Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Acenocoumarol: A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. Its actions and uses are similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p233)Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Fibrinopeptide A: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor: An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Factor X Deficiency: Blood coagulation disorder usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, though it can be acquired. It is characterized by defective activity in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, impaired thromboplastin time, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Kringles: Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Activated Protein C Resistance: A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Protein PrecursorsRodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Dansyl Compounds: Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Blood Component Transfusion: The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Factor XII Deficiency: An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Pipecolic AcidsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors: Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antibodies, Antiphospholipid: Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)

*Factor XII deficiency

Specifically prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) are prolonged. The diagnosis is confirmed by ... The condition is diagnosed by blood tests in the laboratory when it is noted that special blood clotting test are abnormal. ... In hereditary angioedema type III an increased activity of factor XII has been described. In congenital FXII deficiency ... FXII appears to be not essential for blood clotting, as individuals with this condition are usually asymptomatic and form blood ...

*Anti-thrombin aptamers

In addition, the TBA-HD22 avidity can be examined by ecarin clotting time. Ecarin activates prothrombin and accordingly ... It has been demonstrated that TBA can inhibit the thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and clot-bound thrombin activity. The ... As a result, TBA prolongs the prothrombin time when interacting with prothrombin. TBA entered the phase I clinical trial for ... shows significant improvement both in the assay of activated partial thromboplastin time, clotting time and thrombin-induced ...

*Protein S deficiency

... prothrombin time test) Thrombotic disease investigation Factor V Leiden test Among the possibilities for differential diagnosis ... Functional protein S is lacking, which normally turns off clotting proteins, this increases risk of blood clots. The diagnosis ... decreased in regards to the cofactor activity of the protein Type III - decreased protein S activity: decreased free protein S ... Mutations in this condition change amino acids, which in turn disrupts blood clotting. ...

*Vitamin K deficiency

... the prothrombin time is elevated, but the partial thromboplastin time is normal or only mildly prolonged. This may seem ... Inability to activate the clotting cascade via these factors leads to the bleeding symptoms mentioned above.[citation needed] ... counterintuitive given that the deficiency leads to decreased activity in factors of both the intrinsic pathway (F-IX) which is ...

*Ecarin clotting time

Ecarin activates prothrombin through a specific proteolytic cleavage, which produces meizothrombin, a prothrombin-thrombin ... but possesses a low level of procoagulant enzymatic activity. Crucially, this activity is inhibited by hirudin and other direct ... Ecarin clotting time (ECT) is a laboratory test used to monitor anticoagulation during treatment with hirudin, an anticoagulant ... Use of Ecarin Clotting Time (ECT) with Lepirudin Therapy in Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia and Cardiopulmonary Bypass. JECT ...

*Jeanne Lusher

... which neutralized the activity of the factor given for treatment. Prothrombin complex concentrates had been used since the ... for hemophilia at the time included transfusion of large volumes of fresh frozen plasma to replenish the missing clotting ... Genetic engineers make clotting agent for hemophiliacs. The Daily Gazette 1990 December 27. Lusher JM. Prophylaxis in children ... Efficacy of prothrombin-complex concentrates in hemophiliacs with antibodies to factor VIII: a multicenter therapeutic trial. N ...

*Parenteral nutrition

... elevated prothrombin time (if associated with liver injury), hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and decreased gastrointestinal ... Blood clots[edit]. Chronic IV access leaves a foreign body in the vascular system, and blood clots on this IV line are common.[ ... Physical activity is also highly encouraged, but patients must avoid contact sports (equipment damage) and swimming (infection ... Patients on TPN who have such clots occluding their catheter may receive a thrombolytic flush to dissolve the clots and prevent ...

*Vitamin K

... status can be assessed by: The prothrombin time (PT) test measures the time required for blood to clot. A blood ... including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2. Bacteria in the ... Undercarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II); in a study of 53 newborns, found "PT (prothrombin time) is a less sensitive marker ... "Prothrombin Time". WebMD. Dituri, F.; Buonocore, G.; Pietravalle, A.; Naddeo, F.; Cortesi, M; Pasqualetti, P; Tataranno M. L.; ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... partial thromboplastin time MeSH E01.450.375.115.610 --- prothrombin time MeSH E01.450.375.115.830 --- thrombelastography MeSH ... bleeding time MeSH E01.450.375.625.160 --- clot retraction MeSH E01.450.375.625.625 --- platelet count MeSH E01.450.375.750 ... complement hemolytic activity assay MeSH E01.450.495.735.360 --- hemadsorption inhibition tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.370 --- ... E01.450.375.115.870 --- thrombin time MeSH E01.450.375.115.950 --- whole blood coagulation time MeSH E01.450.375.120 --- blood ...

*Edoxaban

FXa cleaves prothrombin to its active form thrombin, which then acts to convert soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin and to ... Stabilization of the platelet aggregation by fibrin mesh ultimately leads to clot formation. A number of anticoagulants inhibit ... Unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and fondaparinux inhibit the activity of factor Xa ... or if optimal timing between the administration of edoxaban and neuraxial procedures is not known. More common bloody nose ...

*List of MeSH codes (G09)

... thrombin time MeSH G09.188.250.960 --- whole blood coagulation time MeSH G09.188.261.145 --- blood bactericidal activity MeSH ... partial thromboplastin time MeSH G09.188.250.670 --- platelet adhesiveness MeSH G09.188.250.680 --- prothrombin time MeSH ... clot retraction MeSH G09.188.261.560.600.500 --- platelet adhesiveness MeSH G09.188.261.560.600.640 --- platelet aggregation ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH G09.188.250.051 --- acid-base equilibrium MeSH G09.188.250.106 --- bleeding time MeSH G09.188. ...

*Thrombosis prevention

These same herbal supplements taken with warfarin increased prothrombin time. By containing significant content of vitamin K, ... Once a clot has formed, a person will be prescribed bed rest and remain relatively immobile until it the clot is undetectable. ... are to perform range of motion (ROM) activities that include: muscle contractions of the lower legs for those who are very weak ... Treating blood clots that have already formed is managed by the use of anti-hemolytic ("clot busters"). The list below ...

*Hypoprothrombinemia

Lab exams revealed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) of 34.4 and acquired partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 81.7, as well as ... reversing its activity, causing it to be less effective in the process of blood clotting. Warfarin intake has been shown to ... fortifying clots. This clotting process is known as coagulation. The mechanism specific to prothrombin (factor II) includes the ... Prothrombin activity levels were less than 1%. All other exams revealed no abnormalities. Treatment methods included vitamin K ...

*Heparin

Partial thromboplastin time should not be confused with prothrombin time, or PT, which measures blood clotting time through a ... These include activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and antifactor Xa activity. The specimen of choice is usually fresh ... preventing the formation of clots and extension of existing clots within the blood. While heparin does not break down clots ... LMWHs and fondaparinux target antifactor Xa activity rather than antithrombin activity, with the aim of facilitating a more ...

*Exoenzyme

By binding to prothrombin, coagulase facilitates clotting in a cell by ultimately converting fibrinogen to fibrin. Bacteria ... The metabolic activity of the exoenzymes allows the bacterium to invade host organisms by breaking down the host cells' ... different classes of microbial exoenzymes have been used by humans since pre-historic times for such diverse purposes as food ... S. aureus can also produce staphylokinase, allowing them to dissolve the clots they form, to rapidly diffuse into the host at ...

*Thromboelastography

The K value is the time from the end of R until the clot reaches 20mm and this represents the speed of clot formation. The ... More common tests of blood coagulation include prothrombin time (PT,INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measure ... it is a reflection of coagulation factor activity. Coagulation factors are essentially enzymes that drive clot formation. Thus ... Four values that represent clot formation are determined by this test: the reaction time (R value), the K value, the angle and ...

*Mixing study

In other words, it takes time for the antibody to react with and inactivate the added clotting factor. The clotting test ... studies take advantage of the fact that factor levels that are 50 percent of normal should give a normal Prothrombin time (PT) ... say the patient has an activity of 0%; the average of 100% + 0% = 50%). The PT or PTT will be normal (the mixing study shows ... C will show significant prolongation over the clotting time obtained after immediate mixing. Nonspecific inhibitors like the ...

*Direct Xa inhibitor

... reverses the inhibition of fXa by direct fXa inhibitors and corrects the prolongation of ex vivo clotting times by such ... Evidence supporting non-specific prohemostatic therapies (prothrombin complex concentrate [PCC], activated prothrombin complex ... Spellman, GG Jr.; Nossel, HL (1971). "Anticoagulant activity of dog hookworm". Am J Physiology. 222: 922-927. Direct Factor Xa ... Specific antidotes to reverse the anticoagulant activity of direct Xa inhibitors and other direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) ...

*Hyperfibrinolysis

The classical coagulation tests such as PT (prothrombin time), aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) or thrombin time ... This in vitro approach can predict to a certain level if normal clot formation can be restored by use of an antifibrinolytic ... Hyperfibrinolysis describes a situation with markedly enhanced fibrinolytic activity, resulting in increased, sometimes ... The euglobulin lysis time test is very time consuming and complex. Viscoelastic methods in whole blood, especially ...

*MonaVie

Another case report noted that MonaVie Active may cause fluctuations in blood clotting (prothrombin time) in patients treated ... levels of antioxidant vitamin C and of phytochemicals such as anthocyanins and phenolics associated with antioxidant activity ...

*Transient ischemic attack

... prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, and activated partial thromboplastin time as part of their initial workup. ... Sometimes, myocardial infarction ("heart attack") may lead to the formation of a blood clot in one of the chambers of the heart ... and activity level. The modifiable risk factors are commonly targeted in treatment options to attempt to minimize risk of TIA ... Below is a table of symptoms at presentation, and what percentage of the time they are seen in TIAs versus conditions that ...

*Batroxobin

... coagulation time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and thrombin time. The long-term effects of ... At low dose the batroxobin significantly shortened bleeding times and clotting times in mice and rats. So a low dose of ... As described earlier, batroxobin is an enzyme which has a serine protease activity on its substrate, fibrinogen. A serine ... Furthermore, batroxobin didn't affect the prothrombin time, thrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time, but did ...

*Blood proteins

These efforts started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has ... Fibrinogen comprises 7% of blood proteins; conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin is essential for blood clotting. The ... They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and minerals in activity and functioning ... Transferrin Prothrombin MBL or MBP Anderson NL, Anderson NG (1977). "High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis of Human ...

*Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) reflect the underlying ... At the same time, thrombocytopenia occurs and this has been attributed to the entrapment and consumption of platelets. Clotting ... High levels of fibrin degradation products, including D-dimer, are found owing to the intense fibrinolytic activity stimulated ... These excess clots trap platelets to become larger clots, which leads to microvascular and macrovascular thrombosis. This ...

*Protein C

Seegers was, at the time, searching for vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors undetected by clotting assays, which measure ... Mosnier LO, Griffin JH (2006). "Protein C anticoagulant activity in relation to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities ... Factor Va binds to prothrombin and Factor Xa, increasing the rate at which thrombin is produced by four orders of magnitude ( ... The activity of protein C may be down-regulated by reducing the amount either of available thrombomodulin or of EPCR. This may ...
Looking for online definition of international sensitivity index in the Medical Dictionary? international sensitivity index explanation free. What is international sensitivity index? Meaning of international sensitivity index medical term. What does international sensitivity index mean?
Looking for online definition of serum prothrombin conversion accelerator in the Medical Dictionary? serum prothrombin conversion accelerator explanation free. What is serum prothrombin conversion accelerator? Meaning of serum prothrombin conversion accelerator medical term. What does serum prothrombin conversion accelerator mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Staphylocoagulase-binding region in human prothrombin. AU - Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro. AU - Morita, Takashi. AU - Iwanaga, Sadaaki. AU - Igarashi, Hideo. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - A staphylocoagulase-binding region in human prothrombin was studied by utilizing several fragments prepared from prothrombin by limited proteolysis. Bovine prothrombin, prethrombin 1, prethrombin 2, and human diisopropylphosphorylated α-thrombin strongly inhibited formation of the complex ("staphylothrombin") between human prothrombin and staphylocoagulase, but bovine prothrombin fragment 1 and fragment 2 had no effect on the complex formation, indicating that the binding region of human prothrombin for staphylocoagulase is located in the prethrombin 2 molecule. To identify ...
A method for preparing a thromboplastin reagent from cultured human cells comprising the steps of washing the cells with isotonic aqueous salt solution, lysing the cells by hypotonic shock, and resuspending the cell lysate in a diluent compatible with a one-stage prothrombin time determination to reach a concentration of about 0.5 to 3.0 mg/mL thromboplastin, whereby the cell lysate thromboplastin suspension produces a clot in a one stage prothrombin time test in about 10 to 15 seconds, with a mean normal prothrombin time of about 11-13 seconds, when added to citrated normal plasma in a volume ratio of about 2:1, such thromboplastin reagent being stable for at least 8 hours at 37 C. and for at least 5 days at 4 C.
Looking for online definition of prothrombin time in the Medical Dictionary? prothrombin time explanation free. What is prothrombin time? Meaning of prothrombin time medical term. What does prothrombin time mean?
The prothrombin gene variant resulting form a G--,A transition at position 20210 has been described as a common genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis. However, the risk for developing arterial disease is unknown. In this investigation, we studied 116 patients with venous thrombosis and 71 with arterial disease, all of whom were compared with 295 controls. Additionally, we also investigated the distribution of the prothrombin alleles among African descendents and Amazonian Indians from Brazil. The prevalence of 0.7% for 20210A allele in the control group increased to 4.3% (P = 0.021) among patients with venous thrombosis. There was also a high prevalence of the mutated allele in a selected arterial disease group (5.7%) without hyperlipoproteinemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus when compared to the controls (P = 0.013). Heterozygotes for the allele 20210A were common among individuals of African descent (2%) and rare among Indians. ...
Nakao, A and Virji, A and Iwaki, Y and Carr, B and Iwatsuki, S and Starzl, E (1991) Abnormal prothrombin (DES-y-Carboxy Prothrombin) in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepato-Gastroenterology, 38. 450 - 453. ISSN 0172-6390 ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Human Prothrombin Complex Revenue, means the sales value of Human Prothrombin Complex This report studies sales (consumption) of Human Prothrombin Complex in United States market, focuses on the top players, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player, covering Baxter CSL Bayer Grifols Octapharma Shanghai RAAS Hualan Bio
A one-stage prothrombin assay which measures the exponential rate of thrombin production in thromboplastin-treated, recalcified plasma. A serum reagent reduces the lag time before thrombin production substantially to zero for both normal and abnormal plasma, thus allowing measurements to be made in just a few minutes.
My recent CBC showed prothrombin level (PT) is low (1 in a reference range of 2-3). Previous test in 2004 showed normal level. I understand that this means blood clots too slowly and is sometimes cau...
Please click on the Lab Form Link in the Forms Section to print and complete the Genetic Test Requisition Form. Submission of completed Genetic Test Requisition Form is required, and submission of informed consent form is recommended (but not required).. This test is a targeted mutation analysis that detects presence of the 20210G,A (also known as G20210A or c.*97G,A) pathogenic mutation in the Factor 2 (F2) gene and can determine whether this mutation is present in heterozygous or homozygous state in a patient. The F2 gene encodes coagulation Factor II, also known as prothrombin, protein. The presence of 20210G,A mutation in the F2 gene increases the patients risk for prothrombin-related thrombophilia, which is characterized by venous thromboembolism (VTE) that manifest most commonly in adults and is associated with elevated prothrombin levels.. ...
High doses of norethisterone in 70 Asian women treated for endometriosis were found to affect the blood coagulation factors as well as the cellular components of the blood. Fibrinogen level was found to be decreased (p < 0.01). Prothrombin increased significantly (p < 0.001) during the initial three months medication, after which it gradually reverted to baseline values at nine months. Factor V and X were significantly increased throughout the period of therapy (p<0.001) whilst factor VIII showed no change. This is evidence that coagulation factors from the liver are affected by norethisterone whilst that from the vascular endothelium is not. The changes in coagulation factors resulted in a shortened prothrombin time and kaolin cephalin time in the initial period of treatment reflecting the initial increase in prothrombin level. Jaundice occurred in three patients ...
In March 2006 I began experiencing pain in my right jaw and neck. An ultrasound of my thyroid showed a mild enlargement of my thyroid gland and thrombosis of the right internal jugular. A CT was ordered which showed bilateral segmental pulmonary emboli. A work up done to rule out cancer was negative however blood work showed a prothrombin gene mutation. At the time I was taking Yasmin. I was placed on Coumadin and told I should stay on this forever. I am worried that the risk of a bleed may now outweigh the need for anticoagulation since the thyroiditis is controlled and I am off oral contraceptives. Would it be wise to stop the Coumadin or is long-term use still recommended? Thank you ...
Looking for Prothrombin g20210a mutation? Find out information about Prothrombin g20210a mutation. see blood clotting blood clotting, process by which the blood coagulates to form solid masses, or clots. In minor injuries, small oval bodies called... Explanation of Prothrombin g20210a mutation
Although the prevalence of G20210A prothrombin gene mutation was higher among our CAD patients than among control subjects, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, we found no difference in distribution of genotypes between CAD patients with or without previous MI. These results provide evidence against a major role for G20210A mutation as a risk factor for either CAD or MI, at least in the present study conditions.. Previous data are controversial. Some authors have reported observations consistent with ours20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 ; in particular, the only prospective study published so far found no association between the 20210A allele and the risk of MI.18 However, caution in the interpretation of the results of that study has been suggested,11 mainly because of the procedures used for end-point validation, which were considered inappropriate for ensuring the quality of controls. Furthermore, because of the high heterogeneity of the population ...
Snake prothrombin activator that attacks the hemostatic system of prey. This catalytic subunit is functionally similar to blood coagulation factor Xa. It requires a non-catalytic subunit present in the venom, which is similar to coagulation factor Va, to be fully active (By similarity).
Looking for online definition of prothrombin test in the Medical Dictionary? prothrombin test explanation free. What is prothrombin test? Meaning of prothrombin test medical term. What does prothrombin test mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time. AU - Park, Myung S.. AU - Martini, Wenjun Z.. AU - Dubick, Michael A.. AU - Salinas, Jose. AU - Butenas, Saulius. AU - Kheirabadi, Bijan S.. AU - Pusateri, Anthony E.. AU - Vos, Jeffrey A.. AU - Guymon, Charles H.. AU - Wolf, Steven. AU - Mann, Kenneth G.. AU - Holcomb, John B.. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hemostatic status of critically ill, nonbleeding trauma patients. We hypothesized that a hypercoagulable state exists in patients early after severe injury and that the pattern of clotting and fibrinolysis are similar between burned and nonburn trauma patients. MATERIALS: Patients admitted to the surgical or burn intensive care unit within 24 hours after injury were enrolled. Blood samples were drawn on days 0 through 7. ...
Use this page to view the contact information, documents, and history of considerations for the coding analysis for labs (cal) for prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time (revision of icd-9-cm codes for swelling of limb) (cag-00201n).
Prothrombin time (PT) is the leading test for monitoring oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). We sought to determine INR taking into account only active coagulation factors FII, FVII and FX without inhibition in patient plasmas and calibrator kits.. We measured PT using a combined thromboplastin reagent. The calculation was based on a new PT method, which measures active coagulation factors (F II, F VII, FX) and corrects the errors caused by inactive coagulation factors.. On this basis, an INR result with and without inhibition for individual patient samples was also calculated and applied to 200 plasma samples obtained from OAT patients. Conspicuous variation in inhibition between the four calibration kits was noted. The kinetics of this inhibition was closest to a noncompetitive pattern.. The need of correction for INRs of single patients increases with higher INRs. At the same level of patient INRs the coagulation inhibiton varies markedly.. It has been ...
An evaluation of the Lancer Coagulyzer in the measurement of the one-stage prothrombin time.: An evaluation of a photoelectric clot timer, the Lancer Coagulyzer
Clinical Significance Screening test for abnormalities of coagulation factors that are involved in the extrinsic pathway. Also used to monitor effects of Warfarin therapy and to study patients with hereditary and acquired clotting disorders.. Algorithms. Test FAQ. Prothrombin Time with INR. Alternative Name(s) PT. Prothrombin Time with INR Collection Guide. Return to Cardiology. Return to Virtual Test Guide. The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the Payor being billed.. ...
Current practice is to monitor prothrombin time as an indicator of vitamin K sufficiency in cholestatic liver disease. Since prothrombin time is a surrogate marker, it may underestimate the actual prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in this population. This study investigates the frequency of vitamin K deficiency among a convenience sample of children and adults with cholestatic liver disease by determining plasma levels of protein induced in vitamin K absence II (PIVKA-II), and assesses the relationship between PIVKA-II levels and markers of cholestasis, measured prothrombin time, and vitamin A, E and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Methods: Subjects with cholestatic liver disease were recruited from the Cincinnati referral area. Subjects with decompensated cirrhosis, malignancy, concurrent disease that results in fat malabsorption and AIDS were excluded. All ...
One of the most widely performed laboratory tests is the prothrombin time (PT) test. This test evaluates the functioning of the coagulation system and is also used to monitor patient oral anticoagulant therapy, such as warfarin. Traditionally, the prothrombin time test has been reported out in seconds. However, due to variance in results from incomparable and inconsistent laboratory reporting methods and analyzers, there has been a push to report the International Normalized Ratio (INR) as the gold standard for PT testing. A key component of the INR calculation is the International Sensitivity Index (ISI). The purpose of this module is to provide a general overview of PT and INR calculation, reporting, and point-of-care implementation for laboratory and other medical personnel involved in patient testing.. This course has been approved for P.A.C.E.® credit. ATTENTION MLE- AND ACP-AFFILIATED LABS: When you ...
How much warfarin the person is prescribed depends on the prothrombin time (or INR). The therapeutic value of PT is about 1.5 to 2.5 times the. Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. A prothrombin time In some labs, only the INR is reported and the PT is not reported.. Other blood Blood-thinning medicine, such as warfarin. Low levels of. PT/PTT are blood tests and INR is a ratio calculated from the PT. At least a dozen PT is used to monitor treatment with warfarin (Coumadin). Once warfarin is Which value, PT or PTT, does heparin influence? Which one. Patient education: Warfarin (Coumadin) (Beyond the Basics) Dosing - The dose of warfarin is adjusted to get the PT/INR blood test into the.. Learn what a normal INR means and how it will impact your Warfarin Therapy using Normal INR Levels are 2.5 to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unwarranted use of replicate analysis in routine coagulation studies. AU - Sage-El, A.. AU - Burns, E.. AU - Wenz, B.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The need to assure the validity of semiautomated coagulation procedures by performing replicate determinations is assessed. Prothrombin times (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) were run as duplicate assays using two different photo-optical detection systems. Sixty specimens with a broad range of PT and aPTT results were studied as aliquots of 80, 100, and 140 μL of plasma. A total of 1,440 studies were performed. No statistically significant differences were found among the data for complementary groups of assays. It is concluded that replicate analyses do not enhance the precision nor the accuracy of these coagulation studies. These factors are more controlled adequately by quality assurance procedures, including frequent calibration checks, the use ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concurrent lupus anticoagulants and prothrombin defiency due to phenytoin use. AU - Harrison, R. L.. AU - Alperin, J. B.. AU - Kumar, D.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - A man with a lupus anticoagulant and a prothrombin deficiency was studied before and after cessation of treatment with phenytoin. Multiple abnormal laboratory values of the following partially or completely resolved after the patients therapy was discontinued: tissue thromboplastin inhibition ratio, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, anticardiolipin antibodies, and quantitative measures and abnormal pattern on crossed immunoelectrophoresis of prothrombin. This patient represented an example of a concurrent drug-induced prothrombin deficiency and a lupus anticoagulant.. AB - A man with a lupus anticoagulant ...
To ascertain the heterogeneity of anti-prothrombin antibodies (aPT), we compared three in-house aPT ELISAs: A) medium binding plates, phosphatidylserine, prothrombin, Tris-buffered saline, calcium; B) high binding plates, prothrombin, Tris-buffered saline; and C) high binding plates, prothrombin, PBS. One serum, exhibiting high positive aPT in all three ELISAs, was selected as the calibrator. Sera from 47 patients (41 with SLE, 4 with pAPS, 2 with arterial thromboses) were tested for IgG and IgM aPT.. The results showed six different patterns: 1) similar results were obtained with A, B and C (similar analytical sensitivity); 2) similar results were obtained with A and B while C showed lower analitycal sensitivity; 3) B and C seemed analytically less sensitive than A; 4) A and B were analytically less sensitive than C; 5) A showed very low analytical sensitivity; 6) A and C ...
This is a multi-center study designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the INRatio® Prothrombin Time (PT) Monitoring System, utilizing the INRatio test strip newly designed for low sample volume and heparin insensitivity, when used by trained medical professionals for the quantitative determination of PT and International Normalized Ratio (INR) in fingerstick and venous whole blood from subjects on oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). These results will be compared to those PT/INR results obtained on plasma from the same subjects as analyzed at a central laboratory with the Sysmex CA-560 System ...
Use of bedside activated partial thromboplastin time monitor to adjust heparin dosing after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: Results of gusto-i ...
Supplementary MaterialsS1 Methods: Detailed explanation of prekallikrein production and prothrombin/factor X lacking plasma assays. Aliquots of 10 L PD184352 ic50 had been taken and generated kallikrein enzymatic activity was determined using the specific chromogenic substrate S2302 (2 mM). The kinetics of p-nitroaniline formation were monitored at 405 nm and curves are representative data from at least three independent experiments. Inset shows the dose-response curve. The amounts of plasma derived kallikrein generated by LOBE was estimated using a calibration curve made with known concentrations of purified kallikrein and thus expressed as pmol of equivalent kallikrein/mL/min.(TIF) pntd.0007197.s004.tif (459K) GUID:?7403B6A2-C7C2-4032-B696-330A483F7AED S4 Fig: LOBE-induced kallikrein generation in factor X and prothrombin deficient PD184352 ic50 plasma. To further confirm LOBE-induced kallikrein activation specificity, the ...
Mixing studies are tests performed on blood plasma used to distinguish factor deficiencies from factor inhibitors, such as lupus anticoagulant, or specific factor inhibitors, such as antibodies directed against factor VIII. Mixing studies take advantage of the fact that factor levels that are 50 percent of normal should give a normal Prothrombin time (PT) or Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) result. If the problem is a simple factor deficiency, mixing the patient plasma 1:1 with plasma that contains 100% of the normal factor level results in a level ≥50% in the mixture (say the patient has an activity of 0%; the average of 100% + 0% = 50%). The PT or PTT will be normal (the mixing study shows correction). Correction with mixing indicates factor deficiency; failure to correct indicates an inhibitor. Performing a thrombin time on the test plasma can provide useful additional information for the interpretation ...
Evaluation of the Accuracy of the INRatio Prothrombin Time (PT) Monitoring System With a New Test Strip for the Oral Anticoagulation Therapy Patient in the Presence of Heparin and Low Molecular Weight Heparin (e.g., Enoxaparin or Dalteparin) (ECLIPSE 03 ...
Molecules containing the 33-kDa plasma protein alpha1-microglobulin were isolated from human plasma by anti-(alpha1-microglobulin) affinity chromatography. Five major bands could be seen after electrophoretic separation of the alpha1-microglobulin-containing proteins under native conditions. Immunoblotting demonstrated alpha1-microglobulin in all five bands. Two of these have been described previously: free alpha1-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin complexed with IgA (IgA x alpha1-microglobulin). The other three bands were identified as prothrombin alpha1-microglobulin, albumin x alpha1-microglobulin and dimeric alpha1-microglobulin. Prothrombin x alpha1-microglobulin were 1:2 and 1:1 complexes which carried approximately 1% of total alpha1-microglobulin, had molecular masses of about 145 kDa and 110 kDa upon SDS/PAGE and dissociated completely to free alpha1-microglobulin and prothrombin (72 kDa) when ...
Individuals who carry the Factor V Leiden mutation have a 3- to 8-fold increased risk as heterozygotes and a greater than 10-fold increased risk as homozygotes. Individuals who carry the F2 prothrombin mutation have a 2- to 5-fold increased risk as heterozygotes and up to a 10-fold increased risk as homozygotes. Individuals who carry two copies of the 677C,T mutation, or one 677C,T and one 1298A,C mutation, in the MTHFR gene have between a 2- and 8-fold increased risk. Compound heterozygotes (heterozygous for more than one of the mutations tested for) have an even higher risk of thrombophilia. For example, a person that is heterozygous for both the Factor V Leiden mutation and heterozygous for the F2 prothrombin mutation has a greater than 20-fold increased risk ...
Question on "Lupus Anticoagulant Comp. A blood test returned with Dilute Prothrombin Time (DPT) 59.4 DPT Ratio 1.26. - Answered by a verified Doctor
BACKGROUND: Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in hypothyroidism, such as modification of coagulation proteins and bleeding tendency. Although thyroid hormone deficiency is considered to be responsible for these changes, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respective influence of peripheral thyroid hormones (free thyroxine) and TSH on blood clotting by assessing coagulation parameters in patients with a history of total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, under three different conditions: induced hypothyroidism, euthyroid state, and following recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) administration. METHODS: Coagulation parameters (platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), factor VIII activity ((FVIII:C), as well as von Willebrand factor antigen ...
Covers prothrombin time and INR tests to measure how long it takes blood to clot. Explains why tests are done, how they differ, and how to prepare. Includes possible results and what they may mean. Looks at what may affect test results.
Use this page to view the contact information, documents, and history of considerations for the coding analysis for labs (cal) for prothrombin time (pt) ncd 190.17 (addition of icd-9-cm diagnosis code 197.7 secondary malignant neoplasm of liver) (cag-00404n).
292568030 - EP 1101110 A1 2001-05-23 - METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING ANTICOAGULANT THERAPY FACTORS - [origin: CA2339006A1] A method and apparatuses are disclosed for determining an anticoagulant therapy factor (ATF), a corrected anticoagulant therapy factor and a modifie d anticoagulant therapy factor, all selectively used for monitoring oral anticoagulant therapy to help prevent excessive bleeding or deleterious bloo d clots that might otherwise occur before, during or after surgery. The anticoagulant therapy factor, the corrected anticoagulant therapy factor, an d a modified anticoagulant therapy factor are based upon disclosed methods for determining the fibrinogen tranformation rate which, in turn, is dependent o n a maximum acceleration point for fibronogen conversion.[origin: CA2339006A1] A method and apparatuses are disclosed for determining an anticoagulant therapy factor (ATF), a corrected anticoagulant therapy factor and a modifie d anticoagulant therapy factor, all selectively used
Thirty patients with various types of chronic liver disease and a prothrombin time prolonged for four or more seconds who required needle liver biopsy for diagnostic purposes were given either fresh frozen plasma or a concentrate of clotting factors as a prophylactic measure. The prothrombin time returned to within normal limits in seven of the 15 patients given the concentrate and in three of those receiving fresh frozen plasma. Levels of factors II, IX, and X showed increases of about 30% following concentrate administration; corresponding rises in the group given fresh frozen plasma were less. This was because of the smaller quantity of clotting factors administered with fresh frozen plasma and the increase in factor II and IX activity/kg body weight/unit of clotting factor injected was greater when fresh frozen plasma was used. In ...
The hemophilias are generally classified as hemophilia A and B. Hemophilia A and B occur only in males, and may be of variable degrees of severity. Hemophilia A is about 4 times as frequent as hemophilia B, so most of the coagulation disorders seen by SSA are hemophilia A.. The clinical manifestations seen with the hemophilias involve easy bruising, hematuria, bleeding with minor trauma, bleeding following dental procedures, and bleeding into joints (hemarthroses). A hemarthrosis would not be fatal, although very destructive to a joint. Joint deformity is a common problem in the hemophilia claims seen by the SSA. Intracranial bleeding from a bump on the head, however, could be lethal.. In hemophilia A and B, there is a normal prothrombin time (the time it takes plasma to clot after addition of tissue factor), normal bleeding time, and normal fibrinogen level (fibrogen converts into fibrin, a protein that ...
INTRODUCTION:. Apixaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor developed for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Laboratory monitoring is not necessary, but the effects on common coagulation reagents and assays constitute clinically valuable information.. OBJECTIVES:. To investigate the effects of apixaban on commonly used coagulation methods, and to evaluate anti-FXa assays for specific determination of the drug concentration.. MATERIALS AND METHODS:. Apixaban was added to plasma from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-1000 μg L(-1) , and analyses were performed with different reagents for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. A lupus anticoagulant assay and an APTT assay with varying phospholipid concentrations were used to study the phospholipid dependence.. RESULTS:. In general, apixaban showed fewer effects in vitro than have been ...
Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in secondary stroke prevention – impact of the novel oral anticoagulants Sebastian Luger,1 Carina Hohmann,2 Daniela Niemann,1 Peter Kraft,3 Ignaz Gunreben,3 Tobias Neumann-Haefelin,2 Christoph Kleinschnitz,3 Helmuth Steinmetz,1 Christian Foerch,1 Waltraud Pfeilschifter1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum Fulda gAG, Fulda, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) potently prevents strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) have been the standard of care for long-term OAT for decades, but non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have recently been approved for this indication, and raised many questions, among them their influence on medication adherence. We assessed adherence to VKA and NOAC in secondary stroke prevention. Methods: All patients treated from October 2011 to
Seratrodast (development name, AA-2414; marketed originally as Bronica) is a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP receptor) antagonist used primarily in the treatment of asthma. It was the first TP receptor antagonist that was developed as an anti-asthmatic drug and received marketing approval in Japan in 1997. As of 2017 seratrodast was marketed as Bronica in Japan, and as Changnuo, Mai Xu Jia, Quan Kang Nuo in China. Unlike thromboxane synthase inhibitors such as ozagrel, seratrodast does not affect thrombus formation, time to occlusion and bleeding time. Seratrodast has no effect on prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, thus ruling out any action on blood coagulation cascade. Seratrodast is used to treat asthma. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of seratrodast in pregnant women. The drug should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the risk to the ...
Introduction: The most commonly used test for monitoring heparin therapy is the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The response of available aPTT reagents to heparin varies significantly. The aim of this study was to highlight the differences between aPTT reagents stored in a dried format to select the most suitable formulations to be used for the development of point-of-care diagnostic devices used for monitoring of unfractionated heparin dose response. Methods: Ten reagents were analysed in terms of their performance in liquid and in dried form after storage for 24 h and 14 days. Performance was assessed by measurement of the clotting time (CT) as evidenced by the onset of thrombin formation using a chromogenic thrombin substrate in plasma samples activated with these formulations. Results: Reagents in all of the three forms tested (liquid, 24 h and 14 days) resulted in significant shortening of CTs in comparison with the nonactivated plasma CT. ...
Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?. Response: Atrial fibrillation increases a persons risk of ischemic strokes up to 5-fold. Oral anticoagulation therapy lowers this risk effectively (,60%) and is therefore recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation and at least 1-2 other risk factors for stroke.. Our study show, that oral anticoagulation therapy is still underused in patients with atrial fibrillation - even after a stroke event. In stroke survivors with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation therapy were associated with better outcomes than no oral anticoagulation therapy. MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?. Response: Oral anticoagulation therapy is effective (and safe) as secondary stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation.. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work? Response: Treatment rates with oral anticoagulation ...
In this paper, we present a microscale impedance-based technique for detecting different levels of blood plasma coagulation triggered by tissue factor thromboplastin. Impedance-based detection relies on measuring changes in the ac impedance between two electrodes due to the formation of favorably insoluble fibrin after treated with thromboplastin. Both gold and carbon parallel electrodes were tested and the optimum operating frequency for most sensitive coagulation detection was investigated. Micro fabricated gold electrodes could be used to detect the impedance difference between different levels of plasmas and the result was compared with optical measurement. A peculiar conductance maximum occurs at the optimal frequency for carbon electrodes and is a sensitive indicator of blood coagulation. Our optimized small electrode sensors are ideal for point-of-care applications.. Copyright © 2005 by ASME ...
The Coagulation Panel is a common set of labs ordered to monitor a patients bleeding status. Lab values are commonly presented in a 3-way diagram, colloquially known as the Mercedes diagram. The top left value is the Prothrombin Time (PT). This lab value evaluates the extrinsic pathway and common pathways of coagulation. PT is primarily affected by the following coagulation factors: I (1), II (2), V (5), VII (7), and X (10). The top right value is the Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT), sometimes called the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). This lab value evaluates the intrinsic pathway and common pathways of coagulation. PTT is primarily affected by the following coagulation factors: VIII (8), IX (9), XI (11), and XII (12). The bottom value is the International Normalized Ratio (INR). The INR is a ratio calculated from a patients PT value, by dividing it by a normal PT value, or population ...
Oral anticoagulant therapy is the mainstay of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation; it is highly effective at reducing stroke risk, but its use can be limited by increased risk of bleeding. As new oral anticoagulants are available, barriers to optimal use of oral anticoagulation therapy warrant consideration by healthcare professionals and administrators who are seeking to optimize the quality of care for patients with atrial fibrillation.
This study investigated the effect of dabigatran on the activated partial thromboplastin time and activated clotting time in artrial fibrillation patients.
PT test results used to be given in seconds, along with a control value. The control value usually varied somewhat from day to day because the reagents used varied. The patients PT value was supposed to be approximately equal to the control value. Some laboratories used to report PT values as percentages of normal activity, because the patients results were compared with a curve representing normal clotting time. A normal PT result was 85% to 100%.. To have uniform PT results for physicians in different parts of the country and the world, the World Health Organization has recommended that PT results now include the use of the international normalized ratio (INR) value. The reported INR results are independent of the reagents or methods used. Many hospitals are now reporting PT times in both absolute and INR numbers. Factors such as weight, body mass index, age, diet, and concurrent medications are known to affect warfarin dose requirements ...
Hemorrhagic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) associated with the presence of underlying advanced or metastatic tumors are often difficult to control by conventional methods. We report the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in patients with cancer and bleeding secondary to DIC. A total of 18 patients with cancer met pre-defined criteria for DIC. All patients had failed to respond to transfusion with blood products and treatment of the underlying malignancy prior to the introduction of rFVIIa. The median laboratory data at the time of treatment with rFVIIa were as follows: hemoglobin, 7.7 g/dl; platelets, 54 x 10(9)/l; prothrombin time, 21 s; activated partial thromboplastin time, 41 s fibrinogen, 83 mg/dl; D-dimer, 17 microg/ml; and antithrombin, 32%. The dose of rFVIIa was 90 microg/kg and the median number of doses administered was 5 (range, 3-10). Serial measurements of coagulation parameters were ...
There have been a number of clinical studies regarding the efficacy of warfarin in reducing the future embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. But there was no direct demonstration of the decrease in size of, LAT with anticoagulation. To our knowledge, this seems to be the first report about the evolution of LAT with anticoagulation.. The efficacy of anticoagulation was very high in patients with adequate prolongation of prothrombin time with warfarin, and this supports the provious clinical observation of the beneficial effect of warfarin in preventing the systemic embolism. Also, the high incidence of systemic embolism, in patients with inadequate prolongation of prothrombin time, highlights the importance of anticoagulation in the prevention of systemic embolism. There has been much debate about the adequate level of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation9-12). In valvular heart ...
AIMS: To determine whether cow or goat yogurt administration has a preventive effect on the hepatic damage undergone during an acute liver injury. METHODS: Acute liver injury was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-Galactosamine. Groups of animals were fed with cow or goat yogurt for 2d or 7d before the D-Galactosamine injection. Blood and liver samples were obtained 12 h after D-Galactosamine inoculation. RESULTS: D-Galactosamine induced increase in serum aminotransaminases, reduction in the number of blood leukocytes, enhancement in neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity, recruitment of leukocytes toward the liver; increase in cell death and alteration in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen levels. Treatment with cow or goat yogurt was effective to increase leukocyte number and decrease myeloperoxidase activity. We also observed a decrease in leukocyte accumulation ...
In order to develop new anticoagulants as potential heparin alternatives, two pullulans with different molecular weight (MW) were used as starting polymers for the partial synthesis of a structurally new class of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of these linear α-1,4-/1,6-glucans was carried out by a method with a SO3-pyridine complex in DMF, which had been optimized for the modification of β-1,3-glucans. Modifications of this methods resulted in pullulan sulfates with degrees of sulfation (DS) ranging from 0.17 to 1.99 and MW between 15 and 250 kDa. More than 50% of the sulfate groups were bound to the secondary C atoms in positions 2, 3 and 4 of the glucose monomers. The anticoagulant activity of the obtained pullulan sulfates was determined in the coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Heptest® and thrombin time (TT). They represent potent anticoagulants ...
Activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) is one of a handful of diagnostic coagulation tests that provides a measurement for the length of time it takes an individuals blood to form a clot. Blood clotting factors come together in a cascade process when a blood vessel is damaged to form a blood clot and stop bleeding. Clotting factors XII, IX, II, X, XI, VIII, V, fibrinogen, prekallikrein, and high-molecular-weight kininogen are components that make up the intrinsic clotting pathway and the common final pathway. These factors are measured in the aPTT test. The partial thromboplastin time test is performed before the activated partial thromboplastin time. The difference between these two tests is a special activation solution is added to the sample for the aPTT that increases the clotting time to provide a smaller reference range. ...
Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are 2 novel oral anticoagulant agents that have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE and for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Following these results, both drugs were registered for VTE prevention despite the lack of information on the proper method to neutralize their anticoagulant activity. Findings from this study, the first conducted in humans, indicate that a nonactivated PCC immediately reverses the effect of full-dose rivaroxaban in healthy individuals but not dabigatran at the PCC dose used in this study.. Prothrombin complex concentrate (Cofact) was chosen as a method of reversal for both rivaroxaban and dabigatran for the following reasons. It contains 4 coagulation factors, namely factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, that stimulate thrombin formation, thereby potentially bypassing the anticoagulant effect of both drugs. The ...
The study was stopped early because of clear evidence of superiority of oral anticoagulation therapy. There were 165 primary events in patients on oral anticoagulation therapy (annual risk 3·93%) and 234 in those on clopidogrel plus aspirin (annual risk 5·60%; relative risk 1·44 (1·18-1.76; p=0.0003). Patients on oral anticoagulation therapy who were already receiving this treatment at study entry had a trend towards a greater reduction in vascular events (relative risk 1·50, 95% CI 1·19-1·89) and a significantly (p=0·03 for interaction) lower risk of major bleeding with oral anticoagulation therapy (1.30; 0.94-1.79) than patients not on this treatment at study entry (1·27, 0·85-1·89 and 0·59, 0·32-1·08, respectively ...
https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/REP-GB-10058. Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Market Dynamics. Adoption of direct oral anticoagulants over the exciting alternative to warfarin and is used for the first line choice of treatment for venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation which is expected to spur the global direct oral anticoagulants market. Growing approval from the FDA and CE mark for the direct oral anticoagulants will further boost the direct oral anticoagulants market in the near future. Rising cases of thrombosis which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world is expected to further drive the direct oral anticoagulants market in the forecast period.. However, some factors which might restraint the growth of the direct oral anticoagulants include high cost when compared to warfarin and shorter acting dose which makes it important not to miss any doses. Furthermore, stringent regulations for development of drug is expected to restraint ...
Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between short-term increases in ambient particulate matter and short-term increases in morbidity and mortality, especially in people with cardiovascular disease. The biological mechanisms by which particulate matter may affect cardiovascular events are not well understood, however. Dr Christine Nadziejko of the New York University School of Medicine hypothesized that exposure of healthy rats to ambient particles may cause changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators objective is to prove the hypothesis that particulate matter may exert its adverse health effects by altering blood coagulation parameters. This objective is biologically relevant because clots may precipitate cardiac arrest, especially in people with cardiovascular disease. ...
hospitalizations, the excess risk attributable to anticoagulant therapy remained significant after the multivariate adjustment [IRR = 3.94 CI, 95% CI (1.06-14.69), p=0.041]. Finally, there was also a tendency to an increased risk of repeated hospitalizations of ischemic cause in anticoagulated patients [IRR = 5.80, 95% CI (0.86-39.0), p=0.071].. Anticoagulation and recurrent bleeding. There was a tendency of a higher frequency of total hemorrhages and also major hemorrhages in anticoagulated patients [1.93 vs 1.11 (p=0.113) and 1.05 vs 0.32 (p=0.051)]. After multivariate adjustment, we observed a tendency toward an increased risk of recurrent bleeding in the anticoagulated patients [IRR = 4.43, 95% CI (0.94-20.81), p=0.059]. Regarding major bleeding, although the differences were ostensible, these did not become statistically significant [IRR= P13.38, 95% CI (0.47-382.68), p,0.129)].. Time in therapeutic range (TRT) and hemorrhagic events in anticoagulated patients. Our anticoagulated ...
A 70-year-old man was admitted with generalized seizures. The initial laboratory evaluation showed normal blood counts (platelet count, 303 109/L) and normal coagulation studies. Dilantin therapy was started and a left parietal hemorrhage was diagnosed. Nine days later, a left lower lobe pneumonia developed that was treated with gentamicin and ceftriaxone. On day 19, because of persistent fever, this antibiotic treatment was discontinued and mezlocillin therapy was started. The platelet count on that day was 388 109/L. On days 20 to 22, platelet counts were between 368 and 421 109/L; blood counts were not checked on days 23, 24, and 25. On day 26, the platelet count was 1 109/L, with a normal leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. The patient was clinically stable with no overt bleeding. Six units of random donor platelet concentrates were transfused; the platelet count 1 hour after ...
Until the discovery of factor V, coagulation was regarded as a product of four factors: calcium (IV) and thrombokinase (III) together acting on prothrombin (II) to produce fibrinogen (I); this model had been outlined by Paul Morawitz in 1905.[5] The suggestion that an additional factor might exist was made by Dr Paul Owren (1905-1990), a Norwegian physician, during his investigations into the bleeding tendency of a lady called Mary (1914-2002). She had suffered from nosebleeds and menorrhagia (excessive menstrual blood loss) for most her life, and was found to have a prolonged prothrombin time, suggesting either vitamin K deficiency or chronic liver disease leading to prothrombin deficiency. However, neither were the case, and Owren demonstrated this by correcting the abnormality with plasma from which prothrombin had been removed. Using Marys serum as ...
TEG: THEORY AND APPLICATION. Introduction. The technique of thrombelastography, or TEG®, offers clinicians a powerful tool for the evaluation of possible coagulation disorders in a wide variety of clinical settings. This exercise will cover the principles of thrombelastography and review application of the technique to real-world clinical problems.The more commonly used tests of coagulation, particularly the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time, measure extremely limited portions of this system and do not provide a realistic picture of coagulation status. TEG, on the other hand, provides the most nearly complete evaluation of coagulation status and allows excellent prediction of the probability of pathological thrombosis, hemorrhage, or clot lysis in difficult clinical situations.. Brief review of coagulation. The blood coagulation and fibrinolytic system is a remarkably complex balance of up- and down-regulating ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Prothrombin Complex Concentrate, Prothrombin Drug Combination, PCC, Beriplex, Octaplex, Kcentra, Cofact.
... Specifications∶ •Principle: dual-magnetic circuit bead method •Parameter:PT(Prothrombin Time),APTT,(Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time), TT (Thrombin Time), ...
Essentials Fiix-prothrombin time (PT) monitoring of warfarin measuring factor (F) II and X, is effective. Plasma obtained during warfarin induction and stable phase in Fiix-trial was assayed. Fiix-PT stabilized anticoagulation earlier than monitoring with traditional PT-INR. FVII had little effect on thrombin generation that was mainly determined by FII and FX. SUMMARY: Background The prothrombin time (PT) is equally prolonged by reduction of each of the vitamin K-dependent (VKD) factors (F) II, VII and X. The Fiix-PT is only affected by FII and FX, the main contributors to thrombin generation (TG). Objective To test the hypothesis that variability in warfarin anticoagulation is reduced early during monitoring with the normalized PT-ratio calculated from Fiix-PT (Fiix-International Normalized Ratio [INR]) compared with traditional PT-INR monitoring. Also, that because of its insensitivity to FVII, Fiix-PT ...
The investigations of direct jaundice are usually done if the jaundice last for more than 2 weeks. The first step is to measure the blood level of total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. If it suggests direct jaundice (i.e. direct bilirubin , 2 mg/dl), then evaluation starts in a staged manner if baby is less than 6 weeks and non sick. If otherwise then parallel investigations are advised to reach early diagnosis.. The doctor should first assess the liver function by measuring liver enzymes (SGPT, SGOT,GGT), serum albumin and prothrombin time. A baby with high enzyme level, low albumin and prolonged prothrombin time can become sick rapidly and hence should be admitted in hospital and managed further.. In staged approach rapid diagnosis of treatable conditions like infection (blood counts, blood culture and urine culture), low thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and TSH), and inborn error of metabolism (genetic disorder ...
Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. We extracted six fucans from Canistrocarpus cervicornis by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. These heterofucans are composed mainly of fucose, glucuronic acid, galactose and sulfate. No polysaccharide was capable of prolonging prothrombin time (PT) at the concentration assayed. However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0) doubled aPTT with only 0.1 mg/mL of plasma, only 1.25-fold less than Clexane®, a commercial low molecular weight heparin. Heterofucans exhibited total antioxidant capacity, low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, good superoxide radical scavenging efficiency (except CC-1.0), and excellent ferrous chelating ability (except CC-0.3). These results clearly indicate the beneficial ...
The basic screen consists of a platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. Close attention to blood sampling
Results 290 VLBWs were admitted during the study period. 105 coagulation screens were performed on 54 babies ⩽1500 g (19 unsuitable for analysis; 86 analysed). Profiles were available for 40 infants; prothrombin time (PT), international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen. Gestational ages were significantly lower in those with Grade 3-4 IVH (27±2.3 versus 25.6±2.1; p,0.05). Fibrinogen levels day 1/2 were not significant between the groups, but a difference was seen on day 3 (see table). No other comparisons were significant. ...
Liver disease is associated with impairment of the haemostatic function due to the abnormal and decreased synthesis of the clotting factors. It is thus only logical to have considered assessment of the clotting profile (to include prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)) to be an integral part of the comprehensive assessment of a patient who presents with liver impairment. Laboratory abnormalities of coagulation are considered to be a predictive risk factor for bleeding, but patients with liver disease do not have bleeding pattern as those who have coagulation factor deficiencies. Recent experiments have cast doubts over the use of PT and aPTT as a marker of bleeding in liver disease and the use of such tests to decide the need for plasma replacement before interventions like liver biopsy. This article reviews the relevance of the clotting profile in liver ...
The BD FACSPresto™ Near-Patient CD4 Counter was developed to expand HIV/AIDS management in resource-limited settings. It measures absolute CD4 counts (AbsCD4), percent CD4 (%CD4), and hemoglobin (Hb) from a single drop of capillary or venous blood in approximately 23 minutes, with throughput of 10 samples per hour. We assessed the performance of the BD FACSPresto system, evaluating accuracy, stability, linearity, precision, and reference intervals using capillary and venous blood at KEMRI/CDC HIV-research laboratory, Kisumu, Kenya, and precision and linearity at BD Biosciences, California, USA ...
Background-Patients experiencing major bleeding while taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require rapid VKA reversal. We performed a prospective clinical trial to compare non-activated four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) with plasma for urgent VKA reversal. Methods and Results-In this phase IIIb, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial, non-surgical patients were randomized to 4F-PCC (containing coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X, and proteins C, S) or plasma. Primary analyses examined whether 4F-PCC was non-inferior to plasma for the co-primary endpoints of 24-hour hemostatic efficacy from start of infusion and INR correction (≤1.3) at 0.5 hours after end of infusion. The intent-to-treat-efficacy population comprised 202 patients (4F-PCC n=98; plasma n=104). Median (range) baseline INR was 3.90 (1.8-20.0) for the 4F-PCC group and 3.60 (1.9-38.9) for the plasma group. Effective hemostasis was achieved in 72.4% of patients receiving 4F-PCC versus 65.4% ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different colloid plasma substitutes on blood coagulation and postoperative blood loss. DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies were obtained from the medical literature. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected that provided data on the effects of colloids on hemostasis and postoperative blood loss in humans. Studies comparing different colloids were looked for using MEDLINE and by searching through the references of studies as they were collected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Articles were reviewed and relevant data were extracted and partly presented in comparative tables. CONCLUSIONS: Dextran, gelatin, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) all can induce a specific decrease of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII:c. Blood coagulation is most impaired by dextran and high molecular weight HES, both associated with increased postoperative blood loss. The effects of HES on blood coagulation have been shown to depend on its molecular weight and rate of elimination. Detrimental effects have ...
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased coagulation which in the presence of unstable atheroma or endothelial damage leads to occlusive coronary vessel thrombosis. AMI is usually characterized by increased levels of catecholamines. It is possible there may be a link between catecholamines and hypercoagulation, but this still remains to be determined. In the current study we sought to verify whether hypercoagulation is associated with hypersympathetic activity in AMI patients, and whether there is a correlation between increased Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MOPEG) levels (a metabolite of catecholamines) and shorter APTT (a marker of hypercoagulation). RESULTS: Shorter APTT values were detected in the plasma of AMI patients, which had also increased MOPEG levels. A linear correlation between APTT and MOPEG values was observed. High levels of the coagulation marker prothrombin (fragments 1+2) were also found. CONCLUSION: ...
Bleeding and bruising are common symptoms in the primary care setting. The patient history can help determine whether the bruising or bleeding is abnormal. The International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis has developed a bleeding assessment tool that can be used to indicate possible pathology. A family history of bleeding problems may suggest a hereditary coagulation defect. Such a history is especially important in children who may not have experienced a major bleeding episode. Medication review can identify pharmacologic causes of the bleeding or bruising. Physical examination findings such as mucocutaneous bleeding suggest that the underlying condition is caused by platelet dysfunction, whereas hemarthroses or hematomas are more common in coagulopathy. If the history and physical examination findings suggest a bleeding diathesis, initial laboratory testing includes a complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, prothrombin time (PT), and partial ...
There is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness and occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients treated with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) for the management of major bleeding events (MBEs) on rivaroxaban or apixaban. We investigated the effectiveness of PCCs given for the management of MBEs in patients on rivaroxaban or apixaban. Between 1 January 2014 and 1 October 2016, we prospectively included patients on rivaroxaban or apixaban treated with PCCs for the management of MBEs. The effectiveness of PCCs was assessed by using the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scientific and Standardization Subcommittee criteria for the assessment of the effectiveness of major bleeding management. The safety outcomes were thromboembolic events and all-cause mortality within 30 days after treatment with PCCs. A total of 84 patients received PCCs for the reversal of rivaroxaban or apixaban due to a MBE. PCCs were given at a median (interquartile range) dose ...
Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disorder of coagulation caused by deficiency of factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B), occurring in one in 5000 men.1 The percentage of factor present determines the severity of disease. Six to forty percent factor activity levels denotes mild disease with no tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage and bleeding occurs usually only with surgery or severe trauma. Two to five percent implies moderate disease with bleeding following mild trauma. Less than 1% is severe disease with proclivity to spontaneous hemorrhage. Two-thirds of male patients with hemophilia have severe disease. In both hemophilia A and B, the prothrombin time (PT) is normal and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is prolonged. The same types of bleeding occur in both factor VIII and factor IX deficiency. Bruising, hemarthroses, and intramuscular hematomas predominate. Intracranial hemorrhage is less common but ...
Warfarin is a blood-thinning drug that functions by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Warfarin is prescribed by doctors for people with various conditions, such as atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, a history of serious blood clots, clotting disorders (hypercoagulability), and placement of indwelling catheters or ports. Usually, blood tests must be done regularly to evaluate the extent of blood thinning, using a test for prothrombin time (PT) or the international normalized ratio (INR). Vitamin K can decrease the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and will therefore lower the PT or INR value. This may increase the risk of clotting. Therefore, people taking warfarin are usually warned to avoid foods with high vitamin K content (such as green leafy vegetables) and to avoid vitamin K supplements. Conversely, vitamin K is used to treat overdoses or any excess anticoagulant effects of ...
Ardeparin, marketed under the US trade name Normiflo, is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulant used for the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis. Ardeparin is derived via peroxide degradation of heparin extracted from porcine intestinal mucosa. Its molecular weight ranges from 2000 to 15,000 with an average molecular weight of 5500 to 6500. Normiflo was withdrawn from the US market in March 2000.
Maintaining oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists remains one of the more challenging aspects of medicine. To meet this challenge, the use of both anticoagulation clinics and point-of-care monitors by providers has clearly improved anticoagulation control. Just as diabetic patients have learned that self-monitoring can improve control of their disease, patients undergoing anticoagulation and their providers have learned that self-monitoring using point-of-care prothrombin time devices can improve anticoagulation control (1). Well over 100 000 Europeans and an increasing number of Americans are self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation. Heneghan and colleagues reviewed 14 RCTs of self-monitoring compared with care provided by anticoagulation clinics or the patients primary care physician. Self-monitoring resulted in increased time of INR in the therapeutic range, fewer bleeding and thromboembolic events, and lower mortality. Fewer ...
Background: Closantel is a veterinary drug used as anthelmintic for ruminants while it is contraindicated for humans. This report describes a rare case of blindness, increased liver enzymes and coagulopathy following closantel poisoning. Case report: A 5-year-old girl was presented with acute blindness following closantel poisoning. She was given mistakenly a dose of 500 mg/day (25mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Clinical examination revealed a well-appearing child with bilateral mydriasis, loss of pupillary light reflex and absence of blinking to threat. Fundoscopic exam revealed bilateral pre-atrophic papilledema. Electroretinogram showed a highly significant decrease in retinal activity. Laboratory examinations revealed 52% increase in prothrombin time, prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time to 1.3 times the normal and rise of aspartate aminotransferase to 120 IU/L. In addition, creatine kinase ...
To investigate clinical course and outcome of dengue with acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to identify related risk factors for acquiring ARF in dengue, we retrospectively studied 11 dengue patients with ARF. From June to December 2002, a total of 606 adult patients were diagnosed as having dengue. Eleven (1.8%) of 606 dengue patients had complications of ARF. The main causes of ARF were sepsis (n = 6, 54.5%) and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding (n = 3, 27.3%). The mortality rate was 72.7% (n = 8). Additionally, univariate analysis showed that age, dyspnea, cough, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin, renal insufficiency, acute renal failure, acute hepatic failure, UGI bleeding, and combination bacterial infection were significantly predictive variables associated with dengue patients with ARF.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with inflammatory and hypercoagulability state. Previous studies evaluated the safety and efficacy of dabigatran and warfarin in prevention of thrombothic complications. This study was intended to assess the influence of these drugs on hemostatic and inflammatory markers among patient underwent pulmonary vein ablation. A total of 100 patients with AF who underwent catheter ablation were randomized to treatment with dabigatran (D) 110 mg twice daily or warfarin (W) adjusted to an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0 for 3 months after ablation procedure. C - reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (F1 + 2), were measured at baseline before ablation procedures, after 30 days and after 90 days of treatment. After 3 months, the D-dimer was 164.9 ± 48.9 in Dabigatran and 197.2 ± 58.6 in warfarin group, F1 + 2 was 0.4 ± 0.2 in dabigatran and 0.8 ± 0.2 in warfarin group and CRP level was 1.8 ± 1.6 in ...
Clinical symptoms associated with this condition include lethargy, fever, melena, hematemesis, hematuria, hematochezia, epistaxis and mucosal petechiations or ecchymotic hemorrhages on the mucous membranes. Many of these symptoms are referable to underlying thromboembolism and/or hemorrhagic episodes[25]. Spontaneous hemorrhage does not typically occur unless platelets are less than 50,000 and some dogs, buccal mucosal bleeding times may be normal. Hematological analysis usually reveals reduced thrombocyte numbers and elevated partial thromboplastin time (normal = 9.6-13.8) and prothrombin time (normal = 7.5-9.9)[26]. Macrothrombocytes and fusiform cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in neutrophils may be observed in some cases (May-Hegglin anomaly). The diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia is made by the exclusion of the secondary causes of thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow cytological analysis should be performed to assess ...
Clinical follow-up. Six patients were followed up monthly at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, after a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis by either liver biopsy and/or a combination of clinical features. During monthly visits, they underwent physical examination, urinalysis, and complete blood count, with measurement of serum α-fetoprotein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and serum chemistry. All patients received a liver ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or computed tomography (CT) at least every 6 mo. The protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University.. In vivo human cancer xenograft experiments. CW-2 human colon cancer xenograft experiments were conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for Animal Experimentation, and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Male athymic BALB/c Slc-nu mice (Japan SLC) were ...
Background: Patients on long term warfarin treatment can have cerebral ischemic events despite therapeutic levels. We sought to determine unique patient attributes that result in ischemic events on therapeutic warfarin treatment.. Methods: We reviewed the medical records and imaging data of consecutive patients with cerebral ischemic events who were on long term warfarin treatment over a 4 year period. We stratified the patients based on international normalized ratio (2.0-3.0 versus ,2.0) and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups of patients.. Results: A total of 163 patients (mean age±SD; 77.3 ± 11.2) on long term warfarin treatment were admitted with cerebral ischemic events (97 ischemic strokes and 40 transient ischemic attacks). The mean age was not different between patients who were sub therapeutic and therapeutic on warfarin (78.2 ±11.6 versus 77.5±10.5, p=0.7). The proportion of patients with hypertension (87.2% versus 84.0%, p=0.6), diabetes ...
Trauma is a major cause of death and disability worldwide [1], and since hemorrhage accounts for approximately 40% of all trauma fatalities. this is a leading cause of potentially preventable deaths [2]. When death is not immediately due to exsanguination, bleeding and prolonged shock increase the risk of multiple organ failure and late mortality [2, 3]. The exact mechanism(s) responsible for death in trauma patients remain elusive but much attention has been given to coagulopathy since this is an independent predictor of mortality [4] that is present already at the scene of an accident [5, 6] and upon arrival at the emergency department [7, 8].. Different drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have been proposed by different groups of researchers [9]: Some advocate that TIC reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic (hemorrhagic) phenotype based on the observation that trauma DIC patients display prolonged prothrombin ...
Prandoni and colleagues (1) suggest that subcutaneous unfractionated heparin is an attractive approach to treating deep venous thrombosis compared with the use of low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) because of the lower cost of unfractionated heparin. The main problems associated with the use of unfractionated heparin are the high variability of the anticoagulant response and the lack of an accepted method of standardization in the activated partial thromboplastin time, which is used to monitor treatment. Because unfractionated heparin treatment must be monitored (2), each hospital must establish its own therapeutic range based on a calibration curve of activated partial thromboplastin time against heparin levels assessed by anti-Xa activity. This procedure is difficult to perform, and it does not guarantee a full comparison of the anticoagulation regimens in different hospitals ...
BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting as to the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulation (DOAC) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) for prevention of myocardial infarction (MI).. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the risk of MI associated with the use of apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and VKA in patients with atrial fibrillation.. METHODS: Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified using Danish health care registers and stratified by initial oral anticoagulant treatment. Standardized absolute 1-year risks were estimated based on Cox regression for hazard rates of MI hospitalizations and mortality. Reported were absolute risks separately for the oral anticoagulation treatments and standardized to the characteristics of the study population.. RESULTS: Of the 31,739 patients included (median age, 74 years; 47% females), the standardized 1-year risk of MI for VKA was 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 1.8), apixaban was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9 to 1.4), dabigatran was 1.2% (95% CI: 1.0 ...
BACKGROUND: We conducted a retrospective analysis examining the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) or hypertension bracket and stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).. METHODS: The study included 14,256 anticoagulated patients in the ROCKET AF trial. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of adverse outcomes by European Society of Cardiology hypertension bracket and screening SBP.. RESULTS: In total, 90.5% of patients had hypertension (55.8% controlled, 34.6% uncontrolled). The adjusted risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) increased significantly for every 10-mm Hg increase in screening SBP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13). There was a trend toward an increased adjusted risk of stroke or SE in patients with controlled (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.66) and uncontrolled hypertension (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03-1.95) (P = .06). In contrast, the adjusted risk of major bleeding was similar between hypertensive brackets and did not vary ...
This study aimed to estimate the diagnostic utility of biomarkers for suspected venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and the puerperium. Research nurses/midwives collected blood samples from 310 pregnant/postpartum women with suspected pulmonary emboli (PE) and 18 with diagnosed deep vein thrombosis (DVT). VTE was diagnosed using imaging, treatment and adverse outcome data. Primary analysis was limited to women with conclusive imaging (36 with VTE, 247 without). The area under the curve (AUC) for each biomarker was: activated partial thromboplastin time 0·669 (95% confidence interval 0·570-0·768), B-type natriuretic peptide 0·549 (0·453-0·645), C-reactive protein 0·542 (0·445-0·639), Clauss fibrinogen 0·589 (0·476-0·701), D-Dimer (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) 0·668 (0·561-0·776), near-patient D-Dimer 0·651 (0·545-0·758), mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 0·524 (0·418-0·630), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 0·562 (0·462-0·661), ...
As with other macrolides, clarithromycin has been reported to increase concentrations of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., lovastatin and simvastatin). Rare reports of rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking these drugs concomitantly. Omeprazole. Clarithromycin (500 mg every 8 hours) was given in combination with omeprazole (40 mg daily) to healthy adult subjects. The steady-state plasma concentrations of omeprazole were increased (Cmax, AUC0-24, and t1/2 increased by 30%, 89%, and 34%, respectively), by the concomitant administration of clarithromycin. The mean 24-hour gastric pH value was 5.2 when omeprazole was administered alone and 5.7 when omeprazole was co-administered with clarithromycin. Oral anticoagulants. Spontaneous reports in the post-marketing period suggest that concomitant administration of clarithromycin and oral anticoagulants may potentiate the effects of the oral anticoagulants. Prothrombin times should be carefully ...
Before we begin, heres a word on nomenclature. Early on, this next generation of oral anticoagulants was convincingly called NOACs (Novel Oral AntiCoagulants), but these drugs would not be novel forever. An Institute For Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) safety alert noted that "NoAC" was interpreted as "no anticoagulation" in a patient at high risk of stroke. The ISMP has designated "NoAC" a potentially dangerous abbreviation and discourages its use. The acronym DOAC for Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulant provides a reasonably short, easily pronounced, accurately descriptive abbreviation that distinguishes the class from warfarin, which acts indirectly. Wewill use the term DOAC throughout this issue; but be aware that other acronyms (eg, TSOAC [target-specific oral anticoagulant]) are also found in the literature and may work their way into clinical practice. ...
Background Increasing numbers of children are being administered warfarin therapy as thromboprophylaxis. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with a target international normalised ratio (INR) of 2-3.5, called the therapeutic range. The length of time a patients INR remains within the therapeutic range is calculated as time in the therapeutic rangeâ‡"(tm). Risk for haemorrhage in children receiving warfarin is 0.5%/patient-year and minor bleeding 2.3%/patient-year, which increases exponentially for INRs >5.0. Practice among non-bleeding adults with INRs ≥5 and ≤9 is to withhold warfarin and allow the INR to return to the therapeutic range. Faster warfarin clearance is correlated with younger age. Methods and results The study objective was to determine the safety and effectiveness of a conservative approach for management of INRs >5 in children receiving warfarin. Children receiving warfarin with INRs ≥5 had warfarin withheld followed by a next day INR without ...
Early management is essential and must not be delayed pending snake/venom identification.. Snake (species) identification must be attempted. Venom may be identified from swab or tissue from site of bite; urine may also be required. See Snake venom detection.. Full blood count, Blood film, Platelet count, Coagulation profile, APTT, Prothrombin time, D Dimer, Fibrinogen; Electrolytes, Creatinine, Urea, Electrolytes, Glucose, Urate, Calcium, Phosphate, Albumin, Creatine kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase. Ward test urine.. See Guideline on Pathology testing in the Emergency department: Appendix 2.. ...
Previous reports of discrepancies in international normalised ratio (INR) measurement between centres have focused on hospital based methodologies.1-3 Previously, we have demonstrated differences in derived INR values for the same sample tested in primary care and in one of three different haematology laboratories.4 Our present study is an extension of the previous one, investigating comparative results based on contemporaneous samples measured in one primary care centre and in two hospital laboratories using a variety of techniques.. Venous blood was drawn from patients in one primary care centre over a three month period. The sample was tested on site for INR estimation using the Thrombotrak NPT and Thrombotest reagent. The remainder of the venous sample was placed in a citrated collection bottle and sent to two reference laboratories routinely used by the general practitioner to measure INR values (laboratories 1 and 2). Laboratory 1 determined INR values using three separate methods: a ...
Thromboelastography (TEG) is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor which provides information on specific aspects of coagulation including time to production of initial fibrin strands (R-time), time to develop clot (R-time, K-time), rate of fibrin build-up and cross linking (-angle), maximum clot strength (maximum amplitude bMA) and measures of fibrinolysis (decreasing amplitude post-MA). Abnormal TEG data may predict patients who will bleed. Spiess [2] found that TEG correlated well with ACT and coagulation profiles and whilst no coagulation test was consistently abnormal the TEG was the most accurate predictor of bleeding. Ereth studied a Platelet-activated clotting test (PACT HemoSTATUS), ACT and clotting studies, and TEG. Whilst PACT sensitivity and specificity was comparable to conventional coagulation tests in predicting blood loss, TEG was more predictive at both blood loss ...

Factor VIII activity financial definition of factor VIII activityFactor VIII activity financial definition of factor VIII activity

What is factor VIII activity? Meaning of factor VIII activity as a finance term. What does factor VIII activity mean in finance ... Definition of factor VIII activity in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Clotting factor VIII activity was below the detection limit (,5 IU/dL; reference interval, 70-150 IU/dL), and the activity of ... Factor V Leiden Prothrombin 20210 mutation Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation Increased factor VIII activity ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/factor+VIII+activity

Liver Failure - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment & PreventionLiver Failure - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

Prothrombin time is prolonged indicating higher tendency of bleeding and ineffective clot formation ... Liver function test shows increased serum bilirubin, increased serum aminotransferase activity and decreased levels of albumin ... The median survival time is 4 days. Viral hepatitis must be immediately treated with antiviral drugs and the condition must not ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/patientinfo/liver-failure.htm

von Willebrand Disease - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelfvon Willebrand Disease - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf

Type 2B VWD. Clotting factor concentrates are usually required to treat severe bleeding or at the time of surgery. ... The normal range for FVIII:C clotting activity is approximately 50-150 IU/dL. ... Prothrombin time is normal in VWD.. *. Other. Although some laboratories may also include a skin bleeding time and platelet ... VWF activity (VWF:Act) includes VWF:RCo and the newer VWF activity assays in this instance. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7014/

Safety TestingSafety Testing

Factor XIII Activity. Prothrombin Time (PT and INR). Escarin Clotting Time. Fibrinogen. Reticulocyte testing. ... Factor VII Activity. Lupus Anticoagulant. Thrombin Generation Assay (TGA). Factor VIII Activity. Partial Thromboplastin Time ( ... Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Activity. Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator Antigen (tPA). ...
more infohttps://www.medpace.com/labs/central-lab/capabilities/safety-testing/

Innohep New FDA Drug Approval | CenterWatchInnohep New FDA Drug Approval | CenterWatch

Prothrombin time (PT) may be slightly prolonged with tinzaparin sodium treatment but usually remains within the normal range. ... Tinzaparin sodium inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood including the formation of fibrin clots, both in vitro ... Neither unfractionated heparin nor tinzaparin sodium have intrinsic fibrinolytic activity; therefore, they do not lyse existing ... Bleeding time is usually unaffected by tinzaparin sodium. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is prolonged by ...
more infohttps://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/639/innohep-tinzaparin-sodium-injectable

Innohep New FDA Drug Approval | CenterWatchInnohep New FDA Drug Approval | CenterWatch

Prothrombin time (PT) may be slightly prolonged with tinzaparin sodium treatment but usually remains within the normal range. ... Tinzaparin sodium inhibits reactions that lead to the clotting of blood including the formation of fibrin clots, both in vitro ... Neither unfractionated heparin nor tinzaparin sodium have intrinsic fibrinolytic activity; therefore, they do not lyse existing ... Bleeding time is usually unaffected by tinzaparin sodium. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is prolonged by ...
more infohttp://www.centerwatch.com/drug-information/fda-approved-drugs/drug/639/

Prothrombin activation by a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus. | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyProthrombin activation by a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus. | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Thrombin activity was estimated by examination of clotting time and by digestion of a synthetic substrate, Chromozym TH. The ... Prothrombin activation by a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus.. Z Wegrzynowicz, P B Heczko, G R Drapeau, J ... Prothrombin activation by a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus.. Z Wegrzynowicz, P B Heczko, G R Drapeau, J ... Prothrombin activation by a metalloprotease from Staphylococcus aureus.. Z Wegrzynowicz, P B Heczko, G R Drapeau, J ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/12/2/138

086249: Factor V Activity | LabCorp086249: Factor V Activity | LabCorp

Factor V activity is determined utilizing a prothrombin time (PT)-based one-stage clotting time assay. Factor V-depleted plasma ... and the clotting time with the patient plasma is compared to the clotting time of normal pooled plasma. ... Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time can be performed on the first tube. Am J Clin Pathol. 1997 Jun; 107( ... Prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time due to underfilled specimen tubes with 109 mmol/L (3.2%) ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/25016/

086249: Factor V Activity | LabCorp086249: Factor V Activity | LabCorp

Factor V activity is determined utilizing a prothrombin time (PT)-based one-stage clotting time assay. Factor V-depleted plasma ... and the clotting time with the patient plasma is compared to the clotting time of normal pooled plasma. ... Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time can be performed on the first tube. Am J Clin Pathol. 1997 Jun; 107( ... Prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time due to underfilled specimen tubes with 109 mmol/L (3.2%) ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/25016/factor-v-activity

Systemic endotoxin activity correlates with clot formation: an observational study in patients with early systemic inflammation...Systemic endotoxin activity correlates with clot formation: an observational study in patients with early systemic inflammation...

Clot formation time (CFT) (263 s (60 to 1,438 s)) and clotting time (CT) (1,008 s (53 to 1,481 s)) showed a significant ... In this observational study we investigated the correlation of endotoxin activity with thrombelasometric and aggregometric ... In whole blood we performed endotoxin activity (EA) assay, thrombelastometry (ROTEM®) and impendance aggregometry (Multiplate ... In patients with systemic inflammation, increasing endotoxin concentrations correlate with increased clot formation. ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc12892

Patent US5413919 - Method for preparing from cultured cells a thromboplastic reagent suitable ... - Google PatentsPatent US5413919 - Method for preparing from cultured cells a thromboplastic reagent suitable ... - Google Patents

... whereby the cell lysate thromboplastin suspension produces a clot in a one stage prothrombin time test in about 10 to 15 ... with a mean normal prothrombin time of about 11-13 seconds, when added to citrated normal plasma in a volume ratio of about 2:1 ... and resuspending the cell lysate in a diluent compatible with a one-stage prothrombin time determination to reach a ... A "plasma recalcification time" was used to detect tissue factor activity, and clotting times ranging from 21.1-77.4 sec. were ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5413919?dq=5,742,768

Heteroarylacetamide inhibitors of factor Xa - Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.Heteroarylacetamide inhibitors of factor Xa - Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.

The activity of the low molecular weight substances can, moreover, be characterized in the "prothrombin time" (PT) clotting ... The inhibitor concentration, which brings about a doubling of the PT clotting time, is determined by fitting the data to an ... The inhibitor concentration, which brings about a doubling of the APTT clotting time, is determined by fitting the data to an ... The clotting reaction is initiated by the addition of 0.1 ml of Dade® Innovin® (recombinant human tissue factor combined with ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/7361672.html

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Medication: Anticoagulants, HematologicHeparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Medication: Anticoagulants, Hematologic

... allowing for sustained antithrombotic activity over 24-h period. Fondaparinux does not affect prothrombin time or aPTT, nor ... Fondaparinux is a synthetic anticoagulant that works by inhibiting factor Xa, a key component involved in blood clotting. It ... adjusted by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with a target of 1.5-3 times the baseline. ... If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Log out Cancel ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1357846-medication

Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille. | Sigma-AldrichAnti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille. | Sigma-Aldrich

... prothrombin time (PT) and closure time (CT). Furthermore, it decreased the activity of pro-coagulant protein, thrombin. In vivo ... Turbidity and fibrin clotting studies revealed that rutin reduces fibrin clot in concentration dependent manner. Rutin was ... In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional ... found to prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25777266

Unithroid (Levothyroxine Sodium): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & UsesUnithroid (Levothyroxine Sodium): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Concomitant use of these agents impairs the compensatory increases in clotting factor synthesis. Prothrombin time should be ... Drugs that may decrease T4 5 - deiodinase activity. Amiodarone Beta-adrenergic antagonists - (e.g., Propranolol , 160 mg/day) ... Prothrombin time should be closely monitored to permit appropriate and timely dosage adjustments (see Table 2). ... During the first three years of life, the serum total- or free-T4 should be maintained at all times in the upper half of the ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/unithroid-drug.htm

Low Doses of Acetaminophen Prolonged Prothrombin Time and Increased International Normalized Ratio in Patients Receiving Long...Low Doses of Acetaminophen Prolonged Prothrombin Time and Increased International Normalized Ratio in Patients Receiving Long...

Inhibition the activity of vitamin K dependent clotting factors causes disturbance and prolongation of PT [16]. Many evidence ... The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of acetaminophen on Prothrombin Time (PT) and ... Papatheodoridis GV,Chung S, Keshav S, Pasi J, Burroughs AK (1999) Correction of both prothrombin time and primary haemostasis ... Citation: Dakheel S (2015) Low Doses of Acetaminophen Prolonged Prothrombin Time and Increased International Normalized Ratio ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/low-doses-of-acetaminophen-prolonged-prothrombin-time-and-increasedinternational-normalized-ratio-in-patients-receiving-longterm-therapy-2161-1459-1000187.php?aid=59452

Serums | definition of serums by Medical dictionarySerums | definition of serums by Medical dictionary

serum clot time. see prothrombin consumption test.. serum enzymes. enzymes of individual tissues are released into the blood ... when the tissue is damaged or when there is much activity in it. The levels are used as a measure of activity or injury. ... and then using a centrifuge to remove the red blood cells and the blood clot. The blood clot takes the form of an indistinct ... The clear, straw-coloured fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot and then to stand. Serum is blood less the ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/serums

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis during Everest Expedition: A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureCerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis during Everest Expedition: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

His white blood cell count, platelets, bleeding time, clotting time (prothrombin time), and activated partial thromboplastin ... His plasma protein C activity was normal (103%; normal: 67-195%); however, he had low plasma protein S activity (49%; normal: ... Studies have shown the spontaneous recovery time of approximately 3 months in half of the patients with VIth CN palsy [26, 27]. ... Our case had dehydration, polycythemia, decreased protein S activity, and history of an ascent to high altitude. Ascent to high ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/8314040/

Patente US5750358 - Quantitative clotting assay for activated factor VII - Google PatentesPatente US5750358 - Quantitative clotting assay for activated factor VII - Google Patentes

... because it is a single-stage clotting assay performed almost identically to a prothrombin time (PT) assay. It is also ... Clotting assays (and other activity assays) designed to measure factor VII and VIIa generally must employ TF, the cofactor ... Clotting assays compare clotting times relative to normal controls (time in seconds to clot formation versus percent normal ... The single-stage clotting assay is performed in a manner nearly identical to the prothrombin time (PT) clotting assay using a ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US5750358?dq=flatulence

Levothyroxine Sodium Tablets, USPLevothyroxine Sodium Tablets, USP

Concomitant use of these agents impairs the compensatory increases in clotting factor synthesis. Prothrombin time should be ... Drugs that may decrease T4 5 - deiodinase activity. Amiodarone Beta-adrenergic antagonists - (e.g., Propranolol , 160 mg/day) ... Prothrombin time should be closely monitored to permit appropriate and timely dosage adjustments (see Table 2). ... During the first three years of life, the serum total- or free-T 4 should be maintained at all times in the upper half of the ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=e7fd03db-72cd-4dc3-ae94-e11cb67126a8&type=display

SYNTHROID®(levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP)SYNTHROID®(levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP)

Concomitant use of these agents impairs the compensatory increases in clotting factor synthesis. Prothrombin time should be ... Drugs that may decrease T4 5-deiodinase activity. Amiodarone. Beta-adrenergic antagonists. - (e.g., Propranolol , 160 mg/day) ... Prothrombin time should be closely monitored to permit appropriate and timely dosage adjustments (see Table 2). ... During the first three years of life, the serum total- or free- T4 should be maintained at all times in the upper half of the ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=0cede55d-8b05-433b-bf10-67d5fe4a4399&type=display

MEDLINE - Results of the search |page  1|
	MEDLINE - Results of the search |page 1|

JJ1 prolonged clotting times (activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time) and inhibited the activity and ... The timing of surgery, bone cements injection, and complications were analyzed. By using the X-ray film, the distribution of ... JJ1 was shown to inhibit the catalytic activity of human α-thrombin with a K of 0.019 M by direct binding to the active site ... Similar to its in vitro antithrombotic activities, JJ1 showed enhanced antithrombotic effects in an in vivo pulmonary embolism ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&base=MEDLINE&lang=i&nextAction=lnk&isisFrom=1&count=10&exprSearch=Pulmonary%20and%20Embolism

What does the INR blood test result indicate? | Reference.comWhat does the INR blood test result indicate? | Reference.com

... measures how long it takes blood to clot, according to WebMD. INR stands for international normalized ratio, which indicates a ... Prothrombin time could run longer due to blood thinners, low levels of clotting factors, clotting inhibitors and a change in ... activity of clotting factors.. Too much of some clotting factors could cause excessive clotting, while too little may cause ... otherwise known as a prothrombin time test. INR standardizes how test results read, even if blood tests come back from ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/inr-blood-test-result-indicate-377e033214cea39c

Factor XII deficiency - WikipediaFactor XII deficiency - Wikipedia

Specifically prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) are prolonged. The diagnosis is confirmed by ... The condition is diagnosed by blood tests in the laboratory when it is noted that special blood clotting test are abnormal. ... In hereditary angioedema type III an increased activity of factor XII has been described. In congenital FXII deficiency ... FXII appears to be not essential for blood clotting, as individuals with this condition are usually asymptomatic and form blood ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factor_XII_deficiency

Serum-fast | definition of serum-fast by Medical dictionarySerum-fast | definition of serum-fast by Medical dictionary

serum clot time. see prothrombin consumption test.. serum enzymes. enzymes of individual tissues are released into the blood ... when the tissue is damaged or when there is much activity in it. The levels are used as a measure of activity or injury. ... an outdated method of vaccination, most popular at one time in the vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (hog ... and remains fluid after clotting of blood. ... serum-concentration-vs-time plot. *serum-concentration-vs-time ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/serum-fast
  • The product includes a recombinant analogue of porcine FVIII that allows physicians to manage the treatment's efficacy and safety by measuring factor VIII activity levels in addition to clinical evaluations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therapy may begin at full replacement doses in otherwise healthy individuals less than 50 years old and in those older than 50 years who have been recently treated for hyperthyroidism or who have been hypothyroid for only a short time (such as a few months). (rxlist.com)
  • In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional medicinal plant, D. morbifera H. Lev. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2,3 The sample should be mixed immediately by gentle inversion at least six times to ensure adequate mixing of the anticoagulant with the blood. (labcorp.com)
  • In spite of this, the anticoagulant activity is affected and reduced by the inversion design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arteries blocked by clot often fail to deliver oxygen rich blood to the area, thus leading to the manifestation of symptoms such as pain. (brighthub.com)
  • The metalloprotease caused direct activation of prothrombin which was inhibited by the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. (asm.org)
  • A method for preparing a thromboplastin reagent from cultured human cells comprising the steps of washing the cells with isotonic aqueous salt solution, lysing the cells by hypotonic shock, and resuspending the cell lysate in a diluent compatible with a one-stage prothrombin time determination to reach. (google.com)
  • Mutations are present in both copies of the F5 gene in each cell , which prevents blood from clotting normally. (nih.gov)
  • Principles of drug activity:Pharmacokinetics - Routes of drug administration, absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs. (scribd.com)
  • an outdated method of vaccination, most popular at one time in the vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (hog cholera). (thefreedictionary.com)