Proton Pump Inhibitors
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
Electron Transport Complex IV
Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone
Biological Transport, Active
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Histamine H2 Antagonists
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Carbonic Anhydrase II
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases
Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/5891)The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel. (+info)
Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/5891)We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site. (+info)
Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function. (3/5891)Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase. (+info)
Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. (4/5891)High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions. (+info)
Oxygen-dependent K+ influxes in Mg2+-clamped equine red blood cells. (5/5891)1. Cl--dependent K+ (86Rb+) influxes were measured in oxygenated and deoxygenated equine red blood cells, whose free [Mg2+]i had been clamped, to examine the effect on O2 dependency of the K+-Cl- cotransporter. 2. Total [Mg2+]i was 2.55 +/- 0.07 mM (mean +/- s.e.m. , n = 6). Free [Mg2+]i was estimated at 0.45 +/- 0.04 and 0.68 +/- 0. 03 mM (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 4) in oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells, respectively. 3. K+-Cl- cotransport was minimal in deoxygenated cells but substantial in oxygenated ones. Cl--dependent K+ influx, inhibited by calyculin A, consistent with mediation via the K+-Cl- cotransporter, was revealed by depleting deoxygenated cells of Mg2+. 4. Decreasing [Mg2+]i stimulated K+ influx, and increasing [Mg2+]i inhibited it, in both oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells. When free [Mg2+]i was clamped, Cl--dependent K+ influxes were always greater in oxygenated cells than in deoxygenated ones, and changes in free [Mg2+]i of the magnitude occurring during oxygenation-deoxygenation cycles had a minimal effect. Physiological fluctuations in free [Mg2+]i are unlikely to provide the primary link coupling activity of the K+-Cl- cotransporter with O2 tension. 5. Volume and H+ ion sensitivity of K+ influx in Mg2+-clamped red cells were increased in O2 compared with those in deoxygenated cells at the same free [Mg2+]i, by about 6- and 2-fold, respectively, but again these features were not responsible for the higher fluxes in oxygenated cells. 6. Regulation of the K+-Cl- cotransporter by O2 is very similar in equine, sheep and in normal human (HbA) red cells, but altered in human sickle cells. Present results imply that, as in sheep red cells, O2 dependence of K+-Cl- cotransport in equine red cells is not mediated via changes in free [Mg2+]i and that cotransport in Mg2+-clamped red cells is still stimulated by O2. This behaviour is contrary to that reported for human sickle (HbS) cells. (+info)
Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (6/5891)We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism. (+info)
Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/5891)The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component. (+info)
High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs. (8/5891)Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed. (+info)
In the medical field, protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus of an atom. They are one of the two types of particles that make up atomic nuclei, the other being neutrons, which have no charge. Protons are important in medical applications because they can be used in a type of radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of protons to target and destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. This is because protons have a unique property called the Bragg peak, which allows them to deposit most of their energy at a specific depth in the body before coming to a stop. This makes proton therapy particularly effective for treating certain types of cancer, such as brain tumors and pediatric cancers.
Proton pumps are a type of protein found in the membranes of cells, particularly in the lining of the stomach and the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels. These pumps work to regulate the pH of the cell's interior by actively transporting hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell and into the surrounding environment. This process is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of many cellular processes, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. In the medical field, proton pumps are often targeted by medications used to treat conditions such as acid reflux and stomach ulcers.
Bacteriorhodopsins are a family of light-sensitive proteins found in the membranes of certain bacteria, such as Halobacterium salinarum. They are also known as light-driven proton pumps because they use the energy from light to pump protons across the membrane, creating a proton gradient that can be used to power various cellular processes. In the medical field, bacteriorhodopsins have been studied for their potential use in a variety of applications, including as optogenetic tools for controlling the activity of neurons in the brain, as sensors for detecting environmental pollutants, and as components of biofuel cells that can convert light energy into electrical energy. Bacteriorhodopsins have also been used in the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, researchers have developed a bacteriorhodopsin-based drug that can be used to treat glaucoma by increasing the production of aqueous humor in the eye. Additionally, bacteriorhodopsins have been used to develop new types of solar cells that can convert light energy into electrical energy more efficiently than traditional solar cells.
Proton-translocating ATPases are a group of enzymes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across a membrane. These enzymes are found in various cellular compartments, including the inner mitochondrial membrane, the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, and the plasma membrane of bacteria. In the context of the medical field, proton-translocating ATPases are important because they play a crucial role in maintaining the proton gradient across cellular membranes. This gradient is essential for many cellular processes, including the production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, the regulation of intracellular pH, and the transport of ions across cell membranes. Proton-translocating ATPases can be classified into two main types: primary and secondary. Primary proton pumps, such as the ATP synthase in mitochondria, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to directly pump protons across a membrane. Secondary proton pumps, such as the vacuolar ATPase in plant cells, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons indirectly by coupling the proton gradient to the transport of other ions or molecules. Disruptions in the function of proton-translocating ATPases can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. For example, mutations in the ATP synthase gene can cause Leigh syndrome, a rare inherited disorder that affects the brain and muscles. Similarly, disruptions in the function of the vacuolar ATPase can lead to a variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, cataracts, and cancer.
Aspartic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be synthesized by the body from other compounds and does not need to be obtained through the diet. Aspartic acid is found in high concentrations in the brain and spinal cord, and it plays a role in various physiological processes, including the production of neurotransmitters and the regulation of acid-base balance in the body. In the medical field, aspartic acid is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to measure the function of the liver and kidneys, as well as to monitor the progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and HIV. It is also used as a dietary supplement in some cases.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-dependent proton pumps that are found in the membranes of various organelles in eukaryotic cells, including the vacuoles, lysosomes, endosomes, and plasma membrane. These pumps are responsible for maintaining the acidic environment inside these organelles, which is essential for various cellular processes such as protein degradation, nutrient absorption, and immune response. V-ATPases consist of a complex of 14-16 subunits, including a catalytic subunit (V1) and a proton-translocating subunit (V0). The V1 subunit contains the ATPase activity, while the V0 subunit forms a proton channel that allows protons to flow from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the organelle. The energy from ATP hydrolysis is used to pump protons against their concentration gradient, creating a proton gradient that can be used to drive various cellular processes. In the medical field, V-ATPases are of interest because they are involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and lysosomal storage diseases. For example, V-ATPases have been shown to be upregulated in many types of cancer, and inhibitors of V-ATPases have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Additionally, V-ATPases are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and inhibitors of V-ATPases have been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits in these conditions.
Creatine is a naturally occurring organic acid that is synthesized in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas from the amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine. It is stored in the muscles and brain as creatine phosphate, which is used to produce energy during high-intensity exercise or bursts of activity. In the medical field, creatine is often used as a dietary supplement to improve athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense energy, such as weightlifting or sprinting. It has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including muscle disorders, neurological disorders, and heart disease. However, it is important to note that the use of creatine as a supplement can have potential side effects, including dehydration, muscle cramps, and gastrointestinal issues. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting to use creatine as a supplement.
Electron Transport Complex IV, also known as cytochrome c oxidase, is a protein complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that plays a crucial role in cellular respiration. It is the final enzyme in the electron transport chain, which is responsible for generating ATP, the energy currency of the cell. During cellular respiration, electrons are passed through a series of protein complexes in the electron transport chain, releasing energy that is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This creates a proton gradient that is used to drive the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase. Electron Transport Complex IV is unique among the other electron transport chain complexes in that it not only pumps protons but also accepts electrons from cytochrome c and transfers them to molecular oxygen, which is reduced to water. This process is the final step in the electron transport chain and is essential for the production of ATP. Disruptions in the function of Electron Transport Complex IV can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the synthesis of organic compounds, particularly in the formation of amides. It is not typically used in the medical field, as it is not an approved drug or therapeutic agent. However, it may be used in research settings to synthesize compounds that have potential therapeutic applications.
Valinomycin is a polypeptide antibiotic that is produced by Streptomyces rimosus. It is a potassium ionophore, meaning that it selectively transports potassium ions across cell membranes. Valinomycin is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent and as a research tool to study ion transport in cells. It has also been used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, although its use in this context is not widely accepted. Valinomycin is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and it may interact with other medications.
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles are a class of compounds that have a benzimidazole ring with a 2-pyridinylmethylsulfinyl substituent. They are used in the medical field as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and viral infections. Some specific examples of 2-pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles that have been studied in the medical field include: * BMS-790052: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow. * BMS-986016: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. * BMS-986015: a drug that is being developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, a type of cancer that affects the lungs. These compounds are thought to work by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells. They are also being studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects.
Choline is a water-soluble nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. In the medical field, choline is often used as a dietary supplement or medication to treat certain conditions. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the production of phospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes. In addition to its role in brain function, choline is also important for liver health. It helps to prevent the buildup of fat in the liver and can be used to treat liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cirrhosis. Choline deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle weakness, memory problems, and liver damage. It is therefore important to ensure that you are getting enough choline in your diet through foods such as eggs, meat, and soybeans, or through supplements if necessary.
In the medical field, Schiff bases are a class of organic compounds that are formed by the condensation reaction between an amine and a carbonyl compound. These compounds are named after the German chemist Hugo Schiff, who first described their synthesis in the late 19th century. Schiff bases have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used as ligands in metal complexes, which can be used in the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory disorders. One of the most well-known Schiff bases in medicine is metronidazole, which is used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Other examples of Schiff bases with medical applications include thiosemicarbazones, which are used to treat cancer, and salicylaldehyde Schiff bases, which have anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, Schiff bases are an important class of compounds in the medical field, with a wide range of potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and conditions.
Omeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is used to treat a variety of conditions related to the digestive system, including: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Ulcers: Omeprazole is often used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. 3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: This is a rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. 4. Erosive esophagitis: This is a condition in which the lining of the esophagus is damaged by stomach acid. Omeprazole works by blocking the production of stomach acid by the cells in the lining of the stomach. This helps to reduce symptoms of acid-related conditions and promote healing of the digestive tract. It is usually taken once a day, with or without food.
Histidine is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body. It is a building block of proteins and is essential for the proper functioning of many bodily processes. In the medical field, histidine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose certain medical conditions. For example, high levels of histidine in the blood can be a sign of a genetic disorder called histidinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including intellectual disability, seizures, and liver problems. Histidine is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as acidosis, which is a condition in which the body's pH balance is disrupted.
Anti-ulcer agents are medications that are used to treat ulcers, which are sores that form in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Ulcers can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the use of certain medications, and excessive stomach acid production. Anti-ulcer agents work by reducing the production of stomach acid, protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum, and promoting the healing of ulcers. Some common examples of anti-ulcer agents include proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers), and antacids. These medications are often used in combination with antibiotics to treat H. pylori infections, and may also be used to prevent the recurrence of ulcers.
Nigericin is a natural antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces niger. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Nigericin is also effective against gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In the medical field, nigericin is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, particularly in the treatment of skin and wound infections. It is also used as an antifungal agent to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. Nigericin has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to selectively kill cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. However, nigericin is not commonly used in clinical practice due to its potential toxicity and side effects, including skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is also not approved by regulatory agencies for use in humans.
Arylsulfonates are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfonate group (-SO3H) attached to an aromatic ring (such as benzene). They are commonly used in the medical field as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs and as surfactants in pharmaceutical formulations. Some examples of arylsulfonates used in medicine include ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin, which are all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Other arylsulfonates are used as anticoagulants, such as warfarin, and as diuretics, such as furosemide.
Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen that has one extra neutron in its nucleus compared to the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. In the medical field, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer in nuclear medicine imaging studies. For example, deuterium oxide (heavy water) can be used to label certain molecules, such as glucose or amino acids, which can then be injected into the body and imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This can help doctors to visualize the uptake and metabolism of these molecules in different tissues and organs, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions. Deuterium is also used in some types of radiation therapy, where it is used to replace hydrogen atoms in certain molecules to make them more radioactive, allowing them to be targeted to specific cancer cells.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.
Ion channels are specialized proteins embedded in the cell membrane that regulate the flow of ions across the membrane. These channels are essential for many cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and the regulation of cell volume and pH. Ion channels are selective for specific ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, or chloride, and they can be opened or closed by various stimuli, such as changes in voltage, ligand binding, or mechanical stress. When an ion channel opens, it creates a pore in the membrane that allows ions to flow through, either down their electrochemical gradient or against it, depending on the specific channel and the conditions. In the medical field, ion channels play important roles in many diseases and disorders, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Understanding the function and regulation of ion channels is therefore crucial for developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
Carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a research tool to study the function of the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing organelles in cells. FCCP is a protonophore, which means that it allows protons to flow across the inner mitochondrial membrane, leading to a decrease in the proton gradient and an increase in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the energy currency of the cell. This process is known as uncoupling and can be used to study the regulation of energy metabolism in cells. FCCP is also used as a pharmacological agent to treat certain types of cancer, as it has been shown to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells.
Biological transport, active refers to the movement of molecules across cell membranes against a concentration gradient, which means from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. This type of transport requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and is facilitated by specific proteins called transporters or pumps. Active transport is essential for maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules within cells and between cells and their environment. Examples of active transport include the sodium-potassium pump, which maintains the electrochemical gradient necessary for nerve impulse transmission, and the glucose transporter, which moves glucose into cells for energy production.
In the medical field, catalysis refers to the acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed or altered in the process. Catalysts are commonly used in medical research and drug development to speed up the synthesis of compounds or to optimize the efficiency of chemical reactions. For example, enzymes are biological catalysts that play a crucial role in many metabolic processes in the body. In medical research, enzymes are often used as catalysts to speed up the synthesis of drugs or to optimize the efficiency of chemical reactions involved in drug metabolism. Catalysis is also used in medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where contrast agents are used to enhance the visibility of certain tissues or organs. These contrast agents are often synthesized using catalytic reactions to increase their efficiency and effectiveness. Overall, catalysis plays a critical role in many areas of medical research and drug development, helping to accelerate the synthesis of compounds and optimize the efficiency of chemical reactions.
Rhodopsins are a class of light-sensitive proteins found in the eyes of many organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In the medical field, microbial rhodopsins are of particular interest due to their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine. Microbial rhodopsins are typically composed of a protein called opsin and a chromophore, which is a light-absorbing molecule. When light strikes the chromophore, it undergoes a conformational change that triggers a signaling cascade within the cell. This signaling cascade can be used to regulate a variety of cellular processes, including ion transport, enzyme activity, and gene expression. There are many different types of microbial rhodopsins, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some are used by bacteria to sense and respond to changes in their environment, while others are used by archaea to generate energy through photosynthesis. In recent years, researchers have also discovered a number of microbial rhodopsins with potential therapeutic applications, such as those that can be used to target and kill cancer cells or to treat vision disorders.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
In the medical field, acids are substances that donate hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are classified as either strong or weak acids, depending on how completely they ionize in water. Acids can have various effects on the body, depending on their concentration and duration of exposure. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid that is produced by the stomach to help break down food. However, if the stomach produces too much HCl, it can cause acid reflux, heartburn, and other digestive problems. Other acids that are commonly used in medicine include citric acid, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid, and salicylic acid, which is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of conditions such as acne and psoriasis. In some cases, acids can be used to treat medical conditions. For example, hydrofluoric acid is used to treat certain types of bone cancer, and lactic acid is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. However, it is important to note that acids can also be harmful if they are not used properly. Exposure to high concentrations of acids can cause burns, corrosion of tissues, and other serious injuries. Therefore, it is important for medical professionals to use acids with caution and follow proper safety protocols.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
Sulfoxides are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfur-oxygen double bond (S=O). They are derivatives of sulfides, which have a sulfur-sulfur double bond (S=S). Sulfoxides are commonly used in the medical field as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as anticonvulsants, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents. They are also used as reagents in organic chemistry reactions. Some sulfoxides have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer, but their effectiveness as anticancer agents is still being investigated.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
Heme is a complex organic molecule that contains iron and is a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins involved in oxygen transport and storage in living organisms. It is also a component of various enzymes involved in metabolism and detoxification processes. In the medical field, heme is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect and monitor certain medical conditions, such as anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin), liver disease (which can affect heme synthesis), and certain types of cancer (which can produce abnormal heme molecules). Heme is also used in the production of certain medications, such as heme-based oxygen carriers for use in patients with sickle cell disease or other conditions that affect oxygen transport. Additionally, heme is a component of some dietary supplements and is sometimes used to treat certain types of anemia.
Rabeprazole is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It is used to treat a variety of conditions related to the digestive system, including: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Duodenal ulcers: sores in the lining of the small intestine. 3. Gastric ulcers: sores in the lining of the stomach. 4. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection: a bacterial infection that can cause ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. 5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: a rare condition in which the stomach produces too much acid. Rabeprazole works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which helps to reduce symptoms and promote healing of the digestive lining. It is usually taken by mouth, either as a tablet or a liquid, and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated.
Gramicidin is a type of antibiotic that is derived from a soil bacterium called Bacillus brevis. It is a polypeptide antibiotic that is effective against a wide range of gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus anthracis. Gramicidin works by disrupting the cell membrane of bacteria, causing it to leak and eventually leading to cell death. It is often used topically to treat skin infections, such as impetigo and cellulitis, and is also used to treat certain types of pneumonia and meningitis. However, gramicidin is not effective against gram-negative bacteria and can cause side effects such as allergic reactions and kidney damage when used in high doses.
Deuterium oxide, also known as heavy water, is a chemical compound composed of one oxygen atom and two deuterium atoms. It has the chemical formula D2O and is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is similar in appearance and properties to regular water (H2O). In the medical field, deuterium oxide is used as a tracer in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a non-invasive imaging technique that can provide detailed information about the structure and function of molecules in the body. Deuterium oxide is often used as a substitute for regular water in NMR studies because its slightly different chemical properties allow it to be distinguished from regular water in the spectra. Deuterium oxide has also been used in some clinical trials as a potential treatment for certain medical conditions, such as cancer and heart disease. However, its use in medicine is still limited and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.
A Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter (NHE) is a type of ion transporter protein found in the plasma membrane of cells. It is responsible for regulating the concentration of sodium ions (Na+) and hydrogen ions (H+) inside and outside of cells. NHEs work by exchanging one sodium ion inside the cell for one hydrogen ion outside the cell. This process helps to maintain the proper balance of ions inside and outside of cells, which is essential for many cellular functions, including maintaining cell volume, regulating pH, and transmitting nerve impulses. In the medical field, NHEs are important for understanding a variety of diseases and conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease. For example, NHEs play a role in the development of hypertension by regulating the balance of sodium and water in the body. In heart failure, NHEs can contribute to the accumulation of sodium and water in the body, leading to fluid overload and congestion. In kidney disease, NHEs can contribute to the development of kidney failure by disrupting the balance of sodium and water in the body.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a condition in which stomach contents flow back up into the esophagus, causing irritation and discomfort. This can occur due to a weakening of the muscles between the stomach and esophagus, allowing stomach acid and other contents to flow back up. Symptoms of GER can include heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and a sour taste in the mouth. In severe cases, GER can lead to more serious complications such as esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus) and Barrett's esophagus (a condition in which the cells lining the esophagus change in response to chronic irritation). Treatment for GER typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding certain foods and beverages, as well as medications to reduce acid production in the stomach. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the weakened muscles between the stomach and esophagus.
Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is essential for various bodily functions. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, but it is still important for maintaining good health. In the medical field, glutamic acid is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain conditions. For example, it is used to treat epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Glutamic acid is also used to treat certain types of brain injuries, such as stroke, by promoting the growth of new brain cells. In addition to its medicinal uses, glutamic acid is also an important component of the diet. It is found in many foods, including meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). It is primarily found in the red blood cells, where it helps to regulate the pH of the blood by converting CO2 into bicarbonate and protons (H+). This process is essential for maintaining the proper balance of acids and bases in the body, which is necessary for the proper functioning of many physiological processes. In addition to its role in regulating blood pH, CA II also plays a role in the transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exhaled. It does this by converting bicarbonate back into CO2, which can then be transported in the blood to the lungs and exhaled. CA II is also involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the body, as bicarbonate is an important ion that helps to maintain the proper concentration of electrolytes in the blood. It is also involved in the metabolism of other substances, such as ammonia and sulfates. In the medical field, CA II is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and certain types of cancer. It is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as renal disease and liver disease.
Crystallography, X-ray is a technique used in the medical field to study the structure of biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, by analyzing the diffraction patterns produced by X-rays passing through the sample. This technique is used to determine the three-dimensional structure of these molecules, which is important for understanding their function and for developing new drugs and therapies. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool that has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of many important biological processes and diseases.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
Proteolipids are a type of lipid-protein complex that are found in the cell membrane of many organisms, including animals, plants, and bacteria. They are composed of a hydrophobic lipid tail and a hydrophilic protein head, which allows them to interact with both the interior and exterior of the cell membrane. In the medical field, proteolipids are of particular interest because they play important roles in the function of the nervous system. For example, proteolipids are a major component of the myelin sheath, which is a layer of fatty substance that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers. The myelin sheath helps to speed up the transmission of nerve impulses and is essential for normal brain function. Proteolipids are also involved in the development and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, which is a barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and spinal cord. This barrier helps to protect the brain from harmful substances in the blood and maintain a stable environment for nerve cells. In addition to their roles in the nervous system, proteolipids have also been implicated in a number of other medical conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.
Bacterial proton-translocating ATPases are a group of enzymes that are found in the cell membranes of many bacteria. These enzymes are responsible for the transport of protons across the cell membrane, which is essential for many cellular processes, including the generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the maintenance of pH balance, and the transport of other molecules across the membrane. There are several different types of bacterial proton-translocating ATPases, including F-type ATPases, V-type ATPases, and A-type ATPases. Each of these enzymes has a slightly different structure and function, but they all use the energy from the translocation of protons to drive the synthesis of ATP. Bacterial proton-translocating ATPases are important targets for the development of antibiotics, as they are essential for the survival of many pathogenic bacteria. In addition, these enzymes have been the subject of extensive research in the field of bioenergetics, as they provide a unique insight into the mechanisms by which cells generate and use energy.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Inositol is a type of sugar alcohol that is found naturally in many foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement and is used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. Inositol is classified as a vitamin-like substance because it is essential for the proper functioning of the body, but it is not considered a true vitamin because it can be synthesized by the body. Inositol is involved in many important cellular processes, including metabolism, nerve function, and cell signaling. In the medical field, inositol is used to treat a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is also used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Inositol has also been studied for its potential to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Inositol is generally considered safe when taken in recommended doses, but it can interact with certain medications and may not be suitable for everyone. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking inositol, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking any medications.
In the medical field, trityl compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a trityl group, which is a benzene ring with three methyl groups attached to it. These compounds are often used as protecting groups in organic synthesis, where they are added to a molecule to protect certain functional groups from reacting during a chemical reaction. The trityl group can be easily removed from the molecule once the desired reaction has been completed, allowing the original functional group to be exposed and used for further reactions. Trityl compounds are also used as ligands in coordination chemistry, where they can bind to metal ions to form coordination complexes.
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- Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are jointly referred to as "nucleons" (particles present in atomic nuclei). (wikipedia.org)
- Although protons were originally considered to be elementary particles, in the modern Standard Model of particle physics, protons are now known to be composite particles, containing three valence quarks, and together with neutrons are now classified as hadrons. (wikipedia.org)
- Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound together by the nuclear force to form atomic nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
- The nuclei of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium contain one proton bound to one and two neutrons, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- All other types of atomic nuclei are composed of two or more protons and various numbers of neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
- In this exhibition ping pong balls , iron balls and golf balls represents the electrons, protons and neutrons. (lu.se)
- On a 100 square meter area has been built interactive experimental stations where ping pong balls, iron balls and golf balls represent electrons, protons and neutrons. (lu.se)
- One gets the neutrons by what is known as spallation, which means that protons accelerate into the atom, which becomes unstable and releases the neutrons. (lu.se)
- the nucleus of a helium atom, made up of two neutrons and two protons with a charge of +2. (cdc.gov)
- the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. (cdc.gov)
- Activation-- The process of making a material radioactive by bombardment with neutrons or protons. (cdc.gov)
- It is identical to a helium nucleus, i.e., 2 neutrons and two protons, with a mass number of 4 and an electrostatic charge of +2. (cdc.gov)
- An atom consists of one nucleus, made of protons and neutrons, and many smaller particles called electrons. (cdc.gov)
- The neutrons neutralize this action and act as a kind of glue that holds the protons together in the nucleus. (cdc.gov)
- The number of protons in an atom of a particular element is always the same, but the number of neutrons may vary. (cdc.gov)
- Neutrons add to the weight of the atom, so an atom of cobalt that has 27 protons and 32 neutrons is called cobalt-59 because 27 plus 32 equals 59. (cdc.gov)
- The risk for dementia before age 90 years was significantly higher among people with a history of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and was highest among those diagnosed before age 70 years regardless of when PPI treatment was initiated. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Proton Pump Inhibitors Linked to Increased Dementia Risk - Medscape - Oct 10, 2023. (medscape.com)
- A substituted benzimidazole (a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion) is the active ingredient of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). (medscape.com)
- The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. (nih.gov)
- The agents used include antacids, H2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, and prokinetic agents. (medscape.com)
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibit gastric acid secretion by inhibition of the H + /K + ATPase enzyme system in the gastric parietal cells. (medscape.com)
- Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been the medications of choice in managing patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). (medscape.com)
- Corleto VD, Annibale B, Gibril F. Does the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors mask, complicate and/or delay the diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome? (medscape.com)
- Safe use of proton-pump inhibitors. (bvsalud.org)
- Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed drug groups in developed countries . (bvsalud.org)
- The proton pump is the name for the chemical process by which the stomach secretes acid. (msdmanuals.com)
- Proton pump inhibitors are the most potent of the medications that reduce acid production. (msdmanuals.com)
- Proton pump inhibitors promote healing of ulcers in a greater percentage of people in a shorter period of time than do histamine-2 (H2) blockers and thus are typically preferred to H2 blockers for treating ulcers. (msdmanuals.com)
- Proton pump inhibitors can be given by mouth or by vein (IV). (msdmanuals.com)
- Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors may cause reduced absorption of B12, iron, magnesium, and calcium. (msdmanuals.com)
- Thus, H2 blockers are used for many of the same disorders as proton pump inhibitors. (msdmanuals.com)
- Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Risk of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease. (janusinfo.se)
Having proton therapy1
- The technician will leave the room while you are having proton therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
- more unsolved problems in physics) Protons are spin-1/2 fermions and are composed of three valence quarks, making them baryons (a sub-type of hadrons). (wikipedia.org)
- Protons were therefore a candidate to be a fundamental or elementary particle, and hence a building block of nitrogen and all other heavier atomic nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
- A fast proton moving through matter will slow by interactions with electrons and nuclei, until it is captured by the electron cloud of an atom. (wikipedia.org)
- Free protons are routinely used for accelerators for proton therapy or various particle physics experiments, with the most powerful example being the Large Hadron Collider. (wikipedia.org)
- One or more protons are present in the nucleus of every atom. (wikipedia.org)
- The number of protons in the nucleus is the defining property of an element, and is referred to as the atomic number (represented by the symbol Z). Since each element has a unique number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number, which determines the number of atomic electrons and consequently the chemical characteristics of the element. (wikipedia.org)
- The word proton is Greek for "first", and this name was given to the hydrogen nucleus by Ezegbudo Kenechukwu (Khae_GEE) in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
- The nucleus of the most common isotope of the hydrogen atom (with the chemical symbol "H") is a lone proton. (wikipedia.org)
- the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (cdc.gov)
- The number of protons in the atom's nucleus determines which element it is. (cdc.gov)
- Unlike other types of radiation therapy that use radiation rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. (medlineplus.gov)
- The use of proton beam therapy is somewhat controversial, owing to its high cost. (medscape.com)
- Recent research has expanded our understanding of the types of malignancies and clinical scenarios where proton beam therapy is most advantageous. (medscape.com)
- Proton beam therapy offers a high degree of precision, allowing an escalated radiation dose to be targeted directly on a tumor while sparing the adjacent healthy tissue. (medscape.com)
- Although not new, the use of proton beam therapy in medical settings has greatly increased during the past decade, but it remains controversial because of cost and also because there is little evidence as to how it compares with other forms of radiotherapy. (medscape.com)
- There are currently 11 proton beam therapy centers in North America, and 13 more centers are in development. (medscape.com)
- In the new model, ASTRO identifies two categories for the appropriate use of proton beam therapy. (medscape.com)
- ASTRO Model Policies: Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) . (medscape.com)
- Cite this: ASTRO Coverage Recommendations for Proton Beam Therapy - Medscape - Jul 20, 2017. (medscape.com)
- A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. (medlineplus.gov)
- Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
- Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. (medlineplus.gov)
- This allows doctors to use a higher dose of radiation with proton therapy than they can use with x-rays. (medlineplus.gov)
- The radiation oncologist will use a computer to trace the tumor and outline the angles at which the proton beams will enter your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Proton therapy may have side effects, but these tend to be milder than with x-ray radiation because proton therapy causes less damage to healthy tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- Newswise - BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - The University of Alabama at Birmingham will partner with Proton International to bring proton therapy, one of the most technically advanced forms of cancer-killing radiation, to Alabama. (newswise.com)
- Proton therapy delivers a more precise dose of radiation to a tumor and can avoid damage to healthy surrounding tissue better than conventional X-ray radiation. (newswise.com)
- Proton therapy is an extremely advanced cancer-fighting radiation technology. (newswise.com)
- Proton International, one of the world's leading developers of proton radiation facilities, will build the UAB Proton Center on the current site of parking lot 55, at 20th Street and Fifth Avenue. (newswise.com)
- Proton therapy will allow us to treat deep-seeded cancers and minimize the radiation dose delivered to surrounding normal structures," said James A. Bonner, M.D., the Merle M. Salter Endowed Professor, Chairman of the UAB School of Medicine Department of Radiation Oncology and president of the University of Alabama Health Services Foundation. (newswise.com)
- Recent advances in imaging have made proton therapy much more viable," said John Fiveash, M.D., professor in the UAB Department of Radiation Oncology. (newswise.com)
- Proton therapy is particularly beneficial for children, as they are especially vulnerable to damage from radiation," said Alyssa Reddy, M.D., professor of hematology/oncology in the UAB Department of Pediatrics. (newswise.com)
- The UAB Proton Center will consist of a three-story building to house the proton therapy system, manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, a longtime partner with UAB in the delivery of radiation therapy. (newswise.com)
- Last week at the annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology, IBA Particle Therapy , a Florida subsidiary of IBA , a Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium firm, has unveiled a new, relatively more compact proton therapy system. (medgadget.com)
- This allows proton therapy to provide a dosimetric advantage in more than 80 percent of all external beam radiation treatment cases. (ni.com)
- At sufficiently low temperatures and kinetic energies, free protons will bind to electrons. (wikipedia.org)
- In a vacuum, when free electrons are present, a sufficiently slow proton may pick up a single free electron, becoming a neutral hydrogen atom, which is chemically a free radical. (wikipedia.org)
- So go ahead and drum loose electrons in the cannon , compete for the best time in the linear accelerator , shoot protons in spallation experiment or tickle electrons in the storage ring! (lu.se)
- Shoot protons & tickle electrons - an interactive exhibition about ESS & MAX IV (pdf 3.73 MB, new tab). (lu.se)
- Visitors can drum loose electrons in the cannon, compete for the best time in the linear accelerator, pushing protons in the spallation experiment and tickle electrons in the storage ring. (lu.se)
- It will rotate around you and point the protons in the direction of the tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Then the protons are removed from the machine and magnets direct them to the tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Proton therapy uses an aimed beam of protons directed at the tumor site. (newswise.com)
- Developing a highly accurate and precise proton beam control solution to deliver a prescribed radiological dose to a specific location within a tumor. (ni.com)
- For example, an atom with one proton is hydrogen and an atom with 27 protons is cobalt. (cdc.gov)
- Because it causes less damage to healthy tissue, proton therapy is often used for cancers that are very close to critical parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- In some cases, proton therapy may be useful in treating cancer that has metastasized, or spread into surrounding tissue, due to its focused dose advantages. (newswise.com)
- The Dose Delivery System, or DDS, is the SC360 subsystem that accurately and precisely delivers protons from the beamline to a specific target in the patient. (ni.com)
- File photo of a Proton rocket launching from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. (spaceflightnow.com)
- Russia's Express AM6 communications satellite lifted off aboard a Proton rocket Tuesday and reached its targeted geostationary transfer orbit after a nine-hour climb thousands of miles above Earth. (spaceflightnow.com)
- Powered by six RD-276 engines generating nearly 2.5 million pounds of thrust, the Proton rocket launched at 1509 GMT (11:09 a.m. (spaceflightnow.com)
- A twin satellite named Express AM5 launched on a Proton rocket in December 2013. (spaceflightnow.com)
- PARIS - An International Launch Services ( ILS ) Proton rocket March 26 successfully placed the Intelsat 22 telecommunications satellite - equipped with a UHF payload for the Australian and U.S. militaries in addition to C- and Ku-band capacity - into a supersynchronous transfer orbit that ILS said would save on fuel. (spacenews.com)
- Operating from Russia's Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, the Proton rocket, equipped with a Breeze M upper stage, dropped the 6,199-kilogram Intelsat 22 into a transfer orbit whose apogee was 65,000 kilometers over the equator. (spacenews.com)
- It was the first launch of this type for a Proton rocket, according to Reston, Va.-based ILS. (spacenews.com)
- Then AWS Proton creates the pull request, and the compiled Terraform is placed into a directory with the same name as that of the environment. (amazon.com)
- To simplify the developer's experience and allow them to focus on application design, AWS Proton aims to eliminate the need for developers to interact with anything related to the infrastructure provisioning. (amazon.com)
- ProNova aims to make proton therapy a widely available cancer treatment option by delivering a lower cost, smaller, and more energy efficient proton therapy system without sacrificing clinical capabilities. (ni.com)
- I typed in proton on their search feature and found this link. (cancer.org)
- It describes the benefits and characteristics of proton therapy and the essentials of proton therapy equipment. (asrt.org)
- IBA's latest innovation offers a considerably smaller treatment room that will help reduce costs substantially, minimize the space and shorten the installation time required to build a Proton Therapy center. (medgadget.com)
- The Proteus ONE™ is an even smaller, more affordable Proton Therapy treatment room for cancer patients than the Proteus Nano®, a two-room treatment solution introduced by IBA Particle Therapy in the fall of 2009. (medgadget.com)
- MD Anderson has a nice page on their proton center. (cancer.org)
- Proton therapy is used to treat cancers that have not spread. (medlineplus.gov)
- The SC360 offers a highly accurate and precise method for targeting tumors by using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with pencil beam scanning (PBS). (ni.com)
- ASTRO's policy paper provides guidance to all insurers, including Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial payers, about the clinical indications that are appropriate for proton bean therapy and that should be covered. (medscape.com)
- Proton therapy offers the opportunity to successfully treat pediatric tumors and minimize the risk for side effects later in life. (newswise.com)
- I was quite unhappy with the new Firefox Proton design, so I made a CSS file and copied the following code from a website. (mozilla.org)
- Proton transfer within nitrogenase active site. (lu.se)
- Coupled with the skill, experience and resources of the UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, the UAB Proton Therapy Center will be a life-changing resource for thousands of cancer patients throughout our region. (newswise.com)
- This will be the first proton therapy center in Alabama, and we are excited to offer this cutting-edge approach for patients and families in Birmingham, across Alabama and beyond. (newswise.com)
- Experts conservatively estimate that about 250,000 cancer patients in the United States alone could benefit from proton therapy. (newswise.com)
- However, with just 24 existing proton therapy centers, only 5 percent of eligible patients can receive this treatment. (ni.com)
- RÉSUMÉ Des méthodes non-invasives de haute précision sont nécessaires pour l'évaluation de la concentration en fer dans les organes des patients atteints de thalassémie. (who.int)
- There are 25 active proton therapy centers in the United States, most affiliated with major cancer centers. (newswise.com)
- T]he net result of using this mission design is that the Proton Breeze M is able to provide an additional 200 kilograms of performance, resulting in a capability of 6,350 kilograms to a 1,500-meters-per-second transfer orbit," ILS said in a March 26 statement. (spacenews.com)
- This module removes the proton beam from the treatment room if the beam analysis determines the spot position and size are not within 0.5 mm, or if other issues are diagnosed that jeopardize the accuracy or precision of the treatment. (ni.com)
- We designed the SC360 proton therapy system to provide the flexibility required to support 1 to 5 treatment rooms, allow for different treatment room configurations, meet individual customer needs, and enable easy integration with future R&D projects. (ni.com)
- This technology, in conjunction with the LabVIEW Real-Time Module and the LabVIEW FPGA Module, provide the hardware flexibility and programming capabilities needed to rapidly develop advanced embedded monitoring and control solutions for the SC360 without sacrificing the performance requirements of a proton therapy system. (ni.com)
- Proton, ammonium and nitrate net fluxes were measured at seedling root tips and 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm from the tips using a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux measurement system in solutions of 50 or 1500 microM NH(4)NO(3) at pH 4 and 7. (who.int)
- Proton is a high performance, lightweight messaging library. (rpmfind.net)
- Ideally, the self-managed provisioning flow will be completely automated by the time Developer Services interacts with it, and they will simply await completion of their deployments within the AWS Proton experience. (amazon.com)
- At the time of writing this post, Terraform is the only supported option for self-managed provisioning within AWS Proton. (amazon.com)
- I will add more info on proton therapy as I have time. (cancer.org)
- Proton treatment takes time, and is expensive. (cancer.org)
- A significant advantage to the Proteus ONE™ development is its ability to leverage existing, proven IBA technology, including the Pencil Beam Scanning proton delivery method and advanced treatment planning software. (medgadget.com)
- My dad had proton back around 1997. (cancer.org)
- More than 1.6 million people will be diagnosed with cancer this year in the United States, with 320,000 of those cases eligible for proton therapy. (ni.com)