Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Oncogene Proteins v-sis: Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.Oncogene Protein tpr-met: The GENETIC TRANSLATION product from a GENE FUSION between a sequence from the tpr protein gene on the human CHROMOSOME 1 and the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Oncogene Protein v-maf: An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms): Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).Oncogene Proteins v-mos: Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc): Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.Oncogene Protein p65(gag-jun): Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.Oncogene Proteins v-raf: A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Oncogene Proteins v-myb: Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.Oncogene Protein v-cbl: An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.Oncogene Proteins v-erbB: Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.Oncogene Proteins v-abl: Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Oncogene Proteins v-rel: Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Oncogene Protein p21(ras): Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Oncogene Protein v-akt: A viral oncoprotein originally isolated from a murine T CELL LYMPHOMA infected with the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8. v-akt protein is the viral homologue of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-AKT.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras): Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl: Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/24774)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (2/24774)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (3/24774)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (4/24774)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (5/24774)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (6/24774)

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (7/24774)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (8/24774)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

The popularity reached by the genetic manipulation of laboratory animals to create new models for studying human diseases, produced in turn, that the techniques for assisted reproduction cons
TY - JOUR. T1 - Up-regulation of soluble Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases negatively correlates with Gas6 in established multiple sclerosis lesions. AU - Weinger, Jason G.. AU - Omari, Kakuri M.. AU - Marsden, Kurt. AU - Raine, Cedric S.. AU - Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage; it ultimately forms gliotic scars and lesions that severely compromise the function of the central nervous system. Evidence has shown previously that altered growth factor receptor signaling contributes to lesion formation, impedes recovery, and plays a role in disease progression. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), the ligand for the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, is important for cell growth, survival, and clearance of debris. In this study, we show that levels of membrane-bound Mer (205 kd), soluble Mer (⌈150 kd), and soluble Axl (80 kd) were ...
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) signaling plays a central role in the intrinsic inhibition of the inflammatory response to Tolllike receptor activation. Previously, we found that lung Mer protein expression decreased after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment due to enhanced Mer cleavage. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether pharmacologically restored membrane-bound Mer expression upregulates the Mer signaling pathways and suppresses lung inflammatory responses. Pretreatment with the ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17) inhibitor TAPI-0 (tumor necrosis factor alpha protease inhibitor-0) reduced LPS-induced production of soluble Mer protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, restored membrane-bound Mer expression, and increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lungs after LPS treatment. TAPI-0 also enhanced Mer downstream signaling, including phosphorylation of protein kinase b, focal adhesion kinase, and signal transducer and activator of ...
Cirrhosis of the liver is a condition with a high mortality and raising prevalence worldwide. Infectious complications are highly frequent and independent predictors of outcome in patients with cirrhosis - being the leading cause of decompensation, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and death. There is no treatment option other than transplantation, applicable at early stages and to only a minority of patients. Susceptibility to infection has been documented in patients with cirrhosis and has been attributed to immuneparesis and monocyte dysfunction in the state of decompensation and liver failure. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Development of targeted immunomodulatory strategies might effectively reduce infectious complications and mortality in cirrhosis. MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MERTK), expressed on monocytes/macrophages, plays a pivotal role in dampening innate immune responses. We have recently discovered and documented the role of MERTK in innate immune ...
James W. Perfield, Yunkyoung Lee, Gerald I. Shulman, Varman T. Samuel, Michael J. Jurczak, Eugene Chang, Chen Xie, Phillip N. Tsichlis, Martin S. Obin, Andrew S. Greenberg ...
tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn,FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES,c-fyn, fyn proto-oncogene,p59-Fyn,proto-oncogene c-Fyn,proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ...
Tcl script which is executed in the global scope if the "show-help" signal is received, which is normally the case if the user presses F1 or Ctrl-F1. Before evaluation the following percent strings are substituted: %w widget ...
Tcl1兔多克隆抗体(ab32813)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Pbx3兔多克隆抗体(ab56239)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
... Didžiausias pasirinkimas, greitas pristatymas. Didmeninė ir mažmeninė prekyba Signeda - didžiausia Baltijos šalyse žibintais prekiaujanti įmonė.
Mice lacking the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its family members exhibit detrimental effects on their reproductive ability. AXL is localized to Sertoli cells, which are the major nurturing cells in the seminiferous ...
Li, Xinli, Chun Liu, Blanche C. Ip, Kang-Quan Hu, Donald E. Smith, Andrew S. Greenberg, and Xiang-Dong Wang. "Tumor progression locus 2 ablation suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma development by inhibiting hepatic inflammation and steatosis in mice." Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 34, no. 1 (12, 2015): 1-8 ...
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
HEADER TRANSFERASE 31-JAN-08 3C5L TITLE POLO-LIKE KINASE 1 POLO BOX DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH PPHSPT TITLE 2 PEPTIDE COMPND MOL_ID: 1; COMPND 2 MOLECULE: SERINE/THREONINE-PROTEIN KINASE PLK1; COMPND 3 CHAIN: A; COMPND 4 FRAGMENT: POLO BOX 1, POLO BOX 2, UNP RESIDUES 373-593; COMPND 5 SYNONYM: POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, PLK-1, SERINE/THREONINE- COMPND 6 PROTEIN KINASE 13, STPK13; COMPND 7 EC: 2.7.11.21; COMPND 8 ENGINEERED: YES; COMPND 9 MOL_ID: 2; COMPND 10 MOLECULE: PEPTIDE; COMPND 11 CHAIN: B; COMPND 12 ENGINEERED: YES SOURCE MOL_ID: 1; SOURCE 2 ORGANISM_SCIENTIFIC: HOMO SAPIENS; SOURCE 3 ORGANISM_COMMON: HUMAN; SOURCE 4 ORGANISM_TAXID: 9606; SOURCE 5 GENE: PLK1, PLK; SOURCE 6 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM: ESCHERICHIA COLI; SOURCE 7 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_TAXID: 562; SOURCE 8 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_STRAIN: ROSETTA 2; SOURCE 9 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_VECTOR_TYPE: PLASMID; SOURCE 10 EXPRESSION_SYSTEM_PLASMID: PET28A; SOURCE 11 MOL_ID: 2; SOURCE 12 SYNTHETIC: YES KEYWDS PLK1, POLO-LIKE KINASE 1, POLO BOX DOMAIN, PHOSPHOPEPTIDE, ...
This is an example page. Its different from a blog post because it will stay in one place and will show up in your site navigation (in most themes). Most people start with an About page that introduces them to potential site visitors. It might say something like this:. ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:10:93247414:93311135:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000033471 transcript:OTTMUST00000084101 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Elk3 description:ELK3, member of ETS oncogene family ...
Well its that time of year again and Springwatch wouldnt be Springwatch without you, the audience. So heres how you can get involved...
അമേരിക്കയിൽ കണ്ടു വരുന്ന, മാർജ്ജാരവർഗ്ഗത്തിൽപ്പെടുന്ന ഒരു വലിയ ജീവിയാണ്‌ പൂമ.(പുമ)[3] ഇംഗ്ലീഷ്:Puma. ഏറ്റവും അധികം പേരുകളുള്ള മൃഗം എന്ന ഗിന്നസ് റെക്കോഡുണ്ട് ഇതിന്. കൂഗർ, പാന്തർ, പ്യൂമ, മൗണ്ടൻ ലയൺ, മൗണ്ടൻ ക്യാറ്റ് തുടങ്ങി നാൽപ്പതോളം പേരുകളിൽ അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. കടുവ, സിംഹം, ജാഗ്വർ എന്നിവക്ക് പിന്നിലായി പുലിക്കൊപ്പം പൂച്ച കുടുംബത്തിലെ ഏറ്റവും വലിയ നാലാമത്തെ ജീവിയാണ് പൂമ. എങ്കിലും ...
Looking for online definition of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the Medical Dictionary? AXL receptor tyrosine kinase explanation free. What is AXL receptor tyrosine kinase? Meaning of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase medical term. What does AXL receptor tyrosine kinase mean?
Diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) relies on a late marker, namely serum creatinine (SCr). New biomarkers are considered for early and sensitive detection of CIN. In particular, uNGAL has been used for early detection of AKI in the emergency department, after cardiopulmonary bypass or following CM administration.. This study will be conducted to assess the possible value of urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (uNGAL) as an early detector of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in a large sized cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures (PCP) and whether or not uNGAL correlates with the volume of contrast medium (CM) used. ...
Different molecular forms of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have recently been discovered. We aimed to explore the nature, source and discriminatory value of urinary NGAL in
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating potential consequence of renal ischaemia and reperfusion (I-R) subsequent to severe intra-operative hypotension and fluid resuscitation. Acute tubular epithelial damage is a common early histological abnormality in this syndrome. The high mortality rate associated with AKI in dogs is attributed in part to the limitations of current diagnostic techniques that can only detect AKI in the late stages when damage is irreversible. Early detection of renal tubular injury could improve outcome and might be possible by measuring urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration (uNGAL) in at-risk dogs.. The objectives of this study were to establish a clinically relevant canine model of renal I-R injury, and use this model to determine changes in uNGAL within three hours of initiation of injury.. A pilot study was performed to establish the severity and duration of hypotension caused by haemorrhage, and duration of reperfusion, that produced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin regulates gut microbiota of mice. AU - Mori, Katsuya. AU - Suzuki, Takeshi. AU - Minamishima, Shizuka. AU - Igarashi, Toru. AU - Inoue, Kei. AU - Nishimura, Daisuke. AU - Seki, Hiroyuki. AU - Yamada, Takashige. AU - Kosugi, Shizuko. AU - Katori, Nobuyuki. AU - Hashiguchi, Saori. AU - Morisaki, Hiroshi. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Background and Aim: Because neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to provide significant bacteriostatic effects during infectious conditions, we tested the hypothesis that this protein is up-regulated and secreted into the intraluminal cavity of the gut under critically ill conditions and is thus responsible for the regulation of bacterial overgrowth. Methods: With our institutional approval, male C57BL/6J mouse (6-7weeks) were enrolled and applied for lipopolysaccharide or peritonitis model compared with naïve control. We assessed NGAL protein concentrations in intestinal lumen and ...
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a small 25-kDa protein released from kidney tubular cells after harmful stimuli. It represents one of the most promising future biomarkers in the diagnostic field of acute kidney injury (AKI), as the increase in NGAL levels is a good predictor of a brief-term onset of AKI, notably anticipating the resulting increase in serum creatinine. However, recent studies also suggest a possible role for NGAL in chronic kidney disease (CKD). For this reason we evaluated serum (sNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) in a cohort of CKD patients in order to verify the relationship with the severity of renal impairment. In CKD patients sNGAL, uNGAL and the fractional excretion of this protein were notably increased as compared to controls. Furthermore both sNGAL and uNGAL were correlated with serum creatinine and, inversely, with residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR): this last relationship was found to be even closer than that found between GFR and serum ...
Lipocalin-2, human recombinant protein, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL, p25, 25 kDa alpha-2-microglobulin-related subunit validated in (PBV10492r-10), Abgent
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been used for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity assessment of AKI and has been validated in paediatric populations (where comorbidity is low) and in conditions where the timing of the insult is clear (that is cardiac surgery and so on) [20-24]. Its role in an adult ICU population has not been well validated due to the heterogeneity and uncertainty of the timing of the insult. The pathophysiology and causes of AKI in the ICU could be indigenous [25] and may differ from pre-ICU causes (low-volume state, inotropes, contrast injury and so on). This has led to problems in the design and interpretation of studies in the general adult ICU patient cohort. In this study, we sought to overcome these problems by excluding patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or AKI and by looking at the predictive value of both urinary and plasma NGAL at different time points following admission.. We found the incidence of AKI was 30.4% (n = 59) with ...
Abstract Elderly is the main age group affected by acute kidney injury (AKI). There are no studies that investigated the predictive properties of urinary (u) NGAL as an AKI marker in septic elderly population. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of uNGAL as predictor of AKI diagnosis and prognosis in elderly septic patients admitted to ICUs. We prospectively studied elderly patients with sepsis admitted to ICUs from October 2014 to November 2015. Assessment of renal function was performed daily by serum creatinine and urine output. The level of uNGAL was performed within the first 48 hours of the diagnosis of sepsis (NGAL1) and between 48 and 96 hours (NGAL2). The results were presented using descriptive statistics and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) and p value was 5%. Seventy-five patients were included, 47 (62.7%) developed AKI. At logistic regression, chronic kidney disease and low mean blood pressure at admission were identified as factors associated ...
One-hundred and eighty-one patients (66.1%) were men; mean age was 68.2 ± 12.2 years. Valve replacement was performed in 123, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in 81, valve surgery + CABG in 48, cardiac transplant in five, aorta aneurism surgery in nine, and other procedures in eight patients. ICU and hospital stays were 6.7 ± 8.1 and 15.7 ± 13.9 days, respectively. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 16 patients (5.8%) within 48 hours of ICU stay and in 28 patients (10.2%) within 43weeks. Mortality at 28 days was 2.9%. Eighty-six patients (31.4%) were diagnosed with AKI within 48 hours of surgery. Area under the ROC curve of POST uNGAL for AKI diagnosis was 0.72 (0.66 to 0.79) (P 0.0001) at an optimal cutoff value of 1803 μg/l, with 78.7% specificity, 64% sensitivity and 74.1% accuracy. uNGAL advanced diagnosis of AKI in 44 patients (51.2%), whereas diagnosis was achieved at the same time as AKI criteria in 11 patients; AKI criteria outperformed uNGAL in only 36% of cases. ...
Looking for online definition of RAB41, member RAS oncogene family in the Medical Dictionary? RAB41, member RAS oncogene family explanation free. What is RAB41, member RAS oncogene family? Meaning of RAB41, member RAS oncogene family medical term. What does RAB41, member RAS oncogene family mean?
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as an early indicator for postoperative renal failure by CD Van der Marel et al.
Alt. Names/Synonyms: c-met-related tyrosine kinase; CD136; CDw136; macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c-met-related tyrosine kinase); Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor; Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor alpha chain; Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor beta chain; MSP receptor; MST1R; p185-Ron; Protein-tyrosine kinase 8; PTK8; PTK8 protein tyrosine kinase 8; RON; soluble RON variant 1; soluble RON variant 2; soluble RON variant 3; soluble RON variant 4 ...
Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c-met-related tyrosine kinase), encoded by the MST1R gene, is a cell-surface receptor that binds macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). It was previously known as RON. The precursor protein is cleaved to generate the mature form, a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta subunits. The beta subunit of MST1R/RON is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon activation by MSP. MST1R/RON signaling activates the wound healing response by promoting epithelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival at the wound site. MST1R/RON is also known as CDw136, protein-tyrosine kinase 8 (PTK8), c-met-related tyrosine kinase, macrophage-stimulating protein receptor, MSP receptor, p185-Ron, CD136, MST1R variant RON30, MST1R variant RON62, and RON variant E2E3.. ...
Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c-met-related tyrosine kinase), encoded by the MST1R gene, is a cell-surface receptor that binds macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). It was previously known as RON. The precursor protein is cleaved to generate the mature form, a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta subunits. The beta subunit of MST1R/RON is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon activation by MSP. MST1R/RON signaling activates the wound healing response by promoting epithelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival at the wound site. MST1R/RON is also known as CDw136, protein-tyrosine kinase 8 (PTK8), c-met-related tyrosine kinase, macrophage-stimulating protein receptor, MSP receptor, p185-Ron, CD136, MST1R variant RON30, MST1R variant RON62, and RON variant E2E3.. ...
The RON receptor tyrosine kinase regulates epithelial cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis by transducing multiple signals through its functional domains. The present study was to determine the significance of the entire C-terminus in RON or its variant RON160-mediated activities related to cell motility and tumorigenesis. Analysis of protein phosphorylation revealed that elimination of the entire C-terminus significantly impairs the ligand-dependent or independent RON or RON160 phosphorylation and dimerization. Phosphorylation of downstream signaling proteins such as Erk1/2, AKT, and p38 MAP kinase was also diminished in cells expressing the C-terminus-free RON or RON160. These dysfunctional activities were accompanied with the inability of truncated RON or RON160 to mediate cytoplasmic β-catenin accumulation. Functional analysis further demonstrated that truncation of the C-terminus significantly impairs RON or RON160-mediated cell proliferation, morphological changes, and cellular migration.
SnoN is a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling and also an activator of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to cellular stress. Its role in human cancer is complex and controversial with both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities reported. To clarify its role in human cancer and provide clinical relevance to its signaling activities, we examined SnoN expression in normal and cancerous human esophageal, ovarian, pancreatic and breast tissues. In normal tissues, SnoN is expressed in both the epithelium and the surrounding stroma at a moderate level and is predominantly cytoplasmic. SnoN levels in all tumor epithelia examined are lower than or similar to that in the matched normal samples, consistent with its anti-tumorigenic activity in epithelial cells. In contrast, SnoN expression in the stroma is highly upregulated in the infiltrating inflammatory cells in high-grade esophageal and ovarian tumor samples, suggesting that SnoN may potentially promote malignant progression through ...
555 The Macrophage-Stimulating Protein receptor aka. MSP-R or RON belongs to the c-MET family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The ligand for c-MET - Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) as well as RONs ligand, MSP are members of the kringle-domain plasminogen-related protein family. As its name implies, MSP was originally found to stimulate macrophages by a variety of means. For example, addition of MSP to certain RON-expressing macrophages induced shape changes, chemotaxis, macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. RON was also found to be expressed in epithelial cells such as keratinocytes where MSP was shown to phosphorylate RON and activate a number of signaling pathways that elicited cell adhesion/motility, anti-apoptotic and proliferative responses. Within the last few years, however, over-expression of RON has been observed in several epithelial tumors and cell lines (ex. colon, breast and lung). In addition, the oncogenic potential of RON was recently demonstrated following its overexpression in ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret definition. define Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Explain Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. What is Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret? Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret FAQ.
BMS-777607是一种Met相关的抑制剂,作用于c-Met,Axl,Ron和Tyro3,在无细胞试验中IC50分别为3.9 nM,1.1 nM,1.8 nM和4.3 nM,作用于Met相关靶点比作用于Lck, VEGFR-2,和TrkA/B选择性高40倍,比作用于其他受体和非受体激酶选择性高500多倍。Phase 1/2。. ...
TransAM Elk-1 is a DNA-binding ELISA that quantifies the activated transcription factor using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
Results: Of the 66 pts, 41 (62%) pts had wild-type (WT) KRAS and 25 (38%) pts harbored a KRAS mutation (codon 12 & 13). In the mutant KRAS group, 6 pts had SD (24%) and 19 pts had PD (76%) as their best OR; there were no responses. In the WT KRAS population, the PR rate was 12% (95% CI: 2 to 22), the SD rate was 54% (95% CI: 38 to 69), and the PD rate was 34% (95% CI: 20 to 49). The association between KRAS mutation status and lack of response to panitumumab was statistically significant (Fishers exact test, p = 0.003). From a Cox PH model, the hazard ratio for WT:mutant KRAS was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.34 to 0.95) for PFS and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.91) for OS. ...
GtkWidget *dialog; dialog = gtk_recent_chooser_dialog_new ("Recent Documents", parent_window, GTK_STOCK_CANCEL, GTK_RESPONSE_CANCEL, GTK_STOCK_OPEN, GTK_RESPONSE_ACCEPT, NULL); if (gtk_dialog_run (GTK_DIALOG (dialog)) == GTK_RESPONSE_ACCEPT) { GtkRecentInfo *info; info = gtk_recent_chooser_get_current_item (GTK_RECENT_CHOOSER (dialog)); open_file (gtk_recent_info_get_uri (info)); gtk_recent_info_unref (info); } gtk_widget_destroy (dialog ...
A meeting place of worldwide BIM managers and BIM professionals to gather information regarding BIM, BIM software, BIM classes, BIM conference, BIM...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:5:115631908:115647736:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000014704 transcript:OTTMUST00000034877 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Rab35 description:RAB35 member RAS oncogene family ...
The structure of MAS1 indicates that it belongs to the class of receptors that are coupled to GTP-binding proteins and share a conserved structural…
A recent study from the Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Texas 75390, USA shows that XPO1 can be pharmacologically targeted in KRAS-mutant lung cancer. This study was... ...
In Extremis we find out a few unknown biological facts about the Doctor and Time Lords in general. We discover they have (or can...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Is Not Associated with Tacrolimus-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Liver Transplant Patients Who Received Mycophenolate Mofetil with Delayed Introduction of Tacrolimus. AU - Fukuda, Mio. AU - Suetsugu, Kimitaka. AU - Tajima, Soichiro. AU - Katsube, Yurie. AU - Watanabe, Hiroyuki. AU - Harada, Noboru. AU - Yoshizumi, Tomoharu. AU - Egashira, Nobuaki. AU - Mori, Masaki. AU - Masuda, Satohiro. PY - 2019/6/25. Y1 - 2019/6/25. N2 - Tacrolimus is widely used as an immunosuppressant in liver transplantation, and tacrolimus-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication. The urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) level has been linked to tacrolimus-induced AKI in patients starting tacrolimus treatment the morning after liver transplantation. Here we tested this association using a different immunosuppression protocol: Mycophenolate mofetil administration beginning on Postoperative Day 1 and tacrolimus administration ...
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein expressed by kidney tubular cells in response to ischemia, but may also be an early indicator of immunological rejection, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, obstructive nephropathy, subclinical tubulitis or infection. Although there is currently no evidence to support the routine serial measurement of blood or urinary NGAL to detect subclinical acute tubular injury, NGAL has the potential to provide useful information to those that care for kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). First, high urinary or serum NGAL concentrations shortly after transplantation are a predictor of delayed graft function and are associated with reduced graft function at one year. Secondly, among KTRs with previously stable graft function who then suffer acute graft dysfunction, a high urinary NGAL predicts graft loss at one year. If further refined, diagnostic tests based on NGAL levels may provide future useful clinical tools.
Evaluation of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Cystatin C in Early Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Absence of the Gold Standard
AKI occurs frequently in the hospital setting and affects morbidity, mortality, and resource use, regardless of country, etiology, setting, or definition. In current practice, AKI is identified by a large, persistent increase in serum creatinine levels. However, physicians want to diagnose AKI as early as possible, and the serum creatinine increase happens days after AKI occurs. Early changes in serum creatinine are not particularly ...
1q68: Solution structure of T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 and Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase LCK fragments ... MHC class II protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase binding. • signaling receptor activity. • ... CD4 has also been shown to interact with SPG21,[9] Lck[10][11][12][13][14] and Protein unc-119 homolog.[15] ... enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway. • entry into host cell. • T cell activation. • positive regulation of T cell ...
Alexiadis V, Waldmann T, Andersen J, Mann M, Knippers R, Gruss C (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes ... Kappes F, Burger K, Baack M, Fackelmayer FO, Gruss C (2001). "Subcellular localization of the human proto-oncogene protein DEK ... The human DEK gene encodes the DEK protein. This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. The protein binds to cruciform and ... Forero L, Zwirner NW, Fink CW, Fernández-Viña MA, Stastny P (1998). "Juvenile arthritis, HLA-A2 and binding of DEK oncogene- ...
Nontransforming viruses can randomly insert their DNA into proto-oncogenes, disrupting the expression of proteins that regulate ... Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... by proto-oncogenes that were mistakenly incorporated into proviral DNA or by the disruption of cellular proto-oncogenes. Rous ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology portal Proto-oncogene_tyrosine-protein_kinase_Src. ... Src family kinases interact with many cellular cytosolic, nuclear and membrane proteins, modifying these proteins by ... Parsons SJ, Parsons JT (October 2004). "Src family kinases, key regulators of signal transduction". Oncogene. 23 (48): 7906-9. ...
NCBI (April 2015). "MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Miyamoto-Sato E; Fujimori ... Glutamate-rich protein 3, also known as Uncharacterized Protein C1orf173 or Chromosome 1 Open Reading Frame 173, is a protein ... The C1orf173 protein has been predicted or experimentally observed to interact with the following proteins: CRISPLD2 GIMAP4 ... a nuclear protein based on PSORT II analysis and the suggested protein interactions found between c1orf173 and other proteins ...
... proto-oncogene protein also known as N-Myc or basic helix-loop-helix protein 37 (bHLHe37), is a protein that in humans is ... Ramsay G, Stanton L, Schwab M, Bishop JM (1987). "Human proto-oncogene N-myc encodes nuclear proteins that bind DNA". Mol. Cell ... This protein is located in the cell nucleus and must dimerize with another bHLH protein in order to bind DNA. N-Myc is highly ... "Identification and characterization of the protein encoded by the human N-myc oncogene". Science. 232 (4751): 768-72. doi: ...
Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T (1999). "Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits". FEBS ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene. ... Huang CL, Jan YN, Jan LY (1997). "Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated inward- ... Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector ...
Proto-oncogene DBL is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCF2 gene. MCF2 is a member of a large family of GDP-GTP ... Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T (1999). "Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits". FEBS ... 2000). "Human dbl proto-oncogene in 85 kb of xq26, and determination of the transcription initiation site". Gene. 253 (1): 107- ... 2002). "Regulation of proto-Dbl by intracellular membrane targeting and protein stability". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): 19745-53. ...
"Association of the vav proto-oncogene product with poly(rC)-specific RNA-binding proteins". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (3): 1324-32. ... The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. The protein encoded by this gene is located in the ... It is distinct among other hnRNP proteins in its binding preference; it binds tenaciously to poly(C). This protein is also ... Kim JH, Hahm B, Kim YK, Choi M, Jang SK (May 2000). "Protein-protein interaction among hnRNPs shuttling between nucleus and ...
Wnt1 is a proto-oncogene protein (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1). This gene was originally thought to ... Fgf8 is also known as Fibroblast Growth Factor 8. It is a protein that is widely thought to be the most important organizing ...
"Effects of antibiotics and a proto-oncogene homolog on destruction of protein translocator SecY". Science. 325 (5941): 753-756 ... the YccA protein of Escherichia coli and the YetJ protein of Bacillus subtilis. These proteins are about 200-250 residues in ... These proteins are distantly related to the ionotropic glutamate-binding protein of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor of ... Two others are the rat neural membrane protein 35 and the Arabidopsis thaliana Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) protein capable of ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (p59-FYN, Slk, Syn, MGC45350, Gene ID 2534) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... By definition as a proto-oncogene, Fyn codes for proteins that help regulate cell growth. Changes in its DNA sequence transform ... SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction blocking drug". Oncogene. 21 (13): 2037-50. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205271. PMID ... Fyn is a member of the Src-family of kinases (SFK), the first proto-oncogene to be identified. The discovery of the Src-family ...
Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.[ ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... Jacobs SM, Gorse KM, Westin EH (1994). "Identification of a second promoter in the human c-myb proto-oncogene". Oncogene. 9 (1 ... Favier D, Gonda TJ (1994). "Detection of proteins that bind to the leucine zipper motif of c-Myb". Oncogene. 9 (1): 305-11. ...
Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene. ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... Jacobs SM, Gorse KM, Westin EH (1994). "Identification of a second promoter in the human c-myb proto-oncogene". Oncogene. 9 (1 ... MYB protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Myb oncogene-like - The ...
Proto-oncogene vav is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV1 gene. The protein encoded by this proto-oncogene is a ... Shigematsu H, Iwasaki H, Otsuka T, Ohno Y, Arima F, Niho Y (May 1997). "Role of the vav proto-oncogene product (Vav) in ... Adams JM, Houston H, Allen J, Lints T, Harvey R (1992). "The hematopoietically expressed vav proto-oncogene shares homology ... Bustelo XR, Barbacid M (1992). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of the vav proto-oncogene product in activated B cells". Science. 256 ...
Proto-oncogene FRAT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FRAT1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... Saitoh T, Mine T, Katoh M (2002). "Molecular cloning and expression of proto-oncogene FRAT1 in human cancer". Int. J. Oncol. 20 ... "Activation of a novel proto-oncogene, Frat1, contributes to progression of mouse T-cell lymphomas". EMBO J. 16 (3): 441-50. doi ... 2007). "FRAT1, a substrate-specific regulator of glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity, is a cellular substrate of protein kinase ...
Raf is a proto-oncogene because mutations in this protein have been found in many cancers. The Rho GTPase Vav1, which can be ... GEFs are multi-domain proteins and interact with other proteins inside the cell through these domains. Adaptor proteins can ... G protein-coupled receptors are trans-membrane receptors that act as GEFs for their cognate G proteins upon binding of a ligand ... This 200 amino acid region is homologous to the yeast Sec7p protein. GEFs are often recruited by adaptor proteins in response ...
1996). "Interaction of the c-cbl proto-oncogene product with the Tyk-2 protein tyrosine kinase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... "The WD motif-containing protein RACK-1 functions as a scaffold protein within the type I IFN receptor-signaling complex". J. ... Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. Tyk2 was the first member of ... This protein associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors and promulgate cytokine signals by ...
"SH3 domain-dependent interaction of the proto-oncogene product Vav with the focal contact protein zyxin". Oncogene. 12 (7): ... Degenhardt YY, Silverstein S (2001). "Interaction of Zyxin, a Focal Adhesion Protein, with the E6 Protein from Human ... SH3 domains of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways while the LIM domains are likely involved in protein-protein ... and characterization of a zyxin-related protein that binds the focal adhesion and microfilament protein VASP (vasodilator- ...
Gupta K, Chevrette M, Gray DA (1994). "The Unp proto-oncogene encodes a nuclear protein". Oncogene. 9 (6): 1729-31. PMID ... 1995). "Elevated expression of Unph, a proto-oncogene at 3p21.3, in human lung tumors". Oncogene. 10 (11): 2179-83. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: USP4 ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (proto-oncogene)". Gilchrist CA, Gray DA, Baker RT (December 1997). "A ... 2001). "The de-ubiquitinating enzyme Unp interacts with the retinoblastoma protein". Oncogene. 20 (39): 5538-5542. doi:10.1038/ ...
1996). "SH3 domain-dependent interaction of the proto-oncogene product Vav with the focal contact protein zyxin". Oncogene. 12 ... "A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling". Nat. Biotechnol. United ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV3 gene. This gene is a member of the ... The VAV proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases that activate pathways leading to actin ...
Proto-oncogene protein Wnt-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT1 gene. The WNT gene family consists of ... "Entrez Gene: WNT1 wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1". McMahon AP, Moon RT (1990). "int-1--a proto-oncogene ... Thomas KR, Capecchi MR (1990). "Targeted disruption of the murine int-1 proto-oncogene resulting in severe abnormalities in ... It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein ...
Proto-oncogene protein Wnt-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT3 gene. The WNT gene family consists of ... It encodes a protein showing 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT gene ... These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate ... Smolich BD, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Papkoff J (1994). "Wnt family proteins are secreted and associated with the cell surface". ...
The proto-oncogene c-Rel is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REL gene. The c-Rel protein is a member of the NF-κB ... "The v-rel oncogene product is complexed with cellular proteins including its proto-oncogene product and heat shock protein 70 ... "A human rel proto-oncogene cDNA containing an Alu fragment as a potential coding exon". Oncogene. 4 (7): 935-42. PMID 2666912. ... Kochel T, Rice NR (1992). "v-rel- and c-rel-protein complexes bind to the NF-kappa B site in vitro". Oncogene. 7 (3): 567-72. ...
... c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID 1712644. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit at ... also known as proto-oncogene c-Kit or tyrosine-protein kinase Kit or CD117, is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in ... CD117 is a proto-oncogene, meaning that overexpression or mutations of this protein can lead to cancer. Seminomas, a subtype of ... proto-oncogene". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2207-17. PMID 1279499. Spritz RA, Droetto S, Fukushima Y (1992). "Deletion of the KIT and ...
MN1, MGCR, MGCR1, MGCR1-PEN, dJ353E16.2, meningioma (disrupted in balanced translocation) 1, MN1 proto-oncogene, ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... GO:0004672 protein kinase activity GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity GO:0004714 transmembrane receptor protein ... GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation GO:0007169 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway ...
... and ProteinsProteinsIntracellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsMAP Kinase Kinase Kinasesraf KinasesProto-Oncogene Proteins A- ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins A-raf. A raf kinase subclass expressed primarily in non-neuronal tissues such as SKELETAL MUSCLE. The A ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf (1989-2004). All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, ... Proteins A-raf, Proto-Oncogene. *Proto Oncogene Proteins A raf. *A-raf Protein Kinase ...
... and ProteinsProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsOncogene ProteinsProto-Oncogene ProteinsProto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6 ... and ProteinsProteinsDNA-Binding ProteinsProto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6 ... and ProteinsProteinsTranscription FactorsProto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6 ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6. A DNA-binding protein that contains an N-terminal BTB (POZ) DOMAIN and C-terminal CYS2-HIS2 ...
Genomes and Genes about proto oncogene proteins c myc ... proteins , dna binding proteins , proto oncogene proteins c myc ... proto oncogene proteins c myc. Summary. Summary: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally ... proto oncogene proteins c bcl 2*cell cycle*cultured tumor cells*genetic transcription*neoplastic cell transformation*gene ... cell cycle proteins*nuclear proteins*reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction*biological tumor markers*transfection*gene ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P01106 - Homo sapiens 10 * A8WFE7 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Myc proto-oncogene protein. Details. Name. Myc proto-oncogene protein. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Polypeptides. Name. ... Myc proto-oncogene protein. P01106. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological ...
Proto-oncogene vavAdd BLAST. 845. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Proto-oncogene. ,p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.,p>,a href=/help/ ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF00130 C1_1, 1 hit. PF11971 CAMSAP_CH, 1 hit. PF00169 PH ...
Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9913.ENSBTAP00000055845 ... Protein-protein interaction databases. STRING: functional protein association networks. More...STRINGi. 9913.ENSBTAP00000055845 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
A Cell Number Counting Factor Regulates Akt/Protein Kinase B To Regulate Dictyostelium discoideum Group Size Tong Gao, David ...
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation ... Proto Oncogene Proteins; Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Cellular; c onc Proteins; Cellular Proto-Oncogene Proteins; c-onc Proteins ... Proto Oncogene Proteins, Cellular; Proto-Oncogene Products, Cellular; Cellular Proto Oncogene Proteins; Cellular Proto-Oncogene ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins. Subscribe to New Research on Proto-Oncogene Proteins Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not ...
The Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Contains a BH3 Domain That Regulates Apoptosis through Specific Interaction with Human Mcl-1 ... Induces the Nucleolar Targeting of the Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus KS-Bcl-2 Protein Inna Kalt, Tatyana Borodianskiy ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src , is a non-receptor tyrosine ... This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. ... This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. ... This protein phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues in other proteins. c-Src stands for "cellular Src kinase" and should not ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src , is a non-receptor tyrosine ... This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this ... Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) is a proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase originally discovered by J. ... This protein phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues in other proteins. An elevated level of activity of c-Src tyrosine ...
Up-regulation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor by the MAS proto-oncogene is due to constitutive activation of Gq/G11 by ... The MAS proto-oncogene is not imprinted in humans. Riesewijk, A.M., Schepens, M.T., Mariman, E.M., Ropers, H.H., Kalscheuer, V. ... Cell type-specific expression of the Mas proto-oncogene in testis. Alenina, N., Baranova, T., Smirnow, E., Bader, M., Lippoldt ... The mammalian proto-oncogene MAS has been identified as a novel neuronal angiotensin receptor, which responds preferentially to ...
Ras-related protein Ral-B, RALB.. Introduction. Ras-related protein Ral-B (RALB) is a member of a subfamily of Ras-related ... For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles. ... RALB is activated by a unique nucleotide exchange factor, Ral GDS, and deactivated by a distinct GTPase-activating protein. ...
E3 ubiquitin protein ligase L homeolog Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Anti-Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase L homeolog Antibody Products. Clear ... Anti-Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase L homeolog Antibody Products. ... Anti-Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase L homeolog Antibody Products. ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase MER. A, B, C, D. 313. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: MERTK, MER. EC: 2.7.10.1 ... Crystal structure of catalytic domain of the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase MER in complex with inhibitor C52. *DOI: ... Although Mer adaptor proteins and signaling pathways have been identified, it remains unclear how Mer initiates phagocytosis. ... The mammalian ortholog of the retroviral oncogene v-Eyk, and a receptor tyrosine kinase upstream of antiapoptotic and ...
Browsing by Subject "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
The serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and ... The protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is a target of the PDGF-activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Cell. 1995 ... The serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by the Akt proto-oncogene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins / drug effects * Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism* * Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt ...
Showing Protein Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Yes (HMDBP01230). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene properties ... Protein Sequence. ,Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Yes MGCIKSKENKSPAIKYRPENTPEPVSTSVSHYGAEPTTVSPCPSSSAKGTAVNFSSLSMT ... Involved in protein kinase activity. Specific Function. Promotes infectivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in epithelial cells by ... Wissing J, Jansch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Keri G, Wehland J, Daub H: Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by ...
Showing Protein Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (HMDBP01147). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene properties ... Protein Sequence. ,Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src MGSNKSKPKDASQRRRSLEPAENVHGAGGGAFPASQTPSKPASADGHRGPSAAFAPAAAE ... Wissing J, Jansch L, Nimtz M, Dieterich G, Hornberger R, Keri G, Wehland J, Daub H: Proteomics analysis of protein kinases by ... Franco M, Furstoss O, Simon V, Benistant C, Hong WJ, Roche S: The adaptor protein Tom1L1 is a negative regulator of Src ...
Proto Oncogene Tyrosine Protein Kinase ROS {Proto Oncogene c Ros 1 or Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c Ros ... Proto Oncogene Tyrosine Protein Kinase ROS (Proto Oncogene c Ros 1 or Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c Ros Oncogene 1 or c Ros ... Proto Oncogene Tyrosine Protein Kinase ROS (Proto Oncogene c Ros 1 or Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c Ros Oncogene 1 or c Ros ... 872037-proto-oncogene-tyrosine-protein-kinase-ros-proto-oncogene-c-ros-1-or-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-c-ros-oncogene-1-or-c-ros- ...
Alternative Splicing of the Cyclin D1 Proto-Oncogene Is Regulated by the RNA-Binding Protein Sam68. Maria Paola Paronetto, ... Alternative Splicing of the Cyclin D1 Proto-Oncogene Is Regulated by the RNA-Binding Protein Sam68 ... Alternative Splicing of the Cyclin D1 Proto-Oncogene Is Regulated by the RNA-Binding Protein Sam68 ... Alternative Splicing of the Cyclin D1 Proto-Oncogene Is Regulated by the RNA-Binding Protein Sam68 ...
"Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" by people in this website by year, and whether "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" was a major or ... "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel*Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel. *Proto Oncogene Proteins c rel ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel" by people in Profiles. ...
In this report, the global RAF Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine... ... 108 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global RAF Proto ... Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Market Research Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group. ... Figure Picture of RAF Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase. Figure Global RAF Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein ... of RAF Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase (2013-2025). 1.5.1 Global RAF Proto Oncogene Serine/Threonine Protein ...
  • PP2 is a ATP-competitive inhibitor of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. (csnpharm.com)
  • Phosphorylated ITAM motifs on CD3 recruit and activate SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) such as Zap70 to further mediate downstream signalling through tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to transcription factor activation including NF-κB and consequent T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Each article introduces a different protein, exploring its biological function as it relates to other members of the protein family, examining common domain architectures and their biological distribution, and tying it in to a broader perspective on how the protein impacts today's medicine and the environment. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The articles also serve as an introduction to the use of the InterPro database, exploring the relevant InterPro entries for each featured protein in detail, and relating them to the biological information discussed in the article. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (abcam.com)
  • Similarly, c-Src should not be mistaken for v-Src , a viral (hence the prefix v- ) gene that shares similarity with c-Src and is also an oncogene, which can be found in Rous sarcoma virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a structural change in another viral protein ( gp41 ), HIV inserts a fusion peptide into the host cell that allows the outer membrane of the virus to fuse with the cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) is a proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase originally discovered by J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, for which they were awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarcoma was in fact first discovered as an oncogene in a chicken retrovirus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments performed by Dr. G. Steve Martin of the University of California, Berkeley demonstrated that the sarcoma was indeed the oncogene of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Thirty-eight human renal cell carcinomas of previously untreated patients were analyzed for expression of P-glycoprotein (P-170), glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi), topoisomerase II (Topo II) and proto-oncogene proteins by means of immunohistochemistry. (curehunter.com)
  • Analysis of proto-oncogene and heat-shock protein gene expression in human derived cell-lines exposed in vitro to an intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency field. (emf-portal.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA clones showed that the c-syn gene could encode a protein-tyrosine kinase that is very similar in primary structure to the v-yes and human c-src proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • We have recently reported the identification of a new oncogene, named PTC, frequently activated in human thyroid papillary carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to further examine the role of this oncogene in human malignancies, we have investigated the expression of the ret oncogene in a number of human tumors. (nih.gov)
  • We consistently detected expression of normal-sized transcripts of the ret proto-oncogene in human pheochromocytomas and in human medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), both of familial and sporadic type. (nih.gov)
  • Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant Human NEDD8 E1 (APP-BP1/UBA3) is a member of the NEDD8-activating (E1) enzyme family that is required for the first step of the enzymatic cascade that subsequently utilizes a NEDD8-conjugating (E2) enzyme and a NEDD8 ligase (E3) to conjugate NEDD8 to substrate proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Human APP-BP1 is a 534 amino acid (aa) protein with a predicted molecular weight of 60 kDa that is expressed ubiquitously in fetal tissues and in the adult brain (1). (rndsystems.com)
  • Human UBA3 is a 463 aa protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52 kDa. (rndsystems.com)
  • It has been shown that NCYM antisense RNA encodes for a protein that has originated de novo and is specific to human and chimpanzee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human DEK gene encodes the DEK protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example of an oncogene is the Bcr-Abl gene found on the Philadelphia chromosome , a piece of genetic material seen in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia caused by the translocation of pieces from chromosomes 9 and 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanistically, LMTK2 phosphorylated protein phosphatase 1A (PP1A) to prevent PP1A from dephosphorylating p-GSK3β(Ser9). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The protein product (PTEN) encodes a dual-specificity protein phosphatase and in addition can dephosphorylate certain lipid substrates. (pnas.org)
  • A PTEN mutant associated with Cowden's disease (PTEN;G129E) has protein phosphatase activity yet is defective in dephosphorylating inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in vitro and fails to arrest cells in G 1 . (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, a PTEN mutant, associated with CD, that retains protein phosphatase activity was defective in arresting cells in G 1 and was also defective in dephosphorylating inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, we show that selective upregulation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of wild-type mice persisted for 28 days post withdrawal of MA. (springer.com)