Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

Cu(II) inhibition of the proton translocation machinery of the influenza A virus M2 protein. (1/5891)

The homotetrameric M2 integral membrane protein of influenza virus forms a proton-selective ion channel. An essential histidine residue (His-37) in the M2 transmembrane domain is believed to play an important role in the conduction mechanism of this channel. Also, this residue is believed to form hydrogen-bonded interactions with the ammonium group of the anti-viral compound, amantadine. A molecular model of this channel suggests that the imidazole side chains of His-37 from symmetry-related monomers of the homotetrameric pore converge to form a coordination site for transition metals. Thus, membrane currents of oocytes of Xenopus laevis expressing the M2 protein were recorded when the solution bathing the oocytes contained various transition metals. Membrane currents were strongly and reversibly inhibited by Cu2+ with biphasic reaction kinetics. The biphasic inhibition curves may be explained by a two-site model involving a fast-binding peripheral site with low specificity for divalent metal ions, as well as a high affinity site (Kdiss approximately 2 microM) that lies deep within the pore and shows rather slow-binding kinetics (kon = 18.6 +/- 0.9 M-1 s-1). The pH dependence of the interaction with the high affinity Cu2+-binding site parallels the pH dependence of inhibition by amantadine, which has previously been ascribed to protonation of His-37. The voltage dependence of the inhibition at the high affinity site indicates that the binding site lies within the transmembrane region of the pore. Furthermore, the inhibition by Cu2+ could be prevented by prior application of the reversible blocker of M2 channel activity, BL-1743, providing further support for the location of the site within the pore region of M2. Finally, substitutions of His-37 by alanine or glycine eliminated the high affinity site and resulted in membrane currents that were only partially inhibited at millimolar concentrations of Cu2+. Binding of Cu2+ to the high affinity site resulted in an approximately equal inhibition of both inward and outward currents. The wild-type protein showed very high specificity for Cu2+ and was only partially inhibited by 1 mM Ni2+, Pt2+, and Zn2+. These data are discussed in terms of the functional role of His-37 in the mechanism of proton translocation through the channel.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (2/5891)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Mapping of residues in the NADP(H)-binding site of proton-translocating nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli. A study of structure and function. (3/5891)

Conformational changes in proton pumping transhydrogenases have been suggested to be dependent on binding of NADP(H) and the redox state of this substrate. Based on a detailed amino acid sequence analysis, it is argued that a classical betaalphabetaalphabeta dinucleotide binding fold is responsible for binding NADP(H). A model defining betaA, alphaB, betaB, betaD, and betaE of this domain is presented. To test this model, four single cysteine mutants (cfbetaA348C, cfbetaA390C, cfbetaK424C, and cfbetaR425C) were introduced into a functional cysteine-free transhydrogenase. Also, five cysteine mutants were constructed in the isolated domain III of Escherichia coli transhydrogenase (ecIIIH345C, ecIIIA348C, ecIIIR350C, ecIIID392C, and ecIIIK424C). In addition to kinetic characterizations, effects of sulfhydryl-specific labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, and diazotized 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) were examined. The results are consistent with the view that, in agreement with the model, beta-Ala348, beta-Arg350, beta-Ala390, beta-Asp392, and beta-Lys424 are located in or close to the NADP(H) site. More specifically, beta-Ala348 succeeds betaB. The remarkable reactivity of betaR350C toward NNADP suggests that this residue is close to the nicotinamide moiety of NADP(H). beta-Ala390 and beta-Asp392 terminate or succeed betaD, and are thus, together with the region following betaA, creating the switch point crevice where NADP(H) binds. beta-Asp392 is particularly important for the substrate affinity, but it could also have a more complex role in the coupling mechanism for transhydrogenase.  (+info)

Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. (4/5891)

High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions.  (+info)

Oxygen-dependent K+ influxes in Mg2+-clamped equine red blood cells. (5/5891)

1. Cl--dependent K+ (86Rb+) influxes were measured in oxygenated and deoxygenated equine red blood cells, whose free [Mg2+]i had been clamped, to examine the effect on O2 dependency of the K+-Cl- cotransporter. 2. Total [Mg2+]i was 2.55 +/- 0.07 mM (mean +/- s.e.m. , n = 6). Free [Mg2+]i was estimated at 0.45 +/- 0.04 and 0.68 +/- 0. 03 mM (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 4) in oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells, respectively. 3. K+-Cl- cotransport was minimal in deoxygenated cells but substantial in oxygenated ones. Cl--dependent K+ influx, inhibited by calyculin A, consistent with mediation via the K+-Cl- cotransporter, was revealed by depleting deoxygenated cells of Mg2+. 4. Decreasing [Mg2+]i stimulated K+ influx, and increasing [Mg2+]i inhibited it, in both oxygenated and deoxygenated red cells. When free [Mg2+]i was clamped, Cl--dependent K+ influxes were always greater in oxygenated cells than in deoxygenated ones, and changes in free [Mg2+]i of the magnitude occurring during oxygenation-deoxygenation cycles had a minimal effect. Physiological fluctuations in free [Mg2+]i are unlikely to provide the primary link coupling activity of the K+-Cl- cotransporter with O2 tension. 5. Volume and H+ ion sensitivity of K+ influx in Mg2+-clamped red cells were increased in O2 compared with those in deoxygenated cells at the same free [Mg2+]i, by about 6- and 2-fold, respectively, but again these features were not responsible for the higher fluxes in oxygenated cells. 6. Regulation of the K+-Cl- cotransporter by O2 is very similar in equine, sheep and in normal human (HbA) red cells, but altered in human sickle cells. Present results imply that, as in sheep red cells, O2 dependence of K+-Cl- cotransport in equine red cells is not mediated via changes in free [Mg2+]i and that cotransport in Mg2+-clamped red cells is still stimulated by O2. This behaviour is contrary to that reported for human sickle (HbS) cells.  (+info)

Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle. (6/5891)

We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/5891)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs. (8/5891)

Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed.  (+info)

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract-Soft Error Resiliency is a major concern for Pet-ascale high performance computing (HPC) systems. Blue Gene/Q (BG/Q) is the third generation of IBMs massively parallel, ener-gy efficient Blue Gene series of supercomputers. The principal goal of this work is to understand the interaction between Blue-Gene/Qs hardware resiliency features and high-performance applications through proton irradiation of a real chip, and soft-ware resiliency inherent in these applications through applica-tion-level fault injection (AFI) experiments. From the proton irradiation experiments we derived that the mean time between correctable errors at sea level of the SRAM-based register files and Level-1 caches for a system similar to the scale of Sequoia system. From the AFI experiments, we characterized relative vulnerability among the applications in both general purpose and floating point register files. We categorized and quantified the
The Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) was designed primarily for single-event effect (SEE) studies and characterization of electronic components and detectors for the space environment. The energy spectrum of protons trapped in earth orbits peaks in the 10-100 MeV region (depending on the amount of intervening absorber) and drops by about an order of magnitude at 500 MeV. This makes the TRIUMF cyclotrons variable-energy capability of up to 500 MeV ideal for studies of space effects. Biological studies such as cell irradiations to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons are also being carried out in conjunction with the Proton Therapy Centre.. PIF makes use of two different beam lines at TRIUMF for low-intensity radiation-damage studies. The lower energies, variable from as low as 5 MeV up to 120 MeV are available from the beam line BL2C, which is also used on a regular basis for proton treatments of ocular melanoma. Higher energies, from 120 MeV up to 500 MeV are ...
The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP. ...
The concept of surface coupled proton exchange between membrane proteins has long been criticized because the origin of proton?s surface affinity remained enigmatic. The weak dependence of both migration speed and span on lipid composition suggests that interfacial water serves as proton railways (1). However, it is unclear how to reconcile the apparent high proton affinity to the phase boundary (2) with the poor proton acceptability of water. Here we monitored the diffusion of excess protons along the phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer/water interface at different temperatures. The kinetics of proton arrival from a distant spot of proton release to lipid anchored fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes indicated that the in vitro Gibbs activation energy ?G for proton surfaceto- bulk release harbours only a minor enthalpic constituent. Our observation that more than 2/3 of ?G are entropic in origin explains the high proton affinity to membranes in the absence of a potent proton acceptor. This work was ...
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 102, Issue 19, id. 193510 (4 pages) (2013).. Abdelkader Abderrahmane, S. Koide, H. Okada, H. Takahashi, S. Sato, T. Ohshima, A. Sandhu.. Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan and. Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-cho, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.. Abstract The magnetoelectric properties of AlGaN/GaN micro-Hall effect sensors were studied after 380 keV proton irradiation. After irradiation the current-voltage measurements, stability of the magnetic sensitivity of the sensors, and the sheet electron density were degraded with a dramatic decrease of the electron mobility at high temperatures. Raman spectroscopy showed a ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men in the United States. The purpose of this research study is to determine if dose-escalated proton radiation therapy is a good way to treat high-risk prostate cancer.. Proton therapy (PT) is a type of ionizing radiation therapy that reduces the dose of excess radiation delivered to normal tissues. By escalating the radiation dose just to the area of the known tumor within the prostate, one could potentially reduce the amount of excess radiation delivered to surrounding organs.This reduction in dose would improve the therapeutic ratio by improving disease control while minimizing the risk for additional toxicity.. In an effort to take advantage of dose escalations potential for improving disease control but also to limit toxicity, the use of advanced imaging to identify prostate cancer and provide a focal radiation boost to the area have proven to be useful. Recent advances in MRI have made it the most promising technique in ...
Proton Inhibition - 28 images - Differentiating Ger From Gerd To Quot D Quot Or Not To Quot D Quot Ppt, Antacids H2 Antagonists Ppis Proton Inhibitors, Proton Inhibitor, Proton Inhibitors Ppis Mechanism Images, Proton Pumps H
Background and purpose: To determine the influence of the number of fractions (or the dose per fraction) on the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Materials and methods: Intestinal crypt regeneration in mice was used as the biological endpoint. RBE was determined relative to cobalt-60 gamma rays for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions separated by a time interval of 3.5 h. Proton irradiations were performed at the middle of a 7-cm Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). Results: Proton RBEs (and corresponding gamma dose per fraction) at the level of 20 regenerated crypts per circumference were found equal to 1.15 ± 0.04 (10.0 Gy), 1.15 ± 0.05 (4.8 Gy) and 1.14 ± 0.07 (1.7 Gy) for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions, respectively. Alpha/beta ratios as derived from direct analysis of the quantal radiation response data were found to be 7.6 Gy for gamma rays and 8.2 Gy for protons. Additional proton irradiations in ten fractions at the end of the SOBP were found to be more ...
C. Biswas, K. Devarajan, T. K. Panda, and S. S. K. Raavi, Enhanced Broadband Emission in Novel Phenanthroimidazole Derivative Molecules via Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer, in OSA Advanced Photonics Congress (AP) 2020 (IPR, NP, NOMA, Networks, PVLED, PSC, SPPCom, SOF), L. Caspani, A. Tauke-Pedretti, F. Leo, and B. Yang, eds., OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2020), paper JTh3G.5 ...
A proton is part of an atom.[1] They are found in the nucleus of an atom along with neutrons.[1] The periodic table groups atoms according to how many protons they have. A single atom of hydrogen (the lightest kind of atom) is made up of an electron moving around a proton. Most of the mass of this atom is in the proton, which is almost 2000 times heavier than the electron. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of every other kind of atom. In any one element, the number of protons is always the same. An atoms atomic number is equal to the number of protons in that atom. Protons are made of quarks.[1] A proton is believed to be made up of 3 quarks, two up quarks and one down quark.[1] One down quark has a charge of -1/3, and two up quarks have a charge of +2/3 each. This adds to a charge of +1. A proton has a very small mass. The mass of the proton is about one atomic mass unit. The mass of the neutron is also about one atomic mass unit. The size of a proton is determined by the vibration of ...
Performance degradation of the SiGe HBT after proton irradiation is investigated using a new physical TCAD model built into the Synopsys Sentaurus tool. The general conception of the model is based on the additive effects of ionization and displacement effects influence on transistor base current. New equations for the physical parameters τ, S, Nit taking into account radiation effects after the impact of proton irradiation are included in the program. Comparison of simulated and experimental characteristics of the SiGe HBT after subjection to proton fluences up to 5 · 10|sup|13|/sup| p/cm|sup|2|/sup| shows the 10-20% error.
We test the hypothesized pathway by which protons are passed from the substrate, ascorbate, to the ferryl oxygen in the heme enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The role of amino acid side chains and bound solvent is demonstrated. We investigated solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) for the wild-type enzyme and several site-directed replacements of the key residues which form the proposed proton path. Kinetic constants for H(2)O(2)-dependent enzyme oxidation to Compound I, k(1), and subsequent reduction of Compound II, k(3), were determined in steady-state assays by variation of both H(2)O(2) and ascorbate concentrations. A high value of the SKIE for wild type APX ((D)k(3) = 4.9) as well as a clear nonlinear dependence on the deuterium composition of the solvent in proton inventory experiments suggest the simultaneous participation of several protons in the transition state for proton transfer. The full SKIE and the proton inventory data were modeled by applying Gross-Butler-Swain-Kresge theory ...
Mechanism of proton transfer among high-density acid groups in the interface between organic and inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been theoretically examined. It has been clearly shown that the interactions between the phosphate groups at the surface of the inorganic material, zirconium phosphate (ZrP), and the adsorbed water molecules are relatively large and a strong hydrogen-bond network is generated locally. Because of the strong interactions, water molecules can be attached to ZrP and the O-O distance becomes shorter than that in bulk water systems. Because of the short O-O distances and the delocalized charge of each atom, the activation energy of proton transfer at the ZrP surface decreases and causes high proton conductivity even under conditions of high temperature and low humidity. Based on the above studies, the origin of the high proton conductivity of hybrid electrolytes is also discussed. We will also discuss the mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on ...
It is clear that the voltage--‐gated proton channel HVCN1 plays an essential role in a range of cell types, in particular immune cells. Previous published work has confirmed the existence of proton channels in both murine and human macrophages. However, the role of HVCN1 in macrophages has not been investigated. Given that the current literature on voltage--‐gated proton channels in immune cells has found HVCN1 to be involved in several cellular processes (such as the respiratory burst and signalling events) it is important to establish its functional role in macrophages, which are a crucial constituent of the immune system. The aim of my thesis was to investigate the function of voltage--‐gated proton channels in macrophages with the use of mice with a disrupting mutation within the Hvcn1 gene, which results in HVCN1 loss. In particular, I wanted to address how Hvcn1--‐/--‐ macrophages responded to LPS activation. I hypothesised that HVCN1 regulates the respiratory burst of ...
Transport of the positively charged proton is typically electrogenic, i.e. it generates an electrical field across the membrane also called the membrane potential. Proton transport becomes electrogenic if not neutralized electrically by transport of either a corresponding negative charge in the same direction or a corresponding positive charge in the opposite direction. An example of a proton pump that is not electrogenic, is the proton/potassium pump of the gastric mucosa which catalyzes a balanced exchange of protons and potassium ions. The combined transmembrane gradient of protons and charges created by proton pumps is called an electrochemical gradient. An electrochemical gradient represents a store of energy (potential energy) that can be used to drive a multitude of biological processes such as ATP synthesis, nutrient uptake and action potential formation. In cell respiration, the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane ...
It is established that in case of changing of electrons and protons normal conductance by uncoupler as rotenone - inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, inhibitor of mitochondrial hydrogen atom transport at NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase level, the significance of the pH value in the outside of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the partial hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes, the significance of the pH value after the full hemolysis of isolated erythrocytes changed to alkaline side. Under effect of uncoupler rotenone, which action occured in the 2-th stage of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body in the form of blockage of transferring of proton, electron to NADH, FADH2 as hydrogen atom accompanying with release of CO2, the significance of the pH value have been changed to alkaline side i.e. blockage of the transferring of protons and electrons to NADH as hydrogen atom lead to decrease of free proton concentration, proton ...
Bacterial cells have to regulate the cytoplasmic pH to survive in the constantly changing environment as bacterial growth is dependent on substrate availability, as well as the redox potential and the pH of the medium. The regulation of internal pH involves proton export that requires energy in the form of ATP. The biochemical reactions in the cytoplasm associated with metabolism can lead to a net proton production or consumption. The variations in proton concentration in the cytoplasm during growth, can affect the kinetics and the thermodynamic feasibility of biochemical reactions necessitating active regulation of pH. The energetic cost of pH regulation via exporting protons associated with metabolism can impact the biomass yield of the organism and the extent of this effect can vary with the environment.. For example, in E. coli grown with glucose as the electron donor, organic acids released during growth greatly contribute to changes in pH of the medium. Previous studies [41-43] have shown ...
MCOs catalyze one-electron oxidation processes, and four molecules of substrate are oxidised in order to reduce a dioxygen molecule to two waters molecules. Substrate oxidation occurs at the mononuclear T1 centre and then the electrons are shuttled, along a T1 coordinating cisteine, to the two histidines that are coordinating the T3 coppers of the trinuclear centre (Figure 1b), where reduction of dioxygen occurs [2, 4, 11]. This constitutes a HCH conserved motif characteristically found in MCOs. Four electrons, as well as four protons, are used to reduce a molecule of dioxygen with the concomitant formation of two water molecules [1, 2, 12]. Electrons needed for this process are obtained through the oxidation of a variety of substrates, but not much is known about the mechanism of proton transfer during this process. Recently, site directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Asp112 of CueO (Asp 116 in CotA; Figure 1c) [13, 14], a conserved residue that is located in the exit channel in close ...
The structure and dynamics of aqueous protons play fundamental roles in many areas of chemistry, biology, and physics. There is a general consensus that the proton achieves its anomalously large diffusion (up to 7 times larger than similarly sized cations) through a structural exchange process, referred to as the Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons are passed from one molecule to the next. While there has been a multitude of computational studies focused on unraveling the intricacies of proton transport, they have been biased by the assumptions made about the proton dynamics due to the lack of a robust determination of the proton diffusion coefficient from first-principles. Through extensive ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we provide a thorough statistical determination of the proton diffusion coefficient. These simulations demonstrate that the standard assumption of Markovian dynamics for the Grotthuss mechanism is too simplistic. Proton transitions are correlated and result in the ...
In addition to the Steered MD (SMD) approach described starting on page 108 of the manual, a new set of Adaptively Biased MD and related methods has been introduced for Amber10 (See page 121 and also be aware that this tutorial uses an Amber11 addition, LCOD, to these methods. Adding LCOD capabilities to Amber10 is described below). The whole Adaptively Biased MD section (4.6) should be studied for background to this tutorial. The new implementation of the SMD method specifically is described starting on page 125. The tutorial is a brief test case using steered MD to force an intramolecular proton transfer (PT) in malonaldehyde (pictured). The simulation was carried out in vacuum with the QMMM DFTB Hamiltonian using the LCOD (linear combination of distances) reaction coordinate. The QM region consisted of the whole molecule. These results should be compared with the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) section, specifically to Figure 3.4 (page 77, closed triangles). As indicated above the LCOD reaction ...
International Launch Services (ILS) announces a product line extension of the Proton Breeze M commercial launch vehicle designed to expand the addressable GEO market for cost effective launch solutions in the small and medium satellite class range (3 to 5 metric tons). Designated as Proton Variants, these two additional vehicles will be optimized 2-stage versions of the time tested and flight proven Proton Breeze M launch system for exclusive commercial use by ILS.. The Proton Variants initial launch capability will be established beginning in 2018 with the Proton Medium vehicle launching from Pad 24 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The 2-stage Proton Medium Variant will have a 4-meter payload fairing and utilize the standard Proton M configuration with 6 engines on the first stage. It will be followed in 2019 by the Proton Light Variant. The 2-stage Proton Light will have a 4-meter payload fairing but feature only 4 engines on the first stage. Both variants will maintain use of the flight ...
Buy Proton Persona SV and get promosi or discount Proton Persona SV. Super High Cash rebate free gifts up to RM 1588.call me 012-279 9595.Promosi Proton.Proton Saga SV.proton saga plus.proton iriz.proton iriz standard.proton iriz executive.proton iriz pre
A high current proton linear accelerator has been designed and is at the moment under construction for the ESSBilbao project. The current status of the acc
Proton conduction of the La(III)M(III) compounds, LaM(ox)3·10H2O (abbreviated to LaM; M = Cr, Co, Ru, La; ox(2-) = oxalate) is studied in view of their networks. LaCr and LaCo have a ladder structure, and the ladders are woven to form a channel network. LaRu and LaLa have a honeycomb sheet structure, and the sheets are combined to form a layer network. The occurrence of these structures is explained by the rigidness versus flexibility of [M(ox)3](3-) in the framework with large La(III). The channel networks of LaCr and LaCo show a remarkably high proton conductivity, in the range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) over 40-95% relative humidity (RH) at 298 K, whereas the layer networks of LaCr and LaCo show a lower proton conductivity, ∼3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) (40-95% RH, 298 K ...
What is so nice is that the transformation of protons to dark protons is indeed the basic mechanism of TGD inspired quantum biology! For instance, it would occur in Pollack effect in with irradiation of water bounded by gel phase generates so called exclusion zone, which is negatively charged. TGD explanation is that some fraction of protons transforms to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes outside the system. Negative charge of DNA and cell could be due to this mechanism. One also ends up to a model of genetic code with the analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA and amino-acids represented as triplets of dark protons. The model predicts correctly the numbers of DNAs coding given amino-acid. Besides biology the model has applications to cold fusion, and various free energy phenomena. See the article Two different lifetimes for neutron as evidence for dark protons and chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I. For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD. Articles and other ...
Probing the water-amide proton exchange rates through a CLEANEX-PM-FHSQC experiment.A. 1H-15N-FHSQC spectrum of free Aβ40. The peak intensities of the 1H-15N-F
Randomized. 2 institutions (Harvard and Loma Linda). 392 patients, stage T1b-T2b, PSA ,15 ng/mL (median PSA 6.3). Arm 1) proton boost 19.8/11 GyE followed by photons 50.4/28 vs. Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. Proton CTV = prostate + 5 mm margin. PTV = CTV + 7-10 mm. Loma Linda used opposed lateral beams, 250 MeV protons; Harvard used perineal boost, 160 MeV protons. Rectal Lucite probe, inflated with 25-50 mL saline. Photons were 4F plan, photon CTV = prostate/SV + 10 mm margin ...
Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a pH mapping method based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer phenomenon that has potential for penumbra identification following stroke. The majority of the literature thus far has focused on generating pH-weighted contrast using magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry analysis instead of quantitative pH mapping. In this study, the widely used asymmetry analysis and a model-based analysis were both assessed on APT data collected from healthy subjects (n = 2) and hyperacute stroke patients (n = 6, median imaging time after onset = 2 hours 59 minutes). It was found that the model-based approach was able to quantify the APT effect with the lowest variation in grey and white matter (≤ 13.8 %) and the smallest average contrast between these two tissue types (3.48 %) in the healthy volunteers. The model-based approach also performed quantitatively better than the other measures in the hyperacute stroke patient APT data, where the quantified APT effect in the
Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HVCN1 gene. Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a voltage-gated proton channel that has been shown to allow proton transport into phagosomes and out of many types of cells including spermatozoa, electrically excitable cells and respiratory epithelial cells. The proton-conducting HVCN1 channel has only transmembrane domains corresponding to the S1-S4 voltage sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-gated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels. Molecular simulation is consistent with a water-filled pore that can function as a water wire for allowing hydrogen bonded H+ to cross the membrane. However, mutation of Asp112 in human Hv1 results in anion permeation, suggesting that obligatory protonation of Asp produces proton selectivity. Quantum mechanical calculations show that the Asp-Arg interaction can produce proton selective permeation. The HVCN1 protein has been shown to exist as a dimer with two functioning ...
A polar cap absorption event results from the ionisation of the D-layer of the polar ionosphere by high energy protons. A PCA causes a HF radio blackout for trans polar circuits and can last several days. PCAs are almost always preceded by a major solar flare with the time between the flare event and the onset of the PCA ranging from few minutes to several hours.. See Real Time Riometer Data from Antarctic Stations.. The icon below indicates the estimated absorption in db of a 30 MHz riometer from Casey station in Antarctica. These figures give an indication of the severity of the PCA. The background colour of the icon is red when absorption exceeds 1db and green otherwise.. Details of any current proton event are given below:. (last updated 26 Sep 2020 03:20 UT). 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 0850UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1135UT 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Began 14 07 2017 1235UT and is in progress 10MeV Proton/PCA Event Ended 14 07 2017 1340UT 10MeV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of energy spectrum from laser-accelerated protons with a 100 fs intense prepulse. AU - Glinec, Y.. AU - Genoud, G.. AU - Lundh, O.. AU - Persson, A.. AU - Wahlström, C. G.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton spectrum as function of the prepulse delay and intensity, up to 1.5 ns and up to 3×1016 W/cm2, respectively, shows a global decrease of the maximum proton energy with delay and intensity. However, under appropriate conditions, it is found that the maximum proton energy increases by more than 10% and that the spectral shape changes.. AB - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton ...
These surface pores are attached to the electrosensory cells by canals filled with clear, viscous jelly, which let the fish detect weak electrical fields emitted by other animals in the sea - even signals as subtle as 5 nanovolts per centimetre.. As the scientists do not yet completely understand the way the jelly plays a part in this purpose, it is obvious that it somehow plays a particular role, because of its enormous convenience of conductivity, that the group claims to be the greatest previously documented to get a biological material.. At roughly 2 ± 1 millisiemens per centimetre, the conductivity of the jelly is just 40 times lower than the polymer Nafion, a synthetic material known for its superior conductivity.. Proton conductivity is just a type of electrical conductivity where hydrogen carry the charge ions, as opposed to electrons. Although electrons carry the charge in extremely conductive metals for example copper and silver, proton conductivity is definitely an essential process ...
SAN JOSE, Calif., Feb. 1, 1995 - Societe Europienne des Satellites (SES) confirmed last week that the ASTRA 1F Satellite will be launched on a Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia International, Inc. (LKEI), Russian Proton launch vehicle in March 1996. The 1F satellite will be capable of delivering digital compressed signals for Direct-to-Home (DTH) and cable TV reception. SES has also reserved other options with LKEI for future satellite launches.. SESs selection of Proton for the launch of ASTRA 1F together with recent selections of Proton by other customers reflects the communication industrys growing confidence in the Proton launch vehicle. Proton performed 13 successful launches out of 13 attempts during 1994 - the most successful launch record of any commercial rocket worldwide.. This record matches Protons launch records of 1984, 1987 and 1988. Proton achieved the 1994 success rate while operating with only one active launch pad for three quarters of the year. In September, a second launch pad ...
Numerical investigations on high energy proton beam interaction with high density Boron plasma allows to simulate conditions concerning the alpha production from recent experimental measurements . The experiments measure the alpha production due to p11B nuclear fusion reactions when a laser-driven high energy proton beam interacts with Boron plasma produced by laser beam interaction with solid Boron. The alpha production and consequently the efficiency of the process depends on the initial proton beam energy, proton beam density, the Boron plasma density and temperature, and their temporal evolution. The main advantage for the p11B nuclear fusion reaction is the production of three alphas with total energy of 8.9 MeV, which could enhance the alpha heating effect and improve the alpha production. This particular effect is termed in the international literature as the alpha avalanche effect. Numerical results using a multi-fluid, global particle and energy balance, code shows the alpha production ...
In this contribution, we discuss the optimization of laser driven proton acceleration efficiency by nanostructured targets, interpret the experimental results showing the manipulation of proton beam profiles by nanosctructured rear surface of the targets and investigate the acceleration of protons from hydrogen solid ribbon by PW-class lasers, with the help of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Microstructured hollow targets are proposed to enhance the absorption of the laser pulse energy while keeping the target thickness to minimum, which is both favorable for enhanced efficiency of the acceleration of protons. Thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides stretch the proton beams in the perpendicular direction to the grating orientation due to transverse electric fields generated inside the target grooves and can reduce the proton beam divergence in the parallel direction to the grating due to a lower density of the stretched beam compared with ...
New bionanocomposite proton exchange membranes were prepared from sulfonated polybenzimidazole (s-PBI) and various amounts of sulfonated ZnO/cellulose nanohybrids (ZnO/cellulose-SO3H). The use of ZnO/cellulose-SO3H compensates for the decrease in ion exchange capacity of membranes observed when non-sulfonated nano-fillers are utilized. The strong -SO3H/-SO3H interaction between s-PBI chains and ZnO/cellulose-SO3H hybrids leads to ionic cross-linking in the membrane structure, which increases both the thermal stability and methanol resistance of the membranes. The ZnO/cellulose -SO3H in the membranes served as spacers for polymer chains to provide extra space for water permeation, so as to bring high permeation rates to the complex membranes. Moreover, the membranes exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and E. coli. A.
The input bias current response of LM124 operational amplifiers to proton irradiation is shown to correlate with the response of identical part types expos
This paper clarifies the role of cytochrome c in Pseudomonas AM1 by measuring the stoicheiometry of proton translocation driven by respiration of endogenous or added substrates in wild-type bacteria and in a mutant lacking cytochrome c (mutant PCT76). The maximum →H+/O ratio (protons translocated out of the bacteria per atom of oxygen consumed during respiration) was about 4 and, except when respiration was markedly affected, this ratio was similar in mutant and wild-type bacteria. The →H+/O ratios were unaltered when the usual oxidase (cytochrome a3) was inhibited by 300μm-KCN and respiration involved the single cytochrome b functioning as an alternative oxidase. Ratios measured in cells respiring endogenous substrate and in cells loaded with malate or 3-hydroxybutyrate suggest that there are two proton-translocating segments operating during the oxidation of NADH. By contrast, during oxidation of formaldehyde or methylamine only one pair of protons is translocated. Proton translocation ...
The process would have taken a long time, further delaying the much-needed assistance that is required to solve Protons crisis with its vendors - it could also lead its lenders to request for the retirement of their loans. The company is in dire need of liquidity to pay its vendors, Mustapa said, adding that Protons total long-term borrowings stood at RM847 million as of March 31, 2015.. Despite this, Mustapa said that the current deal has its own punitive terms and features. The first of which entails that should Proton decide to convert the shares, the conversion rate would be set at 87 sen per share and the government would receive 87 sen per share. This is around 46% below Protons current net tangible asset of RM1.86 per share.. Whats more, a non-dilution clause has also been set to protect the government, should Proton secure dilutive financing under the 87 sen conversion rate. There will also be no dividend or shareholders advance being declared by the company as long as it still had ...
Proton Iswara U1112 OBD-II Diagnostic Network (U) Trouble Code Information Page. Reason for Proton Iswara U1112 and find the solution for the code Proton Iswara U1112 , well give to how to fix Proton Iswara U1112 trouble code problem.
The new Proton. In stores now. Building on the immense success of its first generation, it is even more refined, precise, and without beating around the bush, simply faster, which is what the Proton is all about.. Gabriel Browne, Team Rider on the PWA: The new Proton is a totally new design and concept. The three volume numbers are the same, and thats about it. All sizes come with all new shapes, fine tuned rockers, volume flow, rails, outlines, deck shapes. Everything you love about the old Proton is improved on the new Proton.. Its a Slalom board designed to win races everywhere in all conditions and for someone who wants to push hard and get the max out of it. During the second generation R&D we had the chance to test in different places, Denmark, Brazil and Maui. The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes.. From my side, as the rider, as a racer, the boards feel very free, powerful and fast with the new outlines, bottom, ...
Malaysias International Trade and Industry Minister Mustapa Mohamed met with SAIPA CEO Mehdi Jamali in Tehran on Monday. The Malaysian minister said expansion of bilateral ties is the main goal of the visit and that SAIPA and Proton have been negotiating for some time, Persian Khodro reported. Mohamed added that Proton has a long history in Iran and Malaysia is looking forward to expand industrial and financial ties with the country in the post-sanctions era. Three new models of Proton products are to be offered in Iran in the near future, he added. (Financial Tribune, SAIPA is forging ties with Malaysias Proton and entering the Lebanese car market, 10/27/2016).. --. Proton Holdings Bhd is confident of increasing its market share in Iran with sales of 50,000 cars a year by the end of 2012. Managing director Datuk Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir said the national car company will start pushing 10,000 units a year by the first quarter of 2009, by bringing in other Proton models. ...
A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. The larger flow of Na+ than K+ generates outward current across the cell membrane. Less well understood is the ability of Na+/K+ pumps to generate an inward current of protons. Originally noted in pumps deprived of external K+ and Na+ ions, as inward current at negative membrane potentials that becomes amplified when external pH is lowered, this proton current is generally viewed as an artifact of those unnatural conditions. We demonstrate here that this inward current also flows at physiological K+ and Na+ concentrations. We show that protons exploit ready reversibility of conformational changes associated with extracellular Na+ release from phosphorylated Na+/K+ pumps. Reversal of a subset of these transitions allows an extracellular proton to bind an ...
We make use of the physical mechanism of proton pumping in the so-called Complex I within mitochondria membranes. Our model is based on sequential charge transfer assisted by conformational changes which facilitate the indirect electron-proton coupling. The equations of motion for the proton operators are derived and solved numerically in combination with the phenomenological Langevin equation describing the periodic conformational changes. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, protons can be transferred against an applied voltage. In addition, we demonstrate that only the joint action of the periodic energy modulation and thermal noise leads to efficient uphill proton transfer, being a manifestation of stochastic resonance.
Mapping the structure of protonated water clusters. Water molecules are continuously forming short-lived networks called clusters. These can in turn bind positively charged protons, and such clusters can provide active functional groups in proteins. Using infrared spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the bond strengths, geometrical structures and chemical properties of protonated water clusters. In order to measure the spectrum of molecular vibrations in clusters it is, however, necessary to use other molecules as messengers. A team of physicists and chemists including Dr. Gerald Mathias of LMU Munich and Professor Dominik Marx of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum has, for the first time, described how these messengers influence the assignment of spectral bands by infrared spectroscopy. The results will improve our ability to interpret spectroscopic data, says Mathias, and that is an important step towards a better understanding of the function of protonated water clusters in proteins. ...
For all participants, right after one regular treatment fraction, NeuroPET or NeuroPET II will be wheeled into the patient room. The patient bed will be moved directly into the scan position and a PET scan will be acquired in list-mode for 15 to 20 minutes followed by a CT scan for ~5 minutes. After undergoing their first PET scan, participants will have the option to undergo 1-2 additional scans throughout radiation treatment in the same manner as the first scan ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of the proton-irradiated KTiOPO4 AU - Kim, Se Hun. AU - Lee, Cheol Eui. PY - 2013/10/17. Y1 - 2013/10/17. N2 - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study the effects of proton irradiation on KTiOPO4 (KTP) in view of the previously studied paramagnetic impurity doping effects. High-resolution 31P NMR measurements showed significant increase in the isotropic chemical shifts of the two inequivalent phosphorus sites in the proton-irradiated KTP system, indicating decrease in the electron density around the phosphorous nuclei. The 31P NMR linewidths of the KTP system manifested anomalies associated with the superionic transition and with the polaron formation, which became much weaker after proton irradiation. Besides, the activation energy of the charge carriers increased significantly after proton irradiation.. AB - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study the effects of proton irradiation on KTiOPO4 (KTP) in ...
The introduction of sulfonic acid modified silica in Nafion nanocomposite membranes is a good method of improving the Nafion performance at high temperature and low relative humidity. Sulfonic acid-modified silica is bifunctional, with silica phase expected to offer an improvement in membranes hydration while sulfonic groups enhance proton conductivity. However, as discussed in this paper, this may not always be the case. Proton conductivity enhancement of Nafion nanocomposite membranes is very dependent on silica particle size, sometimes depending on experimental conditions, and by surface modification. In this study, Sulfonated Preconcentrated Nafion Stober Silica composites (SPNSS) were prepared by modification of Stober silica particles with mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane, dispersing the particles into a preconcentrated solution of Nafion, then casting the membranes. The mercapto groups were oxidized to sulfonic acids by heating the membranes in 10 wt % hydrogen peroxide for 1 h. At 80 °C and 100%
Proton-conductive electrospun nanofibers are promising potential materials for several advanced technological applications such batteries, sensors, and fuel cells. In this work, we prepared poly(vinyl butyral)/polyaniline (PVB/PANI) nanofibers via electrospinning and determined their proton conductivities. Structural characterization of the nanofibers was performed by FTIR analysis. Surface morphology of the nanofibers was determined by SEM and AFM. The addition of PANI significantly affected the fiber morphology, and over 90% reduction (with respect to neat PVB nanofibers) in the average nanofiber diameters was observed. Nanofiber mats were doped with polyphosphoric acid. The proton conductivity of the 2 wt.% PANI containing blend nanofibers was found as 18 x 10(-6) S/cm at room temperature and at 100% humidity. ...
Since 1957, broad proton beam radiotherapy with a spread out Bragg peak has been used for cancer treatment. More recently, studies on the use of proton therapy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were performed and although the benefit of using protons for the treatment of NSCLC is recognized, more work is needed to gather additional data for the understanding of cell response. Human A549 cell survival was evaluated by colony forming assay 11 days after 10 keV/μm proton beam irradiation at 0.1 and 1 Gy/min. The residual energy of the proton beam at the location of the irradiated cells was 3.9 MeV. In parallel, early effects on the cell viability and DNA damage were assessed and DNA synthesis was measured. The survival curve obtained was fitted with both the linear and the induced-repair models, as a hyper-radiosensitivity was evidenced at very low doses. Above 0.5 Gy, a linear shape was observed with the α parameter equal to 0.824 ± 0.029 Gy(-1). In addition, early cell ...
[email protected] College Park, Maryland -- April 3, 2009 -- Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiotherapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head, head or neck. It is also safer -- especially for young children -- because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life.. What does the scientific evidence show about proton therapy? With the rapid proliferation of proton facilities in the United States, what will current and future practitioners of proton radiotherapy need to know? Now a panel of researchers, clinicians, and public health experts will debate the promise and perils of proton radiotherapy -- a 70-year-old idea that bridges medicine and particle physics. Spearheaded by the AAPM Science Council and sponsored by the American Association of ...
proton therapy - MedHelps proton therapy Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for proton therapy. Find proton therapy information, treatments for proton therapy and proton therapy symptoms.
DD2 Defense Spotlight - Proton Beams!, How does Proton Therapy work?, Proton Beam Therapy - Mayo Clinic, Curing Cancer with Proton Beams - with Suzie Sheehy, Skymaster - Proton Beams, Ghosbusters Proton Beams, Proton Therapy at PSI
Liverpool will be home to one of the few proton beam therapy centres in the UK, thanks to Proton Partners International, and by working together we will ensure that Liverpool becomes one of the world leaders in proton beam therapy research.. Dr Ian Barwick, chief scientific officer of Proton Partners International, said: Whilst we are building cancer centres across the country, we have always said that research and development are key to our work as we look ahead.. By creating this new system, we will be making an important and innovative step in improving how proton beam therapy is actually delivered to patients.. Our partnership with The University of Liverpool demonstrates that we are completely committed to improving proton beam therapy technology and advancing the wider research effort in cancer care.. Proton Partners International has also signed a 10-year lease to establish a genomics research centre at the Life Sciences Accelerator building in Liverpool which is due to open later ...
proton beam therapy side effects - 28 images - proton therapy side effects cancer treatment side effects, ppt radiation safety brachytherapy proton therapy for, of florida jacksonville fl ppt, tumor treatment northwestern medicine chicago, about proton beam therapy
In this research study the investigators are looking at a type of radiation called proton radiation. Proton radiation has been shown to deliver virtual
A wet chemical route has been used to synthesize the oxygen deficient perovskite Ba Zr0.5 Yb0.5 O3-δ. Analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data showed that both dried and hydrated samples adopt cubic crystal structures of space group Pm 3- m. Dynamic thermogravimetric analysis showed a significant mass loss for the hydrated sample compared to the dried sample, indicating that ∼28% of the oxygen vacancies are filled by protonic defects. The strong O-H stretch band, 2500-3500 cm-1, in the IR absorbance spectrum also clearly manifests the presence of significant levels of protons in the hydrated material. Proton conductivity was investigated on prehydrated (under dry Ar) and as-prepared (under wet Ar) samples. The heating cycle of the prehydrated sample showed higher proton conductivity compared to the cooling cycle, especially in the intermediate temperature range (150-550°C). Finally, comparison with data for Ba Zr0.9 Yb0.1 O3-δ revealed that the more heavily doped sample showed higher proton
USA Pediatric Proton Therapy Market has potential to reach close to US$ 350 Million by the end of year 2021. But its actual market is predicted to be less than even half of this figure. The difference between this actual and potential market is due to its demand and supply gap. In United States, the cancer incidence among pediatric is rising at rapid pace. USA has largest and more efficient proton therapy center in world due to long history of its proton therapy research and huge investment on center development.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/usa-pediatric-proton-therapy-market-patient-numbers-forecast-by-age-and-tumors-36-cancer-types-analyzed-1188-p.php. Age Group of (1-4) has the Largest Cancer Evidence in USA Pediatric Proton Therapy Market. In this report United States pediatric proton therapy market is divided into five age group (,1) Year, (1-4) Year, (5-9) Year, (10-14) Year, (15-18) Year. Out of these age ...
USA Pediatric Proton Therapy Market has potential to reach close to US$ 350 Million by the end of year 2021. But its actual market is predicted to be less than even half of this figure. The difference between this actual and potential market is due to its demand and supply gap. In United States, the cancer incidence among pediatric is rising at rapid pace. USA has largest and more efficient proton therapy center in world due to long history of its proton therapy research and huge investment on center development.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/usa-pediatric-proton-therapy-market-patient-numbers-forecast-by-age-and-tumors-36-cancer-types-analyzed-1188-p.php. Age Group of (1-4) has the Largest Cancer Evidence in USA Pediatric Proton Therapy Market. In this report United States pediatric proton therapy market is divided into five age group (,1) Year, (1-4) Year, (5-9) Year, (10-14) Year, (15-18) Year. Out of these age ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Photochemistry of cytosine derivatives. 2. Photohydration of cytosine derivatives. proton magnetic resonance study on the chemical structure and property of photohydrates. AU - Liu, Fu-Tong. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Photohydrates of cytidine and cytidylic acids have been definitively characterized to be isomeric 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrocytosine derivatives. It has also been demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that (1) the stereochemistry of photohydration is random, (2) the C5-H trans to the C6-OH undergoes a rapid selective exchange in the presence of proton acids, and (3) the dehydration of photohydrates is a trans-elimination. The mechanism of these processes is discussed.. AB - Photohydrates of cytidine and cytidylic acids have been definitively characterized to be isomeric 6-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrocytosine derivatives. It has also been demonstrated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that (1) the stereochemistry of photohydration is random, (2) the C5-H ...
Radiation treatment with protons is suitable for distinct tumors and treatment sites. In general, proton beam therapy is offered to patients, who are treated with curative intent. Whether treatment with protons is an option for you will be decided by the treating radiation oncologist.. Primary tumors eligible for proton beam therapy:. In the context of clinical studies, patient groups are being defined, that have an advantage of being treated with protons instead of photon beam therapy. For some tumors, the superiority of proton beam therapy has already been proven, i.e.:. ...
The Proton Beam Therapy (eProton) programme is a web-based e-learning resource produced in partnership with The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR), the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), College of Radiographers (CoR) and Health Education England e-Learning for Healthcare (HEE e-LfH).. eProton offers useful background and general awareness of proton beam therapy (PBT) for all staff groups working in NHS radiotherapy and related services, especially for those in referral or support centres. This includes clinical oncologists, medical physicists, therapy radiographers and dosimetrists. Other audiences may include professionals working in related services e.g. medical and surgical oncologists, radiologists, clinical engineers, play specialists, specialist nurses and other allied health professionals.. Topics covered include the history of PBT, clinical indications and side effects, physical characteristics and generation of proton beams, treatment planning and delivery, ...
The NHS has revealed plans to open a proton beam cancer treatment centre in the UK. The new facility, which will be located at Manchesters Christie Hospital, will provide patients with access to proton beam therapy on the NHS. The centre will be the first of its kind in the country. Proton beam therapy is […]. ...
Chang Chang, PhD, a leader in proton therapy medical physics, has been named Director of Physics at Texas Center for Proton Therapy.. Previously, as Senior Medical Physicist at ProCure Proton Therapy Center in Somerset, New Jersey, Dr. Chang was involved in the commissioning of new proton technology (including pencil-beam scanning treatment) and the RayStation treatment planning system for both passive and pencil-beam scanning proton treatments.. Pencil-beam scanning in conjunction with on-board cone-beam computed tomography gives clinicians a three-dimensional view of a patients anatomy for more precise treatment. Pencil-beam scanning uses precise ultra-fine proton beams across each layer of the tumor. ■. ...
Dr David Thomson, Consultant Clinical Oncologist at The Christie Hospital in Manchester is the Chief Investigator for the TORPEdO (TOxicity Reduction using Proton bEam therapy for Oropharyngeal cancer) trial. He talks to us about this ground-breaking clinical trial, and how collaboration through NCRIs CTRad was pivotal in getting it off the ground.. TORPEdO is set to be the first clinical trial performed in the UK involving protons. It aims to assess the benefit of proton beam therapy (PBT) in terms of patient-reported toxicities, quality-of-life and cost-effectiveness versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which is the accepted standard of radiotherapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Patients with this type of head and neck cancer often present at a younger age and the survival rates are high, meaning quality of life improvements are extremely important. The trial has recently been funded by Cancer Research UK with a grant of approximately £850k, and patient/carer travel ...
Proton irradiation effects have been studied on CMOS image sensors manufactured in a 0.18 μm technology dedicated to imaging. The ionizing dose and displacement damage effects were discriminated and localized thanks to 60Co irradiations and large photodiode reverse current measurements. The only degradation observed was a photodiode dark current increase. It was found that ionizing dose effects dominate this rise by inducing generation centers at the interface between shallow trench isolations and depleted silicon regions. Displacement damages are responsible for a large degradation of dark current non-uniformity. This work suggests that designing a photodiode tolerant to ionizing radiation can mitigate an important part of proton irradiation effects. ...
Building a proton therapy center can seem like a daunting task. We have condensed the key milestones in building a proton therapy center into an easy to read document as a result of our experience building the majority of proton therapy centers worldwide. Use this document to inform and align stakeholders in your proton therapy project and show them the key steps from conception to a fully operational Proteus®One single room proton therapy center.. ...
Both photon and proton techniques exist for the treatment of thoracic tumors, in particular non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).This brief review will explore the strengths and weaknesses of each technique and examine some of the more recent data comparing the most current methods, in particular with a focus on proton beam therapy (PBT). Limitations of the technology will be discussed both in terms of patient immobilization and in terms of beam delivery methodology. Current studies comparing protons to photons are examining if the ability to spare normal tissue superiority of protons will have a significant clinical effect on the treatment of lung cancer.
Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that sends a powerful beam of protons to the precise site of a tumor. Once the proton beam reaches the tumor, it conforms to its shape and depth, and only then releases its full energy. It then stops, sparing surrounding tissue.. Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that sends a powerful beam of protons to the precise site of a tumor. Once the proton beam reaches the tumor, it conforms to its shape and depth, and only then releases its full energy. It then stops, sparing surrounding tissue.. ...
Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme in the respiratory chains of mitochondria and many bacteria where it translocates protons across a membrane thereby maintaining an electrochemical proton gradient. Results from earlier studies on detergent-solubilized cytochrome c oxidase have shown that individual reaction steps associated with proton pumping display pH-dependent kinetics. Here, we investigated the effect of pH on the kinetics of these reaction steps with membrane-reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase such that the pH was adjusted to different values on the inside and outside of the membrane. The results show that the pH on the inside of the membrane fully determines the kinetics of internal electron transfers that are linked to proton pumping. Thus, even though proton release is rate limiting for these reaction steps (Salomonsson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2005, 102, 17624), the transition kinetics is insensitive to the outside pH (in the range 6-9.5).. ...
Multiscale modeling and simulation spanning multiple length and time scales were employed to understand proton dissociation and transport, membrane morphology in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) that are potential candidates for use in PEM fuel cells. At the most fundamental level, density functional theory was used to study proton dissociation in model acidic pendants that are building blocks for existing and proposed membranes, such as Nafion, sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and sulfonyl imides. The sulfonyl imide acid group was observed to be the strongest, while the functional acid group of SPEEK membrane was found to be the weakest acid with the acidic proton dissociation requiring the addition of three and six water molecules respectively. Even though both sulfonyl imides and fluoroethyl sulfonic acids (functional acid group for Nafion) required only three water molecules to exhibit spontaneous proton dissociation, the largest possible solvent-separated hydronium ion was ...
A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of endotoxin on UCP homolog mRNA abundance, thermoregulation, and mitochondrial proton leak kinetics. AU - Yu, Xing Xian. AU - Barger, Jamie L.. AU - Boyer, Bert. AU - Brand, Martin D.. AU - Pan, Guohua. AU - Adams, Sean H.. PY - 2000/9/14. Y1 - 2000/9/14. N2 - Linking tissue uncoupling protein (UCP) homolog abundance with functional metabolic outcomes and with expression of putative genetic regulators promises to better clarify UCP homolog physiological function. A murine endotoxemia model characterized by marked alterations in thermoregulation was employed to examine the association between heat production, UCP homolog expression, and mitochondrial proton leak (uncoupling). After intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, ≃6 mg/kg) injection, colonic temperature (T(c)) in adult female C57BL6/J mice dropped to a nadir of ≃30°C by 8 h, preceded by a four- to fivefold drop in liver UCP2 and UCP5/brain mitochondrial carrier protein 1 mRNA levels, with no change in their ...
Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed ...
Backgrounds: Low-Z inhomogeneities such as lung and air column create dose perturbation in proton beam therapy (PBT) for lung and liver treatments. Without proper inhomogeneity correction, dose perturbation causes inaccurate patient treatment. The impact of low-Z material on proton dose distributions is studied and compared with those obtained from the treatment planning system.. Material and methods: Urie et al [1] in 1984 showed that low-Z bulk inhomogeneity can be corrected by scaling the range shift, DR, by equivalent density, Ρeq for a thickness, t, as:. ΔR = (1-t Ρeq/Ρw). This concept is revisited by measurement at our center for 208 MeV beam with a maximum range of 28 cm. Measurements were made in a solid water-cork (Ρ=0.25g/cm3) slab phantom mimicking tissue-lung with parallel plate ion chamber embedded in the phantom. Measurements were made in reference condition (10 cm aperture, 16 cm range, 10 cm SOBP). The slab phantom was scanned and data transferred to the CMS treatment ...
Nafion (a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane) is widely used in fuel cells to conduct protons, but Nafion membranes are prone to rapid dehydration at low humidity, which results in a loss of conductiv ...
The Proton Treatment Facility at TRIUMF is dedicated to treating a cancerous growth on the back of the eye, called choroidal melanomas. Before proton treatment became available, the most common course of action was removal of the eye. Other possible treatments included surgical removal of the tumour (which has severe limitations), or implanting a radioactive disk on the wall of the eye under the tumour for some days (Brachytherapy). These alternatives were unsuitable for large tumours, and could damage sensitive parts of the eye, often resulting in loss of vision. After proton therapy, however, patients can retain useful vision. The protons enter the eye at a carefully controlled energy, and come to rest at a precise, predictable distance inside. They deposit their energy of motion (kinetic energy) in a very narrow layer, destroying living cells in that layer. Because the beam of protons is so concentrated and deposits its energy so predictably, we can successfully destroy a tumour while better ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in neurodegenerative diseases. AU - Schuff, Norbert. AU - Vermathen, Peter. AU - Maudsley, Andrew A. AU - Weiner, Michael W.. PY - 1999/3/25. Y1 - 1999/3/25. N2 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) was used to investigate changes in brain metabolites in Alzheimers disease, epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Examples of results from several ongoing clinical studies are provided. Multislice 1H MRSI of the human brain, without volume preselection offers considerable advantage over previously available techniques. Furthermore, MRI tissue segmentation and completely automated spectral curve fitting greatly facilitate quantitative data analysis. Future efforts will be devoted to obtain full volumetric brain coverage and data acquisition at short spin-echo times (TE , 30 ms) for the detection of metabolites.. AB - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) was used to investigate changes in ...
Chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms is the basis for many biological processes, including energy conversion from light into chemical potentials. In a recent collaborative study of the SFB 1078 under the direction of Hartmut Oschkinat (B1), Peter Hegemann (B1, B2) and Roland R. Netz (C1), proton exchange was detected and characterized in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, a well-established model system for protonation dynamics studies. The work, published in the new open access journal Communications Biology of the Nature Publishing Group, revealed that reversible proton translocation occurs even in the dark-state of the protein, involving the retinal Schiff base and D85 exchanging protons with H2O. The authors find evidence of an active site proton cage and possible proton transfer via R82. The experimental observations have been corroborated by theoretical approaches, further extending the general understanding of proton exchange in proteins.. Friedrich, D., Brünig, F. N., ...
The |i|Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems|/i| (JATIS) publishes peer-reviewed papers reporting on original research in the development, testing, and application of telescopes, instrumentation, techniques, and systems for ground- and space-based astronomy.
Few argue that proton therapy is ineffective, though many would like to see it subjected to rigorous testing. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) in 2009 expressed concern that enthusiasm for this promising therapy may be getting ahead of the research. NCI experts worry about a lack of published randomized, controlled trials that show proton therapy works better than standard radiation therapy and increases survival, or improves quality of life for patients.. Cost is also a huge concern associated with proton therapy - and one reason so many hospitals are eager to jump into the proton therapy business. Medicare reimburses proton therapy at about twice the rate of standard radiation therapy, which prompts concerns that patients (or their insurers) could pay twice the price for a treatment that may be no more effective than the cheaper alternative.. This one would be paid for by a a mix of capital, bonds and philanthropy, according to Cleveland.com. What an obfuscation. No, it will be paid for ...
Im sure youve seen the latest Proton ad on TV. There is a silhouette of a car (that looks like a Gen2) and it ends with the message you can book at Proton showrooms today. The funny thing is, Proton seems to have a very inflated sense of their image.. They dont show me the car, and expect me to travel to the showroom to see the car? Fat chance. They think they are BMW or something. Hello? At least have some creativity and make your new car transform into a robot or something la.. Now let me pause here to say that I am not working for Proton competitor, and I currently drive a Proton car so this eliminates any financial motives for writing this post. However you will notice a certain mood of hostility towards the company.. As a Proton owner, I just want to give you seven things to think about before you go and buy that car:. 1) EON or Proton Edar?. Before you decide on your purchase, you better find out where the nearest service centre is. If the EON service centre is nearer, buy from an EON ...
PAP (polyadenylate polymerase) is the template-independent RNA polymerase responsible for synthesis of the 3′ poly(A) tails of mRNA. To investigate the role of proton transfer in the catalytic mechanism of PAP, the pH dependence of the steady-state kinetic parameters of yeast PAP were determined for the forward (adenyl transfer) and reverse (pyrophosphorolysis) reactions. The results indicate that productive formation of an enzyme-RNA-MgATP complex is pH independent over a broad pH range, but that formation of an active enzyme-RNA-MgPPi complex is strongly pH dependent, consistent with the production of a proton on the enzyme in the forward reaction. The pH dependence of the maximum velocity of the forward reaction suggests two protonic species are involved in enzyme catalysis. Optimal enzyme activity requires one species to be protonated and the other deprotonated. The deuterium solvent isotope effect on Vmax is also consistent with proton transfer involved in catalysis of a rate-determining ...
PROTONs main plant is situated at Shah Alam, with an area of 99, 400 sq m. The site also houses an engine and transmission factory, a castings plant, R&D centre and a semi-high speed test track. The factory is currently producing 240,000 units per annum.. The investment into developing research and design capabilities which includes the expertise of PROTONs wholly-owned subsidiary Lotus Engineering UK, one of the worlds leading automotive engineering consultancy companies, has provided PROTON with an invaluable resource which has helped place the national car company at the forefront of the automotive industry. Proton acquired a share in Lotus Group International in October 1996. This stake was increased to 100% in 2003. Since the acquisition, personnel from Lotus are closely involved in Protons new model development, with a team of engineers permanently based at the research and development centre in Malaysia.. The launch of Protons new Research and Development facility in 1998 has ...
hanivinside.NET , http://www.hanivniside.net Review Mobil Proton Indonesia Terbaik , http://www.hanivinside.net/2014/08/review-mobil-proton-indonesia-terbaik.html Asus Zenfone Smartphone Android Terbaik , http://www.hanivinside.net/2014/08/asus-zenfone-smartphone-android-terbaik.html Review Mobil Proton , http://www.bhinneka.com/forum/55598/Review-Mobil-Proton-Indonesia-Terbaik Mobil Proton , http://hanivinside.edublogs.org/2014/08/27/review-mobil-proton-indonesia-terbaik/ Mobil Proton Indonesia , http://hanivinside.blogdetik.com/2014/08/27/review-mobil-proton-indonesia-terbaik/ Review Mobil Proton Indonesia Terbaik , http://haniv.mblogi.com/2014/08/27/review-mobil-proton-indonesia-terbaik/ Proton Indonesia Terbaik , http://www.lautanindonesia.com/blog/einztein/blog/37860/proton-indonesia-terbaik Mobil Proton Indonesia Terbaik , http://www.geschool.net/haniv/blog/review-mobil-proton-indonesia-terbaik Review Mobil Terbaik , ...
Interpretation Of Proton Nmr Spectra - 28 images - Chemistry Assignment Of 13c Nmr Spectra To Structural, Benchtop Nmr On Ibuprofen Molecules, How To Interpret Proton Nmr Spectra Thespectroscopy, Image Gallery Nmr Spectrum, Organic Spectroscopy International 1h Nmr
Proton beam therapy is a type of radiotherapy that uses high-energy proton beams rather than high-energy radiation beams to deliver a dose of radiotherapy.It can be used to treat different types of cancer including some types of sarcoma
Radiotherapy (RT) is an image-intensive specialty in medicine that utilizes radiation for treatment of cancer. Similar to x-ray beam treatment, proton therapy (PT) utilizes high energy particle proton beam to kill cancer cells at the target region. Due to the physical properties of the proton beam, PT delivers dose with higher accuracy than conventional radiotherapy with x-ray beams and no exit dose. In PT, patient data are scattered in different systems within the oncology department which hinders the research on many topics such as whether PT with higher dose or different delivery schedules is more beneficial to reducing toxicity of prostate cancer patients. This research aims to introduce a data mining method and a treatment plan navigator utilizing the infrastructure and data repository of a PT electronic patient record (ePR) system that can ultimately help to minimize radiation toxicity in prostate cancer patients and improve patient outcomes in future proton therapy treatment.; The ...
The New York Proton Center (NYPC) has treated its first proton therapy cancer patients. Equipped with the Varian ProBeam® proton therapy system, NYPC is New York States first proton therapy...
Currently a standard treatment for several gastrointestinal cancers (GI) combines the use of chemotherapy and radiation followed by surgical resection. Radiation may be part of the treatment strategy for select cancers of the esophagus, anus, rectum, pancreatic, or small intestine. This treatment approach is often associated with improved outcomes but the radiation may also cause increased side effects to adjacent organs. Doctors are evaluating whether proton beam therapy, a more precise way to deliver radiation may be a superior alternative to standard radiation therapy.. Proton therapy is similar to traditional radiation therapy, but it uses a different type of energy and is much more accurate at targeting tumors. Standard radiation therapy uses X-ray beams made up of photons, which are tiny particles that transmit light. Photons deposit energy as they travel to the tumor, into the tumor itself and beyond the tumor. This results in side effects from damage to nearby healthy tissues or organs. ...
Treating medulloblastoma with proton beam therapy results in survival rates in line with other proton therapies, according to recent study data.
Observations of the temperature dependence of the nuclear resonance spectrum of the methyl group in Methylammonium chloride solutions have enabled a value for the activation energy. $\Delta $E, associated with the two predominant proton transfer reactions to be desired. A value of $\Delta E=0=1k.$/cals, has been obtained. Rate constants have been measured over a concentration range of 0.25 M to 4.0 M, using similar methods to those previously $applied.^{1}$ Similar experiments are in progress to determine the proton transfer activation energy in ammonium chloride solutions, and will be reported. The results will be discussed with reference to recent theories of proton transfer in amine $solutions.^{2 ...
With protons having completely decayed, the Black Hole Era begins. The universe is now filled with "zombie galaxies" of black ... However, if protons are really unstable, they begin to decay and atoms disintegrate, erasing all the remaining degenerate ... Francis, Matthew R. (September 22, 2015). "Do protons decay?". Symmetry Magazine. Retrieved July 31, 2020. Jones, Chris; ...
protons and neutrons. The sequence of steps in which the reorganization of chemical bonds may be taking place in the course of ... When an atom loses an electron and thus has more protons than electrons, the atom is a positively charged ion or cation. When ... For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon, but atoms of carbon may have ... In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons. The nucleus is dense; the ...
"Protons fuel graphene prospects". The University of Manchester. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014. Hu, S.; Lozada- ... 26 November Graphene has been found to allow positively charged hydrogen atoms or protons to pass through it, despite being ... "Proton transport through one-atom-thick crystals". Nature. 516 (7530): 227-230. arXiv:1410.8724. Bibcode:2014Natur.516..227H. ...
Proton Decay. These graphics refer to the X bosons and Higgs bosons. Dimension 6 proton decay mediated by the X boson ( 3 , 2 ... Many GUT models also predict proton decay, although not the Pati-Salam model; proton decay has never been observed by ... However, minimum proton lifetimes from research (at or exceeding the 1034-1035 year range) have ruled out simpler GUTs and most ... The maximum upper limit on proton lifetime (if unstable), is calculated at 6 x 1039 years for SUSY models and 1.4 x 1036 years ...
It was used in the Proton-K configuration of the rocket and is still in use in the newer Proton-M variant (along with the Briz- ... Proton - launch vehicle that has flown the most with this stage. Zenit-3 - launch vehicle that uses this stage. Angara A5 - ... Blok D was also included as fourth stage of Proton-K and as such flew on unmanned Soviet missions to Moon, Mars (Mars 3) and ... "Proton Design (3)". Retrieved 1 August 2015. "Upper stage Blok DM, DM-SL". RSC Energia. Retrieved 30 June 2013. Krebs, Gunter ...
Luna E-8-5 No.402 was launched at 04:00:07 UTC on 14 June 1969 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper stage, ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ... No Luna spacecraft or Proton rocket was launched on that date. Spaceflight portal Williams, David R. (6 January 2005). " ...
... was launched at 10:33:00 UTC on 2 April 1969 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Block D upper stage, ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. Siddiqi, Asif A. Deep space chronicle: a chronology of deep space ...
The almost 19-year streak of successful JCSAT launches was ended when a Proton-M/Briz-M failed to orbit JCSAT-11 on September 5 ... "Proton". Retrieved 2016-08-10. Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2016-04-21). "JCSat 10, 11, 12 (JCSat 3A, RA)". Gunter's Space Page. ... Zak, Anatoly (September 12, 2007). "Proton/JCSAT-11 launch failure". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 2016-08-05. "Arianespace to ...
... was launched at 06:48:15 UTC on 19 February 1969 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper stage ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. v t e. ... 51 seconds as the booster was passing through the point of maximum aerodynamic pressure and debris struck the Proton's external ...
Luna E-8-5 No.405 was launched at 04:16:06 UTC on 6 February 1970 atop a Proton-K 8K78K carrier rocket with a Blok-D upper ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. v t e. ...
Luna E-8-5M No.412 was launched at 04:04:56 UTC on 16 October 1975 atop a Proton-K 8K78K launch vehicle with a Blok D-1 upper ... "Proton". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 July 2010. RussianSpaceWeb.com v t e. ...
Wilson studied how the depth of proton beam penetration could be controlled by the energy of the protons. This phenomenon is ... The blue curve in the figure ("modified proton beam") shows how the originally monoenergetic proton beam with the sharp peak is ... For protons, α-rays, and other ion rays, the peak occurs immediately before the particles come to rest. This is called Bragg ... This characteristic of proton beams was first recommended for use in cancer therapy by Robert R. Wilson in his 1946 article, ...
The protons are accelerated to 80 percent of the speed of light on the approximately 4 km long track, which the protons cover ... They accelerate the protons to around 80 percent of the speed of light. In a proton source based on cyclotron resonance, ... What remains are the hydrogen atomic nuclei, each consisting of only one proton. These protons leave the source with a ... It was the first superconducting cyclotron worldwide to be used for proton therapy. Previously, part of the proton beam from ...
Alamgir; Kang, Sung Ok; Powell, Douglas; Lushington, Gerald; Bowman-James, Kristin (2007). "Encircled Proton". J. Am. Chem. Soc ... Ishikita, Hiroshi; Saito, Keisuke (2014-02-06). "Proton transfer reactions and hydrogen-bond networks in protein environments ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Andy Nash; Victor Proton; Robert Farrell & Roy Matsuda (2006-05-01). "Tropical Cyclone ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Andy Nash; Victor Proton; Robert Farrell & Roy Matsuda (2006-05-01). "Tropical Cyclone ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Andy Nash; Victor Proton; Robert Farrell & Roy Matsuda (2006-05-01). "Tropical Cyclone ...
Proton Radio. 2000. Retrieved September 2, 2016. Jimmy started mixing in early 1992. He started off by doing guest spots at The ...
Felbermayr-Proton participates with two Porsche 911 GT3 RSR in the FIA WEC!]. proton-competition.com (in German). Proton ... Mercier, Laurent (9 February 2012). "Felbermayr-Proton finalise ses équipages" [Felbermayr-Proton finalizes its crews.]. ... "Felbermayr-Proton nimmt mit 2 Porsche 911 GT3 RSR an der FIA-WEC teil!" [ ... Dagys, John (23 January 2012). "AF Corse, Felbermayr-Proton Confirm WEC Entries". SpeedTV.com. Speed. Archived from the ...
"Contact Us." Proton Holdings. Retrieved on 24 July 2016. "Proton Holdings Berhad Centre of Excellence Complex, KM33.8 Westbound ... The Malaysia headquarters of PROTON Holdings, the Centre of Excellence; Lotus Cars, Faber-Castell and many other major ...
Kurie, Franz N. D. (1933). "The Collisions of Neutrons with Protons". Physical Review. 44 (6): 463-467. Bibcode:1933PhRv...44.. ... showed that the neutron was neither a dumbbell-shaped combination of proton and electron, nor an onion-shaped combination of an ... electron embracing the proton. Consequently, and until the discovery of the quark structure of hadrons, the neutron was assumed ...
These would later be named protons. 1893 Alfred Werner discovers the octahedral structure of cobalt complexes, thus ... "Nuclear Twins: The Discovery of the Proton and Neutron". Electron Centennial Page. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Solvay Conference". ...
Dirac, P. A. M. (1930). "A Theory of Electrons and Protons". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 126 (801): 360-365. Bibcode: ... "New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle Intermediate Between the Proton and Electron", Phys. Rev. 52, 1003 (1937). ... Joliot-Curie, Irène & Joliot, Frédéric (1932). "Émission de protons de grande vitesse par les substances hydrogénées sous ... On a Consequence of the Dirac Theory of Protons and Electrons), Доклады Академии Наук СССР (Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR / ...
All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P ... protective group proton A subatomic particle with a positive electric charge that is found in the nucleus of an atom. Often ... atomic number (Z) The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of a given chemical element. It is identical to the ... Examples include protons, neutrons, and electrons. sublimation The phase transition of a substance from a solid to a limewater ...
P.A.M. Dirac (1930). "A Theory of Electrons and Protons". Proceedings of the Royal Society. A126 (801): 360-365. Bibcode: ...
About 89% of these are protons. The flux of cosmic rays is approximately proportional to 1/(Ea) where E is the energy and a is ... Cosmic rays that hit the Earth's atmosphere do not tend to make it to the Earth's surface as protons. Instead, they interact ... In pion production, the protons (UHECRs) above 1020eV have enough energy to interact with the CMBR to create pions, and above ... proton, gamma ray, etc.). The front of the air shower from UHE cosmic rays can cover several square kilometers and therefore ...
... these will later be named protons. Eduard Suess begins publication in Vienna of his Das Antlitz der Erde setting out his theory ...
Hermann Weyl also noted that a hole should act as though it has the same mass as an electron, whereas the proton is about two ... Initially, Dirac identified this hole as a proton. However, Robert Oppenheimer pointed out that an electron and its hole would ... Dirac, P. A. M. (1930). "A Theory of Electrons and Protons". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 126 (801): 360-365. Bibcode:1930RSPSA.126.. ... A Theory of Electrons and Protons) indicates. But it soon afterwards became clear that the mass of holes must be that of the ...
... lone protons [and] cosmos cold socks." "Triangles" is a slower piece that has been compared to 1974-era Cluster "twilight ...
This technique uses a focused beam of high energy (MeV) protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions and has been shown ... doi:10.1007/s11468-011-9237-0. Watt, Frank (June 2007). "Proton Beam Writing". Materials Today. 10 (6): 20-29. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Birth of Proton: The Iconic Rocket That Almost Wasn't". www.russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 2015-06-08. Zak, Anatoly. "Proton's ... "RD0208, RD0209 Launch Vehicle Proton (8K82H-4 two stages). RD0210, RD0211, RD0212 (RD0213, RD0214) Launch Vehicle Proton (8K82K ... Proton - uses RD-0214. UR-200 - Used the RD-0207. KBKhA - The RD-0207 and RD-0214 design bureau. Voronezh Mechanical Plant - A ... It has four nozzles that can each gimbal 45 in plane to provide TVC to the RD-0212 propulsion module of Proton third stage. It ...
The Proton Ertiga is a rebadged Ertiga for the Malaysian market by Proton. It was launched on 24 November 2016, at the press ... "PROTON - It's In The Drive". www.proton.com. Archived from the original on 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2019-09-09. Desirazu, Venkat ( ... "Proton Ertiga MPV launched in Malaysia - RM59k-65k". Paul Tan's Automotive News. 2016-11-24. Retrieved 2016-12-04. "New Proton ... In September 2019, the Ertiga disappeared from Proton's official website with no further announcement from Proton, resulting ...
Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. Proton CTV = prostate + 5 mm margin. PTV = CTV + 7-10 mm. Loma Linda ... PROG 95-09 (1996-1999) -- Proton/photon 70.2 Gy vs. proton/photon 79.2 Gy *Randomized. 2 institutions (Harvard and Loma Linda ... Outcome: 5-year LC photon+proton 92% vs. photons 80% (NS), no difference in OS, DSS, TRFS. GS 4/5 patients 94% vs. 64% (SS) ... 202 patients, Stage T3-T4Nx,0-2. Standard photons 50.4 Gy four-field, then Arm 1) Conformal protons 25.2 CGE (total 75.6 CGE) ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are one of the most widely used classes of drugs. PPIs have a very favorable safety profile, and ... Laine L: Proton pump inhibitors and bone fractures? Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104:S21-S26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Yang YX: Proton pump inhibitor therapy and osteoporosis. Curr Drug Saf 2008, 3:204-209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ali T, Roberts DN, Tierney WM: Long-term safety concerns with proton pump inhibitors. Am J Med 2009, 122:896-903.CrossRefPubMed ...
Proton Bank (in Greek Proton Τράπεζα Α.Ε.) was established in 2001 as Τράπεζα Επενδυτικών Δραστηριοτήτων Α.Ε. and officially ... "Στον Λαυρέντη Λαυρεντιάδη το 31,3% της Proton Bank" (in Greek). Capital.gr. 30 Dec 2009. "Proton Bank: Ο κ. Λαυρέντιος ... Proton Bank consistently ranked among the top ten brokers in Greece in terms of market share in the cash market. A top ten ... Proton Bank was a member of Athens Stock Exchange, EUREX and Cyprus Stock Exchange. It was the first broker in Greece to ...
Proton Persona (C90) (4-door) Proton Persona Aeroback (5-door) Proton Persona Compact (3-door) Proton Persona Coupé (2-door) ... The first generation Proton Persona (C90) refers to the export name given to the Proton Wira. The first use of the Proton ... The Proton Wira made its debut in the United Kingdom in November 1993, where it was sold as the Proton Persona. The Persona ... The third generation Proton Persona (BH) was unveiled in August 2016. It is based on an extended Proton Iriz platform, and is ...
For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation).. Proton. The quark content of a proton. The color assignment of individual quarks ... However, the character of such bound protons does not change, and they remain protons. A fast proton moving through matter will ... Proton in chemistry[edit]. Atomic number[edit]. In chemistry, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is known as the ... The acid is referred to as a proton donor and the base as a proton acceptor. Likewise, biochemical terms such as proton pump ...
Proton therapy delivers precise radiation treatment for better outcomes and a lower risk of side effects. ... The University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute offers proton therapy for cancer treatment. ... What Is Proton Therapy?. Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that uses protons rather than traditional X- ... Of the 23 proton therapy centers in the U.S., we are one of three proton therapy facilities to achieve this recognition.. Read ...
Looking for the ideal Protons Gifts? Come check out our giant selection of T-Shirts, Mugs, Tote Bags, Stickers and More. ... Find high quality Protons Gifts at CafePress. Shop a large selection of custom t-shirts, sweatshirts, mugs and more. ...
www.thoughtco.com/protons-neutrons-and-electrons-in-an-atom-603818. Follow these simple steps to find the number of protons, ... How Many Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Does Chlorine Have? www.reference.com/science/many-electrons-protons-neutrons-chlorine ... www.questionsanswered.net/article/10-things-know-about-proton-therapy. Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option thats just ... www.thoughtco.com/protons-and-electrons-in-ions-problem-609591. This worked chemistry problem demonstrates how to determine the ...
http://www.mediafire.com/file/niwf3tvn3uhj8tc/Proton_Road_90_x32.zip/file. .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; height: ...
Source for information on proton magnetometer: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... proton magnetometer A form of nuclear-precession magnetometer that is based on the precession of protons in water or alcohol. ... proton magnetometer A form of nuclear-precession magnetometer that is based on the precession of protons in water or alcohol.. ... proton magnetometer A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford ...
Stay focused and aim well to win against the aggressive and vicious Proton Ball! How many mistakes you make will determine who ... The Proton Ball really likes to hit players on the head. If it hits you, your adversary earns one point. Use your Proton-Gun to ... Proton Ball is a VR sports game, kind of a mix between a game of Dodge-ball and a Shooting Range.. Multiplayer on LAN only. ... Stay focused and aim well to win against the aggressive and vicious Proton Ball! How many mistakes you make will determine who ...
... : Targeted Treatment. At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, advanced pencil beam technology steers protons to ... Proton Power. The recent opening of the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center heralds a new era for cancer treatment at Johns ... Proton Power: The Synchrotron. At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, the action starts in a huge particle accelerator ... Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center Opens at Sibley Memorial Hospital The new facility offers adult and pediatric patients ...
28, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- About Proton Therapy Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which is used to treat cancer ... About Proton Therapy. Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which is used to treat cancer patients by means of proton ... The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is the pioneer in this technology and also initiated the pencil beam proton therapy, ... Proton therapy uses the ionization technique to inhibit cell proliferation. Protons move slowly through the body and interact ...
... a newly launched satellite is propelled using a super-thin thread of positively charged string that repels protons fired out by ... ESTCube-1, which went into orbit on Tuesday, will put proton-powered electric solar sails to the test for the first time. It ... The new electric sail, proposed in 2008, harnesses solar protons instead. Wires with a positive charge will extend from the ... craft and repel protons - also positively charged - to propel the tiny satellite. ...
Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ... Popular Science Magazine sent me a couple of sketches and diagrams for an upcoming medical device called the Proton Accelerator ...
Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. ... Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. ... Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy ... proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. Doctors can better aim proton beams onto a tumor, so there is ... Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells ...
BASF has developed a proton-conductive membrane that can be used at temperatures of up to 180°C for robust fuel cell systems ... is gas-proof and contains phosphoric acid for proton conduction. ... New-Business-GmbH/our-solutions/proton-conductive-membrane ... New-Business-GmbH/our-solutions/proton-conductive-membrane ... Proton-conductive membrane * Use case: Electrochemical hydrogen ...
Among its many attractions will be the chance to probe deep into the proton ... Now HERA is ready, and the detectors lie in wait to capture the particles produced in the collisions of high-energy protons and ... The new approach with HERA is to collide two beams of quite different particles - electrons and protons. These … ... physicists have made important discoveries by colliding protons with antiprotons and, more recently, by colliding electrons ...
... the proton, is about 4 percent smaller than previously thought. The new size could poke holes in one of the pillars of the ... Because of their extra bulk, muons orbit closer to the proton, and their energy levels are more sensitive to the protons size. ... But the distance between the electron and the proton depends slightly on the protons size, similar to how a planets distance ... If you want to compare theory and experiments, you need to know the charge radius of the proton, said physicist Randolf Pohl ...
Protons[edit]. Main articles: Charges/Protons and Protons. The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol p or p+. and a ... One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom, along with neutrons. The number of protons in each atom is its ... Free protons exist in plasmas in which temperatures are too high to allow them to combine with electrons. Free protons of high ... Proton astronomy per se often consists of directly or indirectly detecting the protons and deconvoluting a spatial, temporal, ...
29 protons, 29 electrons, 36 neutrons Copper The number of protons in an atom of an. ... Copper 63: 29 protons, 29 electrons, 34 neutrons Copper 65: 29 protons, 29 electrons, 36 neutrons Copper The number of protons ... How many neutrons protons and electrons does krypton have?. no of protons-36 no of electrons-36 ([ Ar ] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 ) no of ... How many protons and neutrons are there in copper 63?. \nThere are 29 Protons and 34 Neutrons in Copper-63. There are also 29 ...
The Future of Proton Therapy. "Im very proud that our team has been able to define how we use protons today, but really what ... Nibauer-Cohen runs a robust Proton Alumni Group made up of patients who have completed proton therapy and wish to be a source ... Homepage photo: Protons offer a way to deliver radiation in a way that minimizes exposure to normal tissue. At the Roberts ... One proton corridor. Five treatment rooms. As many as 115 patients treated each day, and upwards of 5,000 who have received ...
www.thoughtco.com/protons-neutrons-and-electrons-in-an-atom-603818. Follow these simple steps to find the number of protons, ... How Many Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Does Chlorine Have? www.reference.com/science/many-electrons-protons-neutrons-chlorine ... www.questionsanswered.net/article/10-things-know-about-proton-therapy. Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option thats just ... www.reference.com/science/many-protons-neutrons-aluminum-e6d60112a18483c8. One atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 14 neutrons ...
Models and experiments to date have been unable to properly explain a fundamental property of protons spin. Published by Dr. ... Current understanding of the spin structure of protons has been summarised in a single book for the first time. The book ... Bass on the missing spin of protons: "Protons are combinations of more basic entities called quarks and gluons. Each proton is ... Just like the protons, the quarks and gluons themselves also spin. The spin of the proton is therefore generated by the spin of ...
Geely finalizes Proton purchase. Deal opens door to Southeast Asian market for the Chinese cars By Asia Unhedged June 24, 2017 ... "For Proton, we hope to help gain back market share in Malaysia, and also expand into Asean," Geely chairman Li Shufu was quoted ... Chinese automaker Geely as completed a deal to buy 49.9% of struggling Malaysian car maker Proton, as well as 51% of the firms ...
Proton pump inhibitors are one of the most frequently prescribed classes of drug in the world because they combine a high level ... The first generic proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was introduced in 2002 and now comprises more than four fifths of all ... In the five years since the introduction of omeprazole, precriptions for proton pump inhibitors have doubled, although the ... 2 Yet studies consistently show that proton pump inhibitors are being overprescribed worldwide in both primary and secondary ...
... issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PROTON-260 , Project: Qpid Proton , Issue Type: Improvement , Components: proton-c , Affects ... jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260... ASF subversion and git services (JIRA). *[jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260... ASF subversion and ... jira] [Commented] (PROTON-260) Messenger Documentation ASF subversion and git services (JIRA) Fri, 01 Nov 2013 09:58:21 -0700 ... ASF subversion and git services commented on PROTON-260: -------------------------------------------------------- Commit ...
... Andrew Stitcher (JIRA). * *[jira] [Updated] (PROTON-1095) Error handling Andrew ... issues.apache.org/jira/browse/PROTON-1095 , Project: Qpid Proton , Issue Type: Improvement , Components: cpp-binding , Reporter ... jira] [Updated] (PROTON-1095) Error handling Andrew Stitcher (JIRA) Wed, 27 Jan 2016 13:29:09 -0800 ... Andrew Stitcher updated PROTON-1095: ------------------------------------ Fix Version/s: 0.12.0 , Error handling ...
Bookings for the new Proton X70 can be made online via Protons corporate website www.proton.com. Those who want to book a unit ... SUBANG JAYA: Bookings for the new Proton X70 can be made online via Protons corporate website www.proton.com. ... Provided by Star Media Group Berhad Proton X70 (3) © Provided by Star Media Group Berhad Proton X70 (4) ... Proton will also feature full details of the Proton X70 on its website, including full specifications for each model variant. ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in the lining of ... Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in the lining of ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to:. *Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ... Proton pump inhibitors. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Walthman, MA: Elsevier; 2016:1040-1045. ...
Proton-proton cycle, chain of thermonuclear reactions that is the chief source of the energy radiated by the Sun and other cool ... Alternative Title: proton-proton reaction. Proton-proton cycle, also called Proton-proton Reaction, chain of thermonuclear ... In a proton-proton cycle, four hydrogen nuclei (protons) are combined to form one helium nucleus; 0.7 percent of the original ... In the proton-proton chain the helium nucleus is built up directly from protons. In another series of reactions that involve ...
  • PMID 7721636 -- "Advanced prostate cancer: the results of a randomized comparative trial of high dose irradiation boosting with conformal protons compared with conventional dose irradiation using photons alone. (wikibooks.org)
  • The concept of surface coupled proton exchange between membrane proteins has long been criticized because the origin of proton?s surface affinity remained enigmatic. (jku.at)
  • SUPERCIRCUIT Chassis Bars developed for the PROTON IRIZ to strengthen the chassis for better handling, accurate steering and safer maneuvering. (h-performance.com.my)
  • The genome-based modeling revealed that, global proton balance was significantly different for Geobacter species, which rely on extra-cellular electron transfer to insoluble substrates, in comparison to aerobic organisms which reduce oxygen to water. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, improved understanding of the global proton balance in Geobacter species can provide insights on the physiology of other species capable of extra-cellular electron transfer such as Rhodoferax , Shewanella regardless of the mechanism of the electron transfer since protons are not consumed at the terminal electron accepting step in all cases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The characterization of this proton exchange can provide additional insights on the metabolism and physiology of less studied organisms such as Geobacteraceae that use extra-cellular electron transfer for energy generation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though stable, antiprotons are typically short-lived, because any collision with a proton will cause both particles to be annihilated in a burst of energy. (proprofs.com)
  • Protons are tiny, subatomic particles found in the nucleus of every atom. (uab.edu)
  • Inside cells of the body, the proton wants to strip electrons - the negatively charged subatomic particles - from molecules. (uab.edu)
  • Proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) is a form of external radiation therapy in which positively charged subatomic particles, or protons, are targeted to a specific tissue mass through use of a stereotactic planning and delivery system. (bcbsnd.com)
  • PMID 20124169 -- "Randomized Trial Comparing Conventional-Dose With High-Dose Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Long-Term Results From Proton Radiation Oncology Group/American College of Radiology 95-09. (wikibooks.org)
  • All other applications of proton beam radiation therapy are considered EXPERIMENTAL/INVESTIGATIVE due to a lack of evidence demonstrating an impact on improved health outcomes. (bcbsnd.com)
  • Proton beam radiation therapy used in combination with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in a single treatment plan is not covered. (bcbsnd.com)
  • For more on proton therapy at UAB, click here . (uab.edu)
  • The science behind this proton therapy has two elements. (uab.edu)
  • The Varian ProBeam Proton Therapy System for intensity-modulated therapy will be manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, a pioneering developer of new tools for fighting cancer. (uab.edu)
  • When it becomes operational, the new Varian proton therapy system will seamlessly integrate with UAB's existing Varian software and technology. (uab.edu)
  • A 90-ton machine called a cyclotron will accelerate protons to very high speeds to impact human tumors. (uab.edu)
  • Arm 1) proton boost 19.8/11 GyE followed by photons 50.4/28 vs. Arm 2) proton boost 28.8/16 followed by photons 50.4/28. (wikibooks.org)
  • Standard photons 50.4 Gy four-field, then Arm 1) Conformal protons 25.2 CGE (total 75.6 CGE) vs. Arm 2) Photons 16.8 Gy (total 67.2 Gy). (wikibooks.org)
  • Outcome: 5-year LC photon+proton 92% vs. photons 80% (NS), no difference in OS, DSS, TRFS. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, as protons speed through healthy tissue toward a tumor, they cause less damage in that healthy tissue than cancer radiotherapy using traditional X-rays. (uab.edu)
  • Protons from hydrogen gas are injected at the center of the cyclotron. (uab.edu)
  • Here we monitored the diffusion of excess protons along the phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer/water interface at different temperatures. (jku.at)
  • A high value of the SKIE for wild type APX ((D)k(3) = 4.9) as well as a clear nonlinear dependence on the deuterium composition of the solvent in proton inventory experiments suggest the simultaneous participation of several protons in the transition state for proton transfer. (le.ac.uk)
  • The Proton is designed to get the max out of a racing course, meaning starts, acceleration, speed and jibes. (goyawindsurfing.com)
  • The weak dependence of both migration speed and span on lipid composition suggests that interfacial water serves as proton railways (1). (jku.at)
  • Our observation that more than 2/3 of ?G are entropic in origin explains the high proton affinity to membranes in the absence of a potent proton acceptor. (jku.at)
  • Thus, Arg38 and Arg172 have dual roles, both in the formation of the ferryl species and binding of ascorbate respectively and to facilitate proton transfer between the two. (le.ac.uk)
  • We investigated solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) for the wild-type enzyme and several site-directed replacements of the key residues which form the proposed proton path. (le.ac.uk)
  • What happens when bursts of those high-speed protons enter the body of a patient? (uab.edu)
  • We demonstrate that the energy spectra of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) as observed by AGASA, Fly's Eye, HiRes and Yakutsk detectors, have the imprints of UHE proton interaction with the CMB radiation as the dip centered at $E\sim 1\times 10^{19}$ eV, beginning of the GZK cutoff, and very good agreement with calculated spectrum shape. (arxiv.org)
  • However, it is unclear how to reconcile the apparent high proton affinity to the phase boundary (2) with the poor proton acceptability of water. (jku.at)
  • Because these moving protons have a positive charge, the magnetic field from the superconducting magnet will bend their travel into a circular path. (uab.edu)
  • As the protons travel faster and faster in the magnetic field, their circular path widens. (uab.edu)
  • The kinetics of proton arrival from a distant spot of proton release to lipid anchored fluorescent pH-sensitive dyes indicated that the in vitro Gibbs activation energy ?G for proton surfaceto- bulk release harbours only a minor enthalpic constituent. (jku.at)
  • The data was found to confirm predictions of proton consumption during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate as the carbon source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We test the hypothesized pathway by which protons are passed from the substrate, ascorbate, to the ferryl oxygen in the heme enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX). (le.ac.uk)
  • The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is the pioneer in this technology and also initiated the pencil beam proton therapy, which is also known as scanning beam and intensity modulated proton therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • MD Anderson's team of experts pioneered intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), also called pencil-beam scanning proton therapy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Learn more about our proton therapy center. (floridaproton.org)
  • The recent opening of the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center heralds a new era for cancer treatment at Johns Hopkins. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, the action starts in a huge particle accelerator known as a synchrotron, where protons spin at ultra-fast speeds before making their journey to treatment rooms. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • At the Johns Hopkins Proton Therapy Center, advanced pencil beam technology steers protons to the cancer, with virtually no exit dose, allowing tissues and vital organs to be spared. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Ask anyone involved in the Roberts Proton Therapy Center at Penn Medicine 's Abramson Cancer Center -patient, physician, technician, engineer, receptionist, physicist-and they will have powerful personal stories to share about this unique facility and the people devoted to it. (upenn.edu)
  • James Metz , who has led the development of the Roberts Proton Therapy Center since its inception, likens it to "a Star Wars movie set," and the comparison is an apt one. (upenn.edu)
  • According to Kurt Morath, director of operations for the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania , this research room makes the Roberts Proton Therapy Center one of only two facilities in the world with a full research beamline for protons, and the only one in the country to integrate both photon and proton modalities into a single room. (upenn.edu)
  • In addition to the sci-fi appearance of the particle accelerator and its impressive applications to space travel, the Roberts Proton Therapy Center is also considered a leader in down-to-earth personal patient care. (upenn.edu)
  • Because this is especially important for children, who can suffer the side effects of radiation therapy for years or even decades afterwards, pediatric patients account for nearly a quarter of the treatments given at the Roberts Proton Therapy Center. (upenn.edu)
  • The goal of the study was to evaluate DTCA content and claims made by proton therapy center websites. (medscape.com)
  • Our Proton Therapy Center is the world's first proton therapy facility to be located within a comprehensive cancer center. (mdanderson.org)
  • You will receive a response from a member of the Proton Therapy Center team within one business day, excluding holidays. (mdanderson.org)
  • The Cincinnati Children's Proton Therapy Center partners with patients and families from across the United States and Canada to ensure financial challenges aren't an obstacle to receiving pencil-beam proton therapy treatment. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The Cincinnati Children's Proton Therapy Center is located just north of Cincinnati in Liberty Township, Butler County, Ohio. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In addition, you'll find a full-service grocery store, shopping, numerous restaurants, a theater and much more all within five minutes of the Proton Therapy Center. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Several local hotels have rates from $69 to $114 per night for families receiving treatment at the Proton Therapy Center. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Some of these hotels offer free transportation to and from the Proton Therapy Center. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Several Airbnb rentals are available near the Proton Therapy Center with rates from $650 to $1,600 per month. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The Proton Therapy Center is between two Ronald McDonald Houses, which lodge out-of-town families and patients for free. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • If a patient / family is flying to Cincinnati / Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), complimentary transportation is offered from the airport to lodging and the Proton Therapy Center. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Cincinnati Children's and our Proton Therapy Center partner with dozens of charitable foundations to provide financial assistance to our patients from across the United States and Canada. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Several departments within Cincinnati Children's - Proton Therapy Center staff, Concierge Services, the International Patient Program and Destination Excellence - work together to seamlessly serve our traveling patients. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Patients traveling from across the United States and Canada to our Proton Therapy Center will have a dedicated proton nurse coordinator and child life specialist who work closely together to ensure our patients' clinical and non-clinical needs are met while receiving treatment at Cincinnati Children's. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • A proton-therapy machine at the Rinecker Proton Therapy Center in Munich, Germany. (nature.com)
  • The Scripps Proton Therapy Center in San Diego, California, filed for bankruptcy in March, just three years after opening its doors. (nature.com)
  • Unlike other types of radiation therapy that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called protons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proton therapy is a newer type of radiation therapy that uses energy from positively charged particles called protons. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the modern Standard Model of particle physics , protons are hadrons , and like neutrons , the other nucleon (particles present in atomic nuclei), are composed of three quarks . (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 23 proton therapy centers in the U.S., we are one of three proton therapy facilities to achieve this recognition. (floridaproton.org)
  • The Provision Center for Proton Therapy joins a list of cancer innovation stalwarts that operate proton therapy centers, including M.D. Anderson , Loma Linda Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and soon, the Mayo Clinic. (prnewswire.com)
  • Even though they are not proven to be more effective than traditional treatment methods, more than a dozen proton beam therapy centers are under construction across the country, including one in Shreveport, Louisiana. (marketplace.org)
  • I believe in the years ahead, many more men will elect proton radiation for their treatment when they become educated about it, especially with more and more proton centers opening up in the U.S. of late. (healingwell.com)
  • They looked at a total of 48 proton therapy centers with 46 English websites. (medscape.com)
  • Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that uses protons rather than traditional X-rays. (floridaproton.org)
  • The technique, which uses protons rather than the x-rays used in traditional radiation treatments, is also good for treating cancers in children, he added, because kids' growing bodies 'can be affected by even low doses of radiation. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • A fast proton moving through matter will slow by interactions with electrons and nuclei, until it is captured by the electron cloud of an atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vacuum, when free electrons are present, a sufficiently slow proton may pick up a single free electron, becoming a neutral hydrogen atom , which is chemically a free radical . (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculations are especially accurate for the simplest atom, hydrogen, which consists of just one proton and one electron. (wired.com)
  • But the distance between the electron and the proton depends slightly on the proton's size, similar to how a planet's distance from its star depends on the star's mass. (wired.com)
  • According to quantum mechanics, an electron can orbit only at certain specific distances, called energy levels, from its proton. (wired.com)
  • In this process, an electron exchanges a virtual photon with a quark, transferring energy to the quark and proton. (universetoday.com)
  • The bare masses of all 6 flavors of quarks, proton and electron, shown in proportional volume. (universetoday.com)
  • In the experiment, the researchers used a special version of hydrogen that contains one proton and one muon - an exotic cousin of the electron that weighs about 200 times more than an electron. (csmonitor.com)
  • The muon, just like an electron, is a point-like particle that orbits around the more extended proton. (csmonitor.com)
  • The 3rd International Conference on Proton Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET 2018) will be held from June 10-14, 2018 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina, a small town situated deep in the scenic Blue Ridge Mountains about two hours northwest of Charlotte. (rsc.org)
  • PCET2018 will bring together researchers from varied disciplinary and geographic backgrounds to discuss contemporary topics in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (rsc.org)
  • The total number of nucleons, as protons and neutrons are collectively called, in any nucleus is the mass number of the nucleus. (infoplease.com)
  • Collectively, protons and neutrons are called nucleons. (reference.com)
  • April 24, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- The massive concrete and steel foundations are complete, and construction is on schedule for a 2014 opening of the Provision Center for Proton Therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Speakers at the event included Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam , who commented that 'the Provision Center for Proton Therapy is a great example of entrepreneurial re-investment in Tennessee , and it will have a significant economic impact on our state. (prnewswire.com)
  • Pencil beam scanning builds on the benefits of proton therapy. (empowher.com)
  • With a proton beam just millimeters wide, pencil beam combines precision and effectiveness, offering unmatched ability to treat a patient's tumor without compromising quality of life - during and after treatment. (empowher.com)
  • Because pencil beam proton therapy is even more targeted it results in even greater radiation dose directly to the tumor, shorter daily treatments and reduced side effects for patients. (empowher.com)
  • This stage remains in use today atop the Proton rocket. (friends-partners.org)
  • An International Launch Services Proton rocket launches the Yahsat 1 B communications satellite into orbit on April 24, 2012 from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. (space.com)
  • PARIS-The Breeze-M upper stage of Russia's Proton heavy-lift rocket on Dec. 9 failed for the third time in 16 months, placing Gazprom Space Systems' Yamal 402 telecommunications satellite into a too-low orbit, launch-service provider International Launch Services (ILS) and Russia's Roscosmos space agency said. (space.com)
  • The 4,600-kilogram Yamal 402, like many satellites launched solo on the Proton rocket, was fueled to capacity and is likely to provide several years of commercial service despite now having to climb further than planned to reach its operating orbit. (space.com)
  • Since its August 2012 failure, ILS and the Proton Breeze-M rocket have launched two Western commercial satellites, for Intelsat of Luxembourg and Washington, and for EchoStar of Englewood, Colo. Both were successful. (space.com)
  • The Eutelsat 5 West B satellite was successfully launched into super-synchronous transfer orbit by International Launch Services using a Proton Breeze M rocket that lifted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 03.17 pm (12.17 pm CET on October 9). (broadbandtvnews.com)
  • The Eutelsat 9B satellite is on track for launch by an ILS Proton rocket on January 28 from the Cosmodrome in Baikunur, Kazakstan. (broadbandtvnews.com)
  • SES has now confirmed the December 28 launch date of its Astra 2G satellite on a Proton rocket. (broadbandtvnews.com)
  • Russia's Proton space rocket has launched into orbit from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. (rt.com)
  • As the carrier rocket Proton-M carrying the Mexican communication satellite QuetzSat-1 successfully blasts off from the Baikonur cosmodrome, it looks as if Russia's space industry might be recovering from a string of recent failures. (rt.com)
  • However, it was delayed pending an investigation into the botched blast-off of a Proton rocket which resulted in the loss of a Russian communications satellite in August. (rt.com)
  • The next Proton rocket launch is scheduled for October 19. (rt.com)
  • Proton rocket launching with DIRECTV 8 satellite. (universetoday.com)
  • Scott Manley on Twitter: 'When a Proton rocket crashed because of an incorrectly installed IMU some people joked that it must have been fueled with vodka. (pinboard.in)
  • By contrast, proton therapy uses subatomic particles that stop at the depth of the tumor, preventing unnecessary damage to adjacent healthy cells and tissue. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It will rotate around you and point the protons in the direction of the tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Then the protons are removed from the machine and magnets direct them to the tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proton therapy is a much more precise form of treatment,' Buchholz said, adding that it's particularly useful 'in areas where the tumor is really close to a critical normal organ or structure such as near the spinal cord or behind the eye. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Proton therapy is an advanced form of radiation therapy that sends a powerful beam of protons to the precise site of a tumor. (mdanderson.org)
  • Once the proton beam reaches the tumor, it conforms to its shape and depth, and only then releases its full energy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Proton therapy is an advanced type of radiation treatment that uses a beam of protons to irradiate - or deliver radiation - directly to the tumor, destroying cancer cells while sparing surrounding healthy tissue and other critical areas or vital organs. (empowher.com)
  • Supercharged protons enter the body with a low dose of radiation, stop at the tumor site, conform to - or "match" - the tumor's shape and volume or depth, and deposit the bulk of their cancer-fighting energy right at the site of the tumor. (empowher.com)
  • Proton therapy allows powerful doses of radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor with little damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. (empowher.com)
  • Protons are the positively charged particles in an atom, while neutrons are subatomic particles that h One atom of aluminum has. (reference.com)
  • In case you didn't find what exactly are you in search of, perhaps seeking an alternative sources for PROTON GEN 2 MANUAL GEARBOX can help, please take advantage of the related PDF on the bottom. (issuu.com)
  • We offer access to the most unique clinical environment of proton and photon therapy capabilities, all integrated under one roof," says Neha Vapiwala , associate professor and vice chair of education in PSOM's Radiation Oncology Department. (upenn.edu)
  • Shortly thereafter, the proton releases this energy by emitting another photon while remaining intact. (universetoday.com)
  • Midline sagittal computed tomography images of (A) a 4-year-old child with a malignant brain tumour, treated with photon craniospinal irradiation and (B) a 16-year-old child with a malignant brain tumour, treated with proton craniospinal irradiation. (cmaj.ca)
  • As with photon radiotherapy, most proton treatments are delivered over a fractionated course of therapy up to 7 weeks long. (cmaj.ca)
  • The spin of the proton is therefore generated by the spin of its constituent parts. (scienceblog.com)
  • New laser-assisted measurements find that the fundamental building block of matter, the proton, is about 4 percent smaller than previously thought. (wired.com)
  • Models and experiments to date have been unable to properly explain a fundamental property of protons spin. (scienceblog.com)
  • Protons are composed of three quarks that are bound together by the strong nuclear force, one of the four fundamental forces that government the Universe - the other being electromagnetism, gravity and weak nuclear forces. (universetoday.com)
  • The proton, a fundamental constituent of the atomic nucleus, seems to be smaller than was previously thought . (slashdot.org)
  • In physics, the proton (Greek πρῶτον proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • That makes protons "the world's smallest transmitter," says Jorgensen, also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (innovations-report.com)
  • The world's most accurate measurement of the mass of the proton has now been achieved with an elaborate Penning-trap apparatus [1]. (mpg.de)
  • Proton therapy is a newer form of radiation therapy that may be more expensive than traditional radiation therapy with X-rays. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Protons are frequently used in a particle accelerator as either the bombarding (accelerated) particle, the target nucleus, or both. (infoplease.com)
  • Metz, who also chairs the Radiation Oncology Department at the Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM), says the particle accelerator, which sends protons down a beamline as long as a football field through three-story-high gantries, delivers the most cutting-edge proton therapy there is. (upenn.edu)
  • The particle accelerator, which sends protons down a beamline as long as a football field through three-story-high gantries, delivers the most cutting-edge proton therapy there is. (upenn.edu)
  • The Proton Persona is a series of compact and subcompact cars produced by Malaysian automobile manufacturer Proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chinese automaker Geely as completed a deal to buy 49.9% of struggling Malaysian car maker Proton, as well as 51% of the firm's ownership in Britain's Lotus. (atimes.com)
  • VW chief executive Bernd Pischetsrieder (shown at right with Malaysian officials at the 2004 signing of the partnership agreement), announced to investment analysts Wednesday that VW was unable to come to an agreement with Proton and the Malaysian government (which controls the company). (autoblog.com)
  • Malaysian automaker Proton owns the British engineering consultancy and sports car builder. (autoblog.com)
  • Malaysian automaker Proton has released the first image of a new compact hybrid concept it will show off next month at the Geneva Motor Show. (autoblog.com)
  • Proton, the Malaysian state-owned automaker which also owns Lotus, is currently working on a hybrid vehicle which it hopes to bring to market in two to three years. (autoblog.com)
  • Physicists measure the energy of the absorbed or released light to determine how far one energy level is from another, and use calculations based on quantum electrodynamics to transform that energy difference into a number for the size of the proton. (wired.com)
  • The size of the proton affects these states and how much energy is required to knock a muon out of one and into another. (csmonitor.com)
  • To home in on the size of the proton, the scientists finely tuned a laser beam to blast their hydrogen atoms with very specific amounts of energy, hoping to stimulate the muons to jump from one energy state to another. (csmonitor.com)
  • We found an extremely high outward-directed pressure from the center of the proton, and a much lower and more extended inward-directed pressure near the proton's periphery… Our results also shed light on the distribution of the strong force inside the proton. (universetoday.com)
  • The gluon halo places all the color and anticolor at the surface of the proton, while the center of the proton is colorless. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Researchers are also studying whether proton therapy might be used to treat other noncancerous conditions, including macular degeneration . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the process, they observed that the proton movements in ceramic fuel cells obey far more complex laws than previously assumed: The movement of the protons takes place according to the so-called polaron model, as the researchers recently reported in the renowned journal Nature Communications . (eurekalert.org)
  • Not only did the researchers show protons can act like neurotransmitters, they identified the genes and proteins involved in the process in round worms, which are about 1 millimeter (a 25th of an inch) long and also are known as nematodes. (innovations-report.com)
  • The new measurement has improved the accuracy of the known proton radius by a factor of ten, the researchers said. (csmonitor.com)
  • Now academics, private researchers and investors need to make proton-therapy systems even smaller and more competitive so that more patients can benefit. (nature.com)
  • A new Proton Therapy Centre is slated to open at the National Cancer Centre Singapore by 2022. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Housed in multistorey buildings with halls the size of tennis courts, one proton centre with 2-3 treatment rooms typically costs more than US$100 million to build. (nature.com)
  • 2 Canada is the only G8 country without a hospital-based proton beam facility in operation or under construction. (cmaj.ca)
  • Presently, Canada does not have a hospital-based proton therapy facility that can treat children or adults with cancer. (uhn.ca)
  • The proton is the lightest of the baryon class of elementary particles . (infoplease.com)
  • Protons are positively charged elementary particles. (csmonitor.com)
  • ASF subversion and git services commented on PROTON-260: -------------------------------------------------------- Commit 1537984 from [~mgoulish] in branch 'proton/trunk' [ https://svn.apache.org/r1537984 ] PROTON-260 new text for python API doc. (mail-archive.com)
  • We are able to treat a variety of cancer types," says Curt Deville , clinical director and associate proton director. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Clinical trials are investigation proton therapy as a treatment for a number of other types of cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • And in the United States, major insurance companies are denying proton therapy to up to 30% of eligible patients 5 on the basis that there are too few rigorously designed and completed clinical trials providing evidence of better outcomes. (nature.com)
  • While conventional neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and GABA are molecules made of many atoms, the new study revealed a surprise: Protons - which are single hydrogen atoms stripped of their electrons - are pumped out of a round worm's gut by one kind of protein and then bind to receptor proteins on neighboring muscles, making the muscles contract so the worm defecates. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, in a process first observed by the MAVEN mission, some solar wind protons can slip past the bow shock by first bonding with electrons from the Mars upper atmosphere to form hydrogen atoms. (nasa.gov)
  • Because these hydrogen atoms are electrically neutral, they can pass through the bow shock and go on to create an ultraviolet proton aurora on the dayside of Mars. (nasa.gov)
  • Patron modelling refers to modeling subatomic entities (like quarks) inside protons and neutrons, which allows scientist to create 3D images of a proton's or neutron's structure (as probed by the electromagnetic force). (universetoday.com)
  • The University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute provides state-of-the-art radiation treatment for cancers of the prostate, lung, breast and bone - among others. (floridaproton.org)
  • Proton therapy is used to treat cancers that have not spread. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because it causes less damage to healthy tissue, proton therapy is often used for cancers that are very close to critical parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proton therapy is particularly suited for the treatment of brain, prostate, head and neck, lung and breast cancers. (prnewswire.com)
  • CHICAGO - Proton beam therapy (PBT) is increasingly being used in a variety of cancers, but it remains controversial because of the huge cost of establishing and maintaining treatment facilities and the still-unanswered question of how it compares to conventional radiotherapy for many cancer types. (medscape.com)
  • Proton therapy is most useful for pediatric cancers, as well as many head-and-neck and brain tumours. (cmaj.ca)
  • Our 165 employees are dedicated to delivering proton cancer treatment in a way that takes the entire patient into account, so you can keep living life to the fullest. (floridaproton.org)
  • As part of the University of Florida Health Cancer Center, the UF Health Proton Therapy Institute is designated by the State of Florida as a Florida Cancer Center of Excellence. (floridaproton.org)
  • Proton therapy is a cancer treatment option that's just as futuristic as it sounds. (reference.com)
  • Proton therapy can be especially valuable for children because it minimizes the excess radiation that can impair growth, cognition, fertility, vision or hearing, notes Matthew Ladra , director of pediatric oncology at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Sibley. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • To calculate the market size, the report considers the revenue generated from the sales of various products used for the treatment of cancer using the proton beam therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Proton therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like other types of radiation, proton therapy kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to providing unparalleled cancer care and unique research opportunities, the facility is known to be the leading training institute in the world for proton therapy. (upenn.edu)
  • Proton-beam therapy for prostate cancer provides no long-term benefit over traditional radiation despite far higher costs, according to a Yale analysis of 30,000 Medicare patients. (wsj.com)
  • Proton therapy has shown promise in treating several kinds of cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Proton therapy can cause side effects as the cancer cells die or when the energy from the proton beam damages healthy tissue. (mayoclinic.org)
  • What is Proton Therapy and how will the advanced treatment system change the way oncologists treat cancer? (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Proton therapy is a precise and highly accurate nonsurgical cancer treatment method. (lanl.gov)
  • A 58 ton proton accelerator was delivered Sunday to Orlando Health Cancer Center in Orlando. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • In comparison to many previous studies, our study of DTCA in proton beam therapy focused on online advertising content and claims by hospital/cancer center websites, versus more typical print/media advertising which must conform to nationally regulated standards," he explained. (medscape.com)
  • Proton beam therapy can effectively treat cancer while reducing adverse effects by minimizing the volume of normal tissues exposed to radiation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Proton beam therapy (proton therapy) reduces the volume of normal tissues that receive unnecessary radiation during cancer treatment. (cmaj.ca)
  • Fewer patients are being treated with protons than was anticipated: common diseases such as prostate cancer can be cured as effectively using other forms of radiation and surgery 4 . (nature.com)
  • Orickster, The Dattoli Cancer Center has an interesting paper comparing Proton to IMRT. (healingwell.com)
  • This article is about the proton as a subatomic particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the character of such bound protons does not change, and they remain protons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protons are therefore initially bound in the crystal lattice and begin to hop through the crystal from one OH group to another in the concert of lattice vibrations when heated. (eurekalert.org)
  • For a modern perspectice how a proton (or a QCD bound state in general) looks like you should study e.g. (physicsforums.com)
  • ESTCube-1, which went into orbit on Tuesday, will put proton-powered electric solar sails to the test for the first time. (newscientist.com)
  • Because of their extra bulk, muons orbit closer to the proton, and their energy levels are more sensitive to the proton's size. (wired.com)
  • The muons smacked electrons out of the hydrogen, and got caught in orbit around the leftover proton. (wired.com)
  • A Russian Proton Breeze M launcher placed the DIRECTV 8 satellite into orbit today, marking the fourth successful mission of the year for International Launch Services (ILS). (universetoday.com)
  • I am not here to push any kind of treatment, but to give objective facts about proton radiation and all other types of treatments to help readers in their choice of a treatment. (healingwell.com)
  • In fact, the muon can even pass straight through the proton, which contains lots of open space between its constituent building blocks - three particles called quarks. (csmonitor.com)
  • Copper The number of protons in an atom of an element is the same as the atomic number. (answers.com)
  • The atomic number will tell you how many protons make up a single atom of an element. (wikihow.com)