A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria isolated from individuals in LONG-TERM CARE facilities and HOSPITALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tryptophan and water to indole, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein, requiring K+. It also catalyzes 2,3-elimination and beta-replacement reactions of some indole-substituted tryptophan analogs of L-cysteine, L-serine, and other 3-substituted amino acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
Hamartoneoplastic malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology characterized by partial GIGANTISM of the hands and/or feet, asymmetry of the limbs, plantar hyperplasia, hemangiomas (HEMANGIOMA), lipomas (LIPOMA), lymphangiomas (LYMPHANGIOMA), epidermal NEVI; MACROCEPHALY; cranial HYPEROSTOSIS, and long-bone overgrowth. Joseph Merrick, the so-called "elephant man", apparently suffered from Proteus syndrome and not NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, a disorder with similar characteristics.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from soil, animal intestines and feces, and fresh and salt water.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
A cephalosporin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is active against most common gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, is a potent inhibitor of Enterobacteriaceae, and is highly resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. The drug has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of green microalgae in the family Chlorellaceae. It is used as a model organism for PHOTOSYNTHESIS, and as a food supplement (DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS).
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cephalosporinase is an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that can hydrolyze and confer resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.

New antibiotics, enaminomycins A, B and C. II. Physico-chemical and biological properties. (1/203)

Physico-chemical characterization of enaminomycins revealed that these antibiotics are new members of the epoxy quinone family. From elementary analysis and mass spectroscopic measurements the molecular formulae of enaminomycins A, B and C appear to be C7H5NO5, C10H11N06 and C7H7NO5, respectively. They are very unique in their chemical properties, possessing various functions, such as epoxy, primary amine and carboxylic acid, in their small structural units. Enaminomycin A, the most potent component, has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and shows cytostatic effect on L1210 mouse leukemia cells in vitro, but enaminomycins B and C are only weakly active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Investigation of the types and characteristics of the proteolytic enzymes formed by diverse strains of Proteus species. (2/203)

Many diverse clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis (48 strains), P. penneri (25), P. vulgaris biogroup 2 (48) and P. vulgaris biogroup 3 (21) from man were examined for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes and the nature and characteristics of the proteases were studied. All the P. penneri isolates, most (94-90%) of the P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris biogroup 2 isolates, but only 71% of the P. vulgaris biogroup 3 isolates, secreted proteolytic enzymes. These were detected most readily at pH 8 with gelatin as substrate. A strong correlation was found between the ability of a strain to form swarming growth and its ability to secrete proteases. Non-swarming isolates invariably appeared to be non-proteolytic. However, some isolates, particularly of P. vulgaris biogroup 3, were non-proteolytic even when they formed swarming growth. Analysis of the secreted enzymes of the different Proteus spp. on polyacrylamide-gelatin gels under various constraints of pH and other factors showed that they were all EDTA-sensitive metalloproteinases. Analysis of the kinetics of production of the proteases revealed the formation of an additional protease of undefined type and function that was cell-associated and formed before the others were secreted. The secreted protease was subsequently modified to two isoforms whose mass (53-46 kDa) varied with the Proteus spp. and the strain. There was no evidence that the secreted proteases of strains of Proteus spp. were of types other than metalloproteinases.  (+info)

Role and mechanism of action of C. PvuII, a regulatory protein conserved among restriction-modification systems. (3/203)

The PvuII restriction-modification system is a type II system, which means that its restriction endonuclease and modification methyltransferase are independently active proteins. The PvuII system is carried on a plasmid, and its movement into a new host cell is expected to be followed initially by expression of the methyltransferase gene alone so that the new host's DNA is protected before endonuclease activity appears. Previous studies have identified a regulatory gene (pvuIIC) between the divergently oriented genes for the restriction endonuclease (pvuIIR) and modification methyltransferase (pvuIIM), with pvuIIC in the same orientation as and partially overlapping pvuIIR. The product of pvuIIC, C. PvuII, was found to act in trans and to be required for expression of pvuIIR. In this study we demonstrate that premature expression of pvuIIC prevents establishment of the PvuII genes, consistent with the model that requiring C. PvuII for pvuIIR expression provides a timing delay essential for protection of the new host's DNA. We find that the opposing pvuIIC and pvuIIM transcripts overlap by over 60 nucleotides at their 5' ends, raising the possibility that their hybridization might play a regulatory role. We furthermore characterize the action of C. PvuII, demonstrating that it is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that binds to the pvuIIC promoter and stimulates transcription of both pvuIIC and pvuIIR into a polycistronic mRNA. The apparent location of C. PvuII binding, overlapping the -10 promoter hexamer and the pvuIICR transcriptional starting points, is highly unusual for transcriptional activators.  (+info)

Structure of a glycerol teichoic acid-like O-specific polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris O12. (4/203)

A phosphorylated O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus vulgaris O12 lipopolysaccharide and studied by sugar and methylation analyses, 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H, 13C and 1H, 31P heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. It was found that the polysaccharide consists of pentasaccharide repeating units connected via a glycerol phosphate group, and has the following structure: where FucNAc is 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxygalactose and the degree of O-acetylation at position 4 of GalNAc is approximately 25%. Immunochemical studies with P. vulgaris O12 O-antiserum suggested that the lipopolysaccharide studied shares common epitopes with the lipopolysaccharide core of P. vulgaris O8 and with the O-antigens of P. penneri strains 8 and 63.  (+info)

Problems related to determination of MICs of oximino-type expanded-spectrum cephems for Proteus vulgaris. (5/203)

During in vitro susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Proteus vulgaris, we noted that the MICs of several expanded-spectrum cephems were much higher in the broth microdilution method than in the agar dilution method (termed the MIC gap phenomenon). Here we investigated the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon. Cephems with the MIC gap phenomenon were of the oximino type, such as cefotaxime, cefteram, and cefpodoxime, which serve as good substrates for inducible class A beta-lactamase (CumA) enzymes produced by P. vulgaris; this finding suggests a relationship between the MIC gap phenomenon and CumA. Since peptidoglycan recycling shares a system common to that inducing CumA, we analyzed the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon using P. vulgaris B317 and isogenic mutants with mutations in the peptidoglycan recycling and beta-lactamase induction systems. The MIC gap phenomenon was observed in the parent strain B317 but not in B317G (cumG-defective mutant; defective peptidoglycan recycling) and B317R (cumR-defective mutant; defective CumA transcriptional regulator). No beta-lactamase activity was detected in B317G and B317R. beta-Lactamase activity and the MIC gap phenomenon were restored in B317G/pMD301 (strain transcomplemented by a cloned cumG gene) and B317R/pMD501 (strain transcomplemented by a cloned cumR gene). MICs determined by the agar dilution method increased when lower agar concentrations were used. Our results indicated that the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon is related to peptidoglycan recycling and CumA induction systems. However, it remains unclear how beta-lactamase induction of P. vulgaris is suppressed on agar plates.  (+info)

Cloning of L-amino acid deaminase gene from Proteus vulgaris. (6/203)

The L-amino acid degrading enzyme gene from Proteus vulgaris was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the enzyme gene was clarified. An open reading frame of 1,413 bp starting at an ATG methionine codon was found, which encodes a protein of 471 amino acid residues, the calculated molecular weight of which is 51,518. The amino acid sequence of P. vulgaris was 58.6% identical with the L-amino acid deaminase of P. mirabilis. A significantly conserved sequence was found around the FAD-binding sequence of flavo-proteins. The partially purified wild and recombinant enzymes had the same substrate specificity for L-amino acids to form the respective keto-acids, however not for D-amino acids.  (+info)

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide. (7/203)

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.  (+info)

R factors from Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. (8/203)

Eighty-nine R factors were transmitted by conjugation to Escherichia coli K12 from isolates of Proteus hauseri (P. mirabilis plus P vulgaris). More than half were non-selftranmissible. The remainder included plasmids assigned to the previously defined groups FII,A-C complex, J, N and P, as well as some not belonging to any knwon compatibility groups. R factors from strains isolated in India, Thailand and Japan carried plasmids whose inheritance was extremely unstable in E. coli K12. All belonged to a new compatibility group, V.  (+info)

Proteus vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the human digestive tract. They are named after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape at will, as these bacteria are known for their ability to undergo various morphological changes.

Proteus vulgaris is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. They can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

Proteus vulgaris is also known for its ability to produce urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. This can lead to the formation of urinary stones and contribute to the development of chronic urinary tract infections. Additionally, Proteus vulgaris can form biofilms, which can make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from infected sites.

In a medical context, identifying Proteus vulgaris is important for determining appropriate antibiotic therapy and managing infections caused by this organism.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Proteus mirabilis is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. In humans, P. mirabilis can be part of the normal gut flora but can also cause opportunistic infections, particularly in the urinary tract. It is known for its ability to produce urease, which can lead to the formation of urinary stones and blockages.

P. mirabilis infections are often associated with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or urinary catheterization. Symptoms of a P. mirabilis infection may include fever, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and pain or burning during urination. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against Gram-negative bacteria, although resistance to certain antibiotics is not uncommon in P. mirabilis isolates.

Proteus infections are caused by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis or other Proteus species. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Proteus infections are often associated with complicated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and healthcare-associated infections. They can be difficult to treat due to their ability to produce enzymes that inactivate certain antibiotics and form biofilms.

Proteus infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, and discomfort in the affected area. In UTIs, patients may experience symptoms like burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine. Wound infections caused by Proteus can lead to delayed healing, increased pain, and pus formation. Bacteremia can cause sepsis, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Treatment for Proteus infections typically involves antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or carbapenems. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status and any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected devices like catheters.

"Proteus penneri" is a gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including water and soil. It is a species within the genus Proteus, which are known for their ability to swarm and form spreading colonies on agar media. "Proteus penneri" is closely related to another species, "Proteus mirabilis," and was previously considered to be part of the same species.

"Proteus penneri" can cause a variety of infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Proper identification of the organism through laboratory testing is important for guiding appropriate therapy.

It's worth noting that medical definitions can vary depending on the source and context, so it may be helpful to consult a reliable medical or scientific reference for more detailed information.

Tryptophanase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzyme. However, I can provide a biochemical definition for you:

Tryptophanase (TPase or TnaA) is a pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme found in certain bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, that catalyzes the breakdown of the essential amino acid tryptophan into several compounds. The primary reaction catalyzed by tryptophanase is the conversion of L-tryptophan to indole, pyruvate, and ammonia. This reaction also produces ATP and ADP as co-products.

The production of indole from tryptophan by tryptophanase has diagnostic value in microbiology, as the presence of indole in a culture medium can indicate the growth of certain bacterial species that produce this enzyme.

"Providencia" is a term that refers to a type of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The scientific name for this bacterium is "Providencia stuartii." It is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Providencia stuartii can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. It is often resistant to many antibiotics, which can make it difficult to treat. People who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or use catheters are at increased risk for Providencia infections.

It's important to note that while "Providencia" refers to a specific type of bacteria, the term is not typically used in medical diagnoses or treatment. Instead, healthcare providers would specify the type of infection and the name of the bacterium causing it.

Proteus Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive overgrowth of skin, bones, muscles, and other tissues. It is caused by a mutation in the AKT1 gene, which regulates cell growth and division. The disorder is named after the Greek sea-god Proteus, who could change his shape at will, as people with this condition often have highly variable and asymmetric features.

The symptoms of Proteus Syndrome can vary widely from person to person, but may include:

1. Overgrowth of skin, which can lead to the formation of thickened, rough, or irregular areas of skin (known as "cerebriform" skin) and deep creases or folds.
2. Asymmetric overgrowth of bones, muscles, and other tissues, leading to differences in size and shape between the two sides of the body.
3. The formation of benign tumors (such as lipomas and lymphangiomas) and abnormal blood vessels.
4. Abnormalities of the brain, eyes, and other organs.
5. Increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Proteus Syndrome is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features, medical imaging, and genetic testing. There is no cure for the disorder, but treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may involve surgery to remove tumors or correct bone deformities, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and medications to control pain and other symptoms.

'Desulfovibrio vulgaris' is a species of gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria that is commonly found in aquatic environments, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. These bacteria are capable of reducing sulfates to sulfides, which can be toxic to other organisms and contribute to the formation of foul odors in certain environments. They are also able to use a variety of organic compounds as electron donors during this process, making them important players in the global sulfur cycle.

In medical contexts, 'Desulfovibrio vulgaris' is not typically considered a pathogen or cause of disease. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these bacteria may be associated with certain gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer. This is because the sulfides produced by 'Desulfovibrio vulgaris' can be toxic to the cells lining the gut, leading to inflammation and damage.

It's worth noting that more research is needed to fully understand the role of 'Desulfovibrio vulgaris' in human health and disease. While these bacteria may contribute to certain gastrointestinal disorders, they are likely just one piece of a complex puzzle involving many different factors.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition characterized by the formation of various types of blemishes on the skin, such as blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, and cysts or nodules. These lesions typically appear on areas of the body that have a high concentration of sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne vulgaris occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and excess oil (sebum) produced by the sebaceous glands. This blockage provides an ideal environment for bacteria, particularly Propionibacterium acnes, to multiply, leading to inflammation and infection. The severity of acne vulgaris can range from mild with only a few scattered comedones (blackheads or whiteheads) to severe cystic acne, which can cause significant scarring and emotional distress.

The exact causes of acne vulgaris are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development, including:

1. Hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or due to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
2. Genetic predisposition
3. Use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and lithium
4. Excessive production of sebum due to overactive sebaceous glands
5. Accumulation of dead skin cells that clog pores
6. Bacterial infection (particularly Propionibacterium acnes)
7. Inflammation caused by the body's immune response to bacterial infection and clogged pores

Treatment for acne vulgaris depends on its severity and can include over-the-counter or prescription topical treatments, oral medications, chemical peels, light therapies, or even hormonal therapies in some cases. It is essential to seek professional medical advice from a dermatologist or healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for individual needs.

Cefmenoxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefmenoxime has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Common indications for cefmenoxime include respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It is also used as a prophylactic agent during surgery to reduce the risk of postoperative infections.

Cefmenoxime is usually administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and its dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's age and renal function. Common side effects of cefmenoxime include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions such as rash, itching, and hives.

It is important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on a careful assessment of the patient's condition and the susceptibility of the infecting organism. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which can make subsequent infections more difficult to treat.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Chlorella vulgaris is a species of freshwater microalga that is commonly used in health supplements, skincare products, and agricultural applications due to its high nutritional value and rapid growth rate. It contains various nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and pigments like chlorophyll.

In the medical field, Chlorella vulgaris has been studied for its potential health benefits, including:

1. Detoxification: Chlorella vulgaris is known to have a strong ability to bind to heavy metals and other toxins, making it useful in detoxification therapies.
2. Immune system support: Some studies suggest that Chlorella vulgaris may help boost the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells and enhancing the production of antibodies.
3. Anti-inflammatory effects: Chlorella vulgaris contains various bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids and phenolic acids, that exhibit anti-inflammatory properties.
4. Antioxidant activity: The high content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and other antioxidants in Chlorella vulgaris may help protect cells from oxidative damage.
5. Cardiovascular health: Some research indicates that Chlorella vulgaris may help lower blood pressure, reduce serum cholesterol levels, and improve lipid metabolism, which could contribute to better cardiovascular health.
6. Anti-cancer properties: Preliminary studies suggest that Chlorella vulgaris may have potential anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, more research is needed in this area to confirm its efficacy and safety.

It's important to note that while Chlorella vulgaris has shown promise in various health applications, further research is required to fully understand its benefits and potential risks. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or therapy.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Chondroitin ABC lyase, also known as chondroitinase ABC or chondroitin sulfate eliminase, is an enzyme that breaks down chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are major components of the extracellular matrix in various tissues including cartilage. CSPGs contain chondroitin sulfate chains, which are long, negatively charged polysaccharides composed of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid) with sulfate groups attached at specific positions.

Chondroitin ABC lyase cleaves chondroitin sulfate chains by removing a disaccharide unit from the polymer, resulting in the formation of unsaturated bonds between the remaining sugars. This enzymatic activity has been used in research to study the structure and function of CSPGs and their role in various biological processes, such as cell migration, tissue repair, and neural plasticity. Additionally, chondroitin ABC lyase has potential therapeutic applications for treating conditions associated with excessive accumulation of CSPGs, such as fibrosis and some neurological disorders.

'Beta vulgaris' is the scientific name for a group of plants that includes several common vegetables such as beets, chard, and sugar beets. This species is native to coastal regions of Europe, North Africa, and Asia.

Beets, also known as table beets or garden beets, are grown for their edible roots, which can be red, yellow, or striped. They have a sweet, earthy flavor and are often eaten raw, pickled, or cooked. Beet greens, the leaves of the plant, are also edible and have a mild flavor similar to spinach.

Chard, also known as Swiss chard, is grown for its large, colorful leaves that can be green, red, yellow, or white. The leaves and stems are both edible and have a slightly bitter taste. Chard is often used in salads, soups, and stir-fries.

Sugar beets are grown for their roots, which contain high levels of sucrose. They are used to produce granulated sugar, molasses, and other sweeteners. Sugar beets are not typically eaten as a vegetable, but the leaves can be consumed in the same way as chard.

In summary, 'Beta vulgaris' is a versatile species of plant that includes several popular vegetables, including beets, chard, and sugar beets.

L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is an enzyme that belongs to the family of flavin monooxygenases. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids into corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction takes place in the presence of molecular oxygen and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) as a cofactor.

LAAO is found in various organisms, including mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, bacteria, and plants. In some species, LAAO plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, while in others, it functions as a part of the immune system or contributes to the development of venoms and toxins.

In humans, LAAO is primarily located in the peroxisomes of liver, kidney, and intestinal cells, where it participates in the catabolism of amino acids. In addition, LAAO has been found to have potential roles in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, and cancer, due to its ability to generate hydrogen peroxide and induce oxidative stress.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

"Phaseolus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the legume family Fabaceae, also known as the pea family. The most common and well-known species in this genus is "Phaseolus vulgaris," which is commonly called the common bean. This includes many familiar varieties such as kidney beans, black beans, navy beans, pinto beans, and green beans.

These plants are native to the Americas and have been cultivated for thousands of years for their edible seeds (beans) and pods (green beans). They are an important source of protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in many diets around the world.

It's worth noting that "Phaseolus" is a taxonomic term used in the scientific classification of plants, and it does not have a specific medical definition. However, the beans from these plants do have various health benefits and potential medicinal properties, such as being associated with reduced risk of heart disease, improved gut health, and better blood sugar control.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

A cephalosporinase is an enzyme that can break down and inactivate cephalosporins, a group of antibiotics commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. Bacteria that produce this enzyme are referred to as "cephalosporin-resistant" or "cephalosporinase-producing" organisms. The production of cephalosporinases by bacteria can lead to treatment failures and make infections more difficult to manage.

Cephalosporins are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means they can be effective against a wide range of bacterial species. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms, such as the production of cephalosporinases, to counteract their effects. These enzymes hydrolyze the beta-lactam ring in cephalosporins, rendering them ineffective.

There are different classes of cephalosporinases (e.g., Ambler classes A, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and substrate profiles. Some cephalosporinases can hydrolyze a broader range of cephalosporins than others, leading to varying degrees of resistance.

To overcome cephalosporinase-mediated resistance, alternative antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics may be used. Additionally, the development of new cephalosporins with improved stability against these enzymes is an ongoing area of research in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery.

Pemphigus is a group of rare, autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against desmoglein proteins, which are crucial for maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion in the epidermis (outermost layer of the skin). This results in the loss of keratinocyte cohesion and formation of flaccid blisters filled with serous fluid.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris - The most common form, primarily affecting middle-aged to older adults, with widespread erosions and flaccid blisters on the skin and mucous membranes (e.g., mouth, nose, genitals).
2. Pemphigus foliaceus - A more superficial form, mainly involving the skin, causing crusted erosions and scaly lesions without mucosal involvement. It is more prevalent in older individuals and in certain geographical regions like the Middle East.
3. Paraneoplastic pemphigus - A rare type associated with underlying neoplasms (cancers), such as lymphomas or carcinomas, characterized by severe widespread blistering of both skin and mucous membranes, along with antibodies against additional antigens besides desmogleins.
4. IgA pemphigus - A less common form characterized by localized or generalized erosions and blisters, with IgA autoantibodies targeting the basement membrane zone.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves high-dose systemic corticosteroids, often in combination with immunosuppressive agents (e.g., azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab) to control the disease activity and prevent complications. Regular follow-ups with dermatologists and oral specialists are essential for monitoring treatment response and managing potential side effects.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Enterobacter is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. These bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are known to cause a variety of infections in humans, particularly in healthcare settings.

Enterobacter species are capable of causing a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. Infections with Enterobacter are typically treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Enterobacter species can cause infections, they are also a normal part of the microbiota found in the human gut and usually do not cause harm in healthy individuals. However, if the bacterium enters the bloodstream or other sterile sites in the body, it can cause infection and illness.

Citrobacter is a genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Members of this genus are capable of fermenting various sugars and producing acid and gas as end products. Some species of Citrobacter have been associated with human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. Infections caused by Citrobacter can include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and meningitis.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

... the genus Proteus, and in particular P. vulgaris, has undergone a number of major taxonomic revisions. In 1982, P. vulgaris was ... "Proteus Vulgaris." Thistle, Thistle.co, www.thistle.co.za/pdf_files/education/microbiology/microbiology_legends/Cycle_41/Cycle% ... Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole-positive and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram- ... Type strain of Proteus vulgaris at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ...
Proteus vulgaris Flavobacterium sp. Klebsiella sp. Major bacteria resistant to cefoxitin include: methicillin-resistant ...
Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. AGG01 is a cationic peptide, which is a polycationic protein that is rich in ...
ozaenae, diphtheroids, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli, etc. Autoimmune factors: viral infection or some other unidentified insult ...
Burkholderia cepacia Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris Enterobacter spp. Bacteroides spp. Fusobacterium spp. Notable organisms ...
Swartz MN, Kaplan NO, Lamborg MF (1958). "A "heat-activated" diphosphopyridine nucleotide pyrophosphatase from Proteus vulgaris ...
Nakajima Y, Fukunaga N, Sasaki S, Usami S (1973). "Purification and properties of NADP pyrophosphatase from Proteus vulgaris". ...
... is a strain of the Proteus vulgaris bacterium. In 1915, Arthur Felix and Edward Weil discovered that Proteus OX19 ... Matulewicz realized that since Proteus vulgaris strain OX19 was used to manufacture the then-common Weil-Felix antibody- ... Other Proteus strains were similarly used to create reagents for other rickettsiae diseases, thus resulting in the commercial ... "Proteus 0X19". Missouri S&T Microbiology Homepage. Retrieved 2020-07-08. "Fake Epidemic Saves a Village from Nazis". ...
Microbiology in pictures Microbe Library "IMViC tests of Proteus vulgaris - Library". Archived from the original on 2013-01-19 ...
In 1885, Hauser was the first to isolate the bacillus Proteus vulgaris. He is also credited with developing a formalin for the ... Gustav Hauser @ Who Named It Proteus bacillus @ Who Named It Pagel: Biographical Dictionary outstanding physicians of the ...
"Identification of Proteus penneri sp. nov., formerly known as Proteus vulgaris indole negative or as Proteus vulgaris biogroup ... The Proteus penneri group of bacteria was named in 1982. It reclassified a group of strains formerly known as Proteus vulgaris ... P. vulgaris biogroup 1, or indole-negative P. vulgaris, was distinguished as a new species within the genus Proteus in 1982. ... Costas M, Holmes B, Frith KA, Riddle C, Hawkey PM (1993). "Identification and typing of Proteus penneri and Proteus vulgaris ...
Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii are the most common organisms isolated; less common organisms ... Specifically, urease-positive bacteria, such as Proteus mirabilis can produce the enzyme urease, which converts urea to ammonia ... Jones BD, Mobley HL (August 1988). "Proteus mirabilis urease: genetic organization, regulation, and expression of structural ...
These bacteria are called methyl-red positive and include Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Other enterics subsequently ...
"Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice". Antimicrobial ...
... is derived from the enzyme mucopolysaccharidase from the Gram-negative bacteria Proteus vulgaris. It is an enzyme ...
Choi, Y.; Jung, S.; Kim, S. (2000). "Development of Microbial Fuel Cells Using Proteus Vulgaris Bulletin of the Korean Chemical ...
... and hydroxycarboxylate viologen oxidoreductase from Proteus vulgaris, the sole member of the AOR family containing molybdenum. ... hydroxycarboxylate-viologen-oxidoreductase from Proteus vulgaris is a molybdenum-containing iron-sulphur protein". Eur. J. ...
Trautwein T, Krauss F, Lottspeich F, Simon H (1994). "The (2R)-hydroxycarboxylate-viologen-oxidoreductase from Proteus vulgaris ... Neumann S, Simon H (1985). "On a non-pyridine nucleotide-dependent 2-oxoacid reductase of broad specificity from two Proteus ...
... -positive pathogens include: Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris Ureaplasma urealyticum, a relative of Mycoplasma spp ... In humans the microbial urease, Proteus mirabilis, is the most common in infection induced urinary stones. Studies have shown ... Citrullus vulgaris)". Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 6: 45-47. doi:10.1007/BF03263009. S2CID 41143649. El- ... an opportunistic fungus Helicobacter pylori Certain Enteric bacteria including Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Morganella, ...
Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris. However, it had no effect on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and ...
... coli Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella species Morganella morganii Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris ...
"Penicillin-binding proteins and carboxypeptidase/transpeptidase activities in Proteus vulgaris P18 and its penicillin-induced ...
Proteus vulgaris is commonly found in the intestine in various animals, and is shed into manure and soil. About 10-15% of ... Three Proteus species P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri are opportunistic human pathogens, most commonly resulting in ... A number of Morganellaceae bacterial species are opportunistic human pathogens, including Proteus, Providencia, and ... eds.). Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Proteus. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ...
In the biofilms of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri, the minerals calcium and magnesium cause ...
... derives from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris. In recent years, pre-clinical research involving the chondroitinase ABC enzyme has ...
Cheese makers have found Proteus bacterium's species Proteus vulgaris, growing on cheese rinds in purple color, making the ... Three species-P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri-are opportunistic human pathogens. Proteus includes pathogens ... Deetae, P.; Mounier, J.; Bonnarme, P.; Spinnler, H.E.; Irlinger, F.; Helinck, S. (2009-04-24). "Effects of Proteus vulgaris ... The term Proteus signifies changeability of form, as personified in the Homeric poems in Proteus, "the old man of the sea", who ...
Gram-negative aerobes: Enterobacter species Escherichia coli Klebsiella species Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Enterococcus ...
... particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. It is also one of the few antibiotics capable of treating ...
... hirtella possess antimicrobial properties and have been found to inhibit growth of Proteus vulgaris, a pathogenic bacterium. ...
"Predictive accuracy of disk diffusion test for Proteus vulgaris and Providencia species against five newer orally administered ...
... the genus Proteus, and in particular P. vulgaris, has undergone a number of major taxonomic revisions. In 1982, P. vulgaris was ... "Proteus Vulgaris." Thistle, Thistle.co, www.thistle.co.za/pdf_files/education/microbiology/microbiology_legends/Cycle_41/Cycle% ... Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole-positive and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram- ... Type strain of Proteus vulgaris at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ...
CCUG4635 - Proteus vulgaris, Deposit Date: 1975-11-01
... altered the phenotype and genotype of the microbes and thereby changed in Antimicrobial susceptibility of Proteus vulgaris. ... ACNE VULGARIS. ACNE VULGARIS. Acne Vulgaris. ACNE VULGARIS. Acne Vulgaris Pathophysiology. Acne Vulgaris. Acne Vulgaris. Acne ... Proteus vulgaris Proteus vulgaris strain DSM 30118 Proteus mirabilis AJ233425 1.00 AF008582 0.94 X07652 1.00 Proteus vulgaris ... 62070406 Proteus vulgaris Feature Gr. I (Control) Day 10 62070406 Proteus vulgaris Day 15 62070406 Proteus vulgaris Biotype ...
Microbiostatic activity against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6896 after 48 hr. ...
Proteus vulgaris (1781 + β-lactamase positive). *Proteus vulgaris (A161). *Proteus vulgaris (ampicillin-resistant + cefazolin- ... Proteus vulgaris (ESBL). *Proteus vulgaris (GN4413 + cephalosporin-resistant). *Proteus vulgaris (GN76 + cephalosporin- ... Proteus vulgaris. *Proteus vulgaris (08601). *Proteus vulgaris (1405 + β-lactamase positive). *Proteus vulgaris (1699 + β- ... Home › Search by Microorganism › Proteus vulgaris (HX-19) *Proteus vulgaris (HX-19) ...
Proteus mirabilis, MicroKwik Culture®, Pathogen, Vial Item #155239A. $20.60 Quick View Proteus vulgaris, MicroKwik Culture®, ...
Keywords: electrochemical Proteus vulgaris whole cell urea sensor, biosensors, synthetic urine, Lab-on-a-Chip sensor, # ... Myreisa Morales-Cruz, Nadja E. Solis-Marcano, Claudia Binder, Craig Priest, Carlos R. Cabrera, Electrochemical Proteus vulgaris ... Electrochemical Proteus vulgaris whole cell urea sensor in synthetic urine https://t.co/I5WCvkJA9T #CRBIOTECH #Biosensor # ... A P. vulgaris pellet was drop casted on the Pt working electrode surface and exposed to different urea concentrations in ...
Proteus vulgaris Providencia rettgeri Providencia stuartii Serratia marcescens Susceptibility Tests Dilution Techniques: ... Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (Acute Cystitis) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis , ... Complicated Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus ...
Proteus mirabilis, or Enterococcus. Approximately 15% of cases are culture-negative; these are due to Chlamydia trachomatis, ...
Proteus mirabilis. Proteus vulgaris. Providencia spp.. Anaerobic bacteria. Clostridium spp.. Peptococcus niger. ... Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus ... Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including B. fragilis, Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, and ... vulgaris and Providencia species (including P. rettgeri).. *Intra-abdominal infections, including peritonitis and intra- ...
Most Proteus vulgaris strains. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *Staphylococci (including Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive/- ...
Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Pseudomonas aeruginosa Serratia marcescens •. Gram-positive Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ... Caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumoniae. ... Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or ... Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii*, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides ...
including P.aeruginosa; Proteus mirabilis; P. vulgaris; Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri) and Morganella ... excluding enterococci); Proteusmirabilis; Bacteroides spp.; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and ... including Streptococcus pyogenes (but excluding enterococci); Proteus mirabilis; Serratia spp.; Enterobacter spp.; Bacteroides ... Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Klebsiella spp.; Proteus mirabilis; Escherichia coli; Haemophilus influenzae ...
Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Inherently resistant organisms Aerobic Gram-negative micro-organisms ...
Microbial DNA standard from Proteus vulgaris. View Price and Availability. Sigma-Aldrich ...
Proteus vulgaris. Providencia rettgeri. Serratia marcescens. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Susceptibility Testing. For specific ... Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae complex. ...
Categories: Proteus vulgaris Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
Proteus vulgaris. * Salmonella enteritidis. * Staphylococcus aureus. Fungi:. * Candida albicans. * Cryptococcus neoformans ( ...
There are several bacteria (e.g., E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, etc.) successfully residing in the tract. ...
ATCC 33591 Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 98 Proteus mirabilis Staphylococcus epidermidis (Antibiotic resistant) Salmonella ... Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 Proteus vulgaris Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6871 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 ... Proteus vulgaris. *Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6871. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. *Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC ...
Proteus morganii, P. vulgaris, Vibrio sp., Halobacterium sp. were presumptively identified in the current study. Presence of ...
Blood cultures are positive for Proteus vulgaris. Based on this patients presentation, which of the following antibiotics ...
Proteus vulgaris, and Enterobacter species. Fungal culturing can be used to isolate a fungus associated with the infection, ... Some of the gram-negative organisms isolated and identified on Gram staining and/or culturing include P aeruginosa, Proteus ... Gram-negative mixed bacterial infection with organisms, such as Moraxella, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Proteus, ...
Proteus vulgaris sp.. Pseudochrobactrum asaccharolyticum YMF3·00201. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Pseudomonas chlororaphis. ...
Urine cultures were positive for Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcus faecalis, two species associated with PUBS. ... og urindyrkningen viste signifikant vekst av både Proteus vulgaris og Enterococcus faecalis. Begge bakteriene er assosiert med ... Noen bakterier, inkludert E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas og Providencia spp., produserer enzymer som ...
Proteus (yayılmayan koloni), Pseudomonas (küçük ve kenarı tırtıllı koloni) türleri de bu morfolojiyi gösterir. Etrafı sarı bir ...
  • Enterobacterales (of which Proteus is a member) and Pseudomonas species are the micro-organisms most commonly responsible for Gram-negative bacteremia and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • FETROJA® is indicated in patients 18 years of age or older who have limited or no alternative treatment options for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae complex. (globalrph.com)
  • Proteus (yayılmayan koloni), Pseudomonas (küçük ve kenarı tırtıllı koloni) türleri de bu morfolojiyi gösterir. (mikrobiyoloji.org)
  • The frond extract of these species was tested against five non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris . (ijpsonline.com)
  • In the current study Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella ) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. (scielo.br)
  • No presente estudo, bactérias Gram-negativas ( Escherichia , Enterobacter , Citrobacter , Proteus , Pseudomonas e Klebsiella ) e as bactérias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus foram isoladas do leite cru e caracterizadas bioquimicamente. (scielo.br)
  • These were Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus vulgaris , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method. (scialert.net)
  • More modern clinical studies have documented antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (kennelcoughtreatment.org)
  • Nosocomial infections P. mirabilis causes 9% of Proteus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia species (including P. rettgeri). (rxlist.com)
  • Some of the gram-negative organisms isolated and identified on Gram staining and/or culturing include P aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus species. (medscape.com)
  • Plasmid-encoded AmpC expression is also constitutive and may be spread among bacteria usually lacking this beta-lactamase, such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Some other organisms found on gram-negative cultures include Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, alpha streptococci, Proteus vulgaris, and Enterobacter species. (medscape.com)
  • A number of bacteria has been identified as in-dole positive but only a few (Escherichia coli, Proteus (P.) vulgaris and P. morganii) were detected on shrimp. (nofima.no)
  • Proteus vulgaris , Morganella morganii , Serratia marcescens , Providencia species may also overproduce AmpC, but clinically significant expression is less common. (merckmanuals.com)
  • P. vulgaris cells were procured from Micro BioLogics Inc., USA, in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 33420) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. (slideserve.com)
  • Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of P. vulgaris were divided in two parts, Gr. I: control and Gr. II: treatment. (slideserve.com)
  • P. vulgaris was one of the three species Hauser isolated from putrefied meat and identified (1885). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogroup one was indole negative and represented a new species, P. penneri, while biogroups two and three remained together as P. vulgaris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. vulgaris with other bacterial species after treatment. (slideserve.com)
  • However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Proteus hauseri. (slideserve.com)
  • Urine cultures were positive for Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcus faecalis, two species associated with PUBS. (tidsskriftet.no)
  • In this study, the application of biofield energy treatment has considerably altered the phenotype and genotype of the microbes and thereby changed in Antimicrobial susceptibility of Proteus vulgaris. (slideserve.com)
  • The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi's biofield treatment on lyophilized as well as revived state of P. vulgaris for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. (slideserve.com)
  • The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 10.71% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of P. vulgaris as compared to control. (slideserve.com)
  • Therefore, an alternative strategy is needed to alter antimicrobial sensitivity profile against P. vulgaris strain. (slideserve.com)
  • Urea was indirectly monitored by the electrochemical ammonia oxidation liberated by the microbial P. vulgaris microorganism surface membrane reaction. (inpst.net)
  • These products are far more efficient than proteus vulgaris bacteria in consuming waste and there are no smelly by-products. (multi-clean.com)
  • Silver knew that the bacteria Proteus vulgaris produced an enzyme called Chondroitinase ABC, which could break down such structures. (case.edu)
  • P. vulgaris and P. penneri are easily isolated from individuals in long-term care facilities and hospitals and from patients with underlying diseases or compromised immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A P. vulgaris pellet was drop casted on the Pt working electrode surface and exposed to different urea concentrations in synthetic urine. (inpst.net)
  • In presence of P. vulgaris, our results showed a relationship between the ammonia oxidation peak current density (from 0.5 to 5.0 μA/cm2) and the urea concentration (from 0.01 M to 0.1 M) in synthetic urine aqueous solutions. (inpst.net)
  • citation needed] A surveillance study conducted between 2000 - 2005 found that women (69%) are at a higher risk for developing P. vulgaris infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with recurrent infections, those with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, those who have had urethral instrumentation, and those whose infections were acquired in the hospital have an increased frequency of infection caused by Proteus and other organisms (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. vulgaris is highly resistant to antibiotics because of the plasmids present in the bacterium, making infections extremely difficult to cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ureido-penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are the drugs of choice to treat P. vulgaris associate infections but it possess high level of resistance against penicillin and other antibiotics[4]. (slideserve.com)
  • Both of these requirements can occur only when urine is infected with a urease-producing organism such as Proteus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When P. vulgaris is tested using the API 20E identification system it produces positive results for sulfur reduction, urease production, tryptophan deaminase production, indole production, sometimes positive gelatinase activity, and saccharose fermentation, and negative results for the remainder of the tests on the testing strip. (wikipedia.org)
  • All combine for a Biocode ID of 31406, (Biocode ID 31402, 31404, 31407 all resulting in P. vulgaris with asymptomatic results) for use in the Interpretation Guide/Computer Coding and Identification System. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggested that biofield treatment has impact on P. vulgaris in lyophilized as well as revived state. (slideserve.com)
  • Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole-positive and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. vulgaris also tests positive for the methyl red (mixed acid fermentation) test and is also an extremely motile organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. vulgaris can also test urease negative in solid media (such as in Enterotube), but will be urease positive in liquid media. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inoculated in a gelatin stab test, P. vulgaris is capable of hydrolysis of gelatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, in the identification of Enterobacteriaceae, the ornithine decarboxylase test is of paramount importance, especially for separating members of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia group and for identifying species of Proteus . (microbenotes.com)
  • Klebsiella and Proteus are known to cause urinary infection and Salmonella intestional infection. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • P. vulgaris also tests positive for the methyl red (mixed acid fermentation) test and is also an extremely motile organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these requirements can occur only when urine is infected with a urease-producing organism such as Proteus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An E. coli strain that carries the cloned and modified PvuI gene from Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 13315). (neb.com)
  • Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole-positive and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. vulgaris can also test urease negative in solid media (such as in Enterotube), but will be urease positive in liquid media. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, P. vulgaris was separated into three biogroups on the basis of indole production. (wikipedia.org)