tomato. Kindly suggest. ... I am trying to isolate protoplast from tomato, exactly the way Jen Sheens lab does for Arabidopsis, but the yield is very very ... Protoplast isolation from tomato - posted in Botany and Plant Biology: ... though, i am inexperience enough to the protoplast culture field. i am very glad if i could help you out. ...
Bacterial Protoplasts Induced By Penicillin. Extent:. 4 pages. Date Issued:. November 1956. Creator:. Lederberg, Joshua. Source ... Bacterial Protoplasts Induced By Penicillin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ...
Protoplast definition: a unit consisting of the living parts of a cell , including the protoplasm and cell... , Meaning, ... protoplast is in the lower 50% of commonly used words in the Collins dictionary ... And it bothered her to have him vanish just as the protoplast experiment was nearing its end. Robert Silverberg VALENTINE ... Example sentences containing protoplast. These examples have been automatically selected and may contain sensitive content. ...
  • K. Ohyama, L.E. Pelcher and D. Horn, A rapid, simple method for nuclei isolation from protoplasts. (springer.com)
  • Protoplast isolation and regeneration were evaluated in two wild-type and two colour mutant strains of Metarhizium flavoviride . (scielo.br)
  • In these cases, protoplast isolation and fusion is a way to overcome genetic incompatibility, allowing crosses between incompatible strains. (scielo.br)
  • The method includes protoplast isolation, PEG-calcium transfection of plasmid DNA and protoplast culture. (nih.gov)
  • The protoplast isolation and DNA transfection procedures take 6-8 h, and the results can be obtained in 2-24 h. (nih.gov)
  • Forty years ago, Cocking published the first paper describing a method for the isolation of plant protoplasts ( Cocking, 1960 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Highly purified enzyme from Aspergillus niger used for isolation of biologically active protoplasts from a wide spectrum of higher plants and tissues. (mpbio.com)
  • I have ever been work with protoplast isolation. (protocol-online.org)
  • Protoplast culture : The most effective conditions for protoplast isolation were to shake sliced 5day-old cotyledons at 27゚C for 2 h in the enzyme solution containing 2% Cellulase Y-C)0.2% Pectolyase Y-23, CPW salts and 0.3 M mannitol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have adapted a maize protoplast isolation protocol that permits high-efficiency transformation by electroporation, irrespective of the genetic background. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Here, we describe the protocol for efficient maize protoplast isolation and transformation by electroporation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The work developed in this thesis lay with the isolation and characterization of the anionic currents present in the pollen grain protoplasts of two species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Lilium longiflorum. (ul.pt)
  • The necessity of developing specific protocols for the isolation of the anionic currents in this system stemmed from the fact that, although there was already published reports on anionic currents in plant cell protoplasts, namely from leaf meristem, from stomata and from apical root cells, the existing protocols were inadequate, for producing quality protoplasts and for not allowing the patch clamp technique to be applied. (ul.pt)
  • It was necessary to adjust the time of incubation in the enzyme solution, and the time and speed of the centrifugation steps in the protocol for the production and isolation of protoplasts. (ul.pt)
  • Excellent for eukaryotic proteins, representing a natural cell habitat, protoplast isolation is widely used in protein interaction visualization techniques, like BiFC (Bimolecular fluorescence complementation) and FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Preparation of Arabidopsis leaf for protoplast isolation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Protoplasts, during isolation, often fuse spon-taneously and this phenomenon is called spon-taneous fusion. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • During the enzyme treatment for the isolation of pro-toplasts, it is found that protoplasts from ad-joining cells fuse through their plasmodesmata to form a multinucleate protoplast. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Protoplast isolation in sugarcane (saccharum complex. (journalcra.com)
  • The current study deals with the studies on protoplast isolation such as protoplast purification, protoplast density, protoplast viability in Sugarcane (Saccharum complex). (journalcra.com)
  • In this experiment, successful isolation of protoplast from mesophyll cells of inner two leaf whorls and callus suspension cultures of sugarcane cultivars CoC-671 and CoN-05071 was obtained. (journalcra.com)
  • In this study 2 hrs of incubation is optimal time for protoplast isolation from mesophyll cells and callus suspension cells of sugarcane cultivars. (journalcra.com)
  • Protoplasts may also be used for plant breeding, using a technique called protoplast fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Any advice/suggestions/protocols to make viable 'root protoplasts' from Arabidopsis. (bio.net)
  • Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts: a versatile cell system for transient gene expression analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The transient gene expression system using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts has proven an important and versatile tool for conducting cell-based experiments using molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic and proteomic approaches to analyze the functions of diverse signaling pathways and cellular machineries. (nih.gov)
  • Analogous to the mammalian tissue culture lines and transient gene expression assays that are indispensable for the rapid progress in discoveries of signal transduction pathways in multicellular organisms, protoplast transient expression systems using parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ), maize ( Zea mays ), carrot ( Daucus carota ), alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), Arabidopsis, and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) suspension culture cells have been established. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here we systematically explored the potential of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mesophyll protoplasts, either derived from a transgenic apoaequorin-expressing line or transfected with apoaequorin reporter constructs, as a complementary biological resource to monitor cytoplasmic changes of Ca 2+ levels in response to various biotic stress elicitors. (wur.nl)
  • I am trying to isolate protoplast from tomato, exactly the way Jen Sheen's lab does for Arabidopsis, but the yield is very very poor. (protocol-online.org)
  • The aim of our study was to provide novel markers for phytohormone signaling in the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Yokoyama R, Kuki H, Kuroha T, Nishitani K. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics. (mdpi.com)
  • The anionic currents found in the plasma membrane of pollen grain protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana and Lilium longiflorum were characterized by means of the Whole Cell (WC) configuration of the patch clamp technique, under symmetrical anionic concentrations, in which Cl- was the permeable anion in greater concentration. (ul.pt)
  • Under these experimental conditions, it was possible to identify, in the protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana, three different anionic current populations, all with a strong outward rectification. (ul.pt)
  • In this protocol we present a another use of Arabidopsis protoplast in protein degradation assay, proving its high versatility as a tool in proteomics. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, both the AREB1 and AREB2 proteins activated transcription of a reporter gene driven by ABRE. (pnas.org)
  • We describe here an optimized system of mRNA interactome capture for Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mesophyll protoplasts, a cell type often used in functional cellular assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Can the same vector used for Agro-mediated transformation be used for protoplasts electroporation? (bio.net)
  • Protoplasts are widely used for DNA transformation (for making genetically modified organisms), since the cell wall would otherwise block the passage of DNA into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986). This frequency of stable transformation of maize protoplasts is higher than that reported by others (Fromm et al. (missouri.edu)
  • 1991, "Stable transformation of Sorghum bicolor protoplasts with chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase II and b-glucuronidase genes", Theor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Holdings: Transformation of the cryobehavior of rye protoplasts by modification of the plasma membrane lipid composition. (villanova.edu)
  • There are three well-known types of transformation methods: protoplast-mediated, biolistic-mediated, and Agrobacterium -mediated. (goldbio.com)
  • Usually, protoplast-mediated transformation (PMT) is reported for transient expression (genes temporarily expressed - not integrated in the genome), providing an efficient way to study many genes in a short time. (goldbio.com)
  • Protoplast-mediated transformation steps. (goldbio.com)
  • An updated step by step protoplast transformation protocol can be found here . (goldbio.com)
  • This technology has been developed in many plant species for gene function analysis and crop improvement but has never been used in chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.). In this study, we successfully applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis to chicory using Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation and protoplast transfection methods. (mdpi.com)
  • The mutation frequency was 4.5% with the protoplast transient expression system and 31.25% with A. rhizogenes -mediated stable transformation. (mdpi.com)
  • By a modified protoplast transformation procedure, SG-1 was transformed (~100 transformants per μg of DNA) with several different plasmids of gram- positive origin. (elsevier.com)
  • 7. Method for enhancing the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis in plant protoplasts comprising a step of PEG mediated transformation. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, efficient protoplast transformation, the molar ratio of Cas9 and sgRNAs were optimized for each grape and apple cultivar. (fmach.it)
  • Bacterial Protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • 19F NMR analysis of the antimicrobial peptide PGLa bound to native cell membranes from bacterial protoplasts and human erythrocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For solid-state NMR analysis, we isolated native membranes from erythrocyte ghosts and bacterial protoplasts and prepared them as macroscopically oriented samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The production and regeneration of bacterial protoplasts promoted the loss of three different plasmid-specified traits in Streptococcus lactis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The formation of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts can be induced in the laboratory. (gbiosciences.com)
  • protoplast ( energid ) The living unit of a cell, consisting of the nucleus and cytoplasm bounded by the plasma membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This means cell wall digestion and protoplast storage must be done in an isotonic solution to prevent rupture of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A.R.D. Taylor and J.L. Hall, An ultrastructural comparison of lanthanum and silicotungstic acid/chromic acid as plasma membrane stains of isolated protoplasts, Plant Sci. (springer.com)
  • The freezing tolerance of protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) was significantly altered by using a pH-induced protoplastliposome fusion technique to modify the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. (villanova.edu)
  • In control nonacclimated protoplasts, osmotic contraction resulted in endocytotic vesiculation ofthe plasma membrane which was irreversible and resulted in lysis during osmotic expansion after melting of the suspending medium. (villanova.edu)
  • Between 12 and 21 h post-inoculation, tubule formation starts in the periphery of the protoplast at the level of the plasma membrane. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Normally, isolated protoplasts do not fuse with each other because the surface of the isolated protoplast carries negative charge (-10 to -30 mV) around the outside of plasma membrane and, thus, there is a strong tendency for pro-toplasts to repel one another due to their same charges. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • In all situations tested, oligomycin inhibited respiratiory O-2 uptake indicating that respiration of mitochondria in protoplasts is not strictly ADP limited. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this article was to evaluate the viability of maize protoplasts, cell wall regeneration, Cd uptake by protoplasts, and the impact of silicon under cadmium cations (Cd) stress in two maize h. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Kinetics of l-Valine Uptake in Suspension-Cultured Cells and Protoplast-Derived Cells of Tobacco: Comparison of Wild-Type and the Val-2 Mutant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A kinetic analysis was made of l-valine uptake in protoplast-derived cells (mesophyll protoplasts cultured for 6 days) and in suspension-cultured cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv Xanthi). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this method, the direct uptake of DNA by naked plant cells (plants without a cell wall, or protoplasts) provides an expression system for research in plants to identify novel candidate genes. (goldbio.com)
  • We have demonstrated that a yeast FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system functions in maize and rice protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • In this report, we established the BioID system in rice protoplasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biotin ligase BirAG was obtained by removing a cryptic intron site in the BirA ∗ gene when expressed in rice protoplasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that protein biotinylation in rice protoplasts increased with increased expression levels of BirAG. (frontiersin.org)
  • By studying factors that influence BirAG function in rice protoplasts, a simple and efficient BioID system was established in rice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, in addition to the prevalent use of seedlings, the leaf mesophyll protoplast setup represents a versatile and convenient tool for the analysis of Ca 2+ signaling pathways in plant cells. (wur.nl)
  • The development of defined protoplast transient expression systems for high-throughput screening and systematic characterization of gene functions has greatly contributed to elucidating plant signal transduction pathways, in combination with genetic, genomic, and transgenic approaches. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) aleurone protoplasts, the endogenous α-amylase gene is regulated by ABA and GA in parallel to what is observed in seeds ( Jacobsen and Beach, 1985 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • set the foundation to use protoplasts to study gene regulation and signal transduction in plant cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Chemical methods for direct gene transfer to protoplasts. (missouri.edu)
  • To obtain stable transformants we used two methods of protoplast culture after PEG-mediated gene transfer. (missouri.edu)
  • The stimulation of GUS activity in protoplasts cotransformed with vectors containing FRT inactivated gusA gene and a chimeric FLP gene depended on both the expression of the FLP recombinase and the presence and structure of the FRT sites. (nih.gov)
  • Possibilities of using protoplast fusion for gene mapping and strain improvement are suggested. (asm.org)
  • Dominant selectable markers, namely, kanamycin resistance ( nptII ) and hygromycin B resistance ( hpt ) genes had been previously integrated in the nuclear genomes of the otherwise almost fully isogenic parental strains using direct gene transfer to protoplasts. (springer.com)
  • Transformed protoplasts have been used to assay gene function using metabolic profiling, to explore protein-DNA interactions using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and to assay the activation of reporter constructs by transcription factors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The rolB Gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Does Not Increase the Auxin Sensitivity of Tobacco Protoplasts by Modifying the Intracellular Auxin Concentration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genetic requirement for t 0 rescuer protoplasts was that they were spo + for the gene to be complemented. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Passive permeabilities of the cell wall and protoplast of Bacillus megaterium strain KM were characterized by use of 50 hydrophilic probing molecules (tritiated water, sugars, dextrans, glycols, and polyglycols) which varied widely in size. (asm.org)
  • Whereas the reversion of ring-lacking protoplasts coincided with the polarization of the dotted F-actin pattern, the ring-containing protoplasts became furrowed as the F-actin rings constricted. (nih.gov)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts fusing. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Defined cybridization was performed by one-to-one electrofusion (microfusion) of preselected protoplast-cytoplast pairs of male-fertile, streptomycin-resistant Nicotiana tabacum and cytoplasmic male-sterile, streptomycin-sensitive N. tabacum cms ( N. bigelovii ), followed by microculture of the fusion products until plant regeneration. (springer.com)
  • Aviv D, Arzee-Gonen P, Bleichman S, Galun E (1984) Novel alloplasmic Nicotiana plants by "donor-recipient" protoplast fusion: cybrids having N. tabacum or N. sylvestris nuclear genomes and either or both plastomes and chondriomes from alien species. (springer.com)
  • Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3′ NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (mdpi.com)
  • To approach this need, we suppose using gold nanoparticle mediated (GNOME) laser transfection for delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNP) into potato protoplasts with high-throughput. (lzh.de)
  • Plant protoplasts, a proven physiological and versatile cell system, are widely used in high-throughput analysis and functional characterization of genes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • WRAP-Novel-markers-high-throughput-protoplast-signaling-Ntsoukis-2020.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Plant protoplasts can also be used to recreate an entire plant from a single cell by forming a callus. (news-medical.net)
  • In the case of plant cells, protoplasts may be regenerated into whole plants first by growing into a group of plant cells that develops into a callus and then by regeneration of shoots (caulogenesis) from the callus using plant tissue culture methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth of protoplasts into callus and regeneration of shoots requires the proper balance of plant growth regulators in the tissue culture medium that must be customized for each species of plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike protoplasts from vascular plants, protoplasts from mosses, such as Physcomitrella patens, do not need phytohormones for regeneration, nor do they form a callus during regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Callus formation and plant regeneration from protoplasts derived from suspension culture of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. (eurekamag.com)
  • Publications] Hegazi,H.Hegazi Sachiko Matsubara: 'Callus formation and plant regeneration from protoplast derived from cotyledons and hypocotyls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and other cruciferous plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here we report that AGP-rich extracts isolated from media of embryogenic and non-embryogenic suspension cultures of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) are able to enhance the organogenesis of guard protoplast-derived callus and to increase the number of shoots formed, in comparison to control cultures. (infona.pl)
  • This is the first report of the improvement of sugar beet protoplast-derived callus organogenesis by exogenous AGP-rich extracts, an achievement that will have great impact on the biotechnological applications of protoplast technology in this species. (infona.pl)
  • Maximum protoplast yield was observed at 600 rpm in callus suspension cells (68%) at 2 hrs of incubation period. (journalcra.com)
  • Maximum density of protoplast was observed in callus suspension derived protoplast culture ((2.0×104, 2.2×104) in both the varieties at 2 hrs of incubation periods. (journalcra.com)
  • Highest protoplast viability observed at 2.2x104 density level of callus suspension origin protoplast. (journalcra.com)
  • In the laboratory, both spheroplasts and protoplasts can be formed through mechanical or enzymatic methods based on the cell type. (news-medical.net)
  • Protoplasts can be generated by stripping the cell wall from plant, bacterial, or fungal cells by mechanical, chemical or enzymatic means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic lysis and protoplast preparation is very specific to cell wall and membrane morphology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Plant protoplasts are derived by controlled enzymatic digestion that removes the plant cell wall without damaging the cell membrane. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this method, protoplasts are first produced through enzymatic treatments to break the cell wall. (goldbio.com)
  • A similar yield of protoplasts (1-2 x 10(5) ml-1 after 16 h) was produced by using either enzymatic system. (mysciencework.com)
  • For these reasons, most researchers now prefer the enzymatic method, except in cases where the enzymes can have a damaging effect on the resulting protoplasts. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Therefore, following the removal of the cell wall, protoplasts have only one membrane, while spheroplasts have two membranes. (news-medical.net)
  • Protoplasts also retain cell membrane potentials similar to intact cells and have served as a model system to study membrane transporters. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The challenges modifying protoplasts, in contrast to mammalian cells, include their sensitivity to osmolality stress, the lack of adherence to culture surfaces, the absence of commercial antibodies for nanoparticle targeting, and the low adherence of the applied nanoparticles to the protoplast's membrane. (lzh.de)
  • A lipid cell membrane is formed inside the envelope within 9 to 12 hours and about 15% of the original cell membrane is recycled to make the membrane of new protoplasts. (biologists.org)
  • Total membrane surface area and cell volume were estimated from photographs of entire intact cells and of the sub-protoplasts regenerated from the extruded protoplasm. (biologists.org)
  • Protoplasts are bounded by a single membrane while spheroplasts have two - an inner membrane and an outer membrane. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Light and electron microscopical studies of the in vitro developed protoplasts have demonstrated the absence of an organized wall over the protoplasmic Con A-positive membrane at all stages of growth. (ku.dk)
  • This is also useful in plant biology, allowing the fusion of protoplasts from different species, forming somatic hybrids. (news-medical.net)
  • 1. Hybrids and cybrids among the regenerants from cloned protoplast fusion products. (springer.com)
  • Protoplasts from different species are induced to fuse by using an electric field or a solution of polyethylene glycol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusing protoplasts from two different species into a single cell can produce a hybrid plant. (sciencephoto.com)
  • We chose cabbage, rapeseed and Chinese cabbage as species representatives and introduced RNPs into their protoplasts with PEG 4000. (frontiersin.org)
  • Curing of cryptic molecules from multiple plasmid complements by protoplast regeneration may prove to be generally valuable in lactic streptococci and other gram-positive species. (asm.org)
  • If traditional methods are usually used with witloof chicory tissues to multiply interesting genotypes, protoplasts allow new possibilities as species amelioration and selection. (ishs.org)
  • In nonacclimated protoplasts fused with mono- or diunsaturated species of PtdCho, osmotic contraction resulted in the reversible formation of exocytotic extrusions of the plasma membraneas normally occurs in protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated leaves (acclimated protoplasts). (villanova.edu)
  • Additionally, protoplasts of plants expressing fluorescent proteins in certain cells may be used for Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS), where only cells fluorescing a selected wavelength are retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant protoplasts can be cultured in defined media and will form a new cell wall, divide, and in many cases regenerate complete plants (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4). (springer.com)
  • Plant protoplasts show physiological perceptions and responses to hormones, metabolites, environmental cues, and pathogen-derived elicitors, similar to cell-autonomous responses in intact tissues and plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Subsequently, protoplasts were isolated from diverse tissues and plants, and shown to retain physiological activities and regulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mesophyll Protoplasts and PEG-Mediated Transfections: Transient Assays and Generation of Stable Transgenic Canola Plants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Böttcher UF, Aviv D, Galun E (1989) Complementation between protoplasts treated with either of two metabolic inhibitors results in somatic hybrid plants. (springer.com)
  • Gleba YY, Sytnik KM (1984) Protoplast fusion: genetic engineering in higher plants. (springer.com)
  • Koop HU, Schweiger HG (1985a) Regeneration of plants from individually cultivated protoplasts using an improved microculture system. (springer.com)
  • Koop HU, Schweiger HG (1985b) Regeneration of plants after electrofusion of selected pairs of protoplasts. (springer.com)
  • First, other scientists got foreign genes to pass into corn protoplasts but couldn't get the protoplasts to grow into full plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Regeneration of fertile barley plants from mechanically isolated protoplasts of the fertilized egg cell Plant Cell 6: 531-543. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An exception is the protoplast from microsporocytes of some plants of lily family where the freely isolated protoplasts fuse spon-taneously. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Actually, induced fusion is a highly impor-tant and a valuable technique because the protoplast from widely different and sexually incompatible plants can be fused by this procedure. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Here, we explore direct delivery of purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to the protoplast of grape cultivar Chardonnay and apple cultivar such as Golden delicious fruit crop plants for efficient targeted mutagenesis. (fmach.it)
  • The fun-damental objectives of somatic hybridisation are mainly based on induced protoplast fusion. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Spontaneous fusion of two or more adjoining Several chemicals have been used to induce somatic protoplasts is of no practical use, but protoplast fusion. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Proteins annotated to have RNA-binding capacity were overrepresented in the obtained medium scale mRNA-bound proteome, indicating the specificity of the method and providing in vivo UV crosslinking experimental evidence for several candidate RBPs from leaf mesophyll protoplasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A decade later, the first successful experiment for the introduction of nucleic acid into protoplasts was accomplished by Aoki and Takebe using tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco mosaic virus RNA ( Aoki and Takebe, 1969 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • On tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, the response to auxin was blocked by antibodies directed against an auxin-binding protein (ABP) from maize coleoptile membranes, or raised to the plasmalemma ATPase from yeast (Barbier-Brygoo et al , 1989a). (springer.com)
  • Barbier-Brygoo H, Ephritikhine G, Klämbt D, Ghislain M, Guern J (1989a) Functional evidence for an auxin receptor at the plasmalemma of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. (springer.com)
  • The application of purified staphylolytic enzymes to the production of protoplasts and the comparison of protoplast membranes with those of L-forms from the same staphylococci. (bath.ac.uk)
  • 8) Membranes obtained from both 'protoplasts' and L-forms were composed predominantly of protein (57-71%) and lipid (22-36%) Small amounts of RNA were also present. (bath.ac.uk)
  • On average the lipid content of the L-form membranes was higher than that of the protoplast membranes. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In addition the major phospholipids of the L-form membranes were of the cardiolipin-type rather than the phosphatidylglycerol and lipoamino acids found in the protoplast membranes. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Another main difference between protoplasts and spheroplasts is the number of membranes present. (gbiosciences.com)
  • After adhesion, membranes of protoplasts fuse in some localised areas and, eventually, the cytoplasm of the two protoplasts intermingle. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Since cell walls are composed of a variety of polysaccharides, viable protoplasts can be prepared by weakening the primary stress-bearing layer of the cell wall (peptidoglycan) using the appropriate enzymes. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Protoplasts can be made by degrading cell walls with a mixture of the appropriate polysaccharide-degrading enzymes: During and subsequent to digestion of the cell wall, the protoplast becomes very sensitive to osmotic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultivation in liquid medium, followed by mycelium treatment with Novozym 234 in the presence of KCl 0.7M as osmotic stabilizer, produced 5.05 x 10 6 to 1.15 x 10 7 x mL -1 protoplasts. (scielo.br)
  • The permeability of isolated protoplasts was assessed by the relative ability of solutes to effect osmotic stabilization. (asm.org)
  • An yield improvement in our laboratory will be the result of new investigations on initial density of protoplast, osmotic pressure, composition of culture media and the utility of agar adjunction at the first step of culture. (ishs.org)
  • The influence of different cell age, enzymolysis time, temperature and osmotic pressure stabilizer on productive rate of protoplast from Lentinula edodes were discussed in this paper. (cnki.com.cn)
  • It is the best conditions of preparing protoplast with Lentinula edodes hyphae that cell age was 6 days, That enzymolysis time was 3 hours, that enzymolysis temperature was 34℃ and that concentration of mannitol as osmotic pressure stabilizer was 0.6mol/l. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Gunilla) protoplasts and after illumination for 10 min at high and very low CO2 in the presence of respiratory and photorespiratory inhibitors. (diva-portal.org)
  • With advances made in novel protoplast assays, taking full advantage of the completed plant genome sequences for functional genomic and proteomic analyses of individual plant genes and their products will become a reality. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In summary, we demonstrated the suitability of RNP transfection into B. oleracea and B. rapa protoplasts for high-efficiency indel induction of two endogenous genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The behavior of mitochondrial genes was apparently affected neither by nuclear mating type background nor by the method of transfer of mitochondrial genomes (i.e., protoplast fusion or mating), making possible mitochondrial genetic studies by protoplast fusion irrespective of the mating type barrier of yeast strains. (elsevier.com)
  • Maráz, A & Šubík, J 1981, ' Transmission and recombination of mitochondrial genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after protoplast fusion ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 131-133. (elsevier.com)
  • The manifestation of regular Ca 2+ oscillations depends on the concentrations of oat protoplasts in suspension that suggests the propagation of a signal between the cells and synchronization of their light- induced Ca 2+ oscillations response. (spie.org)
  • Benomyl at concentrations up to 50 ppm did not exhibit toxic effects in suspension or protoplast cultures if dissolved by autoclaving or boiling. (illinois.edu)
  • A low-K(m) component was found in protoplast-derived cells (K(m) = 45 +/- 5 micromolar) as well as in suspension-cultured cells (K(m) = 84 +/- 21 micromolar). (biomedsearch.com)
  • It was present in protoplast-derived cells but not in suspension-cultured cells, and had the same magnitude in wild-type and mutant cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The reduced V(max) of the low-K(m) component in the Val(r)-2 mutant, and the differential expression of the other two components in suspension-cultured cells and protoplast-derived cells indicate that the kinetically distinguishable components represent physically distinct transport systems. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Splenocytes, derived from mice that had been immunized with protoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of root cells of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (eurekamag.com)
  • By this technique occasional fusion of protoplast has been observed. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Chemical fusogens cause the isolated protoplasts to adhere to one another and leads to tight agglutination followed by fusion of protoplast (Fig. 6.14). (biologydiscussion.com)
  • In the past, protoplasts were isolated using mechanical methods which were labor-intensive, tedious and inefficient. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Additionally, these methods were restricted to certain tissues with vacuolated cells and produced extremely low yields and barely viable protoplasts. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Methods of Protoplast Fusion 3. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • A monoclonal antibody that defines a surface antigen on Candida albicans hyphae cross-reacts with yeast cell protoplasts. (asm.org)
  • When exponentially growing yeast cells were treated sequentially with EDTA, beta-mercaptoethanol, and Zymolase to form protoplasts, a specific immunofluorescence signal was obtained with MAb 1.183. (asm.org)
  • In a Western blot, MAb 1.183 showed reactivity with a 20-kDa protein in the sodium dodecyl sulfate extract from protoplasts, whereas no reactivity was found with cell wall material obtained from yeast cells. (asm.org)
  • To clarify the involvement of actin in the formation of the yeast cell wall, reverting protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were used as a simple model system. (biologists.org)
  • A method for transfection of Black Mexican Sweet protoplasts (line BMS-M) with polyethylene glycol was adapted from Krens (Krens et al. (missouri.edu)
  • Protoplasts of auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of opposite and identical mating types carrying different mitochondrial drug-resistance markers, with both homosexual and heterosexual mitochondrial backgrounds, were induced to fuse by polyethylene glycol. (elsevier.com)
  • Sodium nitrate (NaN0 3 ), this may be important in studies of the nature polyethylene glycol (PEG), Calcium ions and function of plasmodesmata, the physiology (Ca 2+ ), Polyvinyl alcohol etc. are the most and control of mitosis in multinucleated cells commonly used protoplast fusion inducing and nuclear fusion. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Protoplast formation, fusion, and cell regeneration have been achieved with mutant strains of Actinoplanes brasiliensis. (asm.org)
  • Protoplasts of spo strains blocked at stages O, IV and V of sporulation acted equally well as rescuers whether they were converted to protoplasts at t 0 or t 3 (i.e. 3 h after transfer to sporulation medium). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Protoplasts are fungal, plant or gram-positive bacterial cells without a cell wall. (news-medical.net)
  • Fungal cells can form protoplasts after chitinase treatment, while plant cells form protoplasts following pectinase, cellulase, or xylanase treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • Protoplasts are spherical naked plant cells produced by the removal of the cell wall with digestive enzymes (Fig. 1). (springer.com)
  • Protoplasts provide a unique experimental system for studies of the structure and function of plant cells. (springer.com)
  • L.C. Fowke and O.L. Gamborg, Applications of protoplasts to the study of plant cells, Intl. Rev. Cytol. (springer.com)
  • Protoplasts are used instead of intact cells in plant genetic engineering as they are easier to manipulate. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The loss of vulnerable, senescing cells, alteration of some properties of protoplasts during or after lytic enzyme digestion, or biocide absorption by non-viable protoplasts might result in reduced sensitivity of protoplasts to chemicals. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The giant multi-nucleate cells of the green alga, Boergesenia forbesii, undergo segregative cell division upon wounding such that small protoplasts are formed within 2 hours. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stable protoplast type L-form cells of E. coli B are twice richer in the extractable lipids than in the parent form. (umd.edu)
  • Rescuer protoplasts had to be derived from cells grown in a medium that allowed rapid and synchronous sporulation subsequently. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Even protoplasts made from vegetative cells growing in such a medium ( t 0 protoplasts) acted as rescuers. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Therefore, it was not necessary for the rescuer cells to have initiated sporulation before they were converted to protoplasts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Protoplasts of Y-cells and partially converted M-cells from several human isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were obtained with a combined enzyme system containing Novozym 234 and a chitinase. (mysciencework.com)
  • A laboratory made extract from Trichoderma harzianum CBS-345-33 supplemented with chitinase induced the release of protoplasts from partially converted M-cells but not from established Y-cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • Both protoplasts and spheroplasts refer to altered forms of plant, bacterial or fungal cells from which the cell wall has been partially or completely removed. (gbiosciences.com)
  • When used in reference to bacterial cells, protoplasts may also refer to the spherical shape assumed by gram-positive bacteria while spheroplasts refer to the spherical shape assumed by gram-negative bacteria upon partial or complete removal of the cell wall. (gbiosciences.com)
  • For plant cells, cellulase, pectinase, and xylanase can be used to break down the cell walls while lysozome (+EDTA) can be used to produce protoplasts from gram-positive bacteria. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Transcient Expression in Root Protoplasts. (bio.net)
  • The response of maize protoplasts to cadmium stress mitigated by silicon. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Both spheroplasts and protoplasts adopt a spherical shape which protect against hostile environments. (news-medical.net)
  • The sub-protoplasts were spherical, so their two-dimensional areas (πr 2 ) were summed for each cell by the computer and multiplied by 4 to give the total surface area. (biologists.org)
  • The loss of five different plasmids, including small multicopy molecules, was readily detected in Streptococcus lactis 712 by screening lysates of random protoplast regenerants on agarose gels. (asm.org)
  • Bhatla SC, Kiessling J, Reski R (2002): Observation of polarity induction by cytochemical localization of phenylalkylamine-binding receptors in regenerating protoplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparation and Purification of Protoplast from Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr. (cnki.net)
  • 摘要】 [Objective] To set up protoplast preparation and purification method from Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr. (cnki.net)
  • Conclusion] The preparation system has been successfully established, which lays foundation for establishing protoplast regeneration system from N. fordii leaves. (cnki.net)
  • Following protoplast regeneration, one strain produced spontaneously stable morphological variant colonies. (scielo.br)
  • In this strain sequential rounds of protoplast regeneration were used to produce a plasmid-free strain and derivatives carrying only single molecules from the plasmid complement. (asm.org)
  • For secretion vectors they offer protoplasts of strain MS941. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inactivated protoplast fusion by UV irradiation and UV+LiCl mutation was conducted using Nodulisporium sylviforme strain UV 40-19 and UL 50-6 to breed a high taxol-producing fungus. (ajol.info)
  • Stable protoplasts were formed from the lysozyme-resistant strain (42) by lipase and lysozyme treatment, which completely digested the cell wall. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic recombination in Actinoplanes brasiliensis by protoplast fusion. (asm.org)
  • J. Burgess, P.J. Linstead and V.E.L. Fisher, Studies on higher plant protoplasts by scanning electron microscopy, Micron 8:113-122 (1977). (springer.com)
  • In scanning electron micrographs, the morphology of the extrusions of nonacclimated protoplasts fused with [Lin2]PtdCho was virtually indistinguishable from that of the extrusions formed in acclimated protoplasts. (villanova.edu)
  • Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a fibrillar net structure on the surface of non-treated control reverting protoplasts. (biologists.org)
  • Both gram-positive and negative bacterium are treated with wall-digesting lysozymes or wall-inhibiting antibiotics, such as penicillin to create protoplasts and spheroplasts. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on November 28, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Difference-Between-Spheroplasts-and-Protoplasts.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Protoplasts differ from spheroplasts in that their cell wall has been completely removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protoplasts and Spheroplasts: How are they formed? (gbiosciences.com)
  • Similarly, spheroplasts can be prepared from gram-negative bacteria using procedures similar to those used in preparing protoplasts. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Protoplasts and spheroplasts can also occur naturally. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are valuable research tools and can be used in a wide range of applications. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Effect of penicillin concentration on 'protoplast' production of Streptococcus faecalis. (molecularstation.com)
  • 1985, "Vacuolar localization of 1-sinapylglucose: L-malate sinapoyltransferase in protoplasts from cotyledons of Raphanus sativus," Planta, 163, pp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1985). Plant Protoplasts. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • mitochondrial DNA analysis in progenies resulting from fusion between protoplasts having different organelle constitutions. (springer.com)
  • A transient expression system in soybean mesophyll protoplasts reveals the formation of cytoplasmic GmCRY1 photobody-like structures. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The in planta analysis of elements involved in phytohormone signaling can be achieved through transient expression in mesophyll protoplasts, which are a fast and versatile alternative to generating plant lines that stably express a transgene. (jic.ac.uk)
  • I am wondering if there is any rules or restrictions for vectors, used in electroporation of protoplasts. (bio.net)
  • We tested a range of endogenous and pathogenderived elicitors in seedlings and protoplasts of the corresponding apoaequorin-expressing reporter line. (wur.nl)
  • We found that the protoplast system largely reflects the Ca 2+ signatures seen in intact transgenic seedlings. (wur.nl)
  • Both physical and physiological damages were observed as Al concentration increased, and apoptosis may have been mainly caused by Al present in the protoplasts of bamboo seedlings, as supported by microscopy evidence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2007). We describe here a fast and simple protocol to generate and transform protoplasts from maize seedlings, irrespective of the genotype. (bio-protocol.org)
  • versatilis than in S. pombe protoplasts and it was blocked when the reversion was inhibited by Novozyme 234 indicating that the cell wall formation is essential for the F-actin ring constriction. (nih.gov)
  • A close spatial as well as temporal relationship between actin and cell wall formation was observed in protoplast reversion. (biologists.org)
  • Formation and reversion of Streptomycete protoplasts: cultural condition and morphological study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Generally, protoplasts were more readily isolated from younger hyphae, while regeneration was better with older hyphae. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Because the visualization of MTs by immunofluorescence is technically difficult in intact hyphae of A. nidulans, we developed a method for removing the cell wall under conditions that do not perturb cell physiology, as evidenced by the fact that the resulting protoplasts undergo nuclear division at a normal rate and that cell cycle mutant phenotypes are expressed at restrictive temperature. (rupress.org)
  • Although colonies with altered morphology have been reported in bacteria following protoplast regeneration, this is the first time that the same is described in a filamentous fungus. (scielo.br)
  • A low dose of CD caused weakly stained unlocalized actin, which induced grossly aberrant cell wall deposition as well as substantial changes in the morphology of the reverting protoplasts. (biologists.org)
  • These results demonstrated that actin is associated with initiation of cell wall formation, the proper deposition of cell wall materials, and maintaining the normal morphology of reverting protoplasts. (biologists.org)
  • Method] Taking the yield and survival rate of protoplast as indices, the effects of different factors, including pretreatment, enzymolysis method, enzymolysis temperature, centrifugation speed, illumination, and sieve mesh number were studied for the separation and purification of protoplast from N. fordii leaves. (cnki.net)
  • Compared with cell culture lines, the use of fresh tissues as protoplast sources offers unique advantages. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Therefore, in order to examine those changes in respiratory activity peculiar to the host, attempts were made to isolate protoplasts from infected tissues, and from healthy controls. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • However one of the problems with protoplasts utilization is the capacity of plant regeneration. (ishs.org)
  • Protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), is a biological term coined by Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protoplast is a plant cell that has had its tough outer cell wall removed by chemical treatment. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Altogether, the best estimate of the limiting equivalent porosity of the protoplast was 0.4 to 0.6 nm in radius and of the cell wall, 1.1 nm. (asm.org)
  • The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. (mdpi.com)
  • This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics. (mdpi.com)
  • That is, the site of actin 'dots' in the reverting protoplasts coincided with the site of new wall formation and the timing of rearrangement of actin coincided with the initiation of cell wall formation and with the timing of cell wall expansion. (biologists.org)
  • Treatment of reverting protoplasts with cytochalasin D (CD) further clarified the close relationship between actin and cell wall organization. (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that similar tubular structures are also formed in cowpea protoplasts, from which the cell wall and plasmodesmata are absent. (microbiologyresearch.org)