Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/5891)

The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/5891)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function. (3/5891)

Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase.  (+info)

Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. (4/5891)

High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions.  (+info)

Oxygen-dependent K+ influxes in Mg2+-clamped equine red blood cells. (5/5891)

1. Cl--dependent K+ (86Rb+) influxes were measured in oxygenated and deoxygenated equine red blood cells, whose free [Mg2+]i had been clamped, to examine the effect on O2 dependency of the K+-Cl- cotransporter. 2. Total [Mg2+]i was 2.55 +/- 0.07 mM (mean +/- s.e.m. , n = 6). Free [Mg2+]i was estimated at 0.45 +/- 0.04 and 0.68 +/- 0. 03 mM (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 4) in oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells, respectively. 3. K+-Cl- cotransport was minimal in deoxygenated cells but substantial in oxygenated ones. Cl--dependent K+ influx, inhibited by calyculin A, consistent with mediation via the K+-Cl- cotransporter, was revealed by depleting deoxygenated cells of Mg2+. 4. Decreasing [Mg2+]i stimulated K+ influx, and increasing [Mg2+]i inhibited it, in both oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells. When free [Mg2+]i was clamped, Cl--dependent K+ influxes were always greater in oxygenated cells than in deoxygenated ones, and changes in free [Mg2+]i of the magnitude occurring during oxygenation-deoxygenation cycles had a minimal effect. Physiological fluctuations in free [Mg2+]i are unlikely to provide the primary link coupling activity of the K+-Cl- cotransporter with O2 tension. 5. Volume and H+ ion sensitivity of K+ influx in Mg2+-clamped red cells were increased in O2 compared with those in deoxygenated cells at the same free [Mg2+]i, by about 6- and 2-fold, respectively, but again these features were not responsible for the higher fluxes in oxygenated cells. 6. Regulation of the K+-Cl- cotransporter by O2 is very similar in equine, sheep and in normal human (HbA) red cells, but altered in human sickle cells. Present results imply that, as in sheep red cells, O2 dependence of K+-Cl- cotransport in equine red cells is not mediated via changes in free [Mg2+]i and that cotransport in Mg2+-clamped red cells is still stimulated by O2. This behaviour is contrary to that reported for human sickle (HbS) cells.  (+info)

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (6/5891)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/5891)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs. (8/5891)

Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton conductivity of Nafion/ex situ Stöber silica nanocomposite membranes as a function of silica particle size and temperature. AU - Muriithi, Beatrice. AU - Loy, Douglas A.. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - In the first systematic study of the influence of the size of silica particles on ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of Nafion-silica nanocomposite membranes, thin films cast from mixtures of silica particles (5 wt%) with varying diameters ranging from 10 to 400 nm and Nafion in alcohol were examined. IECs decreased exactly as expected with the dilution of Nafion and its sulfonic acid groups with added silica. At 80 C, the proton conductivity was also less with silica particles. However, at higher temperatures (120 C), there was a 58 % improvement in proton conductivity at low relative humidity and a 45 % improvement at higher relative humidity for nanocomposite membranes prepared with silica particles ,50 nm in size. The improvement was less ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract-Soft Error Resiliency is a major concern for Pet-ascale high performance computing (HPC) systems. Blue Gene/Q (BG/Q) is the third generation of IBMs massively parallel, ener-gy efficient Blue Gene series of supercomputers. The principal goal of this work is to understand the interaction between Blue-Gene/Qs hardware resiliency features and high-performance applications through proton irradiation of a real chip, and soft-ware resiliency inherent in these applications through applica-tion-level fault injection (AFI) experiments. From the proton irradiation experiments we derived that the mean time between correctable errors at sea level of the SRAM-based register files and Level-1 caches for a system similar to the scale of Sequoia system. From the AFI experiments, we characterized relative vulnerability among the applications in both general purpose and floating point register files. We categorized and quantified the
The Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) was designed primarily for single-event effect (SEE) studies and characterization of electronic components and detectors for the space environment. The energy spectrum of protons trapped in earth orbits peaks in the 10-100 MeV region (depending on the amount of intervening absorber) and drops by about an order of magnitude at 500 MeV. This makes the TRIUMF cyclotrons variable-energy capability of up to 500 MeV ideal for studies of space effects. Biological studies such as cell irradiations to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons are also being carried out in conjunction with the Proton Therapy Centre.. PIF makes use of two different beam lines at TRIUMF for low-intensity radiation-damage studies. The lower energies, variable from as low as 5 MeV up to 120 MeV are available from the beam line BL2C, which is also used on a regular basis for proton treatments of ocular melanoma. Higher energies, from 120 MeV up to 500 MeV are ...
The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP. ...
The concept of surface coupled proton exchange between membrane proteins has long been criticized because the origin of proton?s surface affinity remained enigmatic. The weak dependence of both migration speed and span on lipid composition suggests that interfacial water serves as proton railways (1). However, it is unclear how to reconcile the apparent high proton affinity to the phase boundary (2) with the poor proton acceptability of water. Here we monitored the diffusion of excess protons along the phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer/water interface at different temperatures. The kinetics of proton arrival from a distant spot of proton release to lipid anchored fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes indicated that the in vitro Gibbs activation energy ?G for proton surfaceto- bulk release harbours only a minor enthalpic constituent. Our observation that more than 2/3 of ?G are entropic in origin explains the high proton affinity to membranes in the absence of a potent proton acceptor. This work was ...
This article concerns the study of iron corrosion in wet air under mega-electron-volt proton irradiation for different fluxes at room temperature and with a relative humidity fixed to 45%. Oxidized iron sample surfaces are characterized by ion beam analysis (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis), for the elemental analysis. The structural and physicochemical characterization is performed using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We have also measured the iron oxidation kinetics. Radiation enhanced diffusion and transport processes have been evidenced. The modeling of the experimental data shows that the apparent oxygen diffusion coefficient increases whereas the oxygen transport velocity decreases as function of flux. Finally, the point defect model has been used to determine the electric field value in the samples. Results have shown that the transport process can be attributed to the presence of an electrical
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 102, Issue 19, id. 193510 (4 pages) (2013).. Abdelkader Abderrahmane, S. Koide, H. Okada, H. Takahashi, S. Sato, T. Ohshima, A. Sandhu.. Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.. Abstract The magnetoelectric properties of AlGaN/GaN micro-Hall effect sensors were studied after 380 keV proton irradiation. After irradiation the current-voltage measurements, stability of the magnetic sensitivity of the sensors, and the sheet electron density were degraded with a dramatic decrease of the electron mobility at high temperatures. Raman spectroscopy showed a ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In situ observations of blistering of a metal irradiated with 2-mev protons. AU - Badrutdinov, Alexander. AU - Bykov, Timophey. AU - Gromilov, Sergey. AU - Higashi, Yasuo. AU - Kasatov, Dmitrii. AU - Kolesnikov, Iaroslav. AU - Koshkarev, Alexey. AU - Makarov, Alexandr. AU - Miyazawa, Takuya. AU - Shchudlo, Ivan. AU - Sokolova, Evgeniia. AU - Sugawara, Hirotaka. AU - Taskaev, Sergey. PY - 2017/12/12. Y1 - 2017/12/12. N2 - A vacuum-insulated tandem accelerator was used to observe in situ blistering during 2-MeV proton irradiation of metallic samples to a fluence of up to 6.7 × 1020 cm-2. Samples consisting of copper of different purity, tantalum and tantalum-copper compounds were placed on the proton beam path and forced to cool. The surface state of the samples was observed using a charge-coupled device camera with a remote microscope. Thermistors, a pyrometer and an infrared camera were applied to measure the temperature of the samples during irradiation. After irradiation, the ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men in the United States. The purpose of this research study is to determine if dose-escalated proton radiation therapy is a good way to treat high-risk prostate cancer.. Proton therapy (PT) is a type of ionizing radiation therapy that reduces the dose of excess radiation delivered to normal tissues. By escalating the radiation dose just to the area of the known tumor within the prostate, one could potentially reduce the amount of excess radiation delivered to surrounding organs.This reduction in dose would improve the therapeutic ratio by improving disease control while minimizing the risk for additional toxicity.. In an effort to take advantage of dose escalations potential for improving disease control but also to limit toxicity, the use of advanced imaging to identify prostate cancer and provide a focal radiation boost to the area have proven to be useful. Recent advances in MRI have made it the most promising technique in ...
Proton Inhibition - 28 images - Differentiating Ger From Gerd To Quot D Quot Or Not To Quot D Quot Ppt, Antacids H2 Antagonists Ppis Proton Inhibitors, Proton Inhibitor, Proton Inhibitors Ppis Mechanism Images, Proton Pumps H
The Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition publication database entry for Investigation of Bulk and DTMOS triple-gate devices under 60 MeV proton irradiation at
Background and purpose: To determine the influence of the number of fractions (or the dose per fraction) on the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Materials and methods: Intestinal crypt regeneration in mice was used as the biological endpoint. RBE was determined relative to cobalt-60 gamma rays for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions separated by a time interval of 3.5 h. Proton irradiations were performed at the middle of a 7-cm Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). Results: Proton RBEs (and corresponding gamma dose per fraction) at the level of 20 regenerated crypts per circumference were found equal to 1.15 ± 0.04 (10.0 Gy), 1.15 ± 0.05 (4.8 Gy) and 1.14 ± 0.07 (1.7 Gy) for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions, respectively. Alpha/beta ratios as derived from direct analysis of the quantal radiation response data were found to be 7.6 Gy for gamma rays and 8.2 Gy for protons. Additional proton irradiations in ten fractions at the end of the SOBP were found to be more ...
C. Biswas, K. Devarajan, T. K. Panda, and S. S. K. Raavi, Enhanced Broadband Emission in Novel Phenanthroimidazole Derivative Molecules via Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer, in OSA Advanced Photonics Congress (AP) 2020 (IPR, NP, NOMA, Networks, PVLED, PSC, SPPCom, SOF), L. Caspani, A. Tauke-Pedretti, F. Leo, and B. Yang, eds., OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper JTh3G.5 ...
A proton is part of an atom.[1] They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons.[1] The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atoms atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom. Protons are made of quarks.[1] A proton is believed to be made up of 3 quarks, two up quarks and one down quark.[1] One down quark has a charge of -1/3, and two up quarks have a charge of +2/3 each. This adds to a charge of +1. A proton has a very small mass. The mass of the proton is about one atomic mass unit. The mass of the neutron is also about one atomic mass unit. The size of a proton is determined by the vibration of ...
Performance degradation of the SiGe HBT after proton irradiation is investigated using a new physical TCAD model built into the Synopsys Sentaurus tool. The general conception of the model is based on the additive effects of ionization and displacement effects influence on transistor base current. New equations for the physical parameters τ, S, Nit taking into account radiation effects after the impact of proton irradiation are included in the program. Comparison of simulated and experimental characteristics of the SiGe HBT after subjection to proton fluences up to 5 · 10|sup|13|/sup| p/cm|sup|2|/sup| shows the 10-20% error.
We test the hypothesized pathway by which protons are passed from the substrate, ascorbate, to the ferryl oxygen in the heme enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The role of amino acid side chains and bound solvent is demonstrated. We investigated solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) for the wild-type enzyme and several site-directed replacements of the key residues which form the proposed proton path. Kinetic constants for H(2)O(2)-dependent enzyme oxidation to Compound I, k(1), and subsequent reduction of Compound II, k(3), were determined in steady-state assays by variation of both H(2)O(2) and ascorbate concentrations. A high value of the SKIE for wild type APX ((D)k(3) = 4.9) as well as a clear nonlinear dependence on the deuterium composition of the solvent in proton inventory experiments suggest the simultaneous participation of several protons in the transition state for proton transfer. The full SKIE and the proton inventory data were modeled by applying Gross-Butler-Swain-Kresge theory ...
Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. It has been clearly shown that the interactions between the phosphate groups at the surface of the inorganic material, zirconium phosphate (ZrP), and the adsorbed water molecules are relatively large and a strong hydrogen-bond network is generated locally. Because of the strong interactions, water molecules can be attached to ZrP and the O-O distance becomes shorter than that in bulk water systems. Because of the short O-O distances and the delocalized charge of each atom, the activation energy of proton transfer at the ZrP surface decreases and causes high proton conductivity even under conditions of high temperature and low humidity. Based on the above studies, the origin of the high proton conductivity of hybrid electrolytes is also discussed. We will also discuss the mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on ...
It is clear that the voltage--‐gated proton channel HVCN1 plays an essential role in a range of cell types, in particular immune cells. Previous published work has confirmed the existence of proton channels in both murine and human macrophages. However, the role of HVCN1 in macrophages has not been investigated. Given that the current literature on voltage--‐gated proton channels in immune cells has found HVCN1 to be involved in several cellular processes (such as the respiratory burst and signalling events) it is important to establish its functional role in macrophages, which are a crucial constituent of the immune system. The aim of my thesis was to investigate the function of voltage--‐gated proton channels in macrophages with the use of mice with a disrupting mutation within the Hvcn1 gene, which results in HVCN1 loss. In particular, I wanted to address how Hvcn1--‐/--‐ macrophages responded to LPS activation. I hypothesised that HVCN1 regulates the respiratory burst of ...
Transport of the positively charged proton is typically electrogenic, i.e. it generates an electrical field across the membrane also called the membrane potential. Proton transport becomes electrogenic if not neutralized electrically by transport of either a corresponding negative charge in the same direction or a corresponding positive charge in the opposite direction. An example of a proton pump that is not electrogenic, is the proton/potassium pump of the gastric mucosa which catalyzes a balanced exchange of protons and potassium ions. The combined transmembrane gradient of protons and charges created by proton pumps is called an electrochemical gradient. An electrochemical gradient represents a store of energy (potential energy) that can be used to drive a multitude of biological processes such as ATP synthesis, nutrient uptake and action potential formation. In cell respiration, the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane ...
It is established that in case of changing of electrons and protons normal conductance by uncoupler as rotenone - inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, inhibitor of mitochondrial hydrogen atom transport at NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase level, the significance of the pH value in the outside of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the partial hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the full hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes changed to alkaline side. Under effect of uncoupler rotenone, which action occured in the 2-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body in the form of blockage of transferring of proton, electron to NADH, FADH2 as hydrogen atom accompanying with release of CO2, the significance of the pH value have been changed to alkaline side i.e. blockage of the transferring of protons and electrons to NADH as hydrogen atom lead to decrease of free proton concentration, proton ...
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidation processes, and four molecules of substrate are oxidised in order to reduce a dioxygen molecule to two waters molecules. Substrate oxidation occurs at the mononuclear T1 centre and then the electrons are shuttled, along a T1 coordinating cisteine, to the two histidines that are coordinating the T3 coppers of the trinuclear centre (Figure 1b), where reduction of dioxygen occurs [2, 4, 11]. This constitutes a HCH conserved motif characteristically found in MCOs. Four electrons, as well as four protons, are used to reduce a molecule of dioxygen with the concomitant formation of two water molecules [1, 2, 12]. Electrons needed for this process are obtained through the oxidation of a variety of substrates, but not much is known about the mechanism of proton transfer during this process. Recently, site directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp112 of CueO (Asp 116 in CotA; Figure 1c) [13, 14], a conserved residue that is located in the exit channel in close ...
The structure and dynamics of aqueous protons play fundamental roles in many areas of chemistry, biology, and physics. There is a general consensus that the proton achieves its anomalously large diffusion (up to 7 times larger than similarly sized cations) through a structural exchange process, referred to as the Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons are passed from one molecule to the next. While there has been a multitude of computational studies focused on unraveling the intricacies of proton transport, they have been biased by the assumptions made about the proton dynamics due to the lack of a robust determination of the proton diffusion coefficient from first-principles. Through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a thorough statistical determination of the proton diffusion coefficient. These simulations demonstrate that the standard assumption of Markovian dynamics for the Grotthuss mechanism is too simplistic. Proton transitions are correlated and result in the ...
In addition to the Steered MD (SMD) approach described starting on page 108 of the manual, a new set of Adaptively Biased MD and related methods has been introduced for Amber10 (See page 121 and also be aware that this tutorial uses an Amber11 addition, LCOD, to these methods. Adding LCOD capabilities to Amber10 is described below). The whole Adaptively Biased MD section (4.6) should be studied for background to this tutorial. The new implementation of the SMD method specifically is described starting on page 125. The tutorial is a brief test case using steered MD to force an intramolecular proton transfer (PT) in malonaldehyde (pictured). The simulation was carried out in vacuum with the QMMM DFTB Hamiltonian using the LCOD (linear combination of distances) reaction coordinate. The QM region consisted of the whole molecule. These results should be compared with the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) section, specifically to Figure 3.4 (page 77, closed triangles). As indicated above the LCOD reaction ...
International Launch Services (ILS) announces a product line extension of the Proton Breeze M commercial launch vehicle designed to expand the addressable GEO market for cost effective launch solutions in the small and medium satellite class range (3 to 5 metric tons). Designated as Proton Variants, these two additional vehicles will be optimized 2-stage versions of the time tested and flight proven Proton Breeze M launch system for exclusive commercial use by ILS.. The Proton Variants initial launch capability will be established beginning in 2018 with the Proton Medium vehicle launching from Pad 24 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The 2-stage Proton Medium Variant will have a 4-meter payload fairing and utilize the standard Proton M configuration with 6 engines on the first stage. It will be followed in 2019 by the Proton Light Variant. The 2-stage Proton Light will have a 4-meter payload fairing but feature only 4 engines on the first stage. Both variants will maintain use of the flight ...
Buy Proton Persona SV and get promosi or discount Proton Persona SV. Super High Cash rebate free gifts up to RM me 012-279 9595.Promosi Proton.Proton Saga SV.proton saga plus.proton iriz.proton iriz standard.proton iriz executive.proton iriz pre
A high current proton linear accelerator has been designed and is at the moment under construction for the ESSBilbao project. The current status of the acc
Replacement of Tyrosine D with Phenylalanine Affects the Normal Proton Transfer Pathways for the Reduction of P680+ in Oxygen-Evolving Photosystem II Particles from ...
Proton conduction of the La(III)M(III) compounds, LaM(ox)3·10H2O (abbreviated to LaM; M = Cr, Co, Ru, La; ox(2-) = oxalate) is studied in view of their networks. LaCr and LaCo have a ladder structure, and the ladders are woven to form a channel network. LaRu and LaLa have a honeycomb sheet structure, and the sheets are combined to form a layer network. The occurrence of these structures is explained by the rigidness versus flexibility of [M(ox)3](3-) in the framework with large La(III). The channel networks of LaCr and LaCo show a remarkably high proton conductivity, in the range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) over 40-95% relative humidity (RH) at 298 K, whereas the layer networks of LaCr and LaCo show a lower proton conductivity, ∼3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) (40-95% RH, 298 K ...
What is so nice is that the transformation of protons to dark protons is indeed the basic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology! For instance, it would occur in Pollack effect in with irradiation of water bounded by gel phase generates so called exclusion zone, which is negatively charged. TGD explanation is that some fraction of protons transforms to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes outside the system. Negative charge of DNA and cell could be due to this mechanism. One also ends up to a model of genetic code with the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids represented as triplets of dark protons. The model predicts correctly the numbers of DNAs coding given amino-acid. Besides biology the model has applications to cold fusion, and various free energy phenomena. See the article Two different lifetimes for neutron as evidence for dark protons and chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD. Articles and other ...
Probing the water-amide proton exchange rates through a CLEANEX-PM-FHSQC experiment.A. 1H-15N-FHSQC spectrum of free Aβ40. The peak intensities of the 1H-15N-F
TY - JOUR. T1 - myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase: Does a single active-site amino acid catalyze multiple proton transfers?. AU - Migaud, Marie. AU - Tian, Feng. AU - Frost, John. PY - 1999/6/23. Y1 - 1999/6/23. M3 - Article. VL - 121. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 24. ER - ...
Randomized. 2 institutions (Harvard and Loma Linda). 392 patients, stage T1b-T2b, PSA ,15 ng/mL (median PSA 6.3). Arm 1) proton boost 19.8/11 GyE followed by photons 50.4/28 vs. Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. Proton CTV = prostate + 5 mm margin. PTV = CTV + 7-10 mm. Loma Linda used opposed lateral beams, 250 MeV protons; Harvard used perineal boost, 160 MeV protons. Rectal Lucite probe, inflated with 25-50 mL saline. Photons were 4F plan, photon CTV = prostate/SV + 10 mm margin ...
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a pH mapping method based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer phenomenon that has potential for penumbra identification following stroke. The majority of the literature thus far has focused on generating pH-weighted contrast using magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry analysis instead of quantitative pH mapping. In this study, the widely used asymmetry analysis and a model-based analysis were both assessed on APT data collected from healthy subjects (n = 2) and hyperacute stroke patients (n = 6, median imaging time after onset = 2 hours 59 minutes). It was found that the model-based approach was able to quantify the APT effect with the lowest variation in grey and white matter (≤ 13.8 %) and the smallest average contrast between these two tissue types (3.48 %) in the healthy volunteers. The model-based approach also performed quantitatively better than the other measures in the hyperacute stroke patient APT data, where the quantified APT effect in the
Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HVCN1 gene. Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a voltage-gated proton channel that has been shown to allow proton transport into phagosomes and out of many types of cells including spermatozoa, electrically excitable cells and respiratory epithelial cells. The proton-conducting HVCN1 channel has only transmembrane domains corresponding to the S1-S4 voltage sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-gated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels. Molecular simulation is consistent with a water-filled pore that can function as a water wire for allowing hydrogen bonded H+ to cross the membrane. However, mutation of Asp112 in human Hv1 results in anion permeation, suggesting that obligatory protonation of Asp produces proton selectivity. Quantum mechanical calculations show that the Asp-Arg interaction can produce proton selective permeation. The HVCN1 protein has been shown to exist as a dimer with two functioning ...
The Hartree-Fock method in 6-311G** molecular orbitals basis set has been applied to calculations of proton affinities and proton transfer reaction energie
A polar cap absorption event results from the ionisation of the D-layer of the polar ionosphere by high energy protons. A PCA causes a HF radio blackout for trans polar circuits and can last several days. PCAs are almost always preceded by a major solar flare with the time between the flare event and the onset of the PCA ranging from few minutes to several hours.. See Real Time Riometer Data from Antarctic Stations.. The icon below indicates the estimated absorption in db of a 30 MHz riometer from Casey station in Antarctica. These figures give an indication of the severity of the PCA. The background colour of the icon is red when absorption exceeds 1db and green otherwise.. Details of any current proton event are given below:. (last updated 26 Sep 2020 03:20 UT). 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 0850UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1135UT 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 1235UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1340UT 10MeV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of energy spectrum from laser-accelerated protons with a 100 fs intense prepulse. AU - Glinec, Y.. AU - Genoud, G.. AU - Lundh, O.. AU - Persson, A.. AU - Wahlström, C. G.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton spectrum as function of the prepulse delay and intensity, up to 1.5 ns and up to 3×1016 W/cm2, respectively, shows a global decrease of the maximum proton energy with delay and intensity. However, under appropriate conditions, it is found that the maximum proton energy increases by more than 10% and that the spectral shape changes.. AB - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton ...
These surface pores are attached to the electrosensory cells by canals filled with clear, viscous jelly, which let the fish detect weak electrical fields emitted by other animals in the sea - even signals as subtle as 5 nanovolts per centimetre.. As the scientists do not yet completely understand the way the jelly plays a part in this purpose, it is obvious that it somehow plays a particular role, because of its enormous convenience of conductivity, that the group claims to be the greatest previously documented to get a biological material.. At roughly 2 ± 1 millisiemens per centimetre, the conductivity of the jelly is just 40 times lower than the polymer Nafion, a synthetic material known for its superior conductivity.. Proton conductivity is just a type of electrical conductivity where hydrogen carry the charge ions, as opposed to electrons. Although electrons carry the charge in extremely conductive metals for example copper and silver, proton conductivity is definitely an essential process ...
SAN JOSE, Calif., Feb. 1, 1995 - Societe Europienne des Satellites (SES) confirmed last week that the ASTRA 1F Satellite will be launched on a Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia International, Inc. (LKEI), Russian Proton launch vehicle in March 1996. The 1F satellite will be capable of delivering digital compressed signals for Direct-to-Home (DTH) and cable TV reception. SES has also reserved other options with LKEI for future satellite launches.. SESs selection of Proton for the launch of ASTRA 1F together with recent selections of Proton by other customers reflects the communication industrys growing confidence in the Proton launch vehicle. Proton performed 13 successful launches out of 13 attempts during 1994 - the most successful launch record of any commercial rocket worldwide.. This record matches Protons launch records of 1984, 1987 and 1988. Proton achieved the 1994 success rate while operating with only one active launch pad for three quarters of the year. In September, a second launch pad ...
Numerical investigations on high energy proton beam interaction with high density Boron plasma allows to simulate conditions concerning the alpha production from recent experimental measurements . The experiments measure the alpha production due to p11B nuclear fusion reactions when a laser-driven high energy proton beam interacts with Boron plasma produced by laser beam interaction with solid Boron. The alpha production and consequently the efficiency of the process depends on the initial proton beam energy, proton beam density, the Boron plasma density and temperature, and their temporal evolution. The main advantage for the p11B nuclear fusion reaction is the production of three alphas with total energy of 8.9 MeV, which could enhance the alpha heating effect and improve the alpha production. This particular effect is termed in the international literature as the alpha avalanche effect. Numerical results using a multi-fluid, global particle and energy balance, code shows the alpha production ...
In this contribution, we discuss the optimization of laser driven proton acceleration efficiency by nanostructured targets, interpret the experimental results showing the manipulation of proton beam profiles by nanosctructured rear surface of the targets and investigate the acceleration of protons from hydrogen solid ribbon by PW-class lasers, with the help of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Microstructured hollow targets are proposed to enhance the absorption of the laser pulse energy while keeping the target thickness to minimum, which is both favorable for enhanced efficiency of the acceleration of protons. Thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides stretch the proton beams in the perpendicular direction to the grating orientation due to transverse electric fields generated inside the target grooves and can reduce the proton beam divergence in the parallel direction to the grating due to a lower density of the stretched beam compared with ...
New bionanocomposite proton exchange membranes were prepared from sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI) and various amounts of sulfonated ZnO/cellulose nanohybrids (ZnO/cellulose-SO3H). The use of ZnO/cellulose-SO3H compensates for the decrease in ion exchange capacity of membranes observed when non-sulfonated nano-fillers are utilized. The strong -SO3H/-SO3H interaction between s-PBI chains and ZnO/cellulose-SO3H hybrids leads to ionic cross-linking in the membrane structure, which increases both the thermal stability and methanol resistance of the membranes. The ZnO/cellulose -SO3H in the membranes served as spacers for polymer chains to provide extra space for water permeation, so as to bring high permeation rates to the complex membranes. Moreover, the membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. A.
The input bias current response of LM124 operational amplifiers to proton irradiation is shown to correlate with the response of identical part types expos
This paper clarifies the role of cytochrome c in Pseudomonas AM1 by measuring the stoicheiometry of proton translocation driven by respiration of endogenous or added substrates in wild-type bacteria and in a mutant lacking cytochrome c (mutant PCT76). The maximum →H+/O ratio (protons translocated out of the bacteria per atom of oxygen consumed during respiration) was about 4 and, except when respiration was markedly affected, this ratio was similar in mutant and wild-type bacteria. The →H+/O ratios were unaltered when the usual oxidase (cytochrome a3) was inhibited by 300μm-KCN and respiration involved the single cytochrome b functioning as an alternative oxidase. Ratios measured in cells respiring endogenous substrate and in cells loaded with malate or 3-hydroxybutyrate suggest that there are two proton-translocating segments operating during the oxidation of NADH. By contrast, during oxidation of formaldehyde or methylamine only one pair of protons is translocated. Proton translocation ...
The process would have taken a long time, further delaying the much-needed assistance that is required to solve Protons crisis with its vendors - it could also lead its lenders to request for the retirement of their loans. The company is in dire need of liquidity to pay its vendors, Mustapa said, adding that Protons total long-term borrowings stood at RM847 million as of March 31, 2015.. Despite this, Mustapa said that the current deal has its own punitive terms and features. The first of which entails that should Proton decide to convert the shares, the conversion rate would be set at 87 sen per share and the government would receive 87 sen per share. This is around 46% below Protons current net tangible asset of RM1.86 per share.. Whats more, a non-dilution clause has also been set to protect the government, should Proton secure dilutive financing under the 87 sen conversion rate. There will also be no dividend or shareholders advance being declared by the company as long as it still had ...
Proton Iswara U1112 OBD-II Diagnostic Network (U) Trouble Code Information Page. Reason for Proton Iswara U1112 and find the solution for the code Proton Iswara U1112 , well give to how to fix Proton Iswara U1112 trouble code problem.
The new Proton. In stores now. Building on the immense success of its first generation, it is even more refined, precise, and without beating around the bush, simply faster, which is what the Proton is all about.. Gabriel Browne, Team Rider on the PWA: The new Proton is a totally new design and concept. The three volume numbers are the same, and thats about it. All sizes come with all new shapes, fine tuned rockers, volume flow, rails, outlines, deck shapes. Everything you love about the old Proton is improved on the new Proton.. Its a Slalom board designed to win races everywhere in all conditions and for someone who wants to push hard and get the max out of it. During the second generation R&D we had the chance to test in different places, Denmark, Brazil and Maui. The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes.. From my side, as the rider, as a racer, the boards feel very free, powerful and fast with the new outlines, bottom, ...
... plays a vital role in powering stars through the proton-proton reaction and the CNO cycle of nuclear fusion.[79] ... Under the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, acids are proton donors, while bases are proton acceptors. ... which contains no electrons and a nucleus which is usually composed of one proton. That is why H+. is often called a proton. ... the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by ...
Proton transport mechanism and proton-hopping mechanism[edit]. The Grotthuss mechanism is now a general name for the proton- ... The Grotthuss mechanism (also known as proton jumping) is the process by which an 'excess' proton or proton defect diffuses ... In liquid water the solvation of the excess proton is idealized by two forms: the H9O4+ (Eigen cation) or H5O2+ (Zundel cation ... The actual proton transfer (PT) event was then traced (after synchronizing all PT events so that t=0 is the actual event time ...
Proton Decay[edit]. The proton is assumed to be absolutely stable in the Standard Model. However, the Grand Unified Theories ( ... SK has set limits on proton lifetime and other rare decays and neutrino properties. SK set a lower bound on protons decaying to ... "Search for proton decay via p → νKþ using 260 kiloton · year data of Super-Kamiokande". Physical Review D. 90 (7): 072005. 14 ... It is also used to search for proton decay. The experiment began in April 1996 and was shut down for maintenance in July 2001, ...
Proton transfer[edit]. To fully reduce the quinone in SQR, two electrons as well as two protons are needed. It has been argued ... The histidine residue decreases the pKa of tyrosine, making it more suitable to donate its proton to the reduced ubiquinone ... a mechanism of electron transfer and proton conduction during ubiquinone reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 ( ... The semiquinone species is protonated by protons delivered from HOH39, completing the ubiquinone reduction to ubiquinol. His207 ...
As of 2011[update], it delivers a proton beam of up to 2.2 mA, which is the world record for such proton cyclotrons. It drives ... The 870 keV proton beam is achieved by extracting protons from an ion source with 60 kV and additional acceleration of the ... Proton therapy. References[edit]. *^ "Overview: Facts and figures of the Paul Scherrer Institute". Paul Scherrer Institute. ... Proton accelerators[edit]. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ...
Proton-antiproton annihilation[edit]. When a proton encounters its antiparticle (and more generally, if any species of baryon ... In 2012, the CERN laboratory in Geneva announced the discovery of the Higgs in the debris from proton-proton collisions at the ... Thus, when a proton encounters an antiproton, one of its quarks, usually a constituent valence quark, may annihilate with an ... Unlike an electron, a proton is a composite particle consisting of three "valence quarks" and an indeterminate number of "sea ...
Proton translocation mechanism[edit]. The coupling of proton translocation and electron transport in Complex I is currently ... Ubiquinol is oxidized to ubiquinone, and the resulting released protons reduce the proton motive force.[14] ... In this process, the complex translocates four protons across the inner membrane per molecule of oxidized NADH,[3][4][5] ... Complex I energy transduction by proton pumping may not be exclusive to the R. marinus enzyme. The Na+/H+ antiport activity ...
Bid for Proton[edit]. On 17 February 2017, PSA announced its bid to acquire PROTON Holdings, which owns the Proton and Lotus ... "Geely acquires Proton stake for RM460mil". The Star newspaper (Malaysia). Retrieved 8 October 2018 ...
Proton beam therapy[edit]. Main article: Proton therapy. Protons may also be used in radiosurgery in a procedure called Proton ... Protons are extracted from proton donor materials by a medical synchrotron or cyclotron, and accelerated in successive transits ... The phenomenon of the Bragg peak of ejected protons gives proton therapy advantages over other forms of radiation, since most ... This property of protons, which has been called the "depth charge effect" by analogy to the explosive weapons used in anti- ...
Hydrogen ions, or protons, will diffuse from an area of high proton concentration to an area of lower proton concentration, and ... For an electrochemical proton gradient z. =. 1. {\displaystyle z=1}. and as a consequence: Δ. μ. H. +. =. F. Δ. ψ. +. R. T. ln ... PMF is defined for proton import, which is spontaneous. PMF for proton export, i.e., proton pumping as catalyzed by the ... Mitchell defined the proton-motive force (PMF) as Δ. p. =. −. Δ. μ. H. +. F. {\displaystyle \Delta \!p=-{\frac {\Delta \!\mu ...
AMS presented for 3 days at CERN in April 2015, covering new data on 300 million proton events and helium flux. It revealed in ... doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(00)00588-8. AMS Collaboration (2000). "Protons in near earth orbit". Phys. Lett. B. 472 (1-2): 215-226. ... doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(00)01193-X. AMS Collaboration (2000). "Cosmic Protons". Phys. Lett. B. 490 (1-2): 27-35. Bibcode: ... for nuclei from protons to iron. In addition to the understanding the radiation protection required for astronauts during ...
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM): A fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane used as its electrolyte. Protons ( ... 2.1 Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) *2.1.1 Proton exchange membrane fuel cell design issues ... Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)[edit]. Main article: Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell ... These protons often react with oxidants causing them to become what are commonly referred to as multi-facilitated proton ...
With protons having completely decayed, the Black Hole Era begins. The universe is now filled with "zombie galaxies" of black ... However, if protons are really unstable, they begin to decay and atoms disintegrate, erasing all the remaining degenerate ... Francis, Matthew R. (September 22, 2015). "Do protons decay?". Symmetry Magazine. Retrieved July 31, 2020. Jones, Chris; ...
protons and neutrons. The sequence of steps in which the reorganization of chemical bonds may be taking place in the course of ... When an atom loses an electron and thus has more protons than electrons, the atom is a positively charged ion or cation. When ... For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon, but atoms of carbon may have ... In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons. The nucleus is dense; the ...
The transferred proton between the nitrogen is a variable proton and only exhibits a signal under certain conditions.[14] ... The remaining proton signal, at 8.01δ, corresponds to the proton on the imidazole ring, not transferred between the nitrogen. ... Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR)[edit]. The characteristic signals, distinguishing theophylline from ...
Has 2 halo protons. The isotopic composition refers to that in air. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the ...
"Protons fuel graphene prospects". The University of Manchester. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014. Hu, S.; Lozada- ... 26 November Graphene has been found to allow positively charged hydrogen atoms or protons to pass through it, despite being ... "Proton transport through one-atom-thick crystals". Nature. 516 (7530): 227-230. arXiv:1410.8724. Bibcode:2014Natur.516..227H. ...
However, proton decay has not yet been observed experimentally, and the resulting lower limit on the lifetime of the proton ... This yields a mechanism for proton decay, and the rate of proton decay can be predicted from the dynamics of the model. ... This process is called dimension 6 proton decay and is an issue for the model, since the proton is experimentally determined to ... No protons have decayed. We have been waiting long enough to know that SU(5) grand unification is wrong. It's a beautiful idea ...
Proton Decay. These graphics refer to the X bosons and Higgs bosons. Dimension 6 proton decay mediated by the X boson ( 3 , 2 ... Many GUT models also predict proton decay, although not the Pati-Salam model; proton decay has never been observed by ... However, minimum proton lifetimes from research (at or exceeding the 1034-1035 year range) have ruled out simpler GUTs and most ... The maximum upper limit on proton lifetime (if unstable), is calculated at 6 x 1039 years for SUSY models and 1.4 x 1036 years ...
"Proton". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Jonathan's Space Page. Anikeev, Alexander. "Cargo spacecraft "Progress-13"". ...
"Proton". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 29 May 2012. Anikeev, Alexander. "Spacecraft "Soyuz-10"". Crewed ...
Proton • Crusader (Z'Reg) • Batwing • Gorilla Girl • Red 9 • Geiger • Melee • Sunstreak • Annex Secret Warriors • Nick Fury • ...
... was launched at 22:11:54 UTC on 27 September 1967 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. Spaceflight portal v t e v t e. ...
"Proton-M Blok-DM-03". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 10 August 2019. Krebs, Gunter. "Proton-K and -M Briz-M". Gunter's Space ... Korea, By Christoph Bluth, Encyclopedia Astronautica, Proton-K "Launch Vehicles". "Proton". Retrieved 2013-11- ... "Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide, LKEB-9812-1990" (PDF). International Launch Services. p. 2. Archived from the ... "Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide Section 2 LV Performance" (PDF). International Launch Services. Retrieved 2016-04- ...
It was used in the Proton-K configuration of the rocket and is still in use in the newer Proton-M variant (along with the Briz- ... Proton - launch vehicle that has flown the most with this stage. Zenit-3 - launch vehicle that uses this stage. Angara A5 - ... Blok D was also included as fourth stage of Proton-K and as such flew on unmanned Soviet missions to Moon, Mars (Mars 3) and ... "Proton Design (3)". Retrieved 1 August 2015. "Upper stage Blok DM, DM-SL". RSC Energia. Retrieved 30 June 2013. Krebs, Gunter ...
Luna E-8-5 No.402 was launched at 04:00:07 UTC on 14 June 1969 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper stage, ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ... No Luna spacecraft or Proton rocket was launched on that date. Spaceflight portal Williams, David R. (6 January 2005). " ...
... was launched at 10:33:00 UTC on 2 April 1969 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Block D upper stage, ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. Siddiqi, Asif A. Deep space chronicle: a chronology of deep space ...
"Proton". Official website Mert Yücel discography at Discogs v t e. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Way Out There". Proton. Retrieved 19 November 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
... was launched at 19:07:59 UTC on 22 November 1967 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. Spaceflight portal. ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most widely used classes of drugs. PPIs have a very favorable safety profile, and ... Laine L: Proton pump inhibitors and bone fractures? Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104:S21-S26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Yang YX: Proton pump inhibitor therapy and osteoporosis. Curr Drug Saf 2008, 3:204-209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ali T, Roberts DN, Tierney WM: Long-term safety concerns with proton pump inhibitors. Am J Med 2009, 122:896-903.CrossRefPubMed ...
For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation).. Proton. The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks ... However, the character of such bound protons does not change, and they remain protons. A fast proton moving through matter will ... Proton in chemistry[edit]. Atomic number[edit]. In chemistry, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is known as the ... The acid is referred to as a proton donor and the base as a proton acceptor. Likewise, biochemical terms such as proton pump ...
Proton therapy delivers precise radiation treatment for better outcomes and a lower risk of side effects. ... The University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute offers proton therapy for cancer treatment. ... What Is Proton Therapy?. Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that uses protons rather than traditional X- ... Of the 23 proton therapy centers in the U.S., we are one of three proton therapy facilities to achieve this recognition.. Read ...
Looking for the ideal Protons Gifts? Come check out our giant selection of T-Shirts, Mugs, Tote Bags, Stickers and More. ... Find high quality Protons Gifts at CafePress. Shop a large selection of custom t-shirts, sweatshirts, mugs and more. ...
For the first time, they were able to precisely time the production of the proton microbunches that drive the wave in the ... Proton bunches in sync: A train of short proton bunches travels through the plasma field, forming a wave on which electrons can ... Proton bunches in sync: A train of short proton bunches travels through the plasma field, forming a wave on which electrons can ... "In the process, the longer proton bunch is split into high-energy proton microbunches of only a few millimeters in length, ... Follow these simple steps to find the number of protons, ... How Many Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Does Chlorine Have? ... Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option thats just ... This worked chemistry problem demonstrates how to determine the ... .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; height: ...
Source for information on proton magnetometer: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... proton magnetometer A form of nuclear-precession magnetometer that is based on the precession of protons in water or alcohol. ... proton magnetometer A form of nuclear-precession magnetometer that is based on the precession of protons in water or alcohol.. ... proton magnetometer A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford ...
Stay focused and aim well to win against the aggressive and vicious Proton Ball! How many mistakes you make will determine who ... The Proton Ball really likes to hit players on the head. If it hits you, your adversary earns one point. Use your Proton-Gun to ... Proton Ball is a VR sports game, kind of a mix between a game of Dodge-ball and a Shooting Range.. Multiplayer on LAN only. ... Stay focused and aim well to win against the aggressive and vicious Proton Ball! How many mistakes you make will determine who ...
... by an instrumental technique termed proton decoupling. Proton decoupling eliminates all the splitting patterns that would ... Other articles where Proton decoupling is discussed: chemical compound: Carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy: … ... by an instrumental technique termed proton decoupling. Proton decoupling eliminates all the splitting patterns that would ...
... : Targeted Treatment. At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, advanced pencil beam technology steers protons to ... Proton Power. The recent opening of the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center heralds a new era for cancer treatment at Johns ... Proton Power: The Synchrotron. At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, the action starts in a huge particle accelerator ... Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center Opens at Sibley Memorial Hospital The new facility offers adult and pediatric patients ...
28, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- About Proton Therapy Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which is used to treat cancer ... About Proton Therapy. Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which is used to treat cancer patients by means of proton ... The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is the pioneer in this technology and also initiated the pencil beam proton therapy, ... Proton therapy uses the ionization technique to inhibit cell proliferation. Protons move slowly through the body and interact ...
... a newly launched satellite is propelled using a super-thin thread of positively charged string that repels protons fired out by ... ESTCube-1, which went into orbit on Tuesday, will put proton-powered electric solar sails to the test for the first time. It ... The new electric sail, proposed in 2008, harnesses solar protons instead. Wires with a positive charge will extend from the ... craft and repel protons - also positively charged - to propel the tiny satellite. ...
Oh, Give Me a Home Where the Proton Beams Roam a Prairie within the Proton Ring By Science News. November 9, 1974. ... Protons in the Super Proton Synchrotron By Science News. May 15, 1976. ... Beam of Protons Halts Cell Growth of Brain By Science News. November 15, 1958. ...
Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ...
Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. ... Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. ... Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy ... proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. Doctors can better aim proton beams onto a tumor, so there is ... Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells ...
BASF has developed a proton-conductive membrane that can be used at temperatures of up to 180°C for robust fuel cell systems ... is gas-proof and contains phosphoric acid for proton conduction. ... New-Business-GmbH/our-solutions/proton-conductive-membrane ... New-Business-GmbH/our-solutions/proton-conductive-membrane ... Proton-conductive membrane * Use case: Electrochemical hydrogen ...
Among its many attractions will be the chance to probe deep into the proton ... Now HERA is ready, and the detectors lie in wait to capture the particles produced in the collisions of high-energy protons and ... The new approach with HERA is to collide two beams of quite different particles - electrons and protons. These … ... physicists have made important discoveries by colliding protons with antiprotons and, more recently, by colliding electrons ...
... the proton, is about 4 percent smaller than previously thought. The new size could poke holes in one of the pillars of the ... Because of their extra bulk, muons orbit closer to the proton, and their energy levels are more sensitive to the protons size. ... But the distance between the electron and the proton depends slightly on the protons size, similar to how a planets distance ... If you want to compare theory and experiments, you need to know the charge radius of the proton, said physicist Randolf Pohl ...
Protons[edit]. Main articles: Charges/Protons and Protons. The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol p or p+. and a ... One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. The number of protons in each atom is its ... Free protons exist in plasmas in which temperatures are too high to allow them to combine with electrons. Free protons of high ... Proton astronomy per se often consists of directly or indirectly detecting the protons and deconvoluting a spatial, temporal, ...
At just after 1 p.m. local time beneath the French-Swiss border, CERN scientists smashed two proton beams moving at 99 percent ... but on the day the Large Hadron Collider was supposed to begin trying to cross its high energy proton beams it didnt take very ... LHC Finally Smashes Protons, at Highest Energies Ever Recorded. It took 16 years and $10 billion dollars, but on the day the ... At just after 1 p.m. local time beneath the French-Swiss border, CERN scientists smashed two proton beams moving at 99 percent ...
29 protons, 29 electrons, 36 neutrons Copper The number of protons in an atom of an. ... Copper 63: 29 protons, 29 electrons, 34 neutrons Copper 65: 29 protons, 29 electrons, 36 neutrons Copper The number of protons ... How many neutrons protons and electrons does krypton have?. no of protons-36 no of electrons-36 ([ Ar ] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 ) no of ... How many protons and neutrons are there in copper 63?. \nThere are 29 Protons and 34 Neutrons in Copper-63. There are also 29 ...
The Future of Proton Therapy. "Im very proud that our team has been able to define how we use protons today, but really what ... Nibauer-Cohen runs a robust Proton Alumni Group made up of patients who have completed proton therapy and wish to be a source ... Homepage photo: Protons offer a way to deliver radiation in a way that minimizes exposure to normal tissue. At the Roberts ... One proton corridor. Five treatment rooms. As many as 115 patients treated each day, and upwards of 5,000 who have received ... Follow these simple steps to find the number of protons, ... How Many Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Does Chlorine Have? ... Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option thats just ... One atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 14 neutrons ...
Models and experiments to date have been unable to properly explain a fundamental property of protons spin. Published by Dr. ... Current understanding of the spin structure of protons has been summarised in a single book for the first time. The book ... Bass on the missing spin of protons: "Protons are combinations of more basic entities called quarks and gluons. Each proton is ... Just like the protons, the quarks and gluons themselves also spin. The spin of the proton is therefore generated by the spin of ...
Geely finalizes Proton purchase. Deal opens door to Southeast Asian market for the Chinese cars By Asia Unhedged June 24, 2017 ... "For Proton, we hope to help gain back market share in Malaysia, and also expand into Asean," Geely chairman Li Shufu was quoted ... Chinese automaker Geely as completed a deal to buy 49.9% of struggling Malaysian car maker Proton, as well as 51% of the firms ...
Proton pump inhibitors are one of the most frequently prescribed classes of drug in the world because they combine a high level ... The first generic proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was introduced in 2002 and now comprises more than four fifths of all ... In the five years since the introduction of omeprazole, precriptions for proton pump inhibitors have doubled, although the ... 2 Yet studies consistently show that proton pump inhibitors are being overprescribed worldwide in both primary and secondary ...
... , Project: Qpid Proton , Issue Type: Improvement , Components: proton-c , Affects ... jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260... ASF subversion and git services (JIRA). *[jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260... ASF subversion and ... jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260) Messenger Documentation ASF subversion and git services (JIRA) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 09:58:21 -0700 ... ASF subversion and git services commented on PROTON-260: -------------------------------------------------------- Commit ...
A new study has confirmed an association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) - drugs that treat heartburn, peptic ulcers, and ... Cite this: Proton Pump Inhibitors Linked to Dementia - Medscape - Feb 15, 2016. ...
  • The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is the pioneer in this technology and also initiated the pencil beam proton therapy, which is also known as scanning beam and intensity modulated proton therapy. (
  • MD Anderson's team of experts pioneered intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), also called pencil-beam scanning proton therapy. (
  • A proton is a subatomic particle , symbol p or p + , with a positive electric charge of +1 e elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron . (
  • The mass of the proton is about 1,840 times the mass of the electron and slightly less than the mass of the neutron . (
  • The proton and the neutron are regarded as two aspects or states of a single entity, the nucleon. (
  • A proton, for instance, consists of two quarks called up and one quark called down, a neutron consists of two down quarks and an up quark. (
  • The prospects for future cosmic-ray investigations at superhigh energies are outlined and the great importance of development in the neutron and proton astronomy for energies above 10 18 -10 19 eV is pointed out. (
  • At the same time the situation is not utterly hopeless, as new interesting possibilities (such as neutron and proton astronomy) are opened up in this energy region. (
  • one "of the subatomic particles of the atomic nucleus, i.e. a proton or a neutron [9] " [10] is called a nucleon . (
  • The nucleus of deuterium is called a deuteron , contains ONE proton and (typically for the deuterium isotope) ONE neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen nucleus contains no neutron. (
  • How many protons and electrons does a neutron have? (
  • Protons and electrons are not constituents of a neutron. (
  • Radioactivity: Discovering the Nucleus, the Proton and the Neutron - "Atoms are in your body, the chair you are sitting in, your desk and even in the air. (
  • In spite of that, neutron stars have nothing on protons, according to a recent study by scientists at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility . (
  • After conducting the first measurement of the mechanical properties of subatomic particles, the scientific team determined that near the center of a proton, the pressure is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. (
  • Basically , they found that the pressure conditions at the center of a proton were 100 decillion pascals - about 10 times the pressure at the heart of a neutron star. (
  • Quarks inside a proton experience a force an order of magnitude greater than matter inside a neutron star. (
  • Summing the masses wouldn't give you any useful information for finding the number of quarks in a proton or neutron, without a lot of extra information. (
  • Empa physicist Artur Braun and Qianli Chen, a doctoral student at ETH Zurich, conducted neutron scattering experiments on the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) that document the mobility of protons in the crystal lattice. (
  • So the 'whole' formed [proton/neutron] would have the property which is sum of the components' properties. (
  • To calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of various products used for the treatment of cancer using the proton beam therapy. (
  • Proton-beam therapy for prostate cancer provides no long-term benefit over traditional radiation despite far higher costs, according to a Yale analysis of 30,000 Medicare patients. (
  • Proton therapy (also called proton beam therapy ) is most commonly used to shrink solid tumors that have not spread to other parts of the body. (
  • The UK is to get its first three proton beam therapy centres in what is being hailed as a cancer treatment milestone. (
  • The announcement comes not long after the parents of brain cancer survivor Ashya King told how the five year old made a ''miracle'' recovery after receiving proton beam therapy which was initially not available to him on the NHS. (
  • It is anticipated that NHS demand for proton beam therapy abroad will reach 1,500 patients by 2017. (
  • Proton beam therapy is a highly-targeted type of radiotherapy that can treat hard-to-reach cancers, such as spinal tumours, with a lower risk of damaging the surrounding tissue and causing side effects. (
  • The Government has announced that it is to create two NHS proton beam therapy units which will open in 2018. (
  • Even though they are not proven to be more effective than traditional treatment methods, more than a dozen proton beam therapy centers are under construction across the country, including one in Shreveport, Louisiana. (
  • CHICAGO - There are few direct comparisons of proton beam therapy with conventional photon radiotherapy, so any study that looks at both is worth noting. (
  • Researchers found that survival outcomes were similar regardless of which radiotherapy the patient received, but the incidence of adverse events was significantly reduced with proton beam therapy. (
  • Proton beam therapy was associated with a significant reduction in those events with a relative risk (RR) of 0.31, he explained. (
  • And proton beam therapy is high on this list. (
  • Proton beam therapy can effectively treat cancer while reducing adverse effects by minimizing the volume of normal tissues exposed to radiation. (
  • 1 Proton beam therapy is a new way to deliver radiation that addresses many of these concerns. (
  • Proton beam therapy (proton therapy) reduces the volume of normal tissues that receive unnecessary radiation during cancer treatment. (
  • As of April 2019, there were 81 operating proton beam therapy centres worldwide, 41 under construction and 20 centres in the planning phase. (
  • Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which is used to treat cancer patients by means of proton beams irradiation. (
  • Doctors can better aim proton beams onto a tumor, so there is less damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. (
  • The radiation oncologist will use a computer to trace the tumor and outline the angles at which the proton beams will enter your body. (
  • The new approach with HERA is to collide two beams of quite different particles - electrons and protons. (
  • It took 16 years and $10 billion dollars, but on the day the Large Hadron Collider was supposed to begin trying to cross its high energy proton beams it didn't take very long at all for researchers to create the highest-energy particle collisions ever witnessed in an experimental setting. (
  • At just after 1 p.m. local time beneath the French-Swiss border, CERN scientists smashed two proton beams moving at 99 percent of the speed of light together at total energies of 7 trillion electron volts. (
  • The LHC will collide the beams at 3.5 TeV each for the next 18 months before shutting down for a year for repairs, after which it will begin colliding protons at twice that energy. (
  • Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy - a treatment that uses high-energy beams to treat tumors. (
  • Studies have suggested that proton therapy may cause fewer side effects than traditional radiation, since doctors can better control where the proton beams deposit their energy. (
  • Your radiation therapy team may have you undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT) scans to determine the area of your body to be treated and how best to reach it with the proton beams. (
  • They explore the proton structure there by breaking it apart in particle collisions using particle beams of the CERN North Area's Super Proton Synchrotron and a spin-polarized fixed target. (
  • My decision to choose PROTON BEAMS was similar to pcdave's. (
  • Scientists discovered the surprising anomaly by shooting laser beams at an exotic version of a hydrogen atom, which most often consists of one proton and one electron. (
  • The physical dose distribution produced by proton beams is superior relative to photon radiotherapy because of the reduced "exit dose" to normal tissues ( Figure 1 ). (
  • We [now] have the ability to precisely target tumors with proton radiation, using sophisticated image guidance and 'pencil beam' scanning technology," says Christina Tsien , medical director of the proton center, which is housed at Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington D.C., and staffed with clinicians from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. (
  • Spinal tumors just behind the heart, tumors next to the eye, or tumors in the muscles next to reproductive organs are all situations where proton therapy shines. (
  • Proton therapy is used as a treatment for cancer and some noncancerous tumors. (
  • These high-energy protons can get rid of cancer cells, which makes tumors shrink. (
  • The device for delivering radiation to cancerous tumors - known as a superconducting synchrocyclotron proton accelerator - was lowered into its new home in the UF Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health south of downtown on Sunday. (
  • This innovative technology delivers a precise dose of protons to tumors embedded in hard-to-reach places. (
  • The word proton is Greek for "first", and this name was given to the hydrogen nucleus by Ernest Rutherford in 1920. (
  • In vacuum, when free electrons are present, a sufficiently slow proton may pick up a single free electron, becoming a neutral hydrogen atom , which is chemically a free radical . (
  • proton, elementary particle having a single positive electrical charge and constituting the nucleus of the ordinary hydrogen atom. (
  • Proton decoupling eliminates all the splitting patterns that would normally be observed in a 13 C spectrum for all carbon atoms bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms and is done routinely to simplify the spectrum. (
  • BASF has developed a proton-conductive membrane that can be used at temperatures of up to 180°C for robust fuel cell systems and more efficient separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures. (
  • The calculations are especially accurate for the simplest atom, hydrogen, which consists of just one proton and one electron. (
  • The muons smacked electrons out of the hydrogen, and got caught in orbit around the leftover proton. (
  • Then they used equations similar to those used in earlier hydrogen experiments to calculate the proton radius. (
  • The nucleus of the most common isotope of the hydrogen atom (with the chemical symbol "H") is a lone proton. (
  • The nuclei of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium contain one proton bound to one and two neutrons, respectively. (
  • The hydrogen-2 nucleus then rapidly captures another proton to form a helium-3 nucleus ( 3 He), while emitting a gamma ray (γ). (
  • protons, i.e. positively charged hydrogen ions, are formed from hydrogen, which is used to power the fuel cell. (
  • These wires serve as conduits for long proton jumps over several hydrogen bonds. (
  • While conventional neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and GABA are molecules made of many atoms, the new study revealed a surprise: Protons - which are single hydrogen atoms stripped of their electrons - are pumped out of a round worm's gut by one kind of protein and then bind to receptor proteins on neighboring muscles, making the muscles contract so the worm defecates. (
  • An atom of simple hydrogen has a nucleus consisting of a single proton all by itself. (
  • In the experiment, the researchers used a special version of hydrogen that contains one proton and one muon - an exotic cousin of the electron that weighs about 200 times more than an electron. (
  • To home in on the size of the proton, the scientists finely tuned a laser beam to blast their hydrogen atoms with very specific amounts of energy, hoping to stimulate the muons to jump from one energy state to another. (
  • The proton is a basic component of all atomic nuclei and the nucleus of the protium isotope of hydrogen. (
  • How do the quarks and gluons carry the spin of protons? (
  • Dr. Bass on the missing spin of protons: "Protons are combinations of more basic entities called quarks and gluons. (
  • Just like the protons, the quarks and gluons themselves also spin. (
  • Protons are made of quarks and gluons, but their spins don't add up. (
  • Unlike other types of radiation therapy that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. (
  • Proton therapy is a newer type of radiation therapy that uses energy from positively charged particles called protons. (
  • Protons are the positively charged particles in an atom, while neutrons are subatomic particles that h One atom of aluminum has. (
  • Proton therapy uses protons (positively charged particles) instead of X-rays. (
  • In the modern Standard Model of particle physics , protons are hadrons , and like neutrons , the other nucleon (particles present in atomic nuclei), are composed of three quarks . (
  • Although protons were originally considered fundamental or elementary particles, in the modern Standard Model of particle physics, protons are classified as hadrons, like neutrons, the other nucleon. (
  • A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. (
  • A special machine speeds up the protons. (
  • Now HERA is ready, and the detectors lie in wait to capture the particles produced in the collisions of high-energy protons and electrons. (
  • High-energy protons shed some of the energy they carry as they pass through tissue and then deposit the majority at the end of their range, precisely within a tumour target. (
  • Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that uses protons rather than traditional X-rays. (
  • The technique, which uses protons rather than the x-rays used in traditional radiation treatments, is also good for treating cancers in children, he added, because kids' growing bodies 'can be affected by even low doses of radiation. (
  • The quark content of a proton. (
  • The proton and other baryons are composed of triplets of the elementary particle called the quark. (
  • Protons are composite particles composed of three valence quarks: two up quarks of charge +2/3e and one down quark of charge −1/3e. (
  • The two up quarks and one down quark of a proton are held together by the strong force, mediated by gluons. (
  • However, experiments involving some of the most advanced particle accelerators in the world indicate that a maximum of 30 percent of proton spin originates from quark spin. (
  • In this process, an electron exchanges a virtual photon with a quark, transferring energy to the quark and proton. (
  • a 'down' quark has a charge of - 1/3e, where e is the elementary charge (+1.6 x 10^-19 C). can is say that a proton contain 3 ' up ' quark and 1 'down' quark? (
  • The sum of the quark masses is only a small percentage of the mass of a proton. (
  • This so-called Sivers TMD ("Transverse-Momentum Dependent") distribution arises from correlations between proton spin and quark transverse momentum and thus appears connected to quark orbital motion inside the proton. (
  • So can I say that there is no single basic property [at least that what we are aware of] which one has [either proton or quark] and the other doesn't? (
  • Of the 23 proton therapy centers in the U.S., we are one of three proton therapy facilities to achieve this recognition. (
  • The Provision Center for Proton Therapy joins a list of cancer innovation stalwarts that operate proton therapy centers, including M.D. Anderson , Loma Linda Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and soon, the Mayo Clinic. (
  • Proton therapy is not available at all cancer treatment centers because it uses very expensive specialized equipment. (
  • I believe in the years ahead, many more men will elect proton radiation for their treatment when they become educated about it, especially with more and more proton centers opening up in the U.S. of late. (
  • By the end of May 2017, Proton announced that funds will be channeled to the company's core operations instead. (
  • Cardiff-based Proton Partners International Ltd is to open the treatment centres in Cardiff, London and Northumberland by 2017 and the first - Cardiff - will be operational next year. (
  • In 2019, two different studies, using different techniques, have found the radius of the proton to be 0.833 fm, with an uncertainty of ±0.010 fm. (
  • The United Kingdom, Netherlands and Austria all started treating patients with proton therapy in 2018, and India and Denmark each opened a facility in early 2019. (
  • Follow these simple steps to find the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for an atom of any element. (
  • A fast proton moving through matter will slow by interactions with electrons and nuclei, until it is captured by the electron cloud of an atom. (
  • But the distance between the electron and the proton depends slightly on the proton's size, similar to how a planet's distance from its star depends on the star's mass. (
  • According to quantum mechanics, an electron can orbit only at certain specific distances, called energy levels, from its proton. (
  • The bare masses of all 6 flavors of quarks, proton and electron, shown in proportional volume. (
  • The muon, just like an electron, is a point-like particle that orbits around the more extended proton. (
  • The 3rd International Conference on Proton Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET 2018) will be held from June 10-14, 2018 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina, a small town situated deep in the scenic Blue Ridge Mountains about two hours northwest of Charlotte. (
  • PCET2018 will bring together researchers from varied disciplinary and geographic backgrounds to discuss contemporary topics in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (
  • This proves that the polaron model applies to both electrons and protons. (
  • The total number of nucleons, as protons and neutrons are collectively called, in any nucleus is the mass number of the nucleus. (
  • Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound together by the nuclear force to form atomic nuclei. (
  • Collectively, protons and neutrons are called nucleons. (
  • 3 The slowing down of a projectile proton due to the inelastic collisions between bound electrons in the medium and the proton moving through it? (
  • 6 True or False, A small amount of aluminum-26 is produced by collisions of magnesium atoms with cosmic-ray protons. (
  • Proton-proton collisions are detected by three experiments: STAR, PHENIX and the proton-proton elastic scattering experiment. (
  • April 24, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- The massive concrete and steel foundations are complete, and construction is on schedule for a 2014 opening of the Provision Center for Proton Therapy. (
  • Speakers at the event included Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam , who commented that 'the Provision Center for Proton Therapy is a great example of entrepreneurial re-investment in Tennessee , and it will have a significant economic impact on our state. (
  • The first generic proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was introduced in 2002 and now comprises more than four fifths of all prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors in the United Kingdom. (
  • iii) geomagnetically trapped particle radiation, generated from the interaction of the radiation with the geomagnetic field comprising electrons with energies up to 7 MeV, protons with energies up to 600 MeV, and low energy heavy ions. (
  • TechNavio's analysts forecast the Global Proton Therapy market to grow at a CAGR of 9.50 percent over the period 2013-2018. (
  • This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Global Proton Therapy market for the period 2014-2018. (
  • TechNavio's report, Global Proton Therapy Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (
  • A new study has confirmed an association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) - drugs that treat heartburn, peptic ulcers, and other acid-related disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract - and increased risk for dementia in older patients. (
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in the lining of your stomach. (
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one type of medication that can be used to reduce stomach acid and relieve GERD symptoms. (
  • The positive charge of the nucleus of any atom is due to its protons. (
  • Protonation is the addition of a proton to an atom, molecule, or ion. (
  • The three parts of an atom are positive-charged protons, negative-charg. (
  • Copper The number of protons in an atom of an element is the same as the atomic number. (
  • So finding the number of protons in an atom just consists of looking at a periodic table. (
  • In a neutral atom, the number of electrons will equal and balance the number of protons, so it would also be 29 electrons . (
  • So, in a neutral Krypton atom, there are 36 protons, 36 electrons and 33-64 neutrons. (
  • Boron (symbol B, atom number 5) is build up with: 5 protons, 5 electrons and 5 or 6 neutrons , depending on the mass number of the two possible isotopes : B-(10) has 5 neutrons and B-(11) has 6 of them respectively. (
  • One atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 14 neutrons. (
  • The atomic number will tell you how many protons make up a single atom of an element. (
  • The calculations of the stopping power of protons in H and He targets are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data due to the effect of nuclear dynamic blocking (shadow) and the rescattering processes by the electrons of the target atom. (
  • Physicists around the world are cracking open the proton, within the nucleus of the atom, to see what's inside. (
  • A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of every atom . (
  • How many protons neutrons and electrons are in silicon? (
  • How many protons neutrons and electrons does Americium have? (
  • Finding the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a given element isn't as hard as it sounds. (
  • Once you know where to look, finding the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons will be a breeze. (
  • These were then directed into the nuclei of atoms where they interacted electromagnetically with the quarks inside protons via a process called deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). (
  • Atoms are made of nuclei that contain positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, orbited by negatively charged electrons. (
  • In the atoms of any particular element, the number of protons in the nuclei is always the same. (
  • Protons need not be confined to the nuclei of atoms. (
  • This stage remains in use today atop the Proton rocket. (
  • An International Launch Services Proton rocket launches the Yahsat 1 B communications satellite into orbit on April 24, 2012 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. (
  • PARIS-The Breeze-M upper stage of Russia's Proton heavy-lift rocket on Dec. 9 failed for the third time in 16 months, placing Gazprom Space Systems' Yamal 402 telecommunications satellite into a too-low orbit, launch-service provider International Launch Services (ILS) and Russia's Roscosmos space agency said. (
  • The 4,600-kilogram Yamal 402, like many satellites launched solo on the Proton rocket, was fueled to capacity and is likely to provide several years of commercial service despite now having to climb further than planned to reach its operating orbit. (
  • Since its August 2012 failure, ILS and the Proton Breeze-M rocket have launched two Western commercial satellites, for Intelsat of Luxembourg and Washington, and for EchoStar of Englewood, Colo. Both were successful. (
  • A Proton rocket has reportedly crashed after launching an advanced Russian communications satellite toward space from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, on Friday, May 16, 2014 local time. (
  • The Proton rocket stands 174 feet tall (53 meters) and has three main stages. (
  • The Proton-M rocket program has recently been plagued by failures. (
  • You can see video of the Proton-M rocket crash here . (
  • The Eutelsat 5 West B satellite was successfully launched into super-synchronous transfer orbit by International Launch Services using a Proton Breeze M rocket that lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 03.17 pm (12.17 pm CET on October 9). (
  • The Eutelsat 9B satellite is on track for launch by an ILS Proton rocket on January 28 from the Cosmodrome in Baikunur, Kazakstan. (
  • SES has now confirmed the December 28 launch date of its Astra 2G satellite on a Proton rocket. (
  • Russia's Proton space rocket has launched into orbit from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. (
  • As the carrier rocket Proton-M carrying the Mexican communication satellite QuetzSat-1 successfully blasts off from the Baikonur cosmodrome, it looks as if Russia's space industry might be recovering from a string of recent failures. (
  • However, it was delayed pending an investigation into the botched blast-off of a Proton rocket which resulted in the loss of a Russian communications satellite in August. (
  • The next Proton rocket launch is scheduled for October 19. (
  • Proton rocket launching with DIRECTV 8 satellite. (
  • in 1919 he discovered the proton as a product of the disintegration of the atomic nucleus. (
  • The proton is a fundamental building block of the atomic nucleus, and among other things it's used as a medical probe in magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • The proton, a fundamental constituent of the atomic nucleus, seems to be smaller than was previously thought . (
  • By contrast, proton therapy uses subatomic particles that stop at the depth of the tumor, preventing unnecessary damage to adjacent healthy cells and tissue. (
  • It will rotate around you and point the protons in the direction of the tumor. (
  • Then the protons are removed from the machine and magnets direct them to the tumor. (
  • Proton energy sends higher doses of radiation to the exact tumor site. (
  • Proton therapy is a much more precise form of treatment,' Buchholz said, adding that it's particularly useful 'in areas where the tumor is really close to a critical normal organ or structure such as near the spinal cord or behind the eye. (
  • Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that sends a powerful beam of protons to the precise site of a tumor. (
  • Once the proton beam reaches the tumor, it conforms to its shape and depth, and only then releases its full energy. (
  • The number of protons in the nucleus is the defining property of an element, and is referred to as the atomic number (represented by the symbol Z ). Since each element has a unique number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number. (
  • Protons are frequently used in a particle accelerator as either the bombarding (accelerated) particle, the target nucleus, or both. (
  • Both neutrons and protons are constituents of an atom's nucleus (core), while the electrons are situated in the electronic cloud around the nucleus. (
  • The number of protons in an element's nucleus is called the atomic number . (
  • A]t the high end of the proton energy spectrum (above ≈ 10 18 eV) [the Larmor radius] deflection becomes small enough that proton astronomy becomes possible. (
  • Because this is especially important for children, who can suffer the side effects of radiation therapy for years or even decades afterwards, pediatric patients account for nearly a quarter of the treatments given at the Roberts Proton Therapy Center. (
  • Nibauer-Cohen runs a robust Proton Alumni Group made up of patients who have completed proton therapy and wish to be a source of information and support for current and potential patients. (
  • Proton therapy has significant benefits for patients when compared to traditional radiation therapy. (
  • This was a comparative effectiveness study of proton beamversus traditional photon chemoradiotherapy in a cohort of 1483 patients (391 proton/1092 photon) with nonmetastatic cancer who were treated with curative intent at the University of Pennsylvania. (
  • And there are implications of how we may treat patients going forward, as protons seem to cause much less toxicity. (
  • The hospital could be treating patients with the proton accelerator by early 2016, Buchholz said. (
  • Learn more about why patients should choose proton therapy at MD Anderson. (
  • The Cincinnati Children's Proton Therapy Center partners with patients and families from across the United States and Canada to ensure financial challenges aren't an obstacle to receiving pencil-beam proton therapy treatment. (
  • The Proton Therapy Center is between two Ronald McDonald Houses, which lodge out-of-town families and patients for free. (
  • The Bold and Brave Kids Foundation has generously secured two fully furnished, two-bedroom apartments specifically for our out-of-town proton therapy patients and their families. (
  • Cincinnati Children's and our Proton Therapy Center partner with dozens of charitable foundations to provide financial assistance to our patients from across the United States and Canada. (
  • Several departments within Cincinnati Children's - Proton Therapy Center staff, Concierge Services, the International Patient Program and Destination Excellence - work together to seamlessly serve our traveling patients. (
  • Patients traveling from across the United States and Canada to our Proton Therapy Center will have a dedicated proton nurse coordinator and child life specialist who work closely together to ensure our patients' clinical and non-clinical needs are met while receiving treatment at Cincinnati Children's. (
  • At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, advanced pencil beam technology steers protons to the cancer, with virtually no exit dose, allowing tissues and vital organs to be spared. (
  • If you want to compare theory and experiments, you need to know the charge radius of the proton,' said physicist Randolf Pohl of the Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Germany, a coauthor of the new study. (
  • the root mean square charge radius of a proton is about 0.84-0.87 fm (or 0.84×10−15 to 0.87×10−15 m). (
  • Protons have a positive charge distribution which decays approximately exponentially, with a mean square radius of about 0.8 fm. (
  • 11 True or False, The radius of the proton is 4 percent smaller than previously estimated. (
  • A new measurement found that the radius of the proton is about 4 percent smaller than previously thought. (
  • The new measurement has improved the accuracy of the known proton radius by a factor of ten, the researchers said. (
  • It yielded the same result as the Nature paper - a proton radius of 0.84 fm - but is still in disagreement with the earlier two measurements. (
  • In case you didn't find what exactly are you in search of, perhaps seeking an alternative sources for PROTON GEN 2 MANUAL GEARBOX can help, please take advantage of the related PDF on the bottom. (
  • ESTCube-1, which went into orbit on Tuesday, will put proton-powered electric solar sails to the test for the first time. (
  • Because of their extra bulk, muons orbit closer to the proton, and their energy levels are more sensitive to the proton's size. (
  • A Russian Proton Breeze M launcher placed the DIRECTV 8 satellite into orbit today, marking the fourth successful mission of the year for International Launch Services (ILS). (
  • The proton source of Awake is the SPS ring at Cern, a pre-accelerator for the 27-kilometer circumference ring of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (
  • Free protons are routinely used for accelerators for proton therapy or various particle physics experiments, with the most powerful example being the Large Hadron Collider. (
  • The spin of the proton is therefore generated by the spin of its constituent parts. (
  • It was originally formed as a successor to Proton's motorsport division, Proton PERT which was active between 1987 and 2002. (
  • During this period, Proton worked closely with Mitsubishi's Ralliart to help specialise in their cars to take part in various races between 1991 and 2002. (
  • During its early years, Proton PERT was fairly successful, managing to gain success in the Group S rally with their Proton Iswara 4WD Turbo Group S between 1991 and 1994, and scoring a win during the 2002 Production World Rally Championship (PWRC). (
  • From 2002 Proton Impian. (
  • ASF subversion and git services commented on PROTON-260: -------------------------------------------------------- Commit 1537984 from [~mgoulish] in branch 'proton/trunk' [ ] PROTON-260 new text for python API doc. (
  • [3] Protons were therefore a candidate to be a fundamental particle , and hence a building block of nitrogen and all other heavier atomic nuclei. (
  • New laser-assisted measurements find that the fundamental building block of matter, the proton, is about 4 percent smaller than previously thought. (
  • Models and experiments to date have been unable to properly explain a fundamental property of protons spin. (
  • Protons are composed of three quarks that are bound together by the strong nuclear force, one of the four fundamental forces that government the Universe - the other being electromagnetism, gravity and weak nuclear forces. (
  • After the formation of Proton R3 in Shah Alam, Selangor, it replaced Proton PERT in Proton's motorsport scene. (
  • SHAH ALAM: Proton Edar Sdn Bhd expects the prices of Proton vehicles to increase by between RM1,500 to RM3,000 with the reintroduction of the Sales and Service Tax (SST) in September. (
  • Scientists are running a unique experiment involving the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the world's fastest university supercomputer to see and understand the dynamic world inside the proton. (
  • That makes protons "the world's smallest transmitter," says Jorgensen, also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (
  • The world's most accurate measurement of the mass of the proton has now been achieved with an elaborate Penning-trap apparatus [1]. (
  • Our Proton Therapy Center is the world's first proton therapy facility to be located within a comprehensive cancer center. (
  • Proton therapy is a newer form of radiation therapy that may be more expensive than traditional radiation therapy with X-rays. (
  • At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, the action starts in a huge particle accelerator known as a synchrotron, where protons spin at ultra-fast speeds before making their journey to treatment rooms. (
  • Metz, who also chairs the Radiation Oncology Department at the Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM), says the particle accelerator, which sends protons down a beamline as long as a football field through three-story-high gantries, delivers the most cutting-edge proton therapy there is. (
  • The particle accelerator, which sends protons down a beamline as long as a football field through three-story-high gantries, delivers the most cutting-edge proton therapy there is. (
  • In addition to the sci-fi appearance of the particle accelerator and its impressive applications to space travel, the Roberts Proton Therapy Center is also considered a leader in down-to-earth personal patient care. (
  • Chinese automaker Geely as completed a deal to buy 49.9% of struggling Malaysian car maker Proton, as well as 51% of the firm's ownership in Britain's Lotus. (
  • Proton R3 is the motorsport and performance division of the Malaysian automotive brand Proton. (
  • VW chief executive Bernd Pischetsrieder (shown at right with Malaysian officials at the 2004 signing of the partnership agreement), announced to investment analysts Wednesday that VW was unable to come to an agreement with Proton and the Malaysian government (which controls the company). (
  • Malaysian automaker Proton owns the British engineering consultancy and sports car builder. (
  • Malaysian automaker Proton has released the first image of a new compact hybrid concept it will show off next month at the Geneva Motor Show. (
  • Proton, the Malaysian state-owned automaker which also owns Lotus, is currently working on a hybrid vehicle which it hopes to bring to market in two to three years. (
  • This article is about the proton as a subatomic particle. (
  • Physicists measure the energy of the absorbed or released light to determine how far one energy level is from another, and use calculations based on quantum electrodynamics to transform that energy difference into a number for the size of the proton. (
  • The size of the proton affects these states and how much energy is required to knock a muon out of one and into another. (
  • A new Proton Therapy Centre is slated to open at the National Cancer Centre Singapore by 2022. (
  • The Proton Therapy Centre (PTC) in Prague, where Ashya received the treatment last year, said it was ''thrilled'' to hear news that a recent scan showed no sign of a tumour. (
  • The proton is the lightest of the baryon class of elementary particles . (
  • Protons are positively charged elementary particles. (
  • Because doctors can better control where proton therapy releases its highest concentration of energy, proton therapy is believed to affect less healthy tissue and have fewer side effects than traditional radiation therapy. (
  • Proton therapy is an advanced type of radiation therapy used to treat some cancers . (
  • Protons are easier to get to a specific location than the X-rays used in standard radiation therapy. (
  • How Is Proton Therapy Different From Radiation Therapy? (
  • Our 165 employees are dedicated to delivering proton cancer treatment in a way that takes the entire patient into account, so you can keep living life to the fullest. (
  • As part of the University of Florida Health Cancer Center, the UF Health Proton Therapy Institute is designated by the State of Florida as a Florida Cancer Center of Excellence. (
  • Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option that's just as futuristic as it sounds. (
  • The recent opening of the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center heralds a new era for cancer treatment at Johns Hopkins. (
  • We are able to treat a variety of cancer types," says Curt Deville , clinical director and associate proton director. (
  • Proton therapy can be especially valuable for children because it minimizes the excess radiation that can impair growth, cognition, fertility, vision or hearing, notes Matthew Ladra , director of pediatric oncology at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Sibley. (
  • Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. (
  • Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. (
  • Ask anyone involved in the Roberts Proton Therapy Center at Penn Medicine 's Abramson Cancer Center -patient, physician, technician, engineer, receptionist, physicist-and they will have powerful personal stories to share about this unique facility and the people devoted to it. (
  • In addition to providing unparalleled cancer care and unique research opportunities, the facility is known to be the leading training institute in the world for proton therapy. (
  • Proton therapy has shown promise in treating several kinds of cancer. (
  • Clinical trials are investigation proton therapy as a treatment for a number of other types of cancer. (
  • Proton therapy can cause side effects as the cancer cells die or when the energy from the proton beam damages healthy tissue. (
  • What is Proton Therapy and how will the advanced treatment system change the way oncologists treat cancer? (
  • Proton therapy is sometimes used along with other cancer treatments, such as standard radiation, chemotherapy , surgery, and immunotherapy . (
  • Because proton therapy targets cancer cells so precisely, it's an excellent treatment option for children with some types of cancer. (
  • Proton therapy is a precise and highly accurate nonsurgical cancer treatment method. (
  • Proton Partners International has been formed following discussions between Professor Sir Chris Evans, the life sciences entrepreneur, and UK life sciences and healthcare investors on addressing cancer treatment in the UK. (
  • A 58 ton proton accelerator was delivered Sunday to Orlando Health Cancer Center in Orlando. (
  • We offer access to the most unique clinical environment of proton and photon therapy capabilities, all integrated under one roof," says Neha Vapiwala , associate professor and vice chair of education in PSOM's Radiation Oncology Department. (
  • 4 True or False, An antiproton is a proton moving backward in time. (
  • The Dec. 9 failure poses serious problems for Mexican satellite operator Satmex, whose Satmex 8 satellite arrived at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, where Proton is launched, on Nov. 29 to prepare for a Dec. 28 launch. (
  • As with photon radiotherapy, most proton treatments are delivered over a fractionated course of therapy up to 7 weeks long. (
  • it has the same mass as the proton but a unit negative charge and opposite magnetic moment. (
  • Quantum physical interactions mean that spin is responsible for the magnetic moment of protons, and therefore also the stability of the universe. (
  • This allows doctors to use a higher dose of radiation with proton therapy than they can use with x-rays. (
  • What side effects you experience will depend on what part of your body is being treated and the dose of proton therapy you receive. (
  • Note the reduction in dose exposure to normal tissues in the face, neck and thyroid, heart, liver, and pelvis with proton therapy. (
  • 2 Yet studies consistently show that proton pump inhibitors are being overprescribed worldwide in both primary and secondary care. (
  • We show that proton and hydroxide diffusion occurs through periods of intense activity involving concerted proton hopping followed by periods of rest. (